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Sample records for abdominal wall integrity

  1. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  2. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  3. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  4. Abdominal wall reconstruction with implantable meshes.

    PubMed

    Masden, Derek; Felder, John M; Iorio, Matthew L; Bhanot, Parag; Attinger, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects present a difficult problem for the reconstructive surgeon. Over the years, numerous implantable materials have becomes available to aid the surgeon in recreating the abdominal wall. This spectrum of implants includes permanent synthetic meshes, absorbable meshes, composite meshes and biomaterials. This review includes the pros and cons for the commercially available abdominal wall implants as well as a review of the literature regarding outcomes for each material. This review will provide the surgeon with current evidence-based information on implantable abdominal materials to be able to make a more informed decision about which implant to use. PMID:21663579

  5. A New Rat Model for Orthotopic Abdominal Wall Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lao, William W.; Wang, Yen-Ling; Ramirez, Alejandro E.; Cheng, Hui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation. Methods: Full-thickness hemiabdominal wall flap was procured from Brown Norway (BN) rats and transplanted to an orthotopic defect on Lewis rats. Three groups were studied: group 1: Lewis to Lewis syngeneic; group 2: BN to Lewis control; and group 3: BN to Lewis with postoperative cyclosporine. Vascular imaging and cross vessel section were performed along with full-thickness abdominal wall. Immune cell profiling with flow cytometry at different time points was studied in all groups. Results: Syngeneic group had no rejection. Control group consistently showed rejection around postoperative day 6. With cyclosporine treatment, however, transplant and recipient tissue integration was observed. Flow cytometry revealed that innate immunity is responsible for the initial inflammatory events following abdominal wall engraftment. Adaptive immunity cells, specifically interferon-γ-producing T helper (Th) 1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, dramatically and positively correlate with rejection progression of abdominal wall transplants. Conclusions: Technical, histological, and immunological aspects of a new rat model are described. These results give clues to what occurs in human abdominal wall transplantation. In addition, Th1, a proinflammatory cell, was found to be a potential biomarker for allograft rejection. PMID:25289329

  6. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  7. Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

  8. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  9. Abdominal wall herniae and their underlying pathology

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Emma; Al-Akash, Musallam

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei presenting as a strangulated inguinal hernia. We review the current literature regarding the incidence of underlying pathology in patients presenting with abdominal wall herniae and discuss the need for histological assessment of the hernia sac in selected patients. We highlight the importance of assessing for and being aware of significant underlying pathology in certain patients. PMID:26855074

  10. Laparoscopic excision of abdominal wall desmoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed; Al-Zahrani, Hana; Ewies, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    Open surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for desmoid tumors. Laparoscopic resection is rarely used and not well described in the literature. We report a case of a single, 35-year-old woman who presented with palpable abdominal wall desmoid tumor. The patient had had laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years earlier, and the tumor was at the insertion site of the right upper quadrant trocar. The diagnosis was made by a Tru-Cut biopsy at another institution, after the lesion had increased in size and caused increased discomfort. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic resection of the tumor. This report aimed to promote laparoscopic resection of abdominal wall desmoid tumors, whenever feasible, and describe the laparoscopic technique. We believe this is the second case of laparoscopic excision of desmoid tumor reported in the English-language literature. PMID:26781534

  11. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN

    PubMed Central

    Ayandipo, O.O; Afuwape, O.O; Irabor, D.O; Abdurrazzaaq, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall hernias are very common diseases encountered in surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with mesh) offers the least recurrent rate. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our experience in the surgical management of identified hernias Method: The project was a retrospective study of all patients with abdominal wall hernia presenting into surgical divisions of University College Hospital Ibadan during a 6 year period (January 2008 to December 2013). Relevant information was retrieved from their case notes and analysed. Results: The case records of 1215 (84.7%) patients out of 1435 were retrieved. Elective surgery was done in 981(80.7%) patients while 234 (19.3%) patients had emergency surgery. There were 922 (84.8%) groin hernias and post-operative incisional hernia accounted for 9.1% (111) of the patients. About half (49.1%) of those with incisional hernia were post obstetric and gynaecologic procedure followed by post laparotomy incisional hernias 16 (14%) and others (23.5%). The ratio of inguinal hernia to other types in this study is 3:1. Hollow viscus resection and emergency surgery were predictors of wound infection statistically significant in predicting wound infection (P < 0.001). Peri-operative morbidity/mortality at 28 days post operation was documented in 113 patients (12.1%). One year recurrence rate of groin hernia was 2.1%. Conclusion: The pattern of presentation and management of anterior wall hernias are still the same compared with the earlier study in this hospital. New modality of treatment should be adopted as the standard choice of care. Abdominal wall hernias are very common clinical presentation. Modified Bassini repair was the preferred method of repair due to its simplicity. Mesh repair is becoming more common in recent time but high cost and initial non

  12. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  13. [Endometriosis in the abdominal wall (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Caligaris, P; Masselot, R; Ducassou, M J; Le Treut, Y; Bricot, R

    1981-01-01

    The authors give 9 case histories of endometriosis localised to the abdominal wall : 3 of them in the umbilicus, 3 in laparotomy incisions (2 of those were Caesareans), 2 of them in the round ligaments at the external opening of the inguinal canal and 1 of them in the right rectus muscle sheath in the abdomen. The functional symptomatology is rhythmical according to menstruation; it is associated with a burning type of pain, a tumour and blood loss. Over and above the theories of aetiology that are now classical, namely tubal retrograde spill, and lymphatic or venous spread, it would seem that prostaglandins and in particular the ratio of P.G.E. divided by P.D.F2 alpha can play a big role. Although Danazol is an effective treatment for endometriosis, the treatment of choice is, in these lesions that are superficial in localisation and easily accessible, to cut them out surgically. This makes it possible on the one hand to look for other intra-abdominal lesions and also on the other hand to confirm the anatomy and pathology (this was done in 7 out of 9 of our cases). PMID:6459361

  14. Radiofrequency ablation of abdominal wall endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fontana, Federico; Pellegrino, Carlo; Mangini, Monica; Cabrini, Luca; Mariani, Davide; Piacentino, Filippo; Cuffari, Salvatore; Laganà, Domenico; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    Extraperitoneal endometriosis is the presence of ectopic, functional endometrium outside the peritoneal cavity, and its occurrence is exceedingly rare. Diagnostic imaging--including ultrasound, duplex ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging--in the preoperative assessment of patients with suspected abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is helpful for detection and accurate determination of the extent of disease. The treatment of choice for AWE is surgical excision. In addition, medical therapies can be used. We present one case of AWE treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation under ultrasound guidance. There were no major complications, and the patient's symptoms improved. In selected patients, radiofrequency ablation can be used safely for the treatment of AWE; however, further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19184197

  15. [Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Bezsilla, János

    2010-10-01

    Repair of abdominal wall defects is a challenge for all general surgeons and a variety of methods have been described in the past. Traditionally, primary suture repair was shown to have a high recurrence rate in long-term follow-up studies. Herniorrhaphies that apply a large prosthetic mesh are appear to have a lower failure rate, but extensive dissection of soft tissue contributes to an increased incidence of wound infections and wound-related complications. The method of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair was developed in the early 1990s. This technique is based on the same physical and surgical principles as the open underlay procedure. The laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) technique and mesh materials were developed further in subsequent years, and there have been numerous reports on successful use of the IPOM technique even for extremely large hernia openings in obese and elderly patients. Reduced surgical trauma and lower infection and recurrence rates are key advantages of the minimally invasive repair. Therefore, this operation has increased in popularity promising shorter hospital stay, improved outcome, and fewer complications than traditional open procedures. PMID:20965866

  16. Practical Approaches to Definitive Reconstruction of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat

    2016-04-01

    With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain. PMID:26585951

  17. Case report: Leiomyoma of the anterior abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ernest Ong, C W; Siow, S L

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyomas are benign soft tissue swellings of smooth muscle origin, most commonly found in the uterus. Extra uterine leiomyomas presenting as an abdominal mass is often a diagnostic challenge as such occurrence is rare. We present a rare case of primary abdominal wall leiomyoma, and highlight the importance of laparoscopic approach in the diagnosis and treatment of such tumour. PMID:27326950

  18. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall.

    PubMed

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. PMID:27293982

  19. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal's Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Karrouf, Gamal; Zaghloul, Adel; Abou-Alsaud, Mohamed; Barbour, Elie; Abouelnasr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. PMID:27293982

  20. Abdominal Wall Endometrioma after Laparoscopic Operation of Uterine Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Vukšić, Tihomir; Rastović, Pejana; Dragišić, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is presence of functional endometrium outside of uterine cavum. As a pluripotent tissue, endometrium has the possibility of implanting itself almost everywhere; even implantation in abdominal wall was described, but it is not common site. This case report presents implantation of functional endometrium in abdominal wall, inside scar tissue, and after insertion of a laparoscopic trocar port. Final diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistological examination. PMID:27340586

  1. Abdominal Wall Endometrioma after Laparoscopic Operation of Uterine Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Vukšić, Tihomir; Rastović, Pejana; Dragišić, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is presence of functional endometrium outside of uterine cavum. As a pluripotent tissue, endometrium has the possibility of implanting itself almost everywhere; even implantation in abdominal wall was described, but it is not common site. This case report presents implantation of functional endometrium in abdominal wall, inside scar tissue, and after insertion of a laparoscopic trocar port. Final diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistological examination. PMID:27340586

  2. [Abdominal wall closure by incisional hernia and herniation after laparostoma].

    PubMed

    Mischinger, H-J; Kornprat, P; Werkgartner, G; El Shabrawi, A; Spendel, S

    2010-03-01

    As hernias and abdominal wall defects have a variety of etiologies each with its own complications and comorbidities in various constellations, efficient treatment requires patient-oriented management. There is no recommended standard treatment and the very different clinical pictures demand an individualized interdisciplinary approach. Particularly in the case of complicated hernias, the planning of the operation should focus on the problems posed by the individual patient. Treatment mainly depends on the etiology of the hernia, immediate or long-term complications and the efficiency of individual repair techniques. Abdominal wall repair for recurrent herniation requires direct closure of the fascia generally using the sublay technique with a lightweight mesh. It is still unclear whether persistent inflammation, mesh dislocation, fistula formation or other long-term complications are due to certain materials or to the surgical technique. With mesh infections it has been shown to be advantageous to remove a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh, while the combination of systemic and local treatment appears to suffice for a polypropylene or polyester mesh. Heavier meshes in the sublay position or plastic reconstruction with autologous tissue are indicated as substitutes for the abdominal wall for giant hernias, repeated recurrences and large abdominal wall defects. A laparostoma is increasingly more often created to treat septic intra-abdominal processes but is very often responsible for a complicated hernia. If primary repair of the abdominal wall is not an option, resorbable material or split skin is used for coverage under the auspices of a planned hernia repair. PMID:20145901

  3. A Traumatic Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair: A Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kenneth L.; Rosser, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traumatic abdominal wall hernias from blunt trauma usually occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions where the force is tangential, sudden, and severe. Although rare, these hernias can go undetected due to preservation of the skin overlying the hernia defect. Open repairs can be challenging and unsuccessful due to avulsion of muscle directly from the iliac crest, with or without bone loss. A laparoscopic approach to traumatic abdominal wall hernia can aid in the delineation of the hernia and allow for a safe and effective repair. Case Description: A 36-year-old female was admitted to our Level 1 trauma center with a traumatic abdominal wall hernia located in the right flank near the iliac crest after being involved in a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed the presence of an abdominal wall defect that was unapparent on physical examination. The traumatic abdominal wall hernia in the right flank was successfully repaired laparoscopically. One-year follow-up has shown no sign of recurrence. Discussion: A traumatic abdominal wall hernia rarely presents following blunt trauma, but should be suspected following a high-impact motor vehicle collision. Frequently, repair is complicated by the need to have fixation of mesh to bony landmarks (eg, iliac crest). In spite of this challenge, the laparoscopic approach with tension-free mesh repair of a traumatic abdominal wall hernia can be accomplished successfully using an approach similar to that taken for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:23477181

  4. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  5. Personalized identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan D; Le, Dinh T P; Xu, Jinwei; Nguyen, Duc T; Martindale, Robert G; Deveney, Clifford W

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal wall hernia is a protrusion of the intestine through an opening or area of weakness in the abdominal wall. Correct pre-operative identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes could help surgeons adjust the surgical plan to meet the expected difficulty and morbidity of operating through or removing the previous mesh. First, we present herein for the first time the application of image analysis for automated identification of hernia meshes. Second, we discuss the novel development of a new entropy-based image texture feature using geostatistics and indicator kriging. Third, we seek to enhance the hernia mesh identification by combining the new texture feature with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix feature of the image. The two features can characterize complementary information of anatomic details of the abdominal hernia wall and its mesh on computed tomography. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed study. The new computational tool has potential for personalized mesh identification which can assist surgeons in the diagnosis and repair of complex abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24184112

  6. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  7. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  8. Management of the Sequelae of Severe Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Eunate; Delgado, Maria-Dolores; Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival rate of newborns with severe congenital abdominal wall defects has increased. After successfully addressing life-threatening complications, it is necessary to focus on the cosmetic and functional outcomes of the abdominal wall. Methods We performed a chart review of five cases treated in our institution. Results Five patients, ranging from seven to 18 years of age, underwent the following surgical approaches: simple approximation of the rectus abdominis fascia, the rectus abdominis sheath turnover flap, the placement of submuscular tissue expanders, mesh repair, or a combination of these techniques depending on the characteristics of each individual case. Conclusions Patients with severe congenital abdominal wall defects require individualized surgical treatment to address both the aesthetic and functional issues related to the sequelae of their defects. PMID:27218024

  9. [BIOLOGICAL IMPLANTS IN ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA REPAIR (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Abatov, N; Badyrov, R; Abatova, A; Assamidanov, E; Kaukenov, B

    2016-02-01

    The use of synthetic meshes as a material for abdominal wall hernia repair does not always ensure a recurrence-free treatment outcome and full recovery of the abdominal wall functional activity. There are well-known disadvantages such as poor resistance to infection, the infiltrate formation in the place of implantation, expressed adhesive process in cases of introperitoneal fixation, to create certain restrictions on the using of these implants for abdominal wall reconstruction. The search for alternative materials that could minimize the risk of complications, has led to the study of biological grafts. It is known that various methods for the manufacturing biological implants determine endogenous properties for each material separately, and may be cause a variety of biological responses in vivo after implantation. The question has not been resolved, what the fresh raw material is better to use for derive biological implants. In this review we investigated the interaction of different types of biological implants between the abdominal wall and the organs of abdominal cavity of the recipient, their ability to resist infection and the development of relapses, as a leading indicator of the effectiveness of hernioplasty. PMID:27001778

  10. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  11. [Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of lateral abdominal wall (case report)].

    PubMed

    Akfirat, Murat; Kayaoğlu, Hüseyin Ayhan

    2004-12-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are very rare in comparison to the conventional types. They can occur from any location containing mesenchymal cells, but most arise in the lower extremities, leptomeninges and in the orbits. Other sites are very uncommon. We present a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the lateral abdominal wall, and this is the first report of the tumor localized in this region. PMID:15611919

  12. Malignant Schwannoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Nasiri, Shirzad; Rezakhanlu, Freshteh; Sodagari, Nassim

    2009-01-01

    Malignant schwannoma of the anterior abdominal wall nerves is extremely rare. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and it is found in 4% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1. We present a case of malignant schwannoma in a 28-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis 1. She presented with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. The tumor location was in the abdominal wall in explorative laparatomy and malignant schwannoma was diagnosed in pathologic assessment. The tumor recurred in 3 months and computed tomography showed two masses in the right side of abdominopelvic cavity. Thereafter, second complete surgical resection was performed and pathologic finding was the same. In spite of administering chemotherapy after second surgery,the tumor recurred and magnetic resonance imaging finding showed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass with adhesion to the inner side of the abdominal wall. The patient died because of acute respiratory failure due to multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases. Tumor location and rapid recurrence was unique in our patient. Keywords Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Malignant schwannoma; Abdominal wall PMID:22461875

  13. Which mesh or graft? Prosthetic devices for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shazia; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the ever-increasing number of prosthetic devices--both synthetic mesh and biologic grafts--now in use for abdominal wall reconstruction. It also introduces a novel hybrid synthetic/biologic graft (Zenapro) and suture passer device (Novapass). PMID:26961445

  14. [Controversies in the current management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Egea, Alfredo; Girela, Enrique; Parlorio, Elena; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias is controversial. We performed a MEDLINE search and report a personal series of 10 patients. Cases were classified according to the cause of injury. Fifty-six percent were caused by car accidents and 14% by bicycle accidents. Diagnosis was clinical in 22% and surgical in 13% and intra-abdominal lesions were found in 67%. Treatment was delayed in 12%. In our series, 55% were lumbar hernias due to traffic accidents and all were associated with pelvic fracture. Treatment was delayed in 50%, including laparoscopic surgery with good results. In conclusion, traumatic hernias due to road traffic accidents are frequently associated with intra-abdominal lesions. The diagnostic technique of choice is computed tomography and delayed surgery (laparoscopy) is an effective option. PMID:18021624

  15. Quantitative anatomical labeling of the anterior abdominal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wade M.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2013-03-01

    Ventral hernias (VHs) are abnormal openings in the anterior abdominal wall that are common side effects of surgical intervention. Repair of VHs is the most commonly performed procedure by general surgeons worldwide, but VH repair outcomes are not particularly encouraging (with recurrence rates up to 43%). A variety of open and laparoscopic techniques are available for hernia repair, and the specific technique used is ultimately driven by surgeon preference and experience. Despite routine acquisition of computed tomography (CT) for VH patients, little quantitative information is available on which to guide selection of a particular approach and/or optimize patient-specific treatment. From anecdotal interviews, the success of VH repair procedures correlates with hernia size, location, and involvement of secondary structures. Herein, we propose an image labeling protocol to segment the anterior abdominal area to provide a geometric basis with which to derive biomarkers and evaluate treatment efficacy. Based on routine clinical CT data, we are able to identify inner and outer surfaces of the abdominal walls and the herniated volume. This is the first formal presentation of a protocol to quantify these structures on abdominal CT. The intra- and inter rater reproducibilities of this protocol are evaluated on 4 patients with suspected VH (3 patients were ultimately diagnosed with VH while 1 was not). Mean surfaces distances of less than 2mm were achieved for all structures.

  16. A numerical investigation of the healthy abdominal wall structures.

    PubMed

    Pachera, P; Pavan, P G; Todros, S; Cavinato, C; Fontanella, C G; Natali, A N

    2016-06-14

    The present work aims to assess, via numerical modeling, the global passive mechanical behavior of the healthy abdominal wall under the action of pressures that characterize different daily tasks and physiological functions. The evaluation of a normal range of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during activities of daily living is fundamental because pressure alterations can cause several adverse effects. At this purpose, a finite element model is developed from literature histomorphometric data and from diagnostic images of Computed Tomography (CT), detailing the different anatomical regions. Numerical simulations cover an IAP up to the physiological limit of 171 (0.0223MPa) mmHg reached while jumping. Numerical results are in agreement with evidences on physiological abdomens when evaluating the local deformations along the craniocaudal direction, the transversal load forces in different regions and the increase of the abdominal area at a IAP of 12mmHg. The developed model can be upgraded for the investigation of the abdominal hernia repair and the assessment of prostheses mechanical compatibility, correlating stiffness and tensile strength of the abdominal tissues with those of surgical meshes. PMID:27133659

  17. Complex abdominal wall defects: appearances at prenatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, Reza; Woodward, Paula J; Kennedy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects are a complex group of anomalies, and many are incorrectly diagnosed. Evaluation of the defect relative to the umbilical cord insertion site is fundamentally important in differentiating among the various malformations. The two most common abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis, in which the defect is on the right side of the normally inserting cord and free-floating bowel loops are present, and omphalocele, in which the cord inserts on a membrane-covered midline defect. Omphalocele may also form a portion of a more complex defect that may remain undiagnosed without thorough evaluation. In cloacal exstrophy, the defect extends inferiorly and the bowel loops extrude between the two bladder halves. In pentalogy of Cantrell, the defect extends superiorly and is typically associated with ectopia cordis. Bladder exstrophy is a lower abdominal defect in which the hallmark finding is absence of a fluid-filled bladder. The cord insertion site is normal to low but does not form part of the defect. Both body stalk anomaly and abdominoschisis due to amniotic bands cause severe malformations, often involving extrusion of solid organs and the bowel. Although these two entities have many overlapping features, body stalk anomaly may be recognized on the basis of absence of a free-floating umbilical cord. With use of an algorithmic approach beginning with discovery of the location of the defect, a more precise diagnosis can be determined that may directly affect pre- and postnatal management decisions. PMID:25763744

  18. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ biologic mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2013-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. We aimed to review the experience of a large healthcare organization with Permacol™. A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent abdominal hernia repair with Permacol™ in 14 Southern California hospitals. One hundred ninety-five patients were analyzed over a 4-year period. Operations included ventral/incisional hernia repairs, ostomy closures, parastomal hernia repairs, and inguinal hernia repairs. In 50 per cent of the patients, Permacol™ was used to reinforce a primary fascial repair and in 50 per cent as a fascial bridge. The overall complication rate was 39.5 per cent. The complication rate was higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds, body mass index (BMI) 40 kg/m(2) or greater versus BMI less than 40 kg/m(2), in patients with prior mesh repair, and when mesh was used as a fascial bridge. With a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, morbid obesity was associated with a higher recurrence. To date this is the largest study on the use of Permacol™ in abdominal wall hernia repair. In our patient population undergoing heterogeneous operations with a majority of wounds as Class II or higher, use of Permacol™ did not eliminate wound morbidity or prevent recurrence, especially in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24160785

  19. Congenital Anaplastic Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting As Abdominal Wall Mass

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma encompasses a group of malignant myogenic neoplasms expressing a multitude of clinical and pathological diversities. It is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma of childhood but neonates are rarely affected. Embryonal subtype is the most frequent. Head-neck and genitourinary tracts are predominant sites, while trunk is considered among the unusual sites of rhabdomyosarcoma. Herein we report a case of anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma in a newborn girl presenting, at the Pediatric Surgery Outpatient Department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India in 2013 with a large tumor mass in the left flank region, arising from abdominal wall muscles. PMID:26870149

  20. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall Caused by Serratia Marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Naheed A; Narsinghani, Umesh; Kumar, Ritu

    2015-04-15

    In this article, we present the first case of necrotizing fasciitis affecting the abdominal wall caused by Serratia marcescens and share results of a focused review of S. marcescens induced necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient underwent aorto-femoral bypass grafting for advanced peripheral vascular disease and presented 3 weeks postoperatively with pain, erythema and discharge from the incision site in the left lower abdominal wall and underwent multiple debridement of the affected area. Pathology of debrided tissue indicated extensive necrosis involving the adipose tissue, fascia and skeletal muscle. Wound cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. She was successfully treated with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements. Since necrotizing fasciitis is a medical and surgical emergency, it is critical to examine infectivity trends, clinical characteristics in its causative spectrum. Using PubMed we found 17 published cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens, and then analyzed patterns among those cases. Serratia marcescens is prominent in the community and hospital settings, and information on infection presentations, risk factors, characteristics, treatment, course, and complications as provided through this study can help identify cases earlier and mitigate poor outcomes. Patients with positive blood cultures and those patients where surgical intervention was not provided or delayed had a higher mortality. Surgical intervention is a definite way to establish the diagnosis of necrotizing infection and differentiate it from other entities. PMID:26294949

  1. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  2. Abdominal Wall Transplantation: Skin as a Sentinel Marker for Rejection.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, U A; Vrakas, G; Sawitzki, B; Macedo, R; Reddy, S; Friend, P J; Giele, H; Vaidya, A

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal wall transplantation (AWTX) has revolutionized difficult abdominal closure after intestinal transplantation (ITX). More important, the skin of the transplanted abdominal wall (AW) may serve as an immunological tool for differential diagnosis of bowel dysfunction after transplant. Between August 2008 and October 2014, 29 small bowel transplantations were performed in 28 patients (16 male, 12 female; aged 41 ± 13 years). Two groups were identified: the solid organ transplant (SOT) group (n = 15; 12 ITX and 3 modified multivisceral transplantation [MMVTX]) and the SOT-AWTX group (n = 14; 12 ITX and 2 MMVTX), with the latter including one ITX-AWTX retransplantation. Two doses of alemtuzumab were used for induction (30 mg, 6 and 24 h after reperfusion), and tacrolimus (trough levels 8-12 ng/mL) was used for maintenance immunosuppression. Patient survival was similar in both groups (67% vs. 61%); however, the SOT-AWTX group showed faster posttransplant recovery, better intestinal graft survival (79% vs. 60%), a lower intestinal rejection rate (7% vs. 27%) and a lower rate of misdiagnoses in which viral infection was mistaken and treated as rejection (14% vs. 33%). The skin component of the AW may serve as an immune modulator and sentinel marker for immunological activity in the host. This can be a vital tool for timely prevention of intestinal graft rejection and, more important, avoidance of overimmunosuppression in cases of bowel dysfunction not related to graft rejection. PMID:26713513

  3. [Diagnostic difficulty of abdominal wall endometrioma: clinical case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Denzil Garteiz; Romano, Rafael Carbo; Sánchez, Alejandro Weber; Horcasitas, Lourdes Molinar

    2008-02-01

    Abdominal wall endometrioma is a rare clinical condition with which the general surgeon is faced and usually presents a diagnostic challenge due to the similar signs and symptoms that this illness shares with other tumors of the abdominal wall. A clinical case which exemplifies this diagnostic challenge is presented, and a review is made about the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of abdominal wall endometriomas, emphasizing on the different diagnoses with which it can be confused. PMID:18798406

  4. Use of synthetic mesh for the entire abdominal wall after TRAM flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Moscona, R A; Ramon, Y; Toledano, H; Barzilay, G

    1998-03-01

    Abdominal wall competence is a major concern of all plastic surgeons using the TRAM flap for breast reconstruction. Low hernia rates and adequate abdominal stability are standard expectations in abdominal wall closure. Described here is this institution's experience with the use of a large piece of synthetic mesh as a supplementary reinforcement for the entire abdominal wall in an attempt to stabilize it and achieve a superior abdominal aesthetic result. Twenty-five consecutive patients had routine reinforcement with the extended mesh technique. Mean patient follow-up was 24 months with a minimum of 1 year. No hernia or mesh-related infection were encountered and only one patient had a lower abdominal bulge. We recommend the use of a large synthetic mesh for improved strength and aesthetic quality of the abdominal wall after TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:9500387

  5. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. PMID:26450606

  6. Abdominal Wall Endometrioma: Ultrasonographic Features and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Yalaz, Seyhan; Şahin, Neslin; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Solak, İlhami

    2013-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of abdominal wall endometrioma (AWE) is often confused with other surgical conditions. Certain factors relating to knowledge of the clinical history of the disease make correct diagnosis and treatment difficult. Aims: To present the clinical findings and ultrasonographic (US) features of AWE with special emphasis on size-related features. Study Design: This study reviewed abdominal wall endometriomas during a 2-year period in the Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, Izmir. Methods: Eleven women (mean age 32.6 years) with 12 scar endometriomas (mean diameter 29.2 mm) were consecutively evaluated by US and Colour Doppler examination (CDUS) prior to surgery. Lesions were grouped into large (≥3 cm) and small nodules. Vascularisation was classified as location (central, peripheral and mixed) and severity (absent, moderately vascular and hypervascular). In each patient, the nature of pain (absent, cyclic: associated with menstruation and continuous), historical and clinical data were documented. Four patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their findings were presented. Fisher’s exact test, χ2 test for categorical data and the unpaired T-test for continuous variables were used for statistical analysis. Results: In all the women, US of the AWE showed the presence of a solid hypoechoic mass (less echogenic than the surrounding hyperechoic fat) within the abdominal wall. There was a significant correlation between AWE sizes with repeated caesareans and the mean time between the last operation and admission to hospital (p<0.05). Large endometriomas showed increased central vascularity (p<0.05). Cyclic pain was more frequent in small lesions, whereas continuous pain was more commonly found in patients with larger lesions (p<0.05). Conclusion: AWE is often misdiagnosed clinically because endometriosis may occur years after the caesarean section, the pain is often non-cyclic in nature, and there is not always a palpable

  7. [Training of residents in abdominal wall surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Miguelena Bobadilla, J M; Morales García, D; Serra Aracil, X; Sanz Sánchez, M; Iturburu, I; Docobo Durántez, F; Jover Navalón, J M; López De Cenarruzabeitia, I; Lobo Martínez, E

    2013-02-01

    The training of residents in abdominal wall surgery is a fundamental aspect of surgical training, representing globally 20% of its activity. In this paper, we analyze the current state of resident training in this kind of surgery in Spain, taking into account the broad spectrum it covers: general services, specific functional units, ambulatory surgery programs. To do this, based on the specifications of the specialty program, specific data were used from several different sources of direct information and a review of the results obtained by residents in hernia surgery. In general, our residents agree with their training and the recorded results are in line with objectives outlined in the program. However, it would be important to structure their teaching schedules, a rotation period in any specific unit and their involvement in outpatient surgery programs. PMID:22074730

  8. Impact of poroelasticity of intraluminal thrombus on wall stress of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The predictions of stress fields in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) depend on constitutive descriptions of the aneurysm wall and the Intra-luminal Thrombus (ILT). ILT is a porous diluted structure (biphasic solid–fluid material) and its impact on AAA biomechanics is controversially discussed in the literature. Specifically, pressure measurements showed that the ILT cannot protect the wall from the arterial pressure, while other (numerical and experimental) studies showed that at the same time it reduces the stress in the wall. Method To explore this phenomenon further a poroelastic description of the ILT was integrated in Finite Element (FE) Models of the AAA. The AAA model was loaded by a pressure step and a cyclic pressure wave and their transition into wall tension was investigated. To this end ILT’s permeability was varied within a microstructurally motivated range. Results The two-phase model verified that the ILT transmits the entire mean arterial pressure to the wall while, at the same time, it significantly reduces the stress in the wall. The predicted mean stress in the AAA wall was insensitive to the permeability of the ILT and coincided with the results of AAA models using a single-phase ILT description. Conclusion At steady state, the biphasic ILT behaves like a single-phase material in an AAA model. Consequently, computational efficient FE single-phase models, as they have been exclusively used in the past, accurately predict the wall stress in AAA models. PMID:22931215

  9. Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features

    PubMed Central

    Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F.; Nejati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824

  10. Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features.

    PubMed

    Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F; Nejati, Reza; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824

  11. Whole Abdominal Wall Segmentation using Augmented Active Shape Models (AASM) with Multi-Atlas Label Fusion and Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes. PMID:27127333

  12. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  13. [Large abdominal wall reconstruction by free flap after recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans].

    PubMed

    Le Fourn, B; Lejeune, F; Sartre, J Y; Loirat, Y; Pannier, M

    1996-12-01

    Based on a case of recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the abdominal wall, the authors discuss the need for initial wide resection of this type of skin tumour and the possibilities of repair of extensive full thickness defects of the abdominal wall by means of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap. PMID:9768175

  14. Spontaneous intraamniotic hemorrhage in the second trimester mimicking an abdominal wall defect

    PubMed Central

    Üstüner, Işık; Güven, Emine Seda Güvendağ; Balık, Gülşah; Şentürk, Şenol; Üstüner, Evren; Atman, Ebru Düşünceli; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz

    2013-01-01

    We report here a case of spontaneous intraamniotic haemorrhage in the second trimester which mimicked an abdominal wall defect. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed and a review of the literature regarding differential diagnosis of bleeding and abdominal wall defects is made. PMID:24592085

  15. [Mutual influence and development between Gastrointestinal surgery and hernia and abdominal wall surgery].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this article is to expound on the crossing and influence each other of gastrointestinal surgery and abdominal wall hernia surgery. Although these two departments are independent respectively, but due to the existence of association among anatomy, physiology and pathology, so they are also overlapping. First of all, the abdominal wall and digestive tract are interdependent, and the abdominal wall provides "protection" for gut. In case of large abdominal wall defect, intra-abdominal viscera, breathing, circulation system and spine will change accordingly. In addition, when intra-abdominal pressure increases due to various reasons, laparotomy is an effective way. But laparotomy is not an easy case, but a crisis. One of the most difficult problems is "enteroatmospheric fistulae". Therefore, to avoid serious complications after laparotomy, the concept of planned ventral hernia is proposed. When life safety is threatened by inter-abdominal hypertension, planned abdominal wall hernia is the style to save life. This is a kind of concept of innovation, and is the concrete practice of the theory of damage control surgery. For a planned abdominal wall hernia patient, it is better to wait and watch, and after making a comprehensive assessment, multidisciplinary collaboration mode should be applied to ensure the safety of surgery. PMID:26616795

  16. The influence of mesh topology in the abdominal wall repair process.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Carmelo; Burchielli, Silvia; Salvadori, Claudia; Santoro, Vito; Montemurro, Francesca; Orsi, Gianni; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The tissue integration and the formation of adhesions in the repair of abdominal wall defects are principally led to the topology and the mechanical properties of implanted prosthesis. In this study we analyzed the influence of the topology of the meshes for abdominal wall repair, made of polypropylene (PP), evaluating its ability to prevent and to minimize the formation of adhesions, and to promote tissue ingrowth. Two series of in vivo studies were performed. In the first, two types of PP meshes, a lightweight macroporous mesh (LWM) and a heavyweight microporous mesh (HWM) were compared with determine the optimal porosity for tissue integration. In the second, a composite mesh, Clear Mesh Composite (CMC), made of a LWM sewn on a PP planar smooth film, was compared with a PP planar film, to demonstrate how two different topologies of same material are able to induce different tissue integration with the abdominal wall and different adhesion with internal organs. In both studies, the prostheses were implanted in Wistar rats and histological analysis and mechanical characterization of tissue coupled with the implants were performed. LWM showed better host tissue ingrowth in comparison to HWM. CMC prosthesis showed no adhesions to the viscera and no strong foreign body reaction, moreover its elasticity and anisotropy index were more similar to that of natural tissue. These results demonstrated that the surface morphology of PP surgical meshes allowed to modulate their repair ability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1220-1228, 2016. PMID:26097153

  17. Blunt Abdominal Wall Disruption by Seatbelt Injury; A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Maarten Philip; van Buijtenen, Jesse; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Bloemers, Frank; Geeraedts Jr., Leo

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the use of seatbelts in cars, mortality following motor vehicle crashes has decreased significantly. However, two patterns of injuries, the ‘seatbelt sign’ and ‘seatbelt syndrome’ have emerged. Injuries may consist of traumatic abdominal wall disruption. We present two cases of severe abdominal wall disruption caused by a seatbelt injury and treated with primary repair. A review of the literature is provided. Two patients were brought in after a high velocity Motor Vehicle Collision. Both presented with an acute abdomen and a seatbelt sign upon which the decision was made to perform emergency laparotomies. Both patients had an abdominal wall disruption along the seatbelt sign. These disruptions were primarily closed and during six months of follow-up no complications occurred. A disruption of the abdominal wall is a rare complication. However, it is a diagnosis that may not be missed as patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. CT-scanning is an accurate method to detect disruptions. Closure of blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption can be done primarily with sutures or addition of a mesh. In both cases of the severe abdominal wall disruption, primary repair without mesh in the acute phase was successful. When a laparotomy is not indicated, the abdominal wall must be assessed for disruption. If there is a disruption primary repair is a good option. PMID:27331068

  18. A simple, effective and clinically applicable method to compute abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress.

    PubMed

    Joldes, Grand Roman; Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Doyle, Barry

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent and irreversible dilation of the lower region of the aorta. It is a symptomless condition that if left untreated can expand to the point of rupture. Mechanically-speaking, rupture of an artery occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. It is therefore desirable to be able to non-invasively estimate the AAA wall stress for a given patient, quickly and reliably. In this paper we present an entirely new approach to computing the wall tension (i.e. the stress resultant equal to the integral of the stresses tangent to the wall over the wall thickness) within an AAA that relies on trivial linear elastic finite element computations, which can be performed instantaneously in the clinical environment on the simplest computing hardware. As an input to our calculations we only use information readily available in the clinic: the shape of the aneurysm in-vivo, as seen on a computed tomography (CT) scan, and blood pressure. We demonstrate that tension fields computed with the proposed approach agree well with those obtained using very sophisticated, state-of-the-art non-linear inverse procedures. Using magnetic resonance (MR) images of the same patient, we can approximately measure the local wall thickness and calculate the local wall stress. What is truly exciting about this simple approach is that one does not need any information on material parameters; this supports the development and use of patient-specific modelling (PSM), where uncertainty in material data is recognised as a key limitation. The methods demonstrated in this paper are applicable to other areas of biomechanics where the loads and loaded geometry of the system are known. PMID:26282385

  19. A randomized controlled experimental study comparing chitosan coated polypropylene mesh and Proceed™ mesh for abdominal wall defect closure

    PubMed Central

    Jayanth, S.T.; Pulimood, Anna; Abraham, Deepak; Rajaram, A.; Paul, M.J.; Nair, Aravindan

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects and hernias are commonly repaired with synthetic or biological materials. Adhesions and recurrences are a common problem. A study was conducted to compare Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh and a polypropylene–polydioxanone composite with oxidized cellulose coating mesh (Proceed™) in repair of abdominal wall defect in a Rabbit hernia model. Methods A randomized controlled experimental study was done on twelve New Zealand white rabbits. A ventral abdominal defect was created in each of the rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two groups. In one group the defect was repaired with Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh and Proceed mesh™ in the other. The rabbits were operated in two phases. They were followed up at four weeks and twelve weeks respectively after which the rabbits were sacrificed. They were evaluated by open exploration and histopathological examination. Their efficacy in reducing adhesion and ability of remodeling and tissue integration were studied. Results There was no statistical significance in the area of adhesion, the force required to remove the adhesions, tissue integration and remodeling between Chitosan and Proceed™ group. Histological analysis revealed that the inflammatory response, fibrosis, material degradation and remodeling were similar in both the groups. There were no hernias, wound infection or dehiscence in any of the studied animals. Conclusion Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh was found to have similar efficacy to Proceed™ mesh. Chitosan coated polypropylene mesh, can act as an anti adhesive barrier when used in the repair of incisional hernias and abdominal wall defects. PMID:26594357

  20. The use of a biological graft for the closure of large abdominal wall defects following excision of soft tissue tumours

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Emma; Rooney, Paul S.; Heath, Richard; Chandrasekar, Coonoor R.

    2015-01-01

    Primary soft tissue tumours arising from the abdominal wall are uncommon and surgical excision of such tumours can result in large abdominal wall defects. There are many techniques available for abdominal wall repair following tumour excision, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The options range from direct closure to the use of tissue flap reconstructions and/or prosthetic meshes. Currently, synthetic material such as polypropylene mesh is a common choice for closure of abdominal wall defects after tumour excision. Biological meshes are an alternative option for repair, and this report outlines two cases of abdominal wall repair using the porcine intestinal submucosa biological graft following excision of abdominal wall tumours. There was no evidence of infection, recurrence, seroma or hernias at 2-year follow-up. Following excision of soft tissue tumours of the abdominal wall, biological reconstructions can be successfully used to bridge the defect with minimal morbidity. PMID:26109681

  1. Combination of tissue expansion and porcine mesh for secondary abdominal wall closure after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lafosse, Aurore; de Magnee, Catherine; Brunati, Andrea; Bayet, Bénédicte; Vanwijck, Romain; Manzanares, Javier; Reding, Raymond

    2012-08-01

    We report the case of a two and a half yr boy hospitalized in our Pediatric Transplantation Unit for portal vein thrombosis following liver transplantation. After performing a meso-Rex shunt, abdominal wall closure was impossible without compressing the portal flow. A combination of two techniques was used to perform the reconstruction of the muscular fasciae and skin layers. The association of tissue expanders and porcine mesh (Surgisis(®)) allowed complete abdominal wall closure with good functional and esthetic results. Use of both techniques is a useful alternative for difficult abdominal closure after liver pediatric transplantation. PMID:21848529

  2. The surface landmarks of the abdominal wall: a plea for standardization

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Boselli, Carlo; Renzi, Claudio; Cagini, Lucio; Boccolini, Andrea; Noya, Giuseppe; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Despite centuries of anatomical studies, controversies and contradictions still exist in the literature regarding the definition, anatomical terminology and the limits of the abdominal wall. We conducted a systematic research of books published from 1901 until December 2012 in Google Books. After the index screening, 16 remaining books were further assessed for eligibility. We decided to exclude journals. The aim of the study was to focus on surface landmarks and borders of the abdominal cavity. After this revision of the literature, we propose that the surface landmarks of the abdominal wall should be standardized. PMID:25097589

  3. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date.  CASE REPORT This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  4. Paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastaisis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONGXING; ZHANG, MINJIA; CHENG, NANSHENG; ZHOU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Typical human paragonimiasis demonstrates an elevated eosinophil count, positive immunoblot, nodular shadows of the lung and pleural thickening with pleural effusion, and these symptoms may be confused with chest cancer. In the present case, a rare case of human paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastasis is described, the 39-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital for cough, weight loss 5 kg and a firm mass in right upper abdominal wall. The laboratory test showed unremarkable hematology and biochemistry results. Chest X-ray, Plain computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed right pleural effusion, several nodules in right lower lung and a mass in the right upper abdominal wall. The initial diagnosis was lung or chest cancer with abdominal wall metastasis, and the abdominal wall mass was resected for the final diagnosis. The biopsy revealed eosinophilic granuloma with Charcot-Leyden crystal formation infiltrated in the muscular fibers. Subsequent to assessment of the antibodies against parasites, the final diagnosis of paragonimiasis was made. PMID:27313691

  5. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  6. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhoubing; Allen, Wade M.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture

  7. Early metastasis to anterior abdominal wall following radical cystectomy: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ajit; Bansal, Sumit; Pawar, Prakash; Kasat, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal wall metastasis from urothelial cancer is extremely rare and very few such cases have been reported in the literature. As such the treatment protocols are not so well defined. We present an interesting case of a 65-year-old male patient, known case of chronic kidney disease, who presented with a large, fungating infraumbilical mass 8 months postradical cystectomy. The mass involved full thickness anterior abdominal wall and small bowel including the ileal conduit. Wide excision of the mass along with adhered bowel loops and partial excision of the ileal conduit with right ureteric reimplant was performed. The large defect in the anterior abdominal wall was closed using a mesh (permanent with a bioresorbable coating inside) and myocutaneous thigh flap. The histopathological examination of the excised mass was consistent with secondary from the urothelial tumor. PMID:27453672

  8. Living donor liver transplantation with abdominal wall reconstruction for hepatocellular carcinoma with needle track seeding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Horng-Ren; Thorat, Ashok; Gesakis, Kanellos; Li, Ping-Chun; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chen, Hung Chi; Jeng, Long-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Malignant cell seeding in subcutaneous tissues along the needle track and/or percutaneous biliary drainage catheters is rare complication, but pose various technical issues in planning surgical treatment of such patients. If underlying primary hepatic malignancy can be treated, an aggressive resection of subcutaneous tissue bearing cancer cell with subsequent abdominal wall reconstruction has been sporadically reported. But, when hepatic resection is not possible due to underlying advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation along with abdominal wall resection and subsequent reconstruction remains only feasible option. Herein, we describe our successful experience of living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with full-thickness abdominal wall resection bearing the tumor seeding followed by reconstruction in single stage surgery. PMID:26722665

  9. Fungating carcinoma of the stomach: en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. M.; Lai, D. T.; Stern, H. S.; Sheldon, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    A patient with carcinoma of the stomach invading multiple adjacent organs and fungating through the anterior abdominal wall was treated by en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient is alive and well at the time of writing, six months after the operation. The rationale for embarking on multiple organ resection for gastric cancer is discussed. However, such an aggressive surgical approach should only be applied to carefully selected patients who are medically fit and have no evidence of widespread systemic metastases. Images Figure PMID:7596940

  10. Unusual Presentations of Actinomycosis; Anterior Abdominal Wall and Appendix: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Faruk; Özyazıcı, Sefa; Menekşe, Ebru; Daş, Koray; Özdoğan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary actinomycosis of the anterior abdominal wall and appendix are very rare clinical entities. An accurate diagnosis is generally obtained by histological examination, and treatment often requires surgical resection. Case Report: In this study we presented two cases of primary actinomycosis involving the anterior abdominal wall and a third one located in the appendix. Conclusion: Actinomyces Israelii can involve all anatomic structures of the abdomen. Although preoperative diagnosis is difficult, the combination of surgery and antibiotic treatment results in complete treatment in the majority of cases. PMID:25207127

  11. Polymicrobial abdominal wall necrotizing fasciitis after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    DeMuro, Jp; Hanna, Af; Chalas, E; Cunha, Ba

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a previously healthy woman after an uneventful caesarean section who developed polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. She was given a non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drug (NSAID) after her delivery. Her post-delivery course was complicated by septic shock, and required multiple debridements before abdominal reconstruction. This case describes the increased risk of necrotizing fasciitis with NSAID use. Unusual were the organisms causing the polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Acinetobacter baumannii, and two strains of Enterobacter cloacae. PMID:24960796

  12. Contraction of Abdominal Wall Muscles Influences Incisional Hernia Occurrence and Size

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Samuel C.; Hu, Yaxi; Wollstein, Adi; Franz, Michael G.; Patel, Shaun P.; Kuzon, William M.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernias are a complication in 10% of all open abdominal operations and can result in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine if inhibiting abdominal muscle contraction influences incisional hernia formation during laparotomy healing. We hypothesize that reducing abdominal musculature deformation reduces incisional hernia occurrence and size. Study Design Using an established rat model for incisional hernia, a laparotomy through the linea alba was closed with one mid-incision, fast-absorbing suture. Three groups were compared: a SHAM group (SHAM; n = 6) received no laparotomies while the Saline Hernia (SH; n = 6) and Botox Hernia (BH; n = 6) groups were treated once with equal volume saline or Botulinum Toxin (Botox®, Allergan) before the incomplete laparotomy closure. On post-operative day 14, the abdominal wall was examined for herniation and adhesions and contractile forces were measured for abdominal wall muscles. Results No hernias developed in SHAM rats. Rostral hernias developed in all SH and BH rats. Caudal hernias developed in all SH rats, but in only 50% of the BH rats. Rostral hernias in the BH group were 35% shorter and 43% narrower compared to those in the SH group (p < 0.05). The BH group had weaker abdominal muscles compared to the SHAM and SH groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions In our rat model, partial paralysis of abdominal muscles reduces the number and size of incisional hernias. These results confirm abdominal wall muscle contractions play a significant role in the pathophysiology of incisional hernia formation. PMID:25817097

  13. Abdominal wall muscle elasticity and abdomen local stiffness on healthy volunteers during various physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Podwojewski, F; Beillas, P; Ottenio, M; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Mitton, D

    2016-07-01

    The performance of hernia treatment could benefit from more extensive knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall in a healthy state. To supply this knowledge, the antero-lateral abdominal wall was characterized in vivo on 11 healthy volunteers during 4 activities: rest, pullback loading, abdominal breathing and the "Valsalva maneuver". The elasticity of the abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus and transversus abdominis) was assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In addition, the abdomen was subjected to a low external load at three locations: on the midline (linea alba), on the rectus abdominis region and on lateral muscles region in order to evaluate the local stiffness of the abdomen, at rest and during "Valsalva maneuver". The results showed that the "Valsalva maneuver" leads to a statistically significant increase of the muscle shear modulus compared to the other activities. This study also showed that the local stiffness of the abdomen was related to the activity. At rest, a significant difference has been observed between the anterior (0.5N/mm) and the lateral abdomen locations (1N/mm). Then, during the Valsalva maneuver, the local stiffness values were similar for all locations (ranging from 1.6 to 2.2N/mm). This work focuses on the in vivo characterization of the mechanical response of the human abdominal wall and abdomen during several activities. In the future, this protocol could be helpful for investigation on herniated patients. PMID:26994992

  14. Primary synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Sangkhathat, Surasak; Mitarnun, Winyou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the fourth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, following malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. It usually occurs in the extremities near the large joints of middle-aged patients. We describe a case of synovial sarcoma of the anterior abdominal wall (SSAW) in an adolescent girl and undertake a review of the literature. PMID:26629297

  15. US and MRI features in venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, F.; Maira, A.; Tarantino, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are classified as vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Venous vascular malformations are the most common type of vascular malformation. They may be isolated or multiple and they rarely affect the trunk. The authors report a rare case of isolated venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall with an emphasis on the related MRI and ultrasound (US) features. PMID:23450707

  16. Semiautomatic vessel wall detection and quantification of wall thickness in computed tomography images of human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, Judy; DiMartino, Elena S.; Goldhammer, Adam; Goldman, Daniel H.; Acker, Leah C.; Patel, Gopal; Ng, Julie H.; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Quantitative measurements of wall thickness in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) may lead to more accurate methods for the evaluation of their biomechanical environment. Methods: The authors describe an algorithm for estimating wall thickness in AAAs based on intensity histograms and neural networks involving segmentation of contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography images. The algorithm was applied to ten ruptured and ten unruptured AAA image data sets. Two vascular surgeons manually segmented the lumen, inner wall, and outer wall of each data set and a reference standard was defined as the average of their segmentations. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the reference standard to lumen contours generated automatically by the algorithm and a commercially available software package. Repeatability was assessed by comparing the lumen, outer wall, and inner wall contours, as well as wall thickness, made by the two surgeons using the algorithm. Results: There was high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the lumen area (r=0.978 and r=0.996 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, respectively) and between vascular surgeons (r=0.987 and r=0.992 for ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, respectively). The authors' automatic algorithm showed better results when compared to the reference with an average lumen error of 3.69%, which is less than half the error between the commercially available application Simpleware and the reference (7.53%). Wall thickness measurements also showed good agreement between vascular surgeons with average coefficients of variation of 10.59% (ruptured aneurysms) and 13.02% (unruptured aneurysms). Ruptured aneurysms exhibit significantly thicker walls (1.78{+-}0.39 mm) than unruptured ones (1.48{+-}0.22 mm), p=0.044. Conclusions: While further refinement is needed to fully automate the outer wall segmentation algorithm, these preliminary results demonstrate the method's adequate reproducibility

  17. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation. PMID:26756600

  18. Surgical approach to abdominal wall defects: history and new trends.

    PubMed

    Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Donati, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    We briefly outline the history of hernia surgery development from the Ebers Papyrus to modern prosthetic repairs. The rapid evolution of anatomical, physiological and pathogenetic concepts has involved the rapid evolution of surgical treatments. From hernia sack cauterization to sack ligation, posterior wall repair (Bassini), and prosthetic reinforcement there has been an evident improvement in surgical treatment results that has stimulated surgeons to find new technical solutions over time. The introduction of prosthetic repair, the laparoscopic revolution, the impact of local anesthesia and the diffusion of day surgery have been the main advances of the last 50 years. Searching for new gold standards, the introduction of new devices has also led to new complications and problems. Research of the last 10 years has been directed to overcome prosthetic repair complications, introducing every year new meshes and materials. Lightweight meshes, composite meshes and biologic meshes are novelties of the last few years. We also take a look at future trends. PMID:24380545

  19. [Impact of abdominoplasty on quality of life in patients, suffering anterior abdominal wall deformity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Koval's'ka, I O; Roshchyna, L O; Fedoruk, V I; Burov, E Iu; Fedoruk, P V

    2011-12-01

    The modern tendencies of surgery development include not only the operative procedures improvement but guaranteeing also a maximally high level achievement in the patients quality of life in the early, as well as during remote, postoperative period. The quality of life analysis was done in 132 patients, operated on for the anterior abdominal wall defects, obesity and other surgical diseases, using special questionnaire SF-36. The patients have aged 23-65 years old, in all of them the excessive body mass or obesity of abdominal type was noted. PMID:22432186

  20. Massive Localized Lymphedema Arising from Abdominal Wall: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Teodóra; Chang Chien, Yi-Che; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Massive localized lymphedema (MLL) is a rare pseudosarcomatous lesion due to localized lymphatic obstruction from variable causes. It is most common on medial aspect of thigh and inguinal region. Abdominal localization is rare and may cause clinical diagnostic confusion with other malignant tumors due to its large size. We report a case of abdominal wall MLL of a 56-year-old male patient under clinical suspicion of well differentiated liposarcoma. The literature search and differential diagnosis will be addressed. In doubt cases, immunohistochemical stain or fluorescent in situ hybridization can help to separate this entity from the other mimickers. PMID:26417468

  1. Traumatic disruption of the abdominal wall: lap-belt injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Moremen, Jacob R; Nakayama, Don K; Ashley, Dennis W; Astin, Matthew; Nolan, Tracy L

    2013-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) from high speed mechanism is a unique finding in adult trauma, and exceedingly rare in pediatrics. The majority of reports are of low-speed "handlebar" hernias associated with direct injury by bicycle handlebars. We report a series of three pediatric patients in motor vehicle collisions (MVC) who experienced TAWH by lap-belt and associated intra-abdominal injuries necessitating immediate operative intervention. Different operative approaches were used in each case to manage the varying types of disruptions. This adds to the pediatric literature the largest series of its kind. PMID:23583160

  2. Clinical Application of a Silk Fibroin Protein Biologic Scaffold for Abdominal Wall Fascial Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Susan; Agullo, Frank; Lehfeldt, Max R.; Kind, Gabriel M.; Palladino, Humberto; Marshall, Deirdre; Jewell, Mark L.; Mathur, Anshu B.; Bengtson, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that macroporous silk fibroin protein scaffolds are capable of promoting physiologically durable supportive tissue, which favors application of these engineered tissues for clinical implantation. The safety and effectiveness of a long-lasting, transitory, 510(k)-cleared purified silk fibroin biologic scaffold (SBS) are investigated for soft-tissue support and repair of the abdominal wall. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of all consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall soft-tissue reinforcement with an SBS device between 2011 and 2013. Indications, comorbid conditions, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Results: We reviewed the records of 172 consecutive patients who received an SBS for soft-tissue support. Of those, 77 patients underwent abdominal wall fascial repair, with a mean follow-up of 18.4 ± 7.5 months. Procedures using an SBS included reinforcement of an abdominal-based flap donor site (31.2%), ventral hernia repair (53.2%), and abdominoplasty (15.6%). The overall complication rate was 6.5%, consisting of 2 wound dehiscences, 1 with device exposure, 1 seroma, 1 infection with explantation, and a perioperative bulge requiring reoperation. There were no reports of hernia. Conclusions: Postoperative complication rates after 18 months were low, and most surgical complications were managed nonoperatively on an outpatient basis without mesh removal. To our knowledge, this is the only series to report on a long-lasting, transitory SBS for abdominal wall repair and reinforcement. Procedure-specific outcome studies are warranted to delineate optimal patient selection and define potential device characteristic advantages. PMID:25506529

  3. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: effects of asymmetry and wall thickness

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Christine M; Shkolnik, Alexander D; Muluk, Satish C; Finol, Ender A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent disease which is of significant concern because of the morbidity associated with the continuing expansion of the abdominal aorta and its ultimate rupture. The transient interaction between blood flow and the wall contributes to wall stress which, if it exceeds the failure strength of the dilated arterial wall, will lead to aneurysm rupture. Utilizing a computational approach, the biomechanical environment of virtual AAAs can be evaluated to study the affects of asymmetry and wall thickness on this stress, two parameters that contribute to increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Methods Ten virtual aneurysm models were created with five different asymmetry parameters ranging from β = 0.2 to 1.0 and either a uniform or variable wall thickness to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses. The AAA wall was designed to have a (i) uniform 1.5 mm thickness or (ii) variable thickness ranging from 0.5 – 1.5 mm extruded normally from the boundary surface of the lumen. These models were meshed with linear hexahedral elements, imported into a commercial finite element code and analyzed under transient flow conditions. The method proposed was then compared with traditional computational solid stress techniques on the basis of peak wall stress predictions and cost of computational effort. Results The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of aneurysm asymmetry and wall thickness heterogeneity on the estimation of peak wall stress. These parameters affect the magnitude and distribution of Von Mises stresses; varying wall thickness increases the maximum Von Mises stress by 4 times its uniform thickness counterpart. A pre-peak systole retrograde flow was observed in the AAA sac for all models, which is due to the elastic energy stored in the compliant arterial wall and the expansion force of the artery

  4. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Excision with Mesh Closure - Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Vaz-de-Macedo, Carolina; Gomes-da-Costa, Ana; Mendes, Sofia; Barata, Sónia; Alho, Conceição; Jorge, Carlos Calhaz; Osório, Filipa

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal wall mass and/or pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. It usually occurs after pelvic surgery, most commonly caesarean section. Given the variable clinical presentation, diagnosis can be challenging if a high index of suspicion for AWE does not exist. Consequently, the correct diagnosis is often missed in the preoperative assessment. The presence of endometriosis in other locations can aid in the diagnosis, but other endometriotic lesions do not always exist. Image studies, particularly ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, can also be of help in the differential diagnosis. Even though new management techniques such as ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryoablation seem to be promising, surgical excision is still the mainstay of treatment. When the aponeurosis is involved, lesion excision might need to be followed by wall closure with the use of a mesh to lessen tissue tension. We present two typical cases of AWE after caesarean section, one of them recurrent, in patients with concurrent endometriosis of other locations. Total lesion excision followed by polypropylene mesh closure has been performed, with very good post-operative outcomes. We aim to raise awareness towards this diagnosis and to highlight the importance of complete lesion excision and adequate closure of the abdominal wall. PMID:27042795

  5. Histological characteristics of the abdominal aortic wall in patients with vascular chronic Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Koning, Olivier H J; van den Haak, Ronald F F; Verhoeven, Bart A N; Renders, Nicole H M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; van Suylen, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe specific histological findings of the Coxiella burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Tissue samples of the aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall from seven patients with chronic Q fever and 15 patients without evidence of Q fever infection were analysed and compared. Chronic Q fever was diagnosed using serology and tissue PCR analysis. Histological sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemical staining for macrophages (CD68), T lymphocytes (CD3), T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 and CD8) and B lymphocytes (CD20). Samples were scored by one pathologist, blinded for Q fever status, using a standard score form. Seven tissue samples from patients with chronic Q fever and 15 tissue samples from patients without Q fever were collected. Four of seven chronic Q fever samples showed a necrotizing granulomatous response of the vascular wall, which was characterized by necrotic core of the arteriosclerotic plaque (P = 0.005) and a presence of high numbers of macrophages in the adventitia (P = 0.007) distributed in typical palisading formation (P = 0.005) and surrounded by the presence of high numbers of T lymphocytes located diffusely in media and adventitia. Necrotizing granulomas are a histological finding in the C. burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Chronic Q fever should be included in the list of infectious diseases with necrotizing granulomatous response, such as tuberculosis, cat scratch disease and syphilis. PMID:24953727

  6. Histological characteristics of the abdominal aortic wall in patients with vascular chronic Q fever.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Julia C J P; Koning, Olivier H J; van den Haak, Ronald F F; Verhoeven, Bart A N; Renders, Nicole H M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; van Suylen, Robert Jan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe specific histological findings of the Coxiella burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Tissue samples of the aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall from seven patients with chronic Q fever and 15 patients without evidence of Q fever infection were analysed and compared. Chronic Q fever was diagnosed using serology and tissue PCR analysis. Histological sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemical staining for macrophages (CD68), T lymphocytes (CD3), T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 and CD8) and B lymphocytes (CD20). Samples were scored by one pathologist, blinded for Q fever status, using a standard score form. Seven tissue samples from patients with chronic Q fever and 15 tissue samples from patients without Q fever were collected. Four of seven chronic Q fever samples showed a necrotizing granulomatous response of the vascular wall, which was characterized by necrotic core of the arteriosclerotic plaque (P = 0.005) and a presence of high numbers of macrophages in the adventitia (P = 0.007) distributed in typical palisading formation (P = 0.005) and surrounded by the presence of high numbers of T lymphocytes located diffusely in media and adventitia. Necrotizing granulomas are a histological finding in the C. burnetii-infected aneurysmal abdominal aortic wall. Chronic Q fever should be included in the list of infectious diseases with necrotizing granulomatous response, such as tuberculosis, cat scratch disease and syphilis. PMID:24953727

  7. A Large Single-Center Experience of Open Lateral Abdominal Wall Hernia Repairs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Puraj P; Warren, Jeremy A; Mansour, Roozbeh; Cobb, William S; Carbonell, Alfredo M

    2016-07-01

    Lateral abdominal wall hernias may occur after a variety of procedures, including anterior spine exposure, urologic procedures, ostomy closures, or after trauma. Anatomically, these hernias are challenging and require a complete understanding of abdominal wall, interparietal and retroperitoneal, anatomy for successful repair. Mesh placement requires extensive dissection of often unfamiliar planes, and its fixation is difficult. We report our experience with open mesh repair of lateral abdominal wall hernias. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients with a classification of lateral abdominal wall hernia who underwent an open repair. A total of 61 patients underwent open lateral hernia repairs. Mean patient age was 58 years (range 25-78), with a mean body mass index of 32 kg/m(2) (range 19.0-59.1). According to the European Hernia Society classification, defects were located subcostal (L1, 14 patients), flank (L2, 33 patients), iliac (L3, 11 patients), and lumber (L4, 3 patients). Mean defect size was 78.6 cm(2), with a mean greatest single dimension of 9.2 cm (range 2-25 cm). Retromuscular or interparietal repair was performed in 50.8 per cent, preperitoneal in 41.0 per cent, intraperitoneal in 6.6 per cent, and onlay in 1.6 per cent. The rate of surgical site occurrence was 49.2 per cent, primarily seroma and surgical site infection rate was 13.1 per cent. With a mean follow-up of 15.4 months, seven patients (11.5%) have documented recurrence. Synthetic mesh reconstruction of lateral wall hernias is challenging. Our experience demonstrates the safety and success of repair using synthetic mesh primarily in the retromuscular, interparietal, or preperitoneal planes. PMID:27457859

  8. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis on the Right Port Site After Laparoscopy: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Magnolfi, Stefania; Corioni, Serena; Moncini, Daniela; Mattei, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis can be intrapelvic or, rarely, extrapelvic. Endometriosis involving the rectus abdominis muscle on the trocar port site is a rare event; until now, only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. The majority of cases were associated with previous abdominal surgery such as diagnostic laparoscopy, cyst excision, appendectomy, myomectomy, or cholecystectomy. We review all the reported cases of this unusual form of extrapelvic endometriosis. Case Report We report a new case of abdominal wall endometriosis at the trocar port site in the rectus abdominis muscle in a woman who had undergone 2 laparoscopies for endometriosis in the 3 years before coming to our attention. The diagnosis was made by sonography. We performed a surgical resection of the lesion with a free macroscopic margin of 5-10 mm. Conclusion Endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any abdominal swelling. In our experience, surgery is the treatment of choice. PMID:26412997

  9. Automated Delineation of Vessel Wall and Thrombus Boundaries of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Multispectral MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Vila, B.; Tarjuelo-Gutierrez, J.; Sánchez-González, P.; Verbrugghe, P.; Fourneau, I.; Maleux, G.; Herijgers, P.; Gomez, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    A correct patient-specific identification of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is useful for both diagnosis and treatment stages, as it locates the disease and represents its geometry. The actual thickness and shape of the arterial wall and the intraluminal thrombus are of great importance when predicting the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysms. The authors describe a novel method for delineating both the internal and external contours of the aortic wall, which allows distinguishing between vessel wall and intraluminal thrombus. The method is based on active shape model and texture statistical information. The method was validated with eight MR patient studies. There was high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the vessel wall area. Resulting segmented images presented a mean Dice coefficient with respect to manual segmentations of 0.88 and a mean modified Hausdorff distance of 1.14 mm for the internal face and 0.86 and 1.33 mm for the external face of the arterial wall. Preliminary results of the segmentation show high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the vessel wall and thrombus areas. However, since the dataset is small the conclusions cannot be generalized. PMID:26236390

  10. Development of a novel synthetic material to close abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Cnota, M A; Aliabadi-Wahle, S; Choe, E U; Jacob, J T; Flint, L M; Ferrara, J J

    1998-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of a novel synthetic material (TMS-2) with polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene (Marlex), and primary closure of experimentally fashioned clean and contaminated abdominal wounds, 1-cm2 abdominal wall defects were created in each of the four abdominal quadrants of rats (n = 10). Patches of each material were used to repair three of these defects, the fourth being primarily closed. A second group of rats (n = 7) underwent the same operative protocol; however, peritonitis was induced at the time of surgery using a fecal inoculation technique. Animals were killed 2 weeks later, and surface area and severity of formed adhesions were assessed by a "blinded" observer. All closure techniques were successful insofar as none demonstrated fascial dehiscence. Compared with each synthetic material, the surface area of formed adhesions was smaller after primary closure in clean and in contaminated conditions; however, the three synthetic materials were equally matched regarding surface area of adhesions under both conditions. In the face of fecal contamination, TMS-2 proved identical to primary closure, each generating significantly (P < 0.02) milder adhesions than the other prosthetic materials. It is concluded that the TMS-2 may prove of clinical benefit to repair abdominal wall defects. PMID:9585774

  11. The relationship between wall shear stress distributions and intimal thickening in the human abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Bonert, Michael; Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Ethier, C Ross; Myers, Jerry G; Johnston, K Wayne; Ojha, Matadial

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this work was to determine wall shear stress (WSS) patterns in the human abdominal aorta and to compare these patterns to measurements of intimal thickness (IT) from autopsy samples. Methods The WSS was experimentally measured using the laser photochromic dye tracer technique in an anatomically faithful in vitro model based on CT scans of the abdominal aorta in a healthy 35-year-old subject. IT was quantified as a function of circumferential and axial position using light microscopy in ten human autopsy specimens. Results The histomorphometric analysis suggests that IT increases with age and that the distribution of intimal thickening changes with age. The lowest WSS in the flow model was found on the posterior wall inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery, and coincided with the region of most prominent IT in the autopsy samples. Local geometrical features in the flow model, such as the expansion at the inferior mesenteric artery (common in younger individuals), strongly influenced WSS patterns. The WSS was found to correlate negatively with IT (r2 = 0.3099; P = 0.0047). Conclusion Low WSS in the abdominal aorta is co-localized with IT and may be related to atherogenesis. Also, rates of IT in the abdominal aorta are possibly influenced by age-related geometrical changes. PMID:14641919

  12. A comparison of prosthetic materials used to repair abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Takano, K; Miyake, T; Nishio, T; Muto, S; Koshizuka, K; Nakagomi, H; Kubo, M; Tada, Y

    1998-09-01

    Large abdominal wall defects may require a prosthesis for closure. The aim of our study was to identify the best material for abdominoplasty in pediatric patients. One hundred twenty-eight Wistar KY strain male rats (3 weeks old) were used. All animals underwent celiotomy via a midline skin incision. They were divided into seven groups as follows: the animals in groups 1 through 6 underwent full-thickness abdominal wall excision 3 cm in diameter. The animals in group 1 underwent primary closure. In groups 2 through 6 the defect was closed with prosthetic material. In Group 7, a sham operation was performed. Daily weights were measured. The animals were killed after 3 and 9 weeks. Adhesion scores were assigned for each group. Vicryl mesh resulted in the fewest adhesions and had no effect on weight gain in the developing rats. PMID:9716675

  13. Desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall in female patients: comparison with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Krentel, H; Tchartchian, G; De Wilde, R L

    2012-01-01

    In female patients presenting a tumor of the lower abdominal wall especially after cesarian section, an endometriotic tumor as well as an aggressive desmoid tumor should be considered. Symptoms in correlation with the monthly period can facilitate the presurgical differentiation between endometriosis and fibromatosis. Ultrasound reveals the typical location of both tumors and its remarkable sonographic appearance. In the clinical practice, the desmoid fibromatosis of the lower abdominal wall is a very rare disease. We present a case of a 25-year-old pregnant and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic options by a PubMed literature review. With the knowledge of the prognosis of the desmoid fibromatosis and the respective treatment options including wait and see, complete surgical resection with macroscopically free margins and adjuvant approaches is essential to avoid further interventions and progression of the locally destructive tumor. PMID:22778752

  14. Desmoid Tumor of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in Female Patients: Comparison with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Krentel, H.; Tchartchian, G.; De Wilde, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    In female patients presenting a tumor of the lower abdominal wall especially after cesarian section, an endometriotic tumor as well as an aggressive desmoid tumor should be considered. Symptoms in correlation with the monthly period can facilitate the presurgical differentiation between endometriosis and fibromatosis. Ultrasound reveals the typical location of both tumors and its remarkable sonographic appearance. In the clinical practice, the desmoid fibromatosis of the lower abdominal wall is a very rare disease. We present a case of a 25-year-old pregnant and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic options by a PubMed literature review. With the knowledge of the prognosis of the desmoid fibromatosis and the respective treatment options including wait and see, complete surgical resection with macroscopically free margins and adjuvant approaches is essential to avoid further interventions and progression of the locally destructive tumor. PMID:22778752

  15. Laparoscopic drainage of abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Ram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case on abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy and describe laparoscopic drainage as our choice of management. Mr M is a 75-year-old male who presented on multiple occasions to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He also required multiple courses of antibiotics. Subsequent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed a number of retained stone with signs of chronic inflammation. Hence, 6 months after his initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, he proceeded to an exploratory laparoscopy. We found an abscess cavity measuring 3 × 4 cm over the anterior abdominal wall. The cavity was de-roofed, drained and washed out. The tissue culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laparoscopic approach is optimal as the abscess cavity can be clearly identified, stones visualized and removed under direct vision. Patient does not require a laparotomy. PMID:26183574

  16. The Use of an Anterior Abdominal Wall Peritoneal Flap in the Laparoscopic Repair of Vesicouterine Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Tasdemir, Nicel; Abali, Remzi; Celik, Cem; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Akkus, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Vesicouterine fistula (VUF) is a rare type of genitourinary fistula. Lower-segment cesarean section is the leading cause of VUF. Patients mostly present with the classical triad of menouria, amenorrhea, and urinary incontinence, with the history of a previous cesarean section. Conservative management with catheterization and open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgeries are the prescribed treatment options. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with cyclical menouria and urinary incontinence. After diagnosis of VUF by cystoscopy, the laparoscopic approach was chosen. During the procedure, we used anterior abdominal wall peritoneum and adjacent adipose tissue interposition for the first time, instead of omental interposition, because of the unavailability of omentum. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the procedure was successful. In conclusion, the laparoscopic approach is feasible and the anterior abdominal wall peritoneal flap can be used instead of omentum for tissue interposition when the omentum is not available. PMID:25216441

  17. Current practice of abdominal wall closure in elective surgery – Is there any consensus?

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Knebel, Phillip; Diener, Markus K; Seidlmayer, Christoph; Ridwelski, Karsten; Stöltzing, Hartmut; Seiler, Christoph M

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of incisional hernia after open abdominal surgery remains a major cause of post-operative morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the current practice of surgeons in terms of access to and closure of the abdominal cavity in elective open surgery. Methods Twelve surgical departments of the INSECT-Trial group documented the following variables for 50 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal surgery: fascial closure techniques, applied suture materials, application of subcutaneous sutures, subcutaneous drains, methods for skin closure. Descriptive analysis was performed and consensus of treatment variables was categorized into four levels: Strong consensus >95%, consensus 75–95%, overall agreement 50–75%, no consensus <50%. Results 157 out of 599 patients were eligible for analysis (85 (54%) midline, 54 (35%) transverse incisions). After midline incisions the fascia was closed continuously in 55 patients (65%), using slowly absorbable (n = 47, 55%), braided (n = 32, 38%) sutures with a strength of 1 (n = 48, 57%). In the transverse setting the fascia was closed continuously in 39 patients (72%) with slowly absorbable (n = 22, 41%) braided sutures (n = 27, 50%) with a strength of 1 (n = 30, 56%). Conclusion In the present evaluation midline incision was the most frequently applied access in elective open abdominal surgery. None of the treatments for abdominal wall closure (except skin closure in the midline group) is performed on a consensus level. PMID:19442311

  18. Lateral Abdominal Wall Defects: The Importance of Anatomy and Technique for a Successful Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pulikkottil, Benson J.; Pezeshk, Ronnie A.; Daniali, Lily N.; Bailey, Steven H.; Mapula, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Flank and lateral abdominal wall defects can be an extremely challenging phenomenon for surgeons to undertake. Their rarity and specific idiosyncrasies in regard to embryologic and anatomical characteristics must be taken into consideration when formulating an operative plan. We will discuss these cardinal points including technical recommendations by notable experts in the field to gain a better understanding in the diagnosis and treatment of this infrequent but morbid occurrence. PMID:26495194

  19. [Hematoma of the abdominal wall. A case report: pitfall of Seldinger method via femoral artery].

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Sugiura, Yasushi; Takeda, Ririko; Nanba, Hiroki

    2009-02-01

    We reported a case of an abdominal wall hematoma which caused by Seldinger method via the femoral artery. A 48-year-old female, suffered from direct carotid cavernous fistula, was treated by transfemoral transvenous embolization (TVE). The whole procedure was completed without difficulty except minor resistance of guide wire manipulation during left femoral artery catheterization. Four hours later, the patient became hypotensive and showed the sign of impending shock without definitive causes. Nine hours after the embolization a huge hematoma of the abdominal wall was found. It required the total 1200 m/ of blood transfusion before her blood pressure returned to normal. She recovered fully from this event and discharged uneventfully. There is a speculation that a deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) was injured with an angle-shaped guide wire and bled into the abdominal wall. And subsequent systemic heparinization prevented the coagulation process, resulting a large hematoma. Anatomically, an angle-shaped guide wire is easily able to migrate into DCIA. To prevent a vascular injury, it is very important to manipulate a guide wire under fluoroscopic control and to select a J-shaped guide wire instead of an angle-shaped one. PMID:19227158

  20. The management of abdominal wall hernias – in search of consensus

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Kamil; Śmietański, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic repair is becoming an increasingly popular alternative in the treatment of abdominal wall hernias. In spite of numerous studies evaluating this technique, indications for laparoscopic surgery have not been established. Similarly, implant selection and fixation techniques have not been unified and are the subject of scientific discussion. Aim To assess whether there is a consensus on the management of the most common ventral abdominal wall hernias among recognised experts. Material and methods Fourteen specialists representing the boards of European surgical societies were surveyed to determine their choice of surgical technique for nine typical primary ventral and incisional hernias. The access method, type of operation, mesh prosthesis and fixation method were evaluated. In addition to the laparoscopic procedures, the number of tackers and their arrangement were assessed. Results In none of the cases presented was a consensus of experts obtained. Laparoscopic and open techniques were used equally often. Especially in the group of large hernias, decisions on repair methods were characterised by high variability. The technique of laparoscopic mesh fixation was a subject of great variability in terms of both method selection and the numbers of tackers and sutures used. Conclusions Recognised experts have not reached a consensus on the management of abdominal wall hernias. Our survey results indicate the need for further research and the inclusion of large cohorts of patients in the dedicated registries to evaluate the results of different surgical methods, which would help in the development of treatment algorithms for surgical education in the future. PMID:25960793

  1. Excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Iijima, Tatsuo; Yoshimi, Fuyo; Nagai, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Here, we report the surgical excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy with a camera port in the umbilicus, combined with a small Pfannenstiel incision to optimally treat the bladder apex. Presentation of case A 21-year-old woman presented with periumbilical discharge and pain on urination. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI showed an abscess in the umbilical region that was connected to the bladder via a long tube-like structure. It was diagnosed as an infected urachal sinus. Partial excision of the umbilical fossa followed by dissection of the urachal remnant was easily performed using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy from the umbilicus down to the bladder without pneumoperitoneum or additional trocar placement. A Pfannenstiel incision was made above the pubis to get access to the junction between the urachal remnant and the bladder. Under direct vision, we succeeded in accurately dividing the remnant tract, and we adequately closed the bladder opening with absorbable sutures. This method has the advantage of easily closing peritoneal defects after excision of the urachal remnant with direct sutures under a laparoscopic view from the umbilicus. Cosmetic satisfaction was obtained postoperatively. Discussion and conclusion Urachal sinus excision using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy seems to surpass the previously reported methods in term of safety, cosmetics, and adequacy of surgical procedures. PMID:27064744

  2. [The use of prosthetic materials placed intraperitoneally in the repair of large defects of the abdominal wall, reflections on a limited case series].

    PubMed

    Miro, A G; Auciello, I; Loffredo, D; Arenga, G; Lombardi, D

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the best prosthetic material in direct contact with intestinal loops in the repair of large abdominal wall defects, four cases were reevaluated and an extensive review of the literature was undertake to point out the pathophysiology of prosthetic materials in abdominal wall surgery. For its intrinsic features, Gore-Tex represents the best prosthetic material to locate intraperitoneally, but the slow foreign body reaction is responsible for postoperative complications (e.g. hematoma, seroma, dehiscence). Marlex should not be used in direct contact with intestine because of the risk of multiple fistulas, very difficult to treat, while, the intense foreign body reaction rapidly integrate the mesh into the abdominal wall. To treat large abdominal wall defects are now been proposed mixed prostheses (Gore-Tex in intraperitoneal location, Marlex at the exterior) and dual mesh Gore-Tex (two textures at different microporosity on each side of the mesh). Preliminary studies have shown the safety and utility of these prostheses. PMID:10434463

  3. Adipocyte in vascular wall can induce the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Mouri, Youhei; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yata, Tatsuro; Urano, Tetsumei; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving the gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. It has been reported that development of AAA is associated with inflammation of the vascular wall; however, the mechanism of AAA rupture is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying AAA rupture using a hypoperfusion-induced animal model. We found that the administration of triolein increased the AAA rupture rate in the animal model and that the number of adipocytes was increased in ruptured vascular walls compared to non-ruptured walls. In the ruptured group, macrophage infiltration and the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were increased in the areas around adipocytes, while collagen-positive areas were decreased in the areas with adipocytes compared to those without adipocytes. The administration of fish oil, which suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy, decreased the number and size of adipocytes, as well as decreased the risk of AAA rupture ratio by 0.23 compared to the triolein administered group. In human AAA samples, the amount of triglyceride in the adventitia was correlated with the diameter of the AAA. These results suggest that AAA rupture is related to the abnormal appearance of adipocytes in the vascular wall. PMID:27499372

  4. Adipocyte in vascular wall can induce the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Mouri, Youhei; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yata, Tatsuro; Urano, Tetsumei; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving the gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. It has been reported that development of AAA is associated with inflammation of the vascular wall; however, the mechanism of AAA rupture is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying AAA rupture using a hypoperfusion-induced animal model. We found that the administration of triolein increased the AAA rupture rate in the animal model and that the number of adipocytes was increased in ruptured vascular walls compared to non-ruptured walls. In the ruptured group, macrophage infiltration and the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were increased in the areas around adipocytes, while collagen-positive areas were decreased in the areas with adipocytes compared to those without adipocytes. The administration of fish oil, which suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy, decreased the number and size of adipocytes, as well as decreased the risk of AAA rupture ratio by 0.23 compared to the triolein administered group. In human AAA samples, the amount of triglyceride in the adventitia was correlated with the diameter of the AAA. These results suggest that AAA rupture is related to the abnormal appearance of adipocytes in the vascular wall. PMID:27499372

  5. The occurrence of an abdominal wall abscess 11 years after appendectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, K; Masaki, T; Toyoshima, O; Ono, M; Muto, T

    1999-01-01

    Most complications after appendectomy occur within 10 days; however, we report herein the unusual case of a patient in whom a wound abscess was detected more than 10 years after an appendectomy. A 26-year-old woman presented to our hospital with nausea and vomiting, pain, and a mass in the right lower abdominal wall. She had undergone an appendectomy 11 years previously. Physical examination revealed a tender mass, 5 cm in diameter, under the appendectomy scar. An abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a low-echoic mass lesion measuring 9.0 x 5.0 x 2.0 cm. Incision of the connective tissue revealed about 3 ml of cream-colored and odorless fluid in the abscess cavity. Fistulography revealed an abscess cavity not communicating with the bowel lumen. Floss was discovered in the connective tissue and removed. Debridement of the abscess wall was performed and a piece of the wall was sent for histologic examination. Pathological examination revealed panniculitis of the subcutaneous tissue, and panniculitis with granulation and granuloma of the abscess wall. This case report demonstrates that a preoperative diagnosis should be based not on one finding, but on all findings collected, inclusively. PMID:10489140

  6. Novel Technique for Innervated Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: A Separation of Components Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mavrophilipos, Vasilios D.; Zapora, Jeffrey A.; Berli, Jens; Broyles, Justin; Chopra, Karan; Sabino, Jennifer; Matthews, Jamil; Buckingham, E. Bryan; Maddox, John S.; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Silverman, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Applications for Abdominal Wall Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation may expand if a functional graft with decreased immunosuppressive requirements can be designed. We hypothesize that it is anatomically feasible to prepare a functional, innervated, and vascularized abdominal composite graft using a multilayered component separation technique. Including vascularized bone in the graft design may decrease the immunosuppressive requirements by inducing immunologic chimerism. Methods: Two cadaver torsos were used. Adipocutaneous flaps were elevated from the midaxillary lines, preserving deep inferior epigastric artery perforators. A 2-layered component separation through the external and internal oblique fasciae was carried out, exposing segmental intercostal thoracolumbar nerves. Superiorly directed muscle release over the subcostal margin provided for a 3-rib segment with attached rectus abdominis muscle. The remainder of the full-thickness allograft was harvested with its vasculature. Flap inset into the recipient cadaver abdomen, with osteosynthesis fixation between donor and recipient ribs, was achieved. Results: The harvested grafts had an average size of 845 ± 205 cm2 with a total procurement time of 110 minutes. On one cadaver, 4 thoracolumbar nerves were isolated bilaterally, while the other cadaver yielded 3 nerves. The nerves were transected with an average length of 5.7 ± 1.2 cm. The graft vasculature was transected with a length of 4.40 ± 0.10 cm. Conclusion: Using the principles of component separation technique, we demonstrated a novel approach to harvest and transfer a neurotized osteomyofasciocutaneous abdominal wall allotransplant as a multipedicled, single functional unit. PMID:25328567

  7. A simulation framework for estimating wall stress distribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Chui, Chee-Kong; Huang, Wei-Min; Yang, Tao; Pang, Wai-Man; Sudhakar, Venkatesh; Chang, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. In endovascular aneurysm repair, a stent-graft in a catheter is released at the aneurysm site to form a new blood vessel and protect the weakened AAA wall from the pulsatile pressure and, hence, possible rupture. In this paper, we propose a framework to estimate the wall stress distribution of non-stented/stented AAA based on fluid-structure interaction, which is utilized in a surgical simulation system (IRAS). The 3D geometric model of AAA is reconstructed from computed tomography angiographic (CTA) images. Based on our experiments, a combined logarithm and polynomial strain energy equation is applied to model the elastic properties of arterial wall. The blood flow is modeled as laminar, incompressible, and non-Newtonian flow by applying Navier-Stokes equation. The obtained pressure of blood flow is applied as load on the AAA meshes with and without stent-graft and the wall stress distribution is calculated by fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver equipped in ANSYS. Experiments demonstrate that our analytical results are consistent with clinical observations. PMID:22254456

  8. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson’s trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  9. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jang, HyunSuk; Yoon, Joohwan; Gil, HyunJi; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  10. Layer-dependent wall properties of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Experimental study and material characterization.

    PubMed

    Sassani, Sophia G; Kakisis, John; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Sokolis, Dimitrios P

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical testing and in-depth characterization of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall from fifteen patients undergoing open surgery was performed to establish the layer-dependent tissue properties that are non-available in the literature. Quantitative microscopic evaluation was performed to identify the spatial organization of collagen-fiber network. Among a number of candidate models, the four-fiber family (microstructure-motivated) model, especially that including dispersions of fiber angles about the main directions, was superior to the Fung- and Gasser-type models in the fitting quality allowed, though it presented a practical difficulty in parameter estimation, so that an analysis was conducted aiding the identification of a more specific diagonal- and circumferential-fiber family model for all three layers. The adventitia was stiffer and stronger than the other layers, owing to its increased collagen content, and its contribution to the response of the intact wall was augmented being under greater residual tension than the media, whereas the intima was under residual compression. All layers were stiffer circumferentially than longitudinally, due to preferential collagen arrangement along that axis. The histologically-guided material characterization of layered wall presented herein is expected to assist clinical decision, by developing reliable criteria to predict the rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and optimize endovascular interventions. PMID:26011656

  11. Superthin Abdominal Wall Glove-Like Flap Combined With Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Severely Burned Hands or With Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Le; Ma, Ben; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Jie; Peszel, April; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Severe burn and infection to hands always involves the deep structures, such as tendons, joints, and bones. These wounds cannot be closed immediately and therefore creates a high risk for complication. We presented 9 cases with deep dermal burns to the dorsal of the hand (6 electrical burns and 3 thermal crush injuries) with wound infections in 2 cases. The vacuum-assisted closure system was used continuously until the flap reconstruction was performed. A random pattern and superthin abdominal wall skin flap-like glove was designed. The flap was transferred to the defected portion of the dorsum of the hand and resected from the abdominal wall about 3 weeks later. The flaps in 8 of the patients treated by this technique survived completely and partial necrosis of the distal flap occurred in 1 patient. The defect resolved after operative treatment and the function of the hands and fingers were successfully salvaged. All patients resulted in having a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no or minor discomfort at the abdominal donor area. Integration of the vacuum-assisted closure system and the superthin abdominal wall glove-like flap reconstruction appeared to be successful and should be considered in patients with severely burned hands. PMID:26418768

  12. Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, Alberto . E-mail: alberto.bossi@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; De Wever, Ivo; Van Limbergen, Erik; Vanstraelen, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.

  13. Abdominal Wall Hematoma as a Rare Complication following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moon, In Tae; Sohn, Young Seok; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hwan Cheol; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Soon Gil; Oh, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal wall hematoma is a rare but potentially serious vascular complication that may develop after coronary angiographic procedures. In particular, an oblique muscle hematoma caused by an injury of the circumflex iliac artery is very rare, yet can be managed by conservative treatment including hydration and transfusion. However, when active bleeding continues, angiographic embolization or surgery might be needed. In this study, we report an uncommon case of injury to the circumflex iliac artery by an inappropriate introduction of the hydrophilic guidewire during the performance of a percutaneous coronary intervention.

  14. Systemic juvenile xanthogranulomatosis imitating a malignant abdominal wall tumor with lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Matcham, Nicola J; Andronikou, Savvas; Sibson, Keith; Ramani, Pramila; Grier, David

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG) is a rare benign condition, which usually presents with characteristic skin lesions and can be diagnosed clinically. However, systemic JXG may involve a wide range of extracutaneous sites and may pose a diagnostic dilemma for the clinician, radiologist, and pathologist. In particular it may simulate malignancy. Here, we report a case of systemic JXG within the abdominal wall musculature and lungs, which imitated a sarcoma with pulmonary metastases on computerized tomography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such reported case. In particular, systemic disease presenting without skin lesions is unusual. PMID:17230073

  15. Intramedullary spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting with abnormal abdominal wall movement. Case report.

    PubMed

    Aslanabadi, Saeid; Azhough, Ramin; Motlagh, Parviz Samad; Hadidchi, Shahram; Tabrizi, Ali Dastranj; Zonouzy, Keivan Kashy

    2004-10-15

    The authors present a case of intramedullary ganglioglioma in a 6-year-old girl. Since the age of 4 months the patient had experienced a spontaneous wavy undulating movement of her anterior abdominal wall resembling a severe peristalsis. The movement was continuous even during sleep, and this symptom was named "belly dance." Magnetic resonance images revealed an intramedullary tumor with ill-defined borders, and the lesion was partially resected. The patient made a good recovery, although 4 years postsurgery her scoliosis had progressed. PMID:15633994

  16. An Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumour Mimicking Cesarean Scar Endometriomas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Fisun; Müezzinoglu, Bahar

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall desmoid tumours (DT) are rare, slow-growing benign muscular-aponeurotic fibrous tumours with the tendency to locally invade and recur. They constitute 0.03% of all neoplasms and high infiltration and recurrence rate, but there is no metastatic potential. Although surgery is the primary treatment modality, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Abdominal wall endometriosis is also an unusual disease, and preoperative clinical diagnosis is not always easy. The preoperative radiologic imaging modalities may not aid all the time. Herein, we report an abdominal mass presenting as cyclic pain. Forty-two years old woman who gave birth by cesarean section admitted the complaints of painful abdominal mass (78x45 mm in size) under her cesarean incision scar. She had severe pain, particularly during menstruation. The clinical and radiological imaging findings mimicking endometrioma. We performed wide surgical excision of mass with a 1 cm tumor-free margin with the diagnosis of a benign mesenchymal tumor in the frozen section. The postoperative course was uneventful and recovered without any complication and recurrence three years after surgery. This report presents a case of abdominal wall desmoid tumor mimicking endometrioma. In this paper, shortcomings in diagnosis, abdominal wall endometriomas, and DTs were discussed in the view of literature. PMID:26500967

  17. Laparoscopic Treatment of Ventral Abdominal Wall Hernias: Preliminary Results in 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín del Olmo, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Jose Ignacio; de la Cuesta, Carmen; Martín, Fernando; Toledano, Miguel; Perna, Christiam; Vaquero, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The laparoscopic treatment of eventrations and ventral hernias has been little used, although these hernias are well suited to a laparoscopic approach. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a laparoscopic approach in the surgical treatment of ventral hernias. Methods: Between January 1994 and July 1998, a series of 100 patients suffering from major abdominal wall defects were operated on by means of laparoscopic techniques, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 30 months. The mean number of defects was 2.7 per patient, the wall defect was 93 cm2 on average. There were 10 minor hernias (<5 cm), 52 medium-size hernias (5-10 cm), and 38 large hernia (>10 cm). The origin of the wall defect was primary in 21 cases and postsurgical in 79. Three access ports were used, and the defects were covered with PTFE Dual Mesh measuring 19 × 15 cm in 54 cases, 10 x 15 cm in 36 cases, and 12 × 8 cm in 10 cases. An additional mesh had to be added in 21 cases. In the last 30 cases, PTFE Dual Mesh Plus with holes was employed. Results: Average surgery time was 62 minutes. One procedure was converted to open surgery, and only one patient required a second operation in the early postoperative period. Minor complications included 2 patients with abdominal wall edema, 10 seromas, and 3 subcutaneous hematomas. There were no trocar site infections. Two patients developed hernia relapse (2%) in the first month after surgery and were reoperated with a similar laparoscopic technique. Oral intake and mobilization began a few hours after surgery. The mean stay in hospital was 28 hours. Conclusions: Laparoscopic technique makes it possible to avoid large incisions, the placement of drains, and produces a lower number of seromas, infections and relapses. Laparoscopic access considerably shortens the time spent in the hospital. PMID:10917121

  18. Intramuscular abdominal wall endometriosis treated by ultrasound-guided ethanol injection.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-12-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE. PMID:24667221

  19. Intramuscular Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Treated by Ultrasound-Guided Ethanol Injection

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A. Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE. PMID:24667221

  20. Neuromuscular independence of abdominal wall muscles as demonstrated by middle-eastern style dancers.

    PubMed

    Moreside, Janice M; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; McGill, Stuart M

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies analyzing neuromuscular independence of the abdominal wall have involved a participant population with no specific training in separating individual muscle segments. We chose to study nine women trained in the art of middle-eastern dance, anticipating they may have unique skills in motor control. Specifically, we were searching for evidence of separation of upper rectus abdominis (URA) from lower rectus abdominis (LRA), as well as understanding what role the oblique muscles play in abdominal wall synergies. EMG analysis was done on eight trunk muscles bilaterally as the dancers participated in 30 dance, planar, and curl-up activities. The filtered data were then cross-correlated to determine the time lag between pairs of signals. Only three dance movements demonstrated consistent evidence of an ability to separate URA/LRA activation timing. The external and internal oblique muscles tend to align themselves temporally with the LRA. However, these findings were only evident in these three specific "belly-roll" conditions, all with low levels of muscle activation, and no external torque. Evidence of significantly different activation levels (% MVC) between URA/LRA was demonstrated in eight conditions, all of which required various pelvis movements with minimal thorax motion. PMID:17329127

  1. Efficacy and safety of hyaluronate membrane in the rabbit cecum-abdominal wall adhesion model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Young; Cho, Wan Jin; Kim, Jun Ho; Lim, Sae Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Young Woo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tissue adhesion is a well-known postsurgical phenomenon, causing pain, functional obstruction, and difficult reoperative surgery. To overcome these problems, various synthetic and natural polymer membranes have been developed as postoperative tissue adhesion barriers. However, limitation in their use has hindered its actual application. We prepared a hyaluronate membrane (HM) to evaluate its efficacy and safety as an adhesion barrier compared to a commercialized product (Interceed, Ethicon). Methods To evaluate the antiadhesion effect, a cecum-abdominal wall abrasion model was adopted in a rabbit. The denuded cecum was covered by Interceed or HM or neither and apposed to the abdominal wall (each, n = 10). Four weeks after surgery, the level of adhesion was graded. Acute and chronic toxicity of the three groups were also evaluated. Results Blood samples drawn to evaluate acute toxicity at postoperative day 3 and 7 showed no significant difference among the three groups. The grade and area of adhesion were significantly lower in the HM compared to those of the control and Interceed at four weeks after surgery. Histologic evaluations, which was carried out to estimate tissue reactions at the site of application, as well as to assess chronic toxicity for the major organs, were not significantly different in the three groups. Conclusion This study showed that the antiadhesion efficacy of HM was superior to commercialized antiadhesion membrane, Interceed. Low inflammatory response and nontoxicity were also demonstrated. From these results, we suggest that the HM is a good candidate as a tissue adhesion barrier. PMID:23908960

  2. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism. PMID:22909340

  3. Comparison of novel synthetic materials with traditional methods to repair exposed abdominal wall fascial defects.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi-Wahle, S; Cnota, M; Choe, E; Jacob, J T; Flint, L M; Ferrara, J J

    1998-01-01

    Repair of large abdominal wall defects is a challenge, particularly when full-thickness tissue loss prohibits coverage of the fascial repair. Two novel synthetic materials (TMS-1 and TMS-2) have been shown to be better accepted than expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex), and polypropylene (Marlex) in the closure of clean and contaminated fascial wounds that are immediately covered by skin/soft tissue. Therefore, 1-cm2 abdominal wall defects were created in each of the four quadrants of rat groups. Gore-Tex, Marlex, and TMS-1 or TMS-2 were used to repair three defects, the fourth being primarily closed. To ensure that each repair remained exposed, skin edges were sutured to underlying muscle. Additional animal groups underwent the same protocol; however, peritonitis was induced at surgery using a fecal inoculum technique. Animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later, at which time a blinded observer assessed the surface area and severity of adhesions. In clean wounds, the surface area of formed adhesions was less (p < .004) after primary closure than each synthetic material; among the synthetics, TMS-2 caused significantly (p < .01) less extensive adhesions than Marlex. In addition, the severity of adhesions to TMS-2 was comparable to that of defects closed primarily, and less severe (p < .02) than those formed to Gore-Tex and Marlex. In animals with peritonitis, primary closure caused less extensive (p < .03) adhesions than Marlex and Gore-Tex and significantly (p < .002) less severe adhesions than Marlex, Gore-Tex, and TMS-2. However, the severity of adhesions formed to TMS-1 repairs proved comparable to primarily closed wounds. These experiments reaffirm the tenet that, whenever possible, abdominal wounds should undergo primary fascial closure. When soft tissue coverage over the repair cannot be achieved, TMS-2 is well tolerated in clean wounds. However, the superiority of TMS-1 over the other synthetic materials in contaminated wounds suggests it may also

  4. Abdominal wall competence after free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, S; Asko-Seljavaara, S; Kinnunen, J; Sainio, P; Alaranta, H

    1997-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to evaluate the possible changes in abdominal wall strength following free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were examined 1 day before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Trunk muscle strength was measured by the same physiotherapist using an isokinetic dynamometer (Lido Multi Joint II, Loredan Biomedical Inc., Davies, CA). The peak torque and average torque for both flexion and extension at 60 degrees per second angular velocity were recorded from the curves obtained. There was a significant reduction in trunk flexion strength at 3 months postoperatively (peak torque mean, 92% of the preoperative value; p = 0.04), but this was corrected by 6 months (mean, 96%), and improved to 98% by 12 months. The patient's ability to do curled trunk sit-ups was evaluated by the same physiotherapist and graded on a scale from 1 to 6. In 9 of 19 patients the operation had no effect on sit-up performance during follow-up. In 10 of 19 patients there was a reduction of one or two grades at 3 months that did not improve by 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal wall was performed on 9 patients. The mean area of the upper third of both rectus muscles was measured on the axial images. At 3 months postoperatively the mean area of the upper third of the donor muscle was significantly larger than the contralateral (p = 0.03). There was no difference in size at 6 months, and by 12 months the donor side was smaller. This prospective study shows that harvesting of a free TRAM flap can cause a subclinical reduction in abdominal strength, although this was not noticed by the patients themselves. PMID:9326701

  5. Metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect using a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Amy Siu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of large, complex defects of the abdominal wall after resection of malignant tumors can be challenging. The transfer of an anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a feasible and effective option. However, no report has been published on the use of ALT flap after metachronous colonic tumor resection so far. We present an original case of resection of metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect using an ALT flap harvested with its aponeurosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. Functional and esthetic results were satisfactory. There was no postoperative incisional hernia or tumor recurrence. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction. PMID:27161142

  6. Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma in a Post-Menopausal Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is an aggressive form of endometrial cancer characterized by a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old post-menopausal woman with an abdominal wall metastasis in stage IA UPSC. After surgical staging, she did not receive additional adjuvant therapy. An egg sized palpable mass developed in the right lower abdomen after 8 months. Both Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed a metastatic lesion in the abdominal wall. Hence, surgical excision was performed. The pathological findings showed metastatic UPSC with clear resection margin. After the diagnosis of UPSC metastasis in the abdominal wall, she received chemotherapy utilizing paclitaxel and carboplatin. After 3 years, no evidence of recurrence was found. Therefore, we suggest that even when UPSC is confined to the endometrium without lymph node metastasis and without lymphovascular invasion, chemotherapy should be considered as a postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:25371890

  7. Abdominal wall metastasis of uterine papillary serous carcinoma in a post-menopausal woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Woo; Hwang, Sung-Ook

    2014-04-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is an aggressive form of endometrial cancer characterized by a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old post-menopausal woman with an abdominal wall metastasis in stage IA UPSC. After surgical staging, she did not receive additional adjuvant therapy. An egg sized palpable mass developed in the right lower abdomen after 8 months. Both Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed a metastatic lesion in the abdominal wall. Hence, surgical excision was performed. The pathological findings showed metastatic UPSC with clear resection margin. After the diagnosis of UPSC metastasis in the abdominal wall, she received chemotherapy utilizing paclitaxel and carboplatin. After 3 years, no evidence of recurrence was found. Therefore, we suggest that even when UPSC is confined to the endometrium without lymph node metastasis and without lymphovascular invasion, chemotherapy should be considered as a postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:25371890

  8. New technical approach for the repair of an abdominal wall defect after a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaemmer, Daniel A; Conze, Joachim; Otto, Jens; Schumpelick, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Breast reconstruction with autologous tissue transfer is now a standard operation, but abnormalities of the abdominal wall contour represent a complication which has led surgeons to invent techniques to minimize the morbidity of the donor site. Case presentation We report the case of a woman who had bilateral transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM-flap) breast reconstruction. The surgery led to the patient developing an enormous abdominal bulge that caused her disability in terms of abdominal wall and bowel function, pain and contour. In the absence of rectus muscle, the large defect was repaired using a combination of the abdominal wall component separation technique of Ramirez et al and additional mesh augmentation with a lightweight, large-pore polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro®). Conclusion The procedure of Ramirez et al is helpful in achieving a tension-free closure of large defects in the anterior abdominal wall. The additional mesh augmentation allows reinforcement of the thinned lateral abdominal wall. PMID:18416835

  9. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  10. Evaluation of porcine dermal collagen (Permacol) used in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Patrick W; Salgado, Christopher J; Kent, Kathryn; Finnegan, Matthew; Pello, Mark; Simons, Robert; Atabek, Umur; Kann, Brian

    2009-11-01

    Various methods have been employed to reconstruct complex abdominal wall defects. Structural prosthetic materials such as polypropylene mesh and ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) have been widely used to close these large fascial defects, however, complications with infection and adhesions have led to the recent use of more biocompatible implants. Permacol (acellular porcine dermis) is used as a dermal scaffold, which eventually becomes vascularised and remodelled to reconstruct the abdominal wall in these complex patients. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent consecutive abdominal wall reconstruction with Permacol at our institution in the year 2006. Twenty-eight patients were identified and included in our study. Factors evaluated were: body mass index, relevant co-morbidities, aetiology of hernia, hernia defect size based on CT scan and intraoperative measurement, size of Permacol implant, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Surgical technique was standardised among six surgeons and involved a single layer of acellular porcine dermis as a subfascial 'underlay' graft under moderate tension upon maximal hernia reduction. Tissue expanders were not required for skin closure. Out of 28 patients, 12 were male and 16 were female. Mean intraoperative hernia size was 150 cm(2) (range of 10 cm(2) to 600 cm(2)). Mean age was 55 years with an average body mass index (BMI) of 34 (largest BMI of 61.4). Defects were attributed to either a previous laparotomy incision or open abdomen. Mean hospital stay was 9.67 days. At a mean follow-up of sixteen months, there were three recurrent hernias (10.7%) based on physical examination and postoperative CT scan evaluation. One patient developed a superficial wound dehiscence which was successfully treated with local wound care and one patient developed a cellulitis which was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. Four patients (14.3%) developed a chronic, non

  11. Expression of fibrinolytic genes in atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm wall. A possible mechanism for aneurysm expansion.

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, J; Bordin, G M; Engelberg, I; Adar, R; Seiffert, D; Thinnes, T; Bernstein, E F; Dilley, R B; Loskutoff, D J

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been attributed to remodeling of the extracellular matrix by active proteolysis. We used in situ hybridization to analyze the expression of fibrinolytic genes in aneurysm wall from eight AAA patients. All specimens exhibited specific areas of inflammatory infiltrates with macrophage-like cells expressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type PA (t-PA) mRNA. Type 1 PA inhibitor (PAI-1) mRNA was expressed at the base of the necrotic atheroma of all specimens and also within some of the inflammatory infiltrates where it frequently colocalized in regions containing u-PA and t-PA mRNA expressing cells. However, in these areas, the cellular distribution of the transcripts for t-PA and u-PA extended far beyond the areas of PAI-1 expression. These observations suggest a local ongoing proteolytic process, one which is only partially counteracted by the more restricted expression of PAI-1 mRNA. An abundance of capillaries was also obvious in all inflammatory infiltrates and may reflect local angiogenesis in response to active pericellular fibrinolysis. The increased fibrinolytic capacity in AAA wall may promote angiogenesis and contribute to local proteolytic degradation of the aortic wall leading to physical weakening and active expansion of the aneurysm. Images PMID:7615837

  12. Unexpected Abscess Localization of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in an ADPKD Patient Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, Nikos; Paschou, Eleni; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Mourounoglou, Maria; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common monogenic disorders and the leading inheritable cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Cystic and noncystic extrarenal manifestations are correlated with variable clinical presentations so that an inherited disorder is now considered a systemic disease. Kidney and liver cystic infections are the most common infectious complications in ADPKD patients. Furthermore, it is well known that ADPKD is commonly associated with colonic diverticular disease which recently has been reported to be linked to increased risk of infection on hemodialysis patients. Herein, we present a case of anterior abdominal wall abscess caused by Enterococcus faecalis in a patient with ADPKD undergoing hemodialysis. Although the precise pathway of infection remains uncertain, the previous medical history as well as the clinical course of our patient led us to hypothesize an alternative route of infection from the gastrointestinal tract through an aberrant intestinal barrier into the bloodstream and eventually to an atypical location. PMID:26301109

  13. Spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma with various histological growth patterns in the abdominal wall of an ICR mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Yuko; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is extremely rare in mice. This case report demonstrates a spontaneous murine extraskeletal osteosarcoma that exhibited various histological growth patterns in an ICR mouse. At necropsy, the tumor mass was located in the abdominal wall and was 45 × 30 × 25 mm in size. Histopathologically, the tumor showed the following four growth patterns: a solid pattern of polygonal cells embedded in an osteoid eosinophilic matrix with calcification, an irregular sheet pattern of short spindle cells accompanying some eosinophilic multinucleated cells, a fascicular pattern of spindle cells and a cystic pattern lined by short spindle cells. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and osterix. The multinucleated cells mentioned above were desmin positive and were regarded as regenerative striated muscles but not tumor cells. Since no clear continuity with normal bone tissues was observed, the tumor was diagnosed as an “extraskeletal osteosarcoma.” PMID:26989300

  14. Aesthetic aspects of abdominal wall and external genital reconstructive surgery in bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    PubMed

    VanderBrink, Brian A; Stock, Jeffrey A; Hanna, Moneer K

    2006-03-01

    Long-term follow-up of patients born with classical bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) reveals that many of them suffer from poor self-image, and the aesthetic aspects of the genitalia and lower abdomen acquire greater significance with age. In this article, we review the aesthetic outcomes in performing puboplasty, umbilicoplasty, and genitoplasty in patients born with EEC. Retrospective review of the cosmetic and functional outcomes in 116 patients born with EEC treated by puboplasty, umbilicoplasty, or genitoplasty was performed. Satisfaction with the cosmetic and functional outcomes of these three reconstructive surgeries was high following initial reconstructive efforts (> 90%). Attention to cosmesis during abdominal wall and genital reconstruction for EEC helps to improve a patient's perception of body image and self-esteem. Our experience with these procedures over the past 25 years demonstrated that the efforts directed toward aesthetics have been well worthwhile. PMID:16527001

  15. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  16. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 μm) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 μm) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among

  17. Patient-specific modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysms: The influence of wall thickness on predicted clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Noel; Geers, Arjan J; McBride, Olivia M B; Newby, David E; Hoskins, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is linked to aneurysm morphology. This study investigates the influence of patient-specific (PS) AAA wall thickness on predicted clinical outcomes. Eight patients under surveillance for AAAs were selected from the MA(3)RS clinical trial based on the complete absence of intraluminal thrombus. Two finite element (FE) models per patient were constructed; the first incorporated variable wall thickness from CT (PS_wall), and the second employed a 1.9mm uniform wall (Uni_wall). Mean PS wall thickness across all patients was 1.77±0.42mm. Peak wall stress (PWS) for PS_wall and Uni_wall models was 0.6761±0.3406N/mm(2) and 0.4905±0.0850N/mm(2), respectively. In 4 out of 8 patients the Uni_wall underestimated stress by as much as 55%; in the remaining cases it overestimated stress by up to 40%. Rupture risk more than doubled in 3 out of 8 patients when PS_wall was considered. Wall thickness influenced the location and magnitude of PWS as well as its correlation with curvature. Furthermore, the volume of the AAA under elevated stress increased significantly in AAAs with higher rupture risk indices. This highlights the sensitivity of standard rupture risk markers to the specific wall thickness strategy employed. PMID:27056256

  18. Combined therapy of NPWT and bipedicled flap as an alternative approach for giant abdominal wall defect with significant visceral edema: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Go; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Warabi, Takehiro; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Open abdomen management is commonly used for the critically injured patients to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. But it usually continues for days to weeks and finally results in abdominal wall defect that is too wide to close at once. This article presents an alternative approach to close the giant abdominal wall defect by using the combination of bipedicled flaps with the components separation technique and V.A.C.® system.

  19. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  20. Effects of arterial blood flow on walls of the abdominal aorta: distributions of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index determined by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Shimamura, Yoshiaki; Tezuka, Chie; Tsubota, Ken'ichi; Liu, Hao; Okumura, Kenichiro; Masuda, Yoshitada; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2016-07-01

    Although abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur mostly inferior to the renal artery, the mechanism of the development of AAA in relation to its specific location is not yet clearly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that even healthy volunteers may manifest specific flow characteristics of blood flow and alter wall shear or oscillatory shear stress in the areas where AAAs commonly develop. Eight healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this prospective study, aged from 24 to 27. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with electrocardiographic triggering. Flow-sensitive four-dimensional MR imaging of the abdominal aorta, with three-directional velocity encoding, including simple morphological image acquisition, was performed. Information on specific locations on the aortic wall was applied to the flow encodes to calculate wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). While time-framed WSS showed the highest peak of 1.14 ± 0.25 Pa in the juxtaposition of the renal artery, the WSS plateaued to 0.61 Pa at the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. The OSI peaked distal to the renal arteries at the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta of 0.249 ± 0.148, and was constantly elevated in the whole abdominal aorta at more than 0.14. All subjects were found to have elevated OSI in regions where AAAs commonly occur. These findings indicate that areas of constant peaked oscillatory shear stress in the infra-renal aorta may be one of the factors that lead to morphological changes over time, even in healthy individuals. PMID:26481791

  1. [Case of a Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinoma Identified Due to the Hardening of the Abdominal Wall].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Kawakami, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Kotaro; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    The patient was a 75 year-old male. Noticing areas of hardening in the lower abdomen, and consequently feelings of systemic fatigue and difficulty in walking, the patient visited a clinic and was diagnosed with kidney failure prior to the visit to our clinic. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle and the bladder wall, and bilateral hydronephrosis was also identified. As no explicit tumor was identified in the bladder, the patient underwent biopsies of the abdominal wall and bladder membrane mucous, and was diagnosed with a plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma primarily developed in the bladder. The patient displayed a poor general state of health and died five months after the diagnosis. It is known that plasmacytoid urothelial carcinomas progress rapidly and the prognosis is poorer than for the micropapillary variant. It is important to obtain a tissue specimen in the early stage of this disease because there are cases in which no explicit tumor can be identified. Furthermore, the value of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 of the patient was much higher than would be expected as normal at the first visit. It kept rising during the follow-up and was useful as a marker to indicate the progress of the disease. PMID:27018411

  2. Stochastic modelling of wall stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms treated by a gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohand-Kaci, Faïza; Ouni, Anissa Eddhahak; Dai, Jianping; Allaire, Eric; Zidi, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic mechanical model using the membrane theory was used to simulate the in vivo mechanical behaviour of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in order to compute the wall stresses after stabilisation by gene therapy. For that, both length and diameter of AAAs rats were measured during their expansion. Four groups of animals, control and treated by an endovascular gene therapy during 3 or 28 days were included. The mechanical problem was solved analytically using the geometric parameters and assuming the shape of aneurysms by a 'parabolic-exponential curve'. When compared to controls, stress variations in the wall of AAAs for treated arteries during 28 days decreased, while they were nearly constant at day 3. The measured geometric parameters of AAAs were then investigated using probability density functions (pdf) attributed to every random variable. Different trials were useful to define a reliable confidence region in which the probability to have a realisation is equal to 99%. The results demonstrated that the error in the estimation of the stresses can be greater than 28% when parameters uncertainties are not considered in the modelling. The relevance of the proposed approach for the study of AAA growth may be studied further and extended to other treatments aimed at stabilisation AAAs, using biotherapies and pharmacological approaches. PMID:21264784

  3. Biomechanical and morphological study of a new elastic mesh (Ciberlastic) to repair abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Calvo, B; Pascual, G; Peña, E; Pérez-Khöler, B; Rodríguez, M; Bellón, J M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preclinical evaluation of the behaviour of a new type of abdominal LW prosthesis (Ciberlastic), which was designed with a non-absorbable elastic polyurethane monofilament (Assuplus, Assut Europe, Italy) to allow greater adaptability to mechanical area requirements and higher bio-mimicking with the newly formed surrounding tissues. Our hypothesis was that an increase in the elasticity of the mesh filament could improve the benefits of LW prostheses. To verify our hypothesis, we compared the short- and long-term behaviour of Ciberlastic and Optilene(®) elastic commercial meshes by repairing the partially herniated abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits. The implanted meshes were mechanically and histologically assessed at 14 and 180 days post-implant. We mechanically characterized the partially herniated repaired muscle tissue and also determined mesh shrinkage at different post-implant times. This was followed by a histological study in which the tissue incorporation process was analysed over time. The new prosthesis designed by our group achieved good behaviour that was similar to that of Optilene(®), one of the most popular LW prostheses on the market, with the added advantage of its elastic property. The mechanical properties are significantly lower than those of the polypropylene Optilene(®) mesh, and the new elastic mesh meets the basic mechanical requirements for positioning in the abdominal wall, which was also demonstrated by the absence of recurrences after implantation in the experimental model. We found that the growth of a connective tissue rich in collagen over the hernial defect and the proper deposit of the collagen fibres in the regenerated tissue substantially modified the original properties of the mesh, thereby increasing its biomechanical strength and making the whole tissue/mesh stiffer. PMID:26905037

  4. 3-D segmentation and quantitative analysis of inner and outer walls of thrombotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Yin, Yin; Wahle, Andreas; Olszewski, Mark E.; Sonka, Milan

    2008-03-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an area of a localized widening of the abdominal aorta, with a frequent presence of thrombus. A ruptured aneurysm can cause death due to severe internal bleeding. AAA thrombus segmentation and quantitative analysis are of paramount importance for diagnosis, risk assessment, and determination of treatment options. Until now, only a small number of methods for thrombus segmentation and analysis have been presented in the literature, either requiring substantial user interaction or exhibiting insufficient performance. We report a novel method offering minimal user interaction and high accuracy. Our thrombus segmentation method is composed of an initial automated luminal surface segmentation, followed by a cost function-based optimal segmentation of the inner and outer surfaces of the aortic wall. The approach utilizes the power and flexibility of the optimal triangle mesh-based 3-D graph search method, in which cost functions for thrombus inner and outer surfaces are based on gradient magnitudes. Sometimes local failures caused by image ambiguity occur, in which case several control points are used to guide the computer segmentation without the need to trace borders manually. Our method was tested in 9 MDCT image datasets (951 image slices). With the exception of a case in which the thrombus was highly eccentric, visually acceptable aortic lumen and thrombus segmentation results were achieved. No user interaction was used in 3 out of 8 datasets, and 7.80 +/- 2.71 mouse clicks per case / 0.083 +/- 0.035 mouse clicks per image slice were required in the remaining 5 datasets.

  5. Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

  6. Delay in diagnosis and lessons learnt from a case of abdominal wall abscess caused by fishbone perforation

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, V; Badrinath, K; Dube, M; Panto, P

    2015-01-01

    Complications following foreign body (FB) ingestion are an uncommon clinical problem. A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-week history of left iliac fossa pain and 1 episode of dark red blood mixed with stools. Inflammatory markers were elevated, and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis showed an ill defined abdominal wall inflammatory collection in close contact with the small bowel loops. He was treated with antibiotics, and follow-up CT, colonoscopy and small bowel enema were mostly unremarkable. The patient presented again ten months later with left iliac fossa cellulitis and fever. Multiplanar CT (the patient’s fourth scan) demonstrated a 10cm abdominal wall collection with a linear hyperdense structure in the collection. The radiologists suspected a FB and on close scrutiny of the previous scans, they noted it to have been present on all of them. A targeted incision led to the removal of a 3cm fishbone from the collection. This case highlights the need to consider the possibility of a FB being the underlying cause in any unexplained intra-abdominal or abdominal wall inflammatory process so that the diagnosis is made in a timely manner. PMID:26263825

  7. Refining the course of the thoracolumbar nerves: a new understanding of the innervation of the anterior abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Rozen, W M; Tran, T M N; Ashton, M W; Barrington, M J; Ivanusic, J J; Taylor, G I

    2008-05-01

    Previous descriptions of the thoracolumbar spinal nerves innervating the anterior abdominal wall have been inconsistent. With modern surgical and anesthetic techniques that involve or may damage these nerves, an improved understanding of the precise course and variability of this anatomy has become increasingly important. The course of the nerves of the anterior abdominal is described based on a thorough cadaveric study and review of the literature. Twenty human cadaveric hemi-abdominal walls were dissected to map the course of the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall. Dissection included a comprehensive tracing of nerves and their branches from their origins in five specimens. The branching pattern and course of all nerves identified were described. All thoracolumbar nerves that innervate the anterior abdominal wall were found to travel as multiple mixed segmental nerves, which branch and communicate widely within the transversus abdominis plane (TAP). This communication may occur at multiple locations, including large branch communications anterolaterally (intercostal plexus), and in plexuses that run with the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) (TAP plexus) and the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) (rectus sheath plexus). Rectus abdominis muscle is innervated by segments T6-L1, with a constant branch from L1. The umbilicus is always innervated by a branch of T10. As such, identification or damage to individual nerves in the TAP or within rectus sheath is unlikely to involve single segmental nerves. An understanding of this anatomy may contribute to explaining clinical outcomes and preventing complications, following TAP blocks for anesthesia and DIEA perforator flaps for breast reconstruction. PMID:18428988

  8. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the lateral abdominal wall of local Libyan ewes

    PubMed Central

    Tmumen, S.K.; Al-Azreg, S.A.; Abushhiwa, M.H.; Alkoly, M.A.; Bennour, E.M.; Al­Attar, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Gross and histopathological features of surgically excised squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) observed in thirteen local Libyan ewes were reported. The age of the ewes enrolled in the current study ranged from 2 to 3 years. The cases were admitted to private veterinary clinics in south-western region of Tripoli, Libya, during the period between July 2014 and October 2015. All lesions were located in the right and left lateral abdominal wall (caudo-ventrally) with a size range of 8 to 11cm in diameter. The tumor masses have been removed by surgical excision. The histopathological examination of surgically excised masses has revealed the characteristic cell nests of SCC showing central keratinization and hyalinization with presence of apoptotic bodies, fattened keratinocytes, and a heavy interstitial infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The follow up of the cases showed no signs of tumor reoccurrence. In conclusion, SCC in Libyan sheep affects mainly the woolless areas and can be successfully removed by surgical excision. PMID:27622155

  9. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  10. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the lateral abdominal wall of local Libyan ewes.

    PubMed

    Tmumen, S K; Al-Azreg, S A; Abushhiwa, M H; Alkoly, M A; Bennour, E M; Al Attar, S R

    2016-01-01

    Gross and histopathological features of surgically excised squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) observed in thirteen local Libyan ewes were reported. The age of the ewes enrolled in the current study ranged from 2 to 3 years. The cases were admitted to private veterinary clinics in south-western region of Tripoli, Libya, during the period between July 2014 and October 2015. All lesions were located in the right and left lateral abdominal wall (caudo-ventrally) with a size range of 8 to 11cm in diameter. The tumor masses have been removed by surgical excision. The histopathological examination of surgically excised masses has revealed the characteristic cell nests of SCC showing central keratinization and hyalinization with presence of apoptotic bodies, fattened keratinocytes, and a heavy interstitial infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The follow up of the cases showed no signs of tumor reoccurrence. In conclusion, SCC in Libyan sheep affects mainly the woolless areas and can be successfully removed by surgical excision. PMID:27622155

  11. Long-term anisotropic mechanical response of surgical meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2012-01-01

    Routine hernia repair surgery involves the implant of synthetic mesh. However, this type of procedure may give rise to pain and bowel incarceration and strangulation, causing considerable patient disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term behaviour of three commercial meshes used to repair the partially herniated abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits: the heavyweight (HW) mesh, Surgipro(®) and lightweight (LW) mesh, Optilene(®), both made of polypropylene (PP), and a mediumweight (MW) mesh, Infinit(®), made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The implanted meshes were mechanical and histological assessed at 14, 90 and 180 days post-implant. This behaviour was compared to the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the unrepaired abdominal wall in control non-operated rabbits. Both uniaxial mechanical tests conducted in craneo-caudal and perpendicular directions and histological findings revealed substantial collagen growth over the repaired hernial defects causing stiffness in the repair zone, and thus a change in the original properties of the meshes. The mechanical behaviour of the healthy tissue in the craneo-caudal direction was not reproduced by any of the implanted meshes after 14 days or 90 days of implant, whereas in the perpendicular direction, SUR and OPT achieved similar behaviour. From a mechanical standpoint, the anisotropic PP-lightweight meshes may be considered a good choice in the long run, which correlates with the structure of the regenerated tissue. PMID:22100101

  12. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nath, Vikas; Baliga, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:27006847

  13. [A Case of Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumor after Radical Nephrectomy for Renal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Shinji; Namura, Kazuhiro; Fujikawa, Atsushi; Sawada, Takuto; Ohta, Junichi; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    A 71-year-old man with a right renal tumor underwent nephrectomy. The procedure was converted from laparoscopy to open surgery due to profound bleeding from the renal vein. Pathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma G2pT3b v1 ly1 INFα. Three years after surgery, a 5 cm tumor in the abdominal wall was found on computed tomography (CT). A mild uptake was shown on positron emission tomography/CT and as the tumor was located near the surgical wound, recurrence of the renal cell carcinoma was suspected. However, desmoid tumor was suggested by the pathological examination of the tumor biopsy. En-bloc resection of the mass was carried out and the pathological examination showed an array of proliferating and tangling atypical spindle-shaped tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells was positive for vimentin, but negative for CD34, c-kit, and s100. Pathological diagnosis was desmoid tumor. There has been no recurrence so far. Desmoid tumor, despite its extremely low incidence, should be considered in a postoperative neoplasm. PMID:26497861

  14. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:27006847

  15. Non-traumatic hernia of the lateral abdominal wall in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Z; Pan, J; Liu, X; Zhuang, C; Ren, J; Yu, H; Tang, S; Wang, S

    2016-07-01

    Introduction There are several classifications for abdominal hernias, and a non-traumatic lateral wall hernia (LAWH) is a rare type. We report the first case of a patient with LAWH infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case History A 53-year-old HIV-infected male presented with an abdominal mass. The patient had a history of treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. A LAWH was diagnosed based on physical examination and findings of computed tomography. Open mesh repair was undertaken successfully. The patient had no evidence of a recurrent hernia during 11 months of follow-up. Conclusions High intra-abdominal pressure and weak connective tissue can lead to LAWHs. Antiretroviral therapy and lipodystrophy can cause LAWHs in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27241599

  16. [Influence of laser -- infrared irradiation on local complications of early postoperative period in hernias of anterior abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Gasymov, E M

    2005-01-01

    Results of laser-infrared irradiation (LIRI) of postoperative wound after surgical treatment of recurrent hernias of anterior abdominal wall were analyzed. LIRI decreased number of local complications in early postoperative period in patients both with recurrent and primary hernias. The method was more effective for the treatment of local complication in patients with recurrent hernia that is confirmed by reduced of frequency of infiltrates, seromas and suppurations. PMID:16247383

  17. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Okajima, Hideaki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  18. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  19. Surgically placed abdominal wall catheters on postoperative analgesia and outcomes after living liver donation.

    PubMed

    Khan, James; Katz, Joel; Montbriand, Janice; Ladak, Salima; McCluskey, Stuart; Srinivas, Coimbatore; Ko, Raynauld; Grant, David; Bradbury, Ashleene; LeManach, Yannick; Clarke, Hance

    2015-04-01

    Living donor liver resections are associated with significant postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia is the gold standard for postoperative pain management, although it is often refused or contraindicated. Surgically placed abdominal wall catheters (AWCs) are a novel pain modality that can potentially provide pain relief for those patients who are unable to receive an epidural. A retrospective review was performed at a single center. Patients were categorized according to their postoperative pain modality: intravenous (IV) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), AWCs with IV PCA, or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Pain scores, opioid consumption, and outcomes were compared for the first 3 postoperative days. Propensity score matches (PSMs) were performed to adjust for covariates and to confirm the primary analysis. The AWC group had significantly lower mean morphine-equivalent consumption on postoperative day 3 [18.1 mg, standard error (SE)=3.1 versus 28.2 mg, SE=3.0; P=0.02] and mean cumulative morphine-equivalent consumption (97.2 mg, SE=7.2 versus 121.0 mg, SE=9.1; P=0.04) in comparison with the IV PCA group; the difference in cumulative-morphine equivalent remained significant in the PSMs. AWC pain scores were higher than those in the PCEA group and were similar to the those in the IV PCA group. The AWC group had a lower incidence of pruritus and a shorter hospital stay in comparison with the PCEA group and had a lower incidence of sedation in comparison with both groups. Time to ambulation, nausea, and vomiting were comparable among all 3 groups. The PSMs confirmed all results except for a decrease in the length of stay in comparison with PCEA. AWCs may be an alternative to epidural analgesia after living donor liver resections. Randomized trials are needed to verify the benefits of AWCs, including the safety and adverse effects. PMID:25546011

  20. The use of biomaterials in the repair of abdominal wall defects: a comparative study between polypropylene meshes (Marlex) and a new polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis (Dual Mesh).

    PubMed

    Bellón, J M; Contreras, L A; Buján, J; Carrera-San Martín, A

    1997-10-01

    In this study we compared the behaviour of the non-porous on one side ePTFE Dual Mesh prosthesis and the macroporous polypropylene mesh Marlex in the repair of abdominal wall defects in rabbits. We evaluated the degree of integration with recipient tissue, biological tolerance, adhesion formation with viscera and the biomechanical resistance of the repair zone. Our results showed good biological tolerance of both prostheses and a high degree of adhesion formation in Marlex implants. In animals with Dual Mesh implants, only loose adhesions were seen. Marlex implants induced the presence of disorganized scar tissue, while the Dual Mesh prostheses were encapsulated by organized tissue. The macrophage response was similar in both decreasing with time. The resistance to traction was higher when the reparation was done with polypropylene. We concluded that the structure of the prosthesis determines its degree of integration and the resistance to traction of the repaired zone. PMID:9399138

  1. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

  2. Increased Expression of Lamin A/C Correlate with Regions of High Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Malkawi, Amir; Pirianov, Grisha; Torsney, Evelyn; Chetter, Ian; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Loftus, Ian M.; Nordon, Ian; Huggins, Christopher; Charolidi, Nicoletta; Thompson, Matt; Xu, Xie Yun; Cockerill, Gillian W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Since aortic diameter is the most ­significant risk factor for rupture, we sought to identify stress-dependent changes in gene expression to illuminate novel molecular processes in aneurysm rupture. Materials and Methods We constructed finite element maps of abdominal computerized tomography scans (CTs) of seven abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients to map wall stress. Paired biopsies from high- and low-stress areas were collected at surgery using vascular landmarks as coordinates. Differential gene expression was evaluated by Illumina Array analysis, using the whole genome DNA-mediated, annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (DASL) gene chip (n = 3 paired samples). Results The sole significant candidate from this analysis, Lamin A/C, was validated at the protein level, using western blotting. Lamin A/C expression in the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) of AAA patients was compared to a control group and in aortic smooth muscle cells in culture in response to physiological pulsatile stretch. ­Areas of high wall stress (n = 7) correlate to those ­regions which have the thinnest walls [778 µm (585–1120 µm)] in comparison to areas of lowest wall stress [1620 µm (962–2919 µm)]. Induced expression of Lamin A/C ­correlated with areas of high wall stress from AAAs but was not significantly induced in the IMV from AAA patients compared to controls (n = 16). Stress-induced expression of Lamin A/C was mimicked by exposing aortic smooth muscle cells to prolonged pulsatile stretch. Conclusion Lamin A/C protein is specifically increased in areas of high wall stress in AAA from patients, but is not increased on other vascular beds of aneurysm patients, suggesting that its elevation may be a compensatory response to the pathobiology leading to aneurysms. PMID:27175366

  3. Bilateral photon deficient area along lateral abdominal wall in a Tc-99m DTPA renogram. A sign of massive ascites.

    PubMed

    Shih, W J; Marsano, L S

    1993-07-01

    A patient with congestive heart failure and hepatic and renal dysfunction underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphic studies in which persistent cardiac blood pool activity, hepatic arterialization, and a longitudinal photon deficient area in each side of the abdominal wall were observed. The increase in hepatic artery inflow was believed to be due to a decrease in portal inflow of the liver. The elevation of portal pressure secondary to heart failure is attributable to the decrease in portal inflow of the liver; this phenomenon could account for the hepatic arterialization. Progressive renal dysfunction with high body background resulted in demonstrable ascites as photon deficient areas. Scintigraphic findings of hepatic arterialization plus an abdominal photon deficient area reflect severe heart failure and renal dysfunction. PMID:8344036

  4. Venous malformations of the anterior abdominal wall in blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: implications for antenatal and intrapartum management

    PubMed Central

    Cauldwell, Matthew; Kyle, Pippa; Treharne, Ian; Wong, Terry; Holden, Simon T; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder characterized by rubbery blue–purple cutaneous nodules that are histologically thin-walled dilated vascular spaces. The exact inheritance of the disease in unknown but in cases of familial recurrence, there appears to be a pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance. The vascular lesions may manifest in any organ system but tend to predominate in the gastrointestinal tract (GI). There are only a handful of cases reported in the literature, but reported complications arising from the naevi include sponatenous GI bleeding requiring laparotomy and blood transfusion and the development of large naevi in the cervix thus preventing vaginal delivery. In this case we describe a patient with known BRBNS who developed symptomatic anaemia during her pregnancy which required antenatal admission and blood transfusion. She was managed expectantly in a multidisciplinary setting by obstetricians, gastroenterologists and an obstetric physician with the aim of a vaginal delivery. Nevertheless, she had an elective caesarean section at term for breech presentation. Surgery was complicated by the unexpected finding of venous malformations within the abdominal wall musculature and subcutaneous fat that resulted in a primary haemorrhage and required urgent blood transfusion. The patient made a good postoperative recovery and had a healthy male infant who at birth displayed no external features of BRBNS. This report demonstrates for the first time the appearance of naevi in the abdominal wall and the important considerations that need to be made regarding mode of delivery and future pregnancies.

  5. Effects of Various Types of Situps on Integrated MAP's of the Abdominal Musculature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Larry

    The electrical activity of the abdominal muscles was tested during situps to determine the effect upon integrated muscle action potential (MAP). The following types of situps were used in testing 18 college males: (1) trunk curls; (2) AAHPER situp; (3) YMCA situp; (4) modified AAHPER situp; and (5) modified YMCA situp. All situps were performed…

  6. Harmonic amplitude distribution in a wideband ultrasonic wavefront after propagation through human abdominal wall and breast specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, D L; Waag, R C

    1997-02-01

    The amplitude characteristics of ultrasonic wavefront distortion produced by transmission through the abdominal wall and breast is described. Ultrasonic pulses were recorded in a two-dimensional aperture after transmission through specimens of abdominal wall or breast. After the pulse arrival times were corrected for geometric path differences, the pulses were temporally Fourier transformed and two-dimensional maps of harmonic amplitudes in the measurement aperture were computed. The results indicate that, as the temporal frequency increases, the fluctuation in harmonic amplitudes increases but the spatial scale of the fluctuation decreases. The normalized second-order and third-order moments of the amplitude distribution also increase with temporal frequency. The wide range variation of these distribution characteristics could not be covered by the Rayleigh, Rician, or K-distribution because of their limited flexibility. However, the Weibull distribution and especially the generalized K-distribution provide better fits to the data. In the fit of the generalized K-distribution, a decrease of its parameter alpha with increasing temporal frequency was observed, as predicted by analysis based on a phase screen model. PMID:9035403

  7. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa . E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoru; Ohga, Saiji; Toba, Takashi; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Anai, Shigeo; Terashima, Hiromi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

  8. Extensive Abdominal Wall Incisional Heterotopic Ossification Reconstructed with Component Separation and Strattice Inlay

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Nergis Nina

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Symptomatic heterotopic ossification of abdominal surgical incisions is a rare occurrence. We present a 67-year-old man with severe discomfort caused by heterotopic ossification extending from the xiphoid to the umbilicus. The patient underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 3 years before our treatment. A 13 × 3.5 cm ossified lesion was excised. The resulting midline defect was closed using component separation and inlay Strattice. Tension-free midline adaptation of the recti muscles was achieved. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen 6 months after the surgery showed no recurrence or hernias. Heterotopic ossification in symptomatic patients has previously been treated with excision and primary closure. We believe that tension-free repair is important to prevent recurrence. Acellular dermal matrix may add to this effect and also compartmentalize the process. PMID:27536495

  9. Extensive Abdominal Wall Incisional Heterotopic Ossification Reconstructed with Component Separation and Strattice Inlay.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Nergis Nina; Sandberg, Lars Johan Marcus

    2016-07-01

    Symptomatic heterotopic ossification of abdominal surgical incisions is a rare occurrence. We present a 67-year-old man with severe discomfort caused by heterotopic ossification extending from the xiphoid to the umbilicus. The patient underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 3 years before our treatment. A 13 × 3.5 cm ossified lesion was excised. The resulting midline defect was closed using component separation and inlay Strattice. Tension-free midline adaptation of the recti muscles was achieved. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen 6 months after the surgery showed no recurrence or hernias. Heterotopic ossification in symptomatic patients has previously been treated with excision and primary closure. We believe that tension-free repair is important to prevent recurrence. Acellular dermal matrix may add to this effect and also compartmentalize the process. PMID:27536495

  10. The quasi-static failure properties of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall estimated by a mixed experimental-numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Caroline; Swedenborg, Jesper; Roy, Joy; Gasser, T Christian

    2013-07-01

    Assessing the risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is critical in the management of aneurysm patients and an individual assessment is possible with the biomechanical rupture risk assessment. Such an assessment could potentially be improved by a constitutive AAA wall model that accounts for irreversible damage-related deformations. Because of that the present study estimated the elastic and inelastic properties of the AAA wall through a mixed experimental-numerical approach. Specifically, finite element (FE) models of bone-shaped tensile specimens were used to merge data from failure testing of the AAA wall with their measured collagen orientation distribution. A histo-mechanical constitutive model for collagen fibers was employed, where plastic fibril sliding determined not only remaining deformations but also weakening of the fiber. The developed FE models were able to replicate the experimentally recorded load-displacement property of all 16 AAA wall specimens that were investigated in the study. Tensile testing in longitudinal direction of the AAA defined a Cauchy strength of 569(SD 411) kPa that was reached at a stretch of 1.436(SD 0.118). The stiffness and strength of specimens decreased with the wall thickness and were elevated (p = 0.018; p = 0.030) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking affected the tissue parameters that were related to the irreversible deformation response, and no correlation with gender and age was found. The observed effects on the biomechanical properties of the AAA wall could have long-term consequences for the management of aneurysm patients, i.e., specifically they might influence future AAA rupture risk assessments. However, in order to design appropriate clinical validation studies our findings should firstly be verified in a larger patient cohort. PMID:23263935

  11. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  12. Reduction of aneurysm pressure and wall stress after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Marston, W A; Criado, E; Baird, C A; Keagy, B A

    1996-03-01

    A canine model was designed to evaluate the changes in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pressure and wall stress after endovascular repair. Eight canines underwent laparotomy and creation of an AAA. The aneurysm was then excluded with a transluminally placed endovascular graft (TPEG) inserted through the right femoral artery and deployed across the AAA to exclude the infrarenal aortic branches from aortic perfusion. Blood pressure and flow data were recorded for 6 hours. The AAA blood pressure decreased from 135 +/- 9.3 mm Hg before exclusion to 45 +/- 17.6 mm Hg at 10 minutes after exclusion (p < 0.001). At 6 hours, AAA blood pressure had declined further to 26 +/- 12.5 mm Hg. Blood flow in the excluded iliac artery decreased from a baseline of 242 +/- 58 ml/min to 41 +/- 29 ml/min 10 minutes after TPEG placement (p < 0.001). At 6 hours, flow was reduced to 12 +/- 3.5 ml/min (p < 0.05 compared with that at 10 minutes). Aortic wall stress was significantly reduced by TPEG placement but was only slightly lower than baseline aortic wall stress before AAA creation. The lumbar arteries were patent with retrograde flow in all cases and were found to be the major contributors to postexclusion aneurysm pressure. Endovascular AAA exclusion results in an immediate decrease in blood pressure and wall stress within the excluded aneurysm, but the aneurysm remains perfused by retrograde flow through the lumbar arteries, which resulted in near-baseline levels of aneurysm wall stress in this canine model. Embolization of patient lumbar vessels at prosthesis placement may further reduce the risk of late rupture. PMID:8733869

  13. Novel superhydrophilic poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/fibrinogen electrospun patch for rat abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhang; Li, Shaojie; Su, Ling; Sun, Kang; Wu, Xujun; Wu, Feng; Huang, Weihong; Yang, Li; Tang, Jianxiong; He, Hongbing

    2015-08-01

    A novel superhydrophilic hybrid scaffold was created by electrospinning a mixture of poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) and formulated fibrinogen. The hybrid scaffolds possess the combined benefits of each individual component, such as moderate mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility. In vitro studies also revealed that endothelial cells seeded on the hybrid scaffolds achieved a relatively high level of cell attachment after three days of culture and a significant increase in the proliferation rate after seven days of culture, compared with pure fibrinogen or poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) scaffolds. A comparative study of hybrid and pure poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) patches was performed in an abdominal wall defect model in rats. In both groups, implants degraded by six months, but muscle reconstruction was only observed in the hybrid patch group. PMID:25791683

  14. Behaviour of a New Composite Mesh for the Repair of Full-Thickness Abdominal Wall Defects in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Gemma; Sotomayor, Sandra; Rodríguez, Marta; Bayon, Yves; Bellón, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Composite biomaterials designed for the repair of abdominal wall defects are composed of a mesh component and a laminar barrier in contact with the visceral peritoneum. This study assesses the behaviour of a new composite mesh by comparing it with two latest-generation composites currently used in clinical practice. Methods Defects (7x5cm) created in the anterior abdominal wall of New Zealand White rabbits were repaired using a polypropylene mesh and the composites: PhysiomeshTM; VentralightTM and a new composite mesh with a three-dimensional macroporous polyester structure and an oxidized collagen/chitosan barrier. Animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 90 postimplant. Specimens were processed to determine host tissue incorporation, gene/protein expression of neo-collagens (RT-PCR/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (RAM-11-immunolabelling) and biomechanical resistance. On postoperative days 7/14, each animal was examined laparoscopically to quantify adhesions between the visceral peritoneum and implant. Results The new composite mesh showed the lowest incidence of seroma in the short term. At each time point, the mesh surface covered with adhesions was greater in controls than composites. By day 14, the implants were fully infiltrated by a loose connective tissue that became denser over time. At 90 days, the peritoneal mesh surface was lined with a stable mesothelium. The new composite mesh induced more rapid tissue maturation than PhysiomeshTM, giving rise to a neoformed tissue containing more type I collagen. In VentralightTM the macrophage reaction was intense and significantly greater than the other composites at both follow-up times. Tensile strengths were similar for each biomaterial. Conclusions All composites showed optimal peritoneal behaviour, inducing good peritoneal regeneration and scarce postoperative adhesion formation. A greater foreign body reaction was observed for VentralightTM. All composites induced good collagen deposition

  15. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations

    PubMed Central

    Spahlinger, D. M.; Newcomb, L.; Ashton-Miller, J. A.; DeLancey, J. O. L.; Chen, Luyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Methods Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). Results The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Conclusions Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support. PMID:24474605

  16. Effects of Chitosan Coatings on Polypropylene Mesh for Implantation in a Rat Abdominal Wall Model

    PubMed Central

    Udpa, Natasha; Iyer, Shama R.; Rajoria, Rohit; Breyer, Kate E.; Valentine, Helen; Singh, Bhupinder; McDonough, Sean P.; Brown, Bryan N.; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Hernia repair and pelvic floor reconstruction are usually accompanied with the implantation of a surgical mesh, which frequently results in a foreign body response with associated complications. An ideal surgical mesh that allows force generation of muscle tissues without significant granulation tissue and/or fibrosis is of significant clinical interest. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo responses of a chitosan coating on polypropylene mesh (Ch-PPM) in comparison with commercially available meshes. We found that application of a 0.5% (w/v) Ch-PPM elicited preferential attachment of myoblasts over fibroblast attachment in vitro. Therefore, we test the hypothesis that 0.5% Ch-PPM will encourage skeletal muscle tissue ingrowth and decrease fibrosis formation in vivo. We implanted 0.5% Ch-PPM, collagen-coated polypropylene mesh (Pelvitex™; C.R. Bard), and polypropylene (Avaulta Solo®; C.R. Bard) alone using a rat abdominal defect model. Force generation capacity and inflammatory response of each mesh were evaluated 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. We found that chitosan coating is associated with the restoration of functional skeletal muscle with histomorphologic characteristics that resemble native muscle and an early macrophage phenotypic response that has previously been shown to lead to more functional outcomes. PMID:23859182

  17. Pelvic and abdominal-wall actinomycotic infection by uterus gateway without genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Brezean, I; Aldoescu, S; Catrina, E; Vâlcu, M; Ionuţ, I; Predescu, G; Degeratu, D; Pantea, I

    2010-01-01

    We hereby aim to account on a case of actinomycotic infection occurred in a female patient with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The infection occurred as a pseudo-tumour which raised differential diagnosis issues with a malignant tumour. The diagnosis has been eventually established following the pathologic examination of paraffin-embedded tissues. Although the infection's gateway was the uterus, the subsequent invasion of the parietal, urinary bladder and lateral rectal walls did not seem to affect the fallopian tubes or the ovaries. PMID:20405693

  18. Eccrine Porocarcinoma presenting as an abdominal wall mass in a patient with ulcerative colitis—A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Narendrasinh; Mohamed, Mohamed; Elmoghrabi, Adel; McCann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare malignancy of eccrine sweat glands. It is often seen during the sixth to eighth decades of life. We report the first case of eccrine porocarcinoma arising on the abdomen of a 21-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis. Case presentation A 21-Year-old female presented to emergency department with a one month history of an enlarging mass over left lower abdomen. Abdominal examination revealed a slightly erythematous, nodular and non-mobile firm mass in left lower quadrant. There was superficial ulceration with slight serous discharge. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a superficial cystic lesion over the anterior abdominal wall, provisionally diagnosed as sebaceous cyst. Incision and drainage were performed and on follow-up, no signs of healing were observed and the patient subsequently underwent surgical excision. Histopathological examination revealed an eccrine porocarcinoma. Discussion EPC is a rare and aggressive tumor. It may occur de novo or as a result of malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. A long period of clinical history is often encountered. It usually occurs on the lower extremities followed by the, trunk, head and neck, and upper extremities. The clinical picture usually consists of a painless nodule or papule. Treatment is wide local excision. No strong evidence exists for adjuvant therapy. The risk of local recurrence is about 20%. Conclusion High index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of EPC. Early diagnosis is achieved by histopathological examination and early definitive surgical excision leads to excellent results. PMID:27085107

  19. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  20. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  1. Techniques for Abdominal Wall Closure after Damage Control Laparotomy: From Temporary Abdominal Closure to Early/Delayed Fascial Closure—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Li, Jieshou; Lau, Wan-yee

    2016-01-01

    Open abdomen (OA) has been an effective treatment for abdominal catastrophes in traumatic and general surgery. However, management of patients with OA remains a formidable task for surgeons. The central goal of OA is closure of fascial defect as early as is clinically feasible without precipitating abdominal compartment syndrome. Historically, techniques such as packing, mesh, and vacuum-assisted closure have been developed to assist temporary abdominal closure, and techniques such as components separation, mesh-mediated traction, bridging fascial defect with permanent synthetic mesh, or biologic mesh have also been attempted to achieve early primary fascial closure, either alone or in combined use. The objective of this review is to present the challenges of these techniques for OA with a goal of early primary fascial closure, when the patient's physiological condition allows. PMID:26819597

  2. Techniques for Abdominal Wall Closure after Damage Control Laparotomy: From Temporary Abdominal Closure to Early/Delayed Fascial Closure-A Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Li, Jieshou; Lau, Wan-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Open abdomen (OA) has been an effective treatment for abdominal catastrophes in traumatic and general surgery. However, management of patients with OA remains a formidable task for surgeons. The central goal of OA is closure of fascial defect as early as is clinically feasible without precipitating abdominal compartment syndrome. Historically, techniques such as packing, mesh, and vacuum-assisted closure have been developed to assist temporary abdominal closure, and techniques such as components separation, mesh-mediated traction, bridging fascial defect with permanent synthetic mesh, or biologic mesh have also been attempted to achieve early primary fascial closure, either alone or in combined use. The objective of this review is to present the challenges of these techniques for OA with a goal of early primary fascial closure, when the patient's physiological condition allows. PMID:26819597

  3. Expansion abdominoplasty for a pregnant woman with severe abdominal wall contracture due to a major burn during childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kohsuke; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Numajiri, Toshiaki; Nishino, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    Normal abdominal expansion that occurs as a result of hormonal actions during pregnancy may be prevented by the presence of excessive scar tissue in individuals who have received severe burns. In these instances, the lack of abdominal expansion may cause maternal pain and put the infant at risk. A 23-year-old pregnant woman presented with severe abdominal wall contracture due to a major burn sustained during childhood. At 20 weeks of pregnancy, expansion abdominoplasty, consisting of zigzag incisions in the fascia to release the contracture and a split-thickness skin graft, was performed. The patient gave birth, via a planned cesarean operation at 36 weeks of pregnancy, to a baby girl in good condition; the postpartum course was uneventful. PMID:23673563

  4. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR STUDY OF ADHESIONS AFTER INCISIONAL HERNIAS INDUCED IN RATS’ AND REPAIR OF ABDOMINAL WALL WITH DIFFERENT BIOMATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; BARBIERI, Renato Lamounier; GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; STUDART, Sarah do Valle; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesions induced by biomaterials experimentally implanted in the abdominal cavity are basically studied by primary repair of different abdominal wall defects or by the correction of incisional hernias previously performed with no precise definition of the most appropriate model. Aim: To describe the adhesions which occur after the development of incisional hernias, before the prosthesis implantation, in an experimental model to study the changes induced by different meshes. Methods: Incisional hernias were performed in 10 rats with hernia orifices of standardized dimensions, obtained by the median incision of the abdominal wall and eversion of the defect edges. Ten days after the procedure adhesions of abdominal structures were found when hernias were repaired with different meshes. Results: The results showed hernia sac well defined in all rats ten days after the initial procedure. Adhesions of the greater omentum occurred in five animals of which two also showed adhesions of small bowel loops besides the omentum, and another two showed liver adhesions as well as the greater omentum, numbers with statistical significance by Student's t test (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although it reproduces the real clinical situation, the choice of experimental model of incisional hernia repair previously induced implies important adhesions, with possible repercussions in the evaluation of the second operation, when different implants of synthetic materials are used. PMID:26537141

  5. The preferential contraction ratios of transversus abdominis on the variations of knee angles during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in wall support standing

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-In; Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Du-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine appropriate knee angles for the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) through evaluation of changes in contraction ratios of the abdominal muscles and activity of quadriceps muscle in relation to changes in knee angles occurring while the ADIM is performed in the wall support standing (WSS). 20 subjects performed the ADIM at different knee angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°) in random order, standing at a point 6 inches away from the wall with the spine maintained in the neutral position. The WSS with knee flexion at 20° showed significantly higher preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of transversus abdominis (TrA) compared to other positions (0°, 40°, 60°). Therefore, performing the ADIM in the WSS with knee flexion at 20° appears to be the most appropriate position for TrA PCR. PMID:24877045

  6. Reconstruction of the Abdominal Wall in Anatomical Plans. Pre- and Postoperative Keys in Repairing “Cold” Incisional Hernias

    PubMed Central

    POPA, FLORINA; ROSCA, OANA; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU; CANNISTRA, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The clinical results of the vertical “vest-over-pants” Mayo repair were evaluated, and the risk factors for incisional hernia recurrence were studied. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of reducing pre and post operative risk factors in the incisional hernia repair process in order to achieve a physiologically normal abdominal wall. Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with incisional hernia underwent an abdominal reconstruction procedure using the Mayo (Paletot) technique at Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital between 2005 and 2015. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon and all patients were pre-operatively prepared, identifying all coexisting conditions and treating them accordingly before undergoing surgery. Results All patients underwent at least one surgical operation before the hernia repair procedure and a quarter had experienced at least three, prior to this one. Nine patients had a body mass index of >30 kg/m2. Additional risk factors and comorbidities included obesity in 45%, diabetes mellitus in 10%, smoking in 55%, and high blood pressure in 40%. Hernia defect width was from 3 cm (25% F) to 15 cm (5% M) of which nine patients (45%) had a 10 cm defect. Most of the patients had an average hospitalization of 7 days. The patients were carefully monitored and were called on periodic consultations after 3, 6, and 12 months from the moment of the procedure. Patient feedback regarding hernia recurrence and complaints about the scar were noted. Physical examination is essential in determining the hernia recurrence therefore the scar was examined for any abnormalities that may have occurred, which was defined as any palpable or detected fascial defect located within seven centimeters of the hernia repair. Post-operative complications: seroma formation, wound hematoma, superficial and deep wound infection, recurrences and chronic pain were followed and no complications were registered during the follow-up period

  7. Cell wall integrity signalling in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Wagener, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Fungi are surrounded by a rigid structure, the fungal cell wall. Its plasticity and composition depend on active regulation of the underlying biosynthesis and restructuring processes. This involves specialised signalling pathways that control gene expression and activities of biosynthetic enzymes. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the central signalling cascade required for the adaptation to a wide spectrum of cell wall perturbing conditions, including heat, oxidative stress and antifungals. In the recent years, great efforts were made to analyse the CWI pathway of diverse fungi. It turned out that the CWI signalling cascade is mostly conserved in the fungal kingdom. In this review, we summarise as well as compare the current knowledge on the canonical CWI pathway in the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding the differences and similarities in the stress responses of these organisms could become a key to improving existing or developing new antifungal therapies. PMID:27155139

  8. Successful treatment of mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration by the delivery of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an abdominal wall vein.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Osamu; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Koichi; Inoue, Seijiro; Takamori, Hiroshi; Baba, Hideo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-04-01

    Bleeding from mesenteric varices associated with portal hypertension is occasionally life-threatening. A 53-year-old man who had undergone esophageal transection for esophageal varices and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices presented with melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. He was treated by injecting N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate via an abdominal wall vein to obtain retrograde transvenous obliteration. PMID:23716126

  9. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism--a case study of a cell wall plasma membrane signaling network.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most important functions of plant cell walls are protection against biotic/abiotic stress and structural support during growth and development. A prerequisite for plant cell walls to perform these functions is the ability to perceive different types of stimuli in both qualitative and quantitative manners and initiate appropriate responses. The responses in turn involve adaptive changes in cellular and cell wall metabolism leading to modifications in the structures originally required for perception. While our knowledge about the underlying plant mechanisms is limited, results from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism represents an excellent example to illustrate how the molecular mechanisms responsible for stimulus perception, signal transduction and integration can function. Here I will review the available knowledge about the yeast cell wall integrity maintenance system for illustration purposes, summarize the limited knowledge available about the corresponding plant mechanism and discuss the relevance of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism in biotic stress responses. PMID:25446233

  10. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for refractory bilateral breast cancer in a patient with extensive cutaneous metastasis in the chest and abdominal walls

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yueh-Feng; Lin, Yu-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for bilateral breast cancer with chest wall and abdominal skin invasion normally involves conventional radiotherapy (RT); however, conventional RT provides inadequate target volume coverage and excessive treatment of large volumes of normal tissue. Helical tomotherapy (HT) has the ability to deliver continuous craniocaudal irradiation that suppresses junction problems and provides good conformity of dose distribution. A 47-year-old female with stage IV bilateral breast cancer with chest wall and pectoralis major muscle invasion, lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, and multiple bone metastases received chemotherapy and target therapy beginning in January 2014; 4 months after the initiation of chemotherapy, computed tomography revealed progression of chest and abdominal wall invasion. A total dose of 70.2 Gy was delivered to both breasts, the chest wall, the abdominal wall, and the bilateral supraclavicular nodal areas in 39 fractions via HT. The total planning target volume was 4,533.29 cm3. The percent of lung volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V20) was 28%, 22%, and 25% for the right lung, left lung, and whole lung, respectively. The mean dose to the heart was 8.6 Gy. Follow-up computed tomography revealed complete response after the RT course. Grade 1 dysphagia, weight loss, grade 2 neutropenia, and grade 3 dermatitis were noted during the RT course. Pain score decreased from 6 to 1. No cardiac, pulmonary, liver, or intestinal toxicity developed during treatment or follow-up. Concurrent HT with or without systemic treatment could be a safe salvage therapy for chemorefractory locally advanced breast cancer patients with extensive cutaneous metastasis. PMID:27284253

  11. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Description Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general ... are connected to a video monitor in the operating room that allows the surgeon to see the ...

  12. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin. Abdominoplasty can be helpful when: Diet and exercise have not helped improve muscle tone, such as in women who have had more than one pregnancy. Skin and muscle cannot regain its normal tone. ...

  13. Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

  14. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Zhang, J J; Li, S F; Liang, Z; Wen, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  15. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Liu, R. R.; Zhao, G. P.; Li, Q.H.; Zheng, M. Q.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, S. F.; Liang, Z.; Wen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  16. Recurrence of Brenner ovary borderline tumor in the abdominal wall postoperative scar--a case report and research of the literature.

    PubMed

    Klasa, Lukasz; Wydra, Dariusz; Biernat, Wojciech

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of a 74-year-old female, who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy due to a solid-cystic tumor of the right ovary. The histopathological diagnosis revealed a borderline Brenner tumor (BBT). After 25 disease-free months the patient was admitted to a hospital because of a tumor in the postoperative scar of the abdominal wall, later diagnosed as infiltrating Brenner tumor consistent with ovarian borderline lesion. The tumor in the postoperative scar was therefore diagnosed as BBT. The article presents results of literature search on BBT in order to find characteristic features of this very rare ovarian tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of subcutaneous recurrence of Brenner ovary tumor of low malignant potential. PMID:25675807

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus. Shortly after the onset of the disease, patients become colonized with their own aerobic and anaerobic microflora from the gastrointestinal and/or urogenital tracts. Early diagnosis with aggressive multidisciplinary treatment is mandatory. We describe three clinical cases with NF. The first is a 69 years old man with diabetes mellitus type II, who presented with NF on the posterior chest wall, shoulder and arm. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical picture of severe sepsis. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 3 hours after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The second case is of a 63 years old paraplegic man with diabetes mellitus type I. Pressure sores and perineal abscesses progressed to Fournier's gangrene of the perineum and scrotum. He had NF of the anterior abdominal wall and the right thigh. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 6 hour after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The third patient was a 56 year old man who had NF of the anterior abdominal wall, flank and retroperitoneal space. He had an operation of the direct inguinal hernia, which was complicated with a bowel perforation and secondary peritonitis. After establishing the diagnosis of NF of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneal space (RS), he was transferred to the ICU. There he first received intensive care therapy, after which emergency surgical debridement of the abdominal wall, left colectomy, and extensive debridement of the RS were done (72 hours after operation of inquinal hernia). On average, 4 serial debridements were performed in each patient. The median of serial debridement in all three cases was four times. Other

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Roje, Zdravko; Roje, Zeljka; Matić, Dario; Librenjak, Davor; Dokuzović, Stjepan; Varvodić, Josip

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft tissue infection, usually caused by toxin-producing virulent bacteria. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis primarily caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus. Shortly after the onset of the disease, patients become colonized with their own aerobic and anaerobic microflora from the gastrointestinal and/or urogenital tracts. Early diagnosis with aggressive multidisciplinary treatment is mandatory. We describe three clinical cases with NF. The first is a 69 years old man with diabetes mellitus type II, who presented with NF on the posterior chest wall, shoulder and arm. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical picture of severe sepsis. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 3 hours after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The second case is of a 63 years old paraplegic man with diabetes mellitus type I. Pressure sores and perineal abscesses progressed to Fournier's gangrene of the perineum and scrotum. He had NF of the anterior abdominal wall and the right thigh. Outpatient treatment and early surgical debridement of the affected zones (inside 6 hour after admittance) and critical care therapy were performed. The third patient was a 56 year old man who had NF of the anterior abdominal wall, flank and retroperitoneal space. He had an operation of the direct inguinal hernia, which was complicated with a bowel perforation and secondary peritonitis. After establishing the diagnosis of NF of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneal space (RS), he was transferred to the ICU. There he first received intensive care therapy, after which emergency surgical debridement of the abdominal wall, left colectomy, and extensive debridement of the RS were done (72 hours after operation of inquinal hernia). On average, 4 serial debridements were performed in each patient. The median of serial debridement in all three cases was four times. Other

  19. Does mechanical massage of the abdominal wall after colectomy reduce postoperative pain and shorten the duration of ileus? Results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc-Louvry, Isabelle; Costaglioli, Bruno; Boulon, Catherine; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotte, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mechanical abdominal massage on postoperative pain and ileus after colectomy. We hypothesized that parietal abdominal stimulation could counteract induced pain and postoperative ileus, through common spinal-sensitive pathways, with nociceptive visceral messages. After preoperative randomization, 25 patients (age 52 +/- 5 years) underwent active mechanical massage by intermittent negative pressure on the abdominal wall resulting in aspiration (Cellu M50 device, LPG, Valence, France), and 25 patients (age 60 +/- 6 years) did not receive active mechanical massage (placebo group). Massage sessions began the first day after colectomy and were performed daily until the seventh postoperative day. In the active-massage group, amplitude and frequency were used, which have been shown to be effective in reducing muscular pain, whereas in the placebo group, ineffective parameters were used. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores, doses of analgesics (propacetamol), and delay between surgery and the time to first passage of flatus were assessed. Types and dosages of the anesthetic drugs and the duration of the surgical procedure did not differ between groups. From the second and third postoperative days, respectively, VAS pain scores (P < 0.001) and doses of analgesics (P < 0.05) were significantly lower in patients receiving active massage compared to the placebo group. Time to first passage of flatus was also significantly shorter in the active-massage group (1.8 +/- 0.3 days vs. 3.6 +/- 0.4 days, P < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. These results suggest that mechanical massage of the abdominal wall may decrease postoperative pain and ileus after colectomy. PMID:11986017

  20. Wall-liquid and wall-crystal interfacial free energies via thermodynamic integration: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ronald; Horbach, Jürgen

    2012-07-28

    A method is proposed to compute the interfacial free energy of a Lennard-Jones system in contact with a structured wall by molecular dynamics simulation. Both the bulk liquid and bulk face-centered-cubic crystal phase along the (111) orientation are considered. Our approach is based on a thermodynamic integration scheme where first the bulk Lennard-Jones system is reversibly transformed to a state where it interacts with a structureless flat wall. In a second step, the flat structureless wall is reversibly transformed into an atomistic wall with crystalline structure. The dependence of the interfacial free energy on various parameters such as the wall potential, the density and orientation of the wall is investigated. The conditions are indicated under which a Lennard-Jones crystal partially wets a flat wall. PMID:22852644

  1. Successful treatment of burn and visceral injury combined with full-thickness loss of the abdominal wall after blast injury.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Ozgür; Karaarslan, Pelin; Sakalloğlu, A Ebru; Kesik, Emine; Karakayalý, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted to our institution 10 days after he had undergone an urgent exploratory laparotomy at a local army hospital after a terrorist bombing attack. On admission, deep second-degree and third-degree burns involving 25% of the upper and lower extremities were present, together with a 25 x 10-cm abdominal full-thickness blast injury defect on the left side, an infected eviscerated midline incision, and a colostomy on the right side of the abdomen. The patient underwent a second laparotomy, at which time the intraabdominal abscess was drained, and the abdominal cavity was irrigated with saline. A jejunal perforation was found and sutured. The abdominal cavity was left open and covered with a Bogota bag for temporary closure. On postburn day 18, the patient underwent débridment and grafting of the third-degree burns to the left and right arm and right lower extremities. After several débridment sessions (postburn days 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24), an abdominal skin release and reapproximation were performed (postburn day 26). On postburn day 36, split-thickness skin grafts were placed directly on the granulated tissue of the intestines and on a defect in the left flank and iliac regions. Postoperatively, the patient did well. He was discharged on postburn day 78 with all wounds well healed. In our opinion, temporary closure followed by direct application of meshed split-thickness skin grafts to exposed abdominal viscera represents a simple method of reconstruction that can be safely performed, with minimal risk, on critically ill patients. PMID:16998411

  2. Modified hemi-double-stapling technique combined with the temporal abdominal-wall-lift method for performing Billroth I anastomosis after laparoscopically assisted distal gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidenori; Aotake, Toshiharu; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Okuda, Yukihiro; Doi, Koji; Hirose, Yuki; Matsushita, Toshio

    2008-12-01

    The authors have used a modified hemi-double-stapling (HDS) technique for reconstruction after laparoscopically assisted distal gastrectomy. The stomach is resected from the greater curvature side using a linear stapler inserted into the stomach from that side at a position vertical to the line of the greater curvature. Resection of the stomach is performed by extending the resection line to the lesser curvature using laparoscopic coagulating shears. The resected specimen is examined. After placement of a purse-string suture at the duodenal stump, an anvil is inserted into the stump, and an additional suture with 2-0 silk is placed over the purse-string suture. A curved intraluminal stapler (CDH25) is inserted into the stomach through the opening made on the lesser curvature side, and the center rod of the stapler is passed through the gastric wall on the corner of the resection line at the greater curvature. Ligation with 2-0 silk is added to the center rod by suturing the gastric tissue 5-8 mm from the center rod to encircle it. The authors call this the "one-knot setup HDS," and with this method, a large-caliber anastomosis is secured. In many cases, it is difficult to observe the anastomotic site through the small incisional opening. However, under laparoscopy with the temporal abdominal wall-lift method using the Multi Flap Gate, the anastomotic site can be easily and safely observed. One-knot setup HDS combined with the temporal abdominal wall-lift method is considered a safe and simple method for performing Billroth I anastomosis in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. PMID:18324439

  3. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  4. Effects of fluconazole on the secretome, the wall proteome, and wall integrity of the clinical fungus Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sorgo, Alice G; Heilmann, Clemens J; Dekker, Henk L; Bekker, Martijn; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G; de Koning, Leo J; Klis, Frans M

    2011-08-01

    Fluconazole is a commonly used antifungal drug that inhibits Erg11, a protein responsible for 14α-demethylation during ergosterol synthesis. Consequently, ergosterol is depleted from cellular membranes and replaced by toxic 14α-methylated sterols, which causes increased membrane fluidity and drug permeability. Surface-grown and planktonic cultures of Candida albicans responded similarly to fluconazole at 0.5 mg/liter, showing reduced biomass formation, severely reduced ergosterol levels, and almost complete inhibition of hyphal growth. There was no evidence of cell leakage. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome showed that its composition was strongly affected and included 17 fluconazole-specific secretory proteins. Relative quantification of (14)N-labeled query walls relative to a reference standard mixture of (15)N-labeled yeast and hyphal walls in combination with immunological analysis revealed considerable fluconazole-induced changes in the wall proteome as well. They were, however, similar for both surface-grown and planktonic cultures. Two major trends emerged: (i) decreased incorporation of hypha-associated wall proteins (Als3, Hwp1, and Plb5), consistent with inhibition of hyphal growth, and (ii) increased incorporation of putative wall repair-related proteins (Crh11, Pga4, Phr1, Phr2, Pir1, and Sap9). As exposure to the wall-perturbing drug Congo red led to a similar response, these observations suggested that fluconazole affects the wall. In keeping with this, the resistance of fluconazole-treated cells to wall-perturbing compounds decreased. We propose that fluconazole affects the integrity of both the cellular membranes and the fungal wall and discuss its potential consequences for antifungal therapy. We also present candidate proteins from the secretome for clinical marker development. PMID:21622905

  5. Effects of Fluconazole on the Secretome, the Wall Proteome, and Wall Integrity of the Clinical Fungus Candida albicans ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sorgo, Alice G.; Heilmann, Clemens J.; Dekker, Henk L.; Bekker, Martijn; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.; Klis, Frans M.

    2011-01-01

    Fluconazole is a commonly used antifungal drug that inhibits Erg11, a protein responsible for 14α-demethylation during ergosterol synthesis. Consequently, ergosterol is depleted from cellular membranes and replaced by toxic 14α-methylated sterols, which causes increased membrane fluidity and drug permeability. Surface-grown and planktonic cultures of Candida albicans responded similarly to fluconazole at 0.5 mg/liter, showing reduced biomass formation, severely reduced ergosterol levels, and almost complete inhibition of hyphal growth. There was no evidence of cell leakage. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome showed that its composition was strongly affected and included 17 fluconazole-specific secretory proteins. Relative quantification of 14N-labeled query walls relative to a reference standard mixture of 15N-labeled yeast and hyphal walls in combination with immunological analysis revealed considerable fluconazole-induced changes in the wall proteome as well. They were, however, similar for both surface-grown and planktonic cultures. Two major trends emerged: (i) decreased incorporation of hypha-associated wall proteins (Als3, Hwp1, and Plb5), consistent with inhibition of hyphal growth, and (ii) increased incorporation of putative wall repair-related proteins (Crh11, Pga4, Phr1, Phr2, Pir1, and Sap9). As exposure to the wall-perturbing drug Congo red led to a similar response, these observations suggested that fluconazole affects the wall. In keeping with this, the resistance of fluconazole-treated cells to wall-perturbing compounds decreased. We propose that fluconazole affects the integrity of both the cellular membranes and the fungal wall and discuss its potential consequences for antifungal therapy. We also present candidate proteins from the secretome for clinical marker development. PMID:21622905

  6. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  7. Recurrent incisional hernia, enterocutaneous fistula and loss of the substance of the abdominal wall: plastic with organic prosthesis, skin graft and VAC therapy. Clinical case.

    PubMed

    Nicodemi, Sara; Corelli, Sergio; Sacchi, Marco; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Costantino, Annarita; Di Legge, Pietro; Ceci, Francesco; Cipriani, Benedetta; Martellucci, Annunziata; Santilli, Mario; Orsini, Silvia; Tudisco, Antonella; Stagnitti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Surgical wounds dehiscence is a serious post-operatory complication, with an incidence between 0.4% and 3.5%. Mortality is more than 45%. Complex wounds treatment may require a multidisciplinary management. VAC Therapy could be an alternative treatment regarding complex wound. VAC therapy has been recently introduced on skin's graft tissue management reducing skin graft rejection. The use of biological prosthesis has been tested in a contaminated field, better than synthetic meshes, which often need to be removed. The Permacol is more resistant to degradation by proteases due to its cross-links. Surgery is still considered the best treatment for digestive fistula. A 58 years old obese woman come to our attention, she was operated for an abdominal hernia. She had a post-operatory entero-cutaneous fistula. She was submitted to bowel resection, the anastomosis has been tailored and the hernia of the abdominal wall has been repaired with biological mesh for managing such condition. She had a wound dehiscence with loss of substance and the exposure of the biological prosthesis, nearly 20 cm diameter. She was treated first with antibiotic therapy and simple medications. In addiction, antibiotic therapy was necessary late associated to 7 months with advanced medications allowed a small reduction's defect. Because of its, treatment went on for two more months using VAC therapy. Antibiotic's therapy was finally suspended. The VAC therapy allowed the reduction of the gap, between skin and subcutaneous tissue, and the defect's size preparing a suitable ground for the skin graft. The graft, managed with the vac therapy, was necessary to complete the healing process. PMID:25953007

  8. Open repair of large abdominal wall hernias with and without components separation; an analysis from the ACS-NSQIP database

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nirav K.; Leitman, I. Michael; Mills, Christopher; Lavarias, Valentina; Lucido, David L.; Karpeh, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Components separation technique emerged several years ago as a novel procedure to improve durability of repair for ventral abdominal hernias. Almost twenty-five years since its initial description, little comprehensive risk adjusted data exists on the morbidity of this procedure. This study is the largest analysis to date of short-term outcomes for these cases. Methods The ACS-NSQIP database identified open ventral or incisional hernia repairs with components separation from 2005 to 2012. A data set of cohorts without this technique, matched for preoperative risk factors and operative characteristics, was developed for comparison. A comprehensive risk-adjusted analysis of outcomes and morbidity was performed. Results A total of 68,439 patients underwent open ventral hernia repair during the study period (2245 with components separation performed (3.3%) and 66,194 without). In comparison with risk-adjusted controls, use of components separation increased operative duration (additional 83 min), length of stay (6.4 days vs. 3.8 days, p < 0.001), return to the OR rate (5.9% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001), and 30-day morbidity (10.1% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001) with no increase in mortality (0.0% in each group). Conclusions Components separation technique for large incisional hernias significantly increases length of stay and postoperative morbidity. Novel strategies to improve short-term outcomes are needed with continued use of this technique. PMID:27158489

  9. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  10. Assay for Spore Wall Integrity Using a Yeast Predator.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroki; Neiman, Aaron M; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    During the budding yeast life cycle, a starved diploid cell undergoes meiosis followed by production of four haploid spores, each surrounded by a spore wall. The wall allows the spores to survive in harsh environments until conditions improve. Spores are also more resistant than vegetative cells to treatments such as ether vapor, glucanases, heat shock, high salt concentrations, and exposure to high or low pH, but the relevance of these treatments to natural environmental stresses remains unclear. This protocol describes a method for assaying the yeast spore wall under natural environmental conditions by quantifying the survival of yeast spores that have passed through the digestive system of a yeast predator, the fruit fly. PMID:27480715

  11. Remodeling characteristics and collagen distribution in synthetic mesh materials explanted from human subjects after abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of remodeling characteristics by patient risk factors and surgical site classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of synthetic meshes biopsied from their abdominal wall repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. Methods Biopsies of the synthetic meshes were obtained from the abdominal wall repair sites of 51 patients during a subsequent abdominal re-exploration. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics (cell infiltration, cell types, extracellular matrix deposition, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and neovascularization) and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were also stained with Sirius Red and Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a threshold p value of ≤0.200. Results The model selection process for the extracellular matrix score yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation, and mesh classification (c-statistic = 0.842). For CR score, the model selection process yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2 = 0.464). The model selection process for the collagen III area yielded a model with two variables: subject body mass index at time of mesh explantation and pack-year history (r2 = 0.244). Conclusion Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict degree of remodeling for synthetic meshes used to reinforce abdominal wall repair sites. These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances for which non

  12. Multiple integral representation for the trigonometric SOS model with domain wall boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleas, W.

    2012-05-01

    Using the dynamical Yang-Baxter algebra we derive a functional equation for the partition function of the trigonometric SOS model with domain wall boundary conditions. The solution of the equation is given in terms of a multiple contour integral.

  13. Breaking Down the Walls: Thoughts on the Scholarship of Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinee, Dale; Martin, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of closer integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences but notes that the scholarship of integration has been slow to gain acceptance as an integral activity of the professoriate. Suggestions include creating new research entities and funding mechanisms dedicated to interdisciplinary work; reinvorgating the integrative…

  14. Integral method of wall interference correction in low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Changhai

    1987-01-01

    The analytical solution of Poisson's equation, derived form the definition of vortex, was applied to the calculation of interference velocities due to the presence of wind tunnel walls. This approach, called the Integral Method, allows an accurate evaluation of wall interference for separated or more complicated flows without the need for considering any features of the model. All the information necessary for obtaining the wall correction is contained in wall pressure measurements. The correction is not sensitive to normal data-scatter, and the computations are fast enough for on-line data processing.

  15. Space station integrated wall design and penetration damage control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coronado, A. R.; Gibbins, M. N.; Wright, M. A.; Stern, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed to allow a designer to optimize the pressure wall, insulation, and meteoroid/debris shield system of a manned spacecraft for a given spacecraft configuration and threat environment. The threat environment consists of meteoroids and orbital debris, as specified for an arbitrary orbit and expected lifetime. An overall probability of no penetration is calculated, as well as contours of equal threat that take into account spacecraft geometry and orientation. Techniques, tools, and procedures for repairing an impacted and penetrated pressure wall were developed and tested. These techniques are applied from the spacecraft interior and account for the possibility of performing the repair in a vacuum. Hypervelocity impact testing was conducted to: (1) develop and refine appropriate penetration functions, and (2) determine the internal effects of a penetration on personnel and equipment.

  16. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  17. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  18. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  19. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, ... uterine and vaginal prolapse: diagnosis and management. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. ...

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  1. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  2. An Integral Method to Evaluate Wall Heat Flux Suitable For Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Alireza; Mehdi, Faraz; White, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    An integral method to evaluate wall heat flux in turbulent boundary layers is presented. The method is mathematically exact and has the advantage of having no explicit streamwise gradient terms, thus making it amenable to experimental data. Using existing data sets, the method is shown to work in both zero- and adverse-pressure gradient boundary layers. The method is particularly useful for the latter case where Reynolds analogy does not hold and the wall heat flux must be measured directly.

  3. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  4. KRE5 Suppression Induces Cell Wall Stress and Alternative ER Stress Response Required for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka; Sasaki, Masato; Ito, Fumie; Aoyama, Toshio; Sato-Okamoto, Michiyo; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Chibana, Hiroji; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of cell wall integrity in fungi is required for normal cell growth, division, hyphae formation, and antifungal tolerance. We observed that endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated cell wall integrity in Candida glabrata, which possesses uniquely evolved mechanisms for unfolded protein response mechanisms. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of KRE5, which encodes a predicted UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, significantly increased cell wall chitin content and decreased cell wall β-1,6-glucan content. KRE5 repression induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene expression and MAP kinase pathway activation, including Slt2p and Hog1p phosphorylation, through the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. Moreover, the calcineurin pathway negatively regulated cell wall integrity, but not the reduction of β-1,6-glucan content. These results indicate that KRE5 is required for maintaining both endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and cell wall integrity, and that the calcineurin pathway acts as a regulator of chitin-glucan balance in the cell wall and as an alternative mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress in C. glabrata. PMID:27548283

  5. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also ... URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  7. A historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure after primary midline laparotomy. ISSAAC-Trial [NCT005725079

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Lars; Baumann, Petra; Hüsing, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Christoph; Albertsmeier, Markus; Franck, Annette; Luntz, Steffen; Seiler, Christoph M; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several randomized controlled trials have compared different suture materials and techniques for abdominal wall closure with respect to the incidence of incisional hernias after midline laparotomy and shown that it remains, irrespective of the methods used, considerably high, ranging from 9% to 20%. The development of improved suture materials which would reduce postoperative complications may help to lower its frequency. Design This is a historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure in 150 patients with primary elective midline incisions. INSECT patients who underwent abdominal closure using Monoplus® and PDS® will serve as historical control group. The incidences of wound infections and of burst abdomen are defined as composite primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints are the frequency of incisional hernias within one year after operation and safety. To ensure adequate comparability in surgical performance and recruitment, the 4 largest centres of the INSECT-Trial will participate. After hospital discharge, the investigators will examine the enrolled patients again at 30 days and at 12 ± 1 months after surgery. Conclusion This historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective ISSAAC trial aims to assess whether the use of an ultra-long-lasting absorbable monofilament suture material is safe and efficient. Trial registration NCT005725079 PMID:18644124

  8. An Integrated Fluid-Chemical Model Toward Modeling the Formation of Intra-Luminal Thrombus in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Swedenborg, Jesper; Gasser, T. Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the presence of an Intra-Luminal Thrombus (ILT) known to influence their evolution biochemically and biomechanically. The ILT progression mechanism is still unclear and little is known regarding the impact of the chemical species transported by blood flow on this mechanism. Chemical agonists and antagonists of platelets activation, aggregation, and adhesion and the proteins involved in the coagulation cascade (CC) may play an important role in ILT development. Starting from this assumption, the evolution of chemical species involved in the CC, their relation to coherent vortical structures (VSs) and their possible effect on ILT evolution have been studied. To this end a fluid-chemical model that simulates the CC through a series of convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations has been developed. The model involves plasma-phase and surface-bound enzymes and zymogens, and includes both plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions. Blood is modeled as a non-Newtonian incompressible fluid. VSs convect thrombin in the domain and lead to the high concentration observed in the distal portion of the AAA. This finding is in line with the clinical observations showing that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. The proposed model, due to its ability to couple the fluid and chemical domains, provides an integrated mechanochemical picture that potentially could help unveil mechanisms of ILT formation and development. PMID:22934022

  9. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Reem, Nathan T; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27242834

  10. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Reem, Nathan T.; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A.; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27242834

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPT5 and SSD1 function in parallel pathways to promote cell wall integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Guarente, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    Yeast MPT5 (UTH4) is a limiting component for longevity. We show here that MPT5 also functions to promote cell wall integrity. Loss of Mpt5p results in phenotypes associated with a weakened cell wall, including sorbitol-remedial temperature sensitivity and sensitivities to calcofluor white and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Additionally, we find that mutation of MPT5, in the absence of SSD1-V, is lethal in combination with loss of either Ccr4p or Swi4p. These synthetic lethal interactions are suppressed by the SSD1-V allele. Furthermore, we have provided evidence that the short life span caused by loss of Mpt5p is due to a weakened cell wall. This cell wall defect may be the result of abnormal chitin biosynthesis or accumulation. These analyses have defined three genetic pathways that function in parallel to promote cell integrity: an Mpt5p-containing pathway, an Ssd1p-containing pathway, and a Pkc1p-dependent pathway. This work also provides evidence that post-transcriptional regulation is likely to be important both for maintaining cell integrity and for promoting longevity. PMID:11805047

  12. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  13. An experimental study of wall adaptation and interference assessment using Cauchy integral formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study of combined wall adaptation and residual interference assessment using the Cauchy integral formula. The experiments were conducted on a supercritical airfoil model in the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel solid flexible wall test section. The ratio of model chord to test section height was about 0.7. The method worked satisfactorily in reducing the blockage interference and demonstrated the primary requirement for correcting for the blockage effects at high model incidences to correctly determine high lift characteristics. The studies show that the method has potential for reducing the residual interference to considerably low levels. However, corrections to blockage and upwash velocities gradients may still be required for the final adapted wall shapes.

  14. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  15. Integrated capture, transport, and magneto-mechanical resonant sensing of superparamagnetic microbeads using magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, E; Montana, D; Beach, G S D

    2012-11-01

    An integrated platform for the capture, transport, and detection of individual superparamagnetic microbeads is described for lab-on-a-chip biomedical applications. Magnetic domain walls in magnetic tracks have previously been shown to be capable of capturing and transporting individual beads through a fluid at high speeds. Here it is shown that the strong magnetostatic interaction between a bead and a domain wall leads to a distinct magneto-mechanical resonance that reflects the susceptibility and hydrodynamic size of the trapped bead. Numerical and analytical modeling is used to quantitatively explain this resonance, and the magneto-mechanical resonant response under sinusoidal drive is experimentally characterized both optically and electrically. The observed bead resonance presents a new mechanism for microbead sensing and metrology. The dual functionality of domain walls as both bead carriers and sensors is a promising platform for the development of lab-on-a-bead technologies. PMID:22955796

  16. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  17. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  18. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  19. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  20. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  1. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  2. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. PMID:26271120

  3. Postherpetic pseudohernia: delayed onset of paresis of abdominal muscles due to herpes zoster causing an ipsilateral abdominal bulge.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shunsuke; Togawa, Yasuhiro; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Postherpetic pseudohernia causes an abdominal bulge as well as an abdominal wall herniation. This disease is one of the neurological complications of herpes zoster and essentially consists of paresis of ipsilateral abdominal muscles. Postherpetic pseudohernia may be mistaken for abdominal wall herniation because it is not well known. We describe two cases presenting an abdominal bulge. The ipsilateral abdominal bulge appeared after recovery from abdominal zoster. Abdominal CT showed no evidence of a herniation or mass. We diagnosed a postherpetic pseudohernia. One of the patients recovered spontaneously 4 months after the onset, and the other partially recovered after 2 months. This disease can be expected to disappear spontaneously, unlike abdominal herniation requiring surgery. It has been reported that 79.3% of patients eventually recovered spontaneously. For surgeons and general practitioners, it is beneficial to keep this disease in mind when examining a patient presenting an abdominal bulge. PMID:27229900

  4. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  5. The Late S-Phase Transcription Factor Hcm1 Is Regulated through Phosphorylation by the Cell Wall Integrity Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takahiro; Veis, Jiri; Hollenstein, David; Sekiya, Mizuho; Ammerer, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae coordinates cell wall construction and cell cycle progression. In this study, we showed that the regulation of Hcm1, a late-S-phase transcription factor, arrests the cell cycle via the cell wall integrity checkpoint. Although the HCM1 mRNA level remained unaffected when the cell wall integrity checkpoint was induced, the protein level decreased. The overproduction of Hcm1 resulted in the failure of the cell wall integrity checkpoint. We identified 39 Hcm1 phosphorylation sites, including 26 novel sites, by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A mutational analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Hcm1 at S61, S65, and S66 is required for the proper onset of the cell wall integrity checkpoint by regulating the timely decrease in its protein level. Hyperactivation of the CWI mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway significantly reduced the Hcm1 protein level, and the deletion of CWI MAPK Slt2 resulted in a failure to decrease Hcm1 protein levels in response to stress, suggesting that phosphorylation is regulated by CWI MAPK. In conclusion, we suggest that Hcm1 is regulated negatively by the cell wall integrity checkpoint through timely phosphorylation and degradation under stress to properly control budding yeast proliferation. PMID:26729465

  6. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Azadi, Paratoo

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  7. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  8. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  9. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in reduced cyst number and a fragile brain cyst phenotype characterized by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress, and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst critical for persistence of bradyzoite forms. PMID:24385904

  10. The Toxoplasma gondii Cyst Wall Protein CST1 Is Critical for Cyst Wall Integrity and Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in reduced cyst number and a fragile brain cyst phenotype characterized by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress, and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst critical for persistence of bradyzoite forms. PMID:24385904

  11. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  12. Impact-acoustics-based health monitoring of tile-wall bonding integrity using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, F.; Tso, S. K.; Hung, M. Y. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The use of the acoustic features extracted from the impact sounds for bonding integrity assessment has been extensively investigated. Nonetheless, considering the practical implementation of tile-wall non-destructive evaluation (NDE), the traditional defects classification method based directly on frequency-domain features has been of limited application because of the overlapping feature patterns corresponding to different classes whenever there is physical surface irregularity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the clustering and classification ability of principal component analysis (PCA) as applied to the impact-acoustics signature in tile-wall inspection with a view to mitigating the adverse influence of surface non-uniformity. A clustering analysis with signature acquired on sample slabs shows that impact-acoustics signatures of different bonding quality and different surface roughness are well separated into different clusters when using the first two principal components obtained. By adopting as inputs the feature vectors extracted with PCA applied, a multilayer back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is developed for automatic health monitoring and defects classification of tile-walls. The inspection results obtained experimentally on the prepared sample slabs are presented and discussed, confirming the utility of the proposed method, particularly in dealing with tile surface irregularity.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of integrated IMRT treatment of the chest wall and supraclavicular region for breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xian-ding; Zhao, Yu-tian; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the dosimetric characteristics of irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular region as an integrated volume with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after modified radical mastectomy. This study included 246 patients who received modified radical mastectomy. The patients were scanned with computed tomography, and the chest wall (with or without the internal mammary lymph nodes) and supraclavicular region were delineated. For 143 patients, the chest wall and supraclavicular region were combined as an integrated planning volume and treated with IMRT. For 103 patients, conventional treatments were employed with 2 tangential fields for the chest wall, abutting a mixed field of 6-MV x-rays (16 Gy) and 9-MeV electrons (34 Gy) for the upper supraclavicular region. The common prescription dose was 50 Gy/25 Fx/5 W to 90% of the target volume. The dosimetric characteristics of the chest wall, the supraclavicular region, and normal organs were compared. For the chest wall target, compared with conventional treatments, the integrated IMRT plans lowered the maximum dose, increased the minimum dose, and resulted in better conformity and uniformity of the target volume. There was an increase in minimum, average, and 95% prescription dose for the integrated IMRT plans in the supraclavicular region, and conformity and uniformity were improved. The V{sub 30} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 10}, V{sub 30}, and mean dose of the heart on the integrated IMRT plans were lower than those of the conventional plans. The V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 5} of the heart were higher on the integrated IMRT plans (p < 0.05) than on conventional plans. Without an increase in the radiation dose to organs at risk, the integrated IMRT treatment plans improved the dose distribution of the supraclavicular region and showed better dose conformity and uniformity of the integrated target volume of the chest wall and supraclavicular region.

  14. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.

  15. Prediction of Gut Wall Integrity Loss in Viral Gastroenteritis by Non-Invasive Marker

    PubMed Central

    Elnady, Hala G.; Sherif, Lobna S.; Saleh, Maysa T.; El-Alameey, Inas R.; Youssef, Mai M.; El Shafie, Amal I.; Helwa, Iman; Raouf, Haiam Abdel; EL-Taweel, Ahmed N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABPs) are mainly expressed in the intestinal villi, which are the initial site of destruction in viral gastroenteritis. AIM: This study was designed to assess serum I-FABPs as a predictor of gut wall integrity loss in viral gastroenteritis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 cases of acute viral gastroenteritis. Twenty-eight healthy children matching in age were recruited as control group. Serum I-FABPs were measured using ELISA technique. Viral detection and typing were done by PCR for adenovirus, and by Reverse transcriptase PCR for rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. RESULTS: Serum I-FABPs level was significantly higher in the cases compared to the controls and was also higher in the 46 rotavirus gastroenteritis cases compared to other viral gastroenteritis cases. Serum I- FABPs level was significantly higher in severely dehydrated cases as compared to mildly dehydrated ones (P=0.037). CONCLUSION: Serum I-FABPs could be used as an early and sensitive predictor marker of gut wall integrity loss in children with viral gastroenteritis and its level can indicate case severity. PMID:27275194

  16. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  17. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    Causes can include: Abscess inside the abdomen Appendicitis Cholecystitis caused by gallstones Hole that develops through the entire wall of the stomach, small intestine, large bowel, or gallbladder ( gastrointestinal perforation ) Injury ...

  18. USE OF ALLOPLASTIC MESHES IN ABDOMINAL WOUNDS OF RATS WITH INDUCED PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    BARBUTO, Rafael Calvão; DUVAL-ARAUJO, Ivana; BARRAL, Sumara Marques; ROCHA, Raphael Grossi; BECHARA, Cristiane de Souza; BARBOSA, Alfredo José Afonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of alloplastic meshes has been historically contra-indicated in patients with infection. Aim To evaluate the use of polypropylene meshes in the treatment of abdominal wall defects in rats with peritonitis. Methods Twenty Wistar female rats were divided into two groups: induction of peritonitis (test group) and without peritonitis (control group). An abdominal wall defect was created in all animals, and polypropylene mesh was applied. The evaluation of the tensile strength of the mesh was carried out using tensiometer and microscopic analysis of the healing area was done. Results More adhesion of the mesh to the rat abdominal wall was observed in test group. The histopathological analyses showed prevalence of moderate to accentuated granulation tissue in both groups, without significant differences. Conclusion The use of the mesh coverage on abdominal wall defects of rats with induced peritonitis did not show worse results than its use in healthy animals, nor was its integration to the resident tissue any worse. PMID:24676294

  19. Ultrasonographic diagnosis in abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M; Moosa, I; Hussein, F M; Qurttom, M A; Behbehani, A I

    1999-05-01

    Sonographic findings were retrospectively analysed in 39 patients with proven abdominal tuberculosis (TB). The patients were treated over 15 years at a major teaching hospital, Mubarak Al-Kabber Hospital, in Kuwait. The findings included clear or complex ascites with fine strands, loculations and debris. The other findings were lymphadenopathy, bowel wall thickening, omental mass, focal lesions in the liver and spleen and psoas abscess. The sonographic findings in abdominal TB are not specific but may give valuable information to prevent unnecessary laparotomy. PMID:10901897

  20. Defects in Protein Folding Machinery Affect Cell Wall Integrity and Reduce Ethanol Tolerance in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Uddin, Wasim; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-07-01

    The chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring complex) participates in the folding of many crucial proteins including actin and tubulin in eukaryotes. Mutations in genes encoding its subunits can affect protein folding and in turn, the physiology of the organism. Stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important in fermentation reactions and operates through overexpression and underexpression of genes, thus altering the protein profile. Defective protein folding machinery can disturb this process. In this study, the response of cct mutants to stress conditions in general and ethanol in specific was investigated. CCT1 mutants showed decreased resistance to different conditions tested including osmotic stress, metal ions, surfactants, reducing and oxidising agents. Cct1-3 mutant with the mutation in the conserved ATP-binding region showed irreversible defects than other mutants. These mutants were found to have inherent cell wall defects and showed decreased ethanol tolerance. This study reveals that cell wall defects and ethanol sensitivity are linked. Genetic and proteomic analyses showed that the yeast genes RPS6A (ribosomal protein), SCL1 (proteasomal subunit) and TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) on overexpression, improved the growth of cct1-3 mutant on ethanol. We propose the breakdown of common stress response pathways caused by mutations in CCT complex and the resulting scarcity of functional stress-responsive proteins, affecting the cell's defence against different stress agents in cct mutants. Defective cytoskeleton and perturbed cell wall integrity reduce the ethanol tolerance in the mutants which are rescued by the extragenic suppressors. PMID:26992923

  1. Retrospective analysis of a VACM (vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction) treatment manual for temporary abdominal wall closure – results of 58 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, Christian; Eisenächer, Alexander; Badendieck, Steffen; Doll, Dietrich; Küper, Markus; Lenz, Stefan; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The optimal treatment concept for temporary abdominal closure (TAC) in critically ill visceral surgery patients with open abdomen (OA) continues to be unclear. The VACM (vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction) therapy seems to permit higher delayed primary fascial closure rates (FCR) than other TAC procedures. Material and methods: Patients of our clinic (n=58) who were treated by application of a VAC/VACM treatment manual in the period from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed. Results: The overall FCR of all patients was 48.3% (95% confidence interval: 34.95–61.78). An FCR of 61.3% was achieved in patients who had a vicryl mesh implanted at the fascial level (VACM therapy) in the course of treatment. Mortality among patients treated with VACM therapy was 45.2% (95% CI: 27.32–63.97). Conclusions: The results of our own study confirm the results of previous studies which showed an acceptable FCR among non-trauma patients who were treated with VACM therapy. VACM therapy currently appears to be the treatment regime of choice for patients with OA requiring TAC. PMID:27547691

  2. Yeast cell wall integrity sensors form specific plasma membrane microdomains important for signalling.

    PubMed

    Kock, Christian; Arlt, Henning; Ungermann, Christian; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2016-09-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on the detection of cell surface stress by five sensors (Wsc1, Wsc2, Wsc3, Mid2, Mtl1). Each sensor contains a single transmembrane domain and a highly mannosylated extracellular region, and probably detects mechanical stress in the cell wall or the plasma membrane. We here studied the distribution of the five sensors at the cell surface by using fluorescently tagged variants in conjunction with marker proteins for established membrane compartments. We find that each of the sensors occupies a specific microdomain at the plasma membrane. The novel punctate 'membrane compartment occupied by Wsc1' (MCW) shows moderate overlap with other Wsc-type sensors, but not with those of the Mid-type sensors or other established plasma membrane domains. We further observed that sensor density and formation of the MCW compartment depends on the cysteine-rich head group near the N-terminus of Wsc1. Yet, signalling capacity depends more on the sensor density in the plasma membrane than on clustering within its microcompartment. We propose that the MCW microcompartment provides a quality control mechanism for retaining functional sensors at the plasma membrane to prevent them from endocytosis. PMID:27337501

  3. Critical Roles for Lipomannan and Lipoarabinomannan in Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacteria and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Ato, Manabu; Hamasaki, Maho; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Morita, Yasu S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are mycobacterial glycolipids containing a long mannose polymer. While they are implicated in immune modulations, the significance of LM and LAM as structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall remains unknown. We have previously reported that a branch-forming mannosyltransferase plays a critical role in controlling the sizes of LM and LAM and that deletion or overexpression of this enzyme results in gross changes in LM/LAM structures. Here, we show that such changes in LM/LAM structures have a significant impact on the cell wall integrity of mycobacteria. In Mycobacterium smegmatis, structural defects in LM and LAM resulted in loss of acid-fast staining, increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics, and faster killing by THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, equivalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants became more sensitive to β-lactams, and one mutant showed attenuated virulence in mice. Our results revealed previously unknown structural roles for LM and LAM and further demonstrated that they are important for the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:23422411

  4. Involvement of MAK-1 and MAK-2 MAP kinases in cell wall integrity in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Masayuki; Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukumori, Fumiyasu; Ichiishi, Akihiko; Fujimura, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Among three MAPK disruptants of Neurospora crassa, Δmak-1 was sensitive and Δmak-2 was hypersensitive to micafungin, a beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, than the wild-type or Δos-2 strains. We identified six micafungin-inducible genes that are involved in cell wall integrity (CWI) and found that MAK-1 regulated the transcription of non-anchored cell wall protein gene, ncw-1, and the beta-1,3-endoglucanase gene, bgt-2, whereas MAK-2 controlled the expression of the glycosylhydrolase-like protein gene, gh76-5, and the C4-dicarboxylate transporter gene, tdt-1. Western blotting analysis revealed that, in the wild-type strain, MAK-1 was constitutively phosphorylated from conidial germination to hyphal development. In contrast, the phosphorylation of MAK-2 was growth phase-dependent, and micafungin induced the phosphorylation of unphosphorylated MAK-2. It should be noted that the phosphorylation of MAK-1 was virtually abolished in the Δmak-2 strain, but was significantly induced by micafungin, suggesting functional cross talk between MAK-1 and MAK-2 signalling pathway in CWI. PMID:27268441

  5. The Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall integrity signaling pathway: drug target, compensatory pathways, and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, Vito; Macheleidt, Juliane; Föge, Martin; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important airborne fungal pathogen, causing severe infections with invasive growth in immunocompromised patients. The fungal cell wall (CW) prevents the cell from lysing and protects the fungus against environmental stress conditions. Because it is absent in humans and because of its essentiality, the fungal CW is a promising target for antifungal drugs. Nowadays, compounds acting on the CW, i.e., echinocandin derivatives, are used to treat A. fumigatus infections. However, studies demonstrating the clinical effectiveness of echinocandins in comparison with antifungals currently recommended for first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis are still lacking. Therefore, it is important to elucidate CW biosynthesis pathways and their signal transduction cascades, which potentially compensate the inhibition caused by CW- perturbing compounds. Like in other fungi, the central core of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway in A. fumigatus is composed of three mitogen activated protein kinases. Deletion of these genes resulted in severely enhanced sensitivity of the mutants against CW-disturbing compounds and in drastic alterations of the fungal morphology. Additionally, several cross-talk interactions between the CWI pathways and other signaling pathways are emerging, raising the question about their role in the CW compensatory mechanisms. In this review we focused on recent advances in understanding the CWI signaling pathway in A. fumigatus and its role during drug stress response and virulence. PMID:25932027

  6. The yin and yang of cell wall integrity control: brassinosteroid and FERONIA signaling.

    PubMed

    Höfte, Herman

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how developmental and environmental signals control plant cell expansion requires an intimate knowledge of the architecture of the primary cell wall and the chemo-rheological processes that underlie cell wall relaxation. In this review I discuss recent findings that reveal a more prominent role than previously suspected for covalent bonds and pectin cross-links in primary cell wall architecture. In addition, genetic studies have uncovered a role for receptor kinases in the control of cell wall homeostasis in growing cells. The emerging view is that, upon cell wall disruption, compensatory changes are induced in the cell wall through the interplay between the brassinosteroid signaling module, which positively regulates wall extensibility and receptor kinases of the CrRLKL1 family, which may act as negative regulators of cell wall stiffness. These findings lift the tip of the veil of a complex signaling network allowing normal homeostasis in walls of growing cells but also crisis management under stress conditions. PMID:25481004

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  8. Apparatus for integrating a rigid structure into a flexible wall of an inflatable structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Patterson, Ross M. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    For an inflatable structure having a flexible outer shell or wall structure having a flexible restraint layer comprising interwoven, load-bearing straps, apparatus for integrating one or more substantially rigid members into the flexible shell. For each rigid member, a corresponding opening is formed through the flexible shell for receiving the rigid member. A plurality of connection devices are mounted on the rigid member for receiving respective ones of the load-bearing straps. In one embodiment, the connection devices comprise inner connecting mechanisms and outer connecting mechanisms, the inner and outer connecting mechanisms being mounted on the substantially rigid structure and spaced along a peripheral edge portion of the structure in an interleafed array in which respective outer connecting mechanisms are interposed between adjacent pairs of inner connecting mechanisms, the outer connecting mechanisms projecting outwardly from the peripheral edge portion of the substantially rigid structure beyond the adjacent inner connecting mechanisms to form a staggered array of connecting mechanisms extending along the panel structure edge portion. In one embodiment, the inner and outer connecting mechanisms form part of an integrated, structure rotatably mounted on the rigid member peripheral edge portion.

  9. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong H; Chan, Kathleen L; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated "structure-activity relationship" for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  10. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Mahoney, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. PMID:26569223

  11. Augmenting the activity of monoterpenoid phenols against fungal pathogens using 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that target cell wall integrity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes to which the fungal cell wall integrity signaling mutants showed increased sensitivity. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in combination with monoterpenoid phenols, such as carvacrol or thymol, to enhance antifungal act...

  12. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  13. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  14. [Crepitant abdominal cellulitis: a rare clinical presentation of sigmoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Chaib, E; Leal, M C; Onofrio, P L; Nahas, P; de Mello, J B

    1990-01-01

    Unusual infections associated with colorectal tumors may, in some instances, be the sole clue to presence of malignancy. The infections are either related to invasion of tissues or organs in close proximity to the tumor or secondary to distant seeding by transient bacteremia arising from necrotic tumors. The authors present one case of spontaneous crepitant cellulitis in the lower abdominal wall, associated with sigmoid tumor. The patient had abdominal pain in the left iliaca fossa, fever and skin necrosis of the lower abdominal wall in the last 4 hours. At surgery they performed debridement and excision of necrotic tissue (lower abdominal wall) and partial sigmoidectomy with sigmoid colostomy. The patient died 9 months after initial surgery. A study of tumor mass revealed an adenocarcinoma. The presence of crepitant cellulitis in a lower abdominal wall should result in a search for bowel perforation. PMID:2151244

  15. Treatment of Posttraumatic Abdominal Autonomic Neuropathy Manifesting as Functional Dyspepsia and Chronic Constipation: An Integrative East-West Approach

    PubMed Central

    Taw, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with a history of spinal cord injury and cauda equina syndrome resulting in neurogenic bladder presented with chronic constipation and functional dyspepsia that was refractory to medical management. He was treated with an integrative East-West approach including acupuncture, trigger point injections, and Tui Na massage. Both his pain and constipation improved after a series of treatments, and this improvement was largely sustained at 2-year follow-up. This patient's symptoms are consistent with damage to the visceral parasympathetic nervous system. Interestingly, many studies evaluating the mechanisms of acupuncture point to restoration of parasympathetic tone as a mechanism of action. In this article, we describe a case of complex functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with posttraumatic autonomic neuropathy that was refractory to pharmacotherapy and was successfully treated with an integrative East-West approach PMID:26331105

  16. Treatment of Posttraumatic Abdominal Autonomic Neuropathy Manifesting as Functional Dyspepsia and Chronic Constipation: An Integrative East-West Approach.

    PubMed

    Shubov, Andrew; Taw, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    A 52-year-old male with a history of spinal cord injury and cauda equina syndrome resulting in neurogenic bladder presented with chronic constipation and functional dyspepsia that was refractory to medical management. He was treated with an integrative East-West approach including acupuncture, trigger point injections, and Tui Na massage. Both his pain and constipation improved after a series of treatments, and this improvement was largely sustained at 2-year follow-up. This patient's symptoms are consistent with damage to the visceral parasympathetic nervous system. Interestingly, many studies evaluating the mechanisms of acupuncture point to restoration of parasympathetic tone as a mechanism of action. In this article, we describe a case of complex functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with posttraumatic autonomic neuropathy that was refractory to pharmacotherapy and was successfully treated with an integrative East-West approach. PMID:26331105

  17. Inside the polygonal walls of Amelia (Central Italy): A multidisciplinary data integration, encompassing geodetic monitoring and geophysical prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, M.; Brigante, R.; Radicioni, F.; Pauselli, C.; Mazzocca, M.; Centi, G.; Stoppini, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a portion of the ancient (VI and IV centuries BC) polygonal walls of Amelia, in Central Italy. After the collapse of a portion of the walls which occurred in January 2006, a wide project started in order to monitor their external facade and inspect the characteristics of the internal structure, currently not clearly known. In this specific case, the preservation of such an important cultural heritage was mandatory, therefore invasive methods like drilling or archaeological essays cannot be used. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach represents an innovative way to shed light on their inner structure. We combine several non-invasive techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), specifically adapted for this study, Laser Scanning and Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry, integrated with other geomatic measures provided by a Total Station and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). After collecting some historical information, we gather the whole datasets exploring for their integration an interpretation approach borrowed from the reflection seismic (attribute analysis and three dimensional visualization). The results give rise for the first time to the internal imaging of this ancient walls, highlighting features associable to different building styles related to different historical periods. Among the result, we define a max wall thickness of about 3.5 m for the cyclopic sector, we show details of the internal block organization and we detect low resistivity values interpretable with high water content behind the basal part of the walls. Then, quantitative analyses to assess their reliable geotechnical stability are done, integrating new geometrical constrains provided by the geophysics and geo-technical ground parameters available in literature. From this analysis, we highlight how the Amelia walls are interested, in the investigated sector, by a critical pseudo-static equilibrium.

  18. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    PubMed

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  19. The Metabolic Enzyme ManA Reveals a Link between Cell Wall Integrity and Chromosome Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Maya; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    Synchronizing cell growth, division and DNA replication is an essential property of all living cells. Accurate coordination of these cellular events is especially crucial for bacteria, which can grow rapidly and undergo multifork replication. Here we show that the metabolic protein ManA, which is a component of mannose phosphotransferase system, participates in cell wall construction of the rod shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis. When growing rapidly, cells lacking ManA exhibit aberrant cell wall architecture, polyploidy and abnormal chromosome morphologies. We demonstrate that these cellular defects are derived from the role played by ManA in cell wall formation. Furthermore, we show that ManA is required for maintaining the proper carbohydrate composition of the cell wall, particularly of teichoic acid constituents. This perturbed cell wall synthesis causes asynchrony between cell wall elongation, division and nucleoid segregation. PMID:20862359

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient With Cloacal Exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caleb E; Kennedy, Alfred P; Smith, D Preston

    2016-07-01

    We present a rare complication of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a child undergoing complex urologic reconstruction. A 10-year-old female born with the abdominal wall defect cloacal exstrophy who had previously undergone multiple abdominal procedures then developed findings consistent with ACS following a complex Mitrofanoff procedure. Although intravesical pressures were not documented because of the nature of her reconstruction, her ACS-type findings were (1) abdominal pain, (2) melena, (3) pulmonary hypoinflation, (4) renal insufficiency, (5) tachycardia, and (6) segmental ischemic small bowel. Management consisted of abdominal decompression, segmental bowel resections, and wound vacuum-assisted-closure management. Patient was eventually discharged home. PMID:26921644

  1. Cell wall integrity controls root elongation via a general 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-dependent, ethylene-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Dat L; Edmond, Clare; Harrington, Jennifer L; Nühse, Thomas S

    2011-06-01

    Cell expansion in plants requires cell wall biosynthesis and rearrangement. During periods of rapid elongation, such as during the growth of etiolated hypocotyls and primary root tips, cells respond dramatically to perturbation of either of these processes. There is growing evidence that this response is initiated by a cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism and dedicated signaling pathway rather than being an inevitable consequence of lost structural integrity. However, the existence of such a pathway in root tissue and its function in a broader developmental context have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that various types of cell wall stress rapidly reduce primary root elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This response depended on the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In agreement with the established ethylene signaling pathway in roots, auxin signaling and superoxide production are required downstream of ACC to reduce elongation. However, this cell wall stress response unexpectedly does not depend on the perception of ethylene. We show that the short-term effect of ACC on roots is partially independent of its conversion to ethylene or ethylene signaling and that this ACC-dependent pathway is also responsible for the rapid reduction of root elongation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This acute response to internal and external stress thus represents a novel, noncanonical signaling function of ACC. PMID:21508182

  2. High-Throughput Screen in Cryptococcus neoformans Identifies a Novel Molecular Scaffold That Inhibits Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most important human fungal pathogens; however, no new therapies have been developed in over 50 years. Fungicidal activity is crucially important for an effective anticryptococal agent and, therefore, we screened 361,675 molecules against C. neoformans using an adenylate kinase release assay that specifically detects fungicidal activity. A set of secondary assays narrowed the set of hits to molecules that interfere with fungal cell wall integrity and identified three benzothioureas with low in vitro mammalian toxicity and good in vitro anticryptococcal (minimum inhibitory concentration = 4 μg/mL). This scaffold inhibits signaling through the cell wall integrity MAP kinase cascade. Structure–activity studies indicate that the thiocarbonyl moiety is crucial for activity. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that benzothioureas inhibit signaling upstream of the kinase cascade. Thus, the benzothioureas appear to be a promising new scaffold for further exploration in the search for new anticryptococcal agents. PMID:26807437

  3. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  4. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to you from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. In just moments, you'll learn how ... what we'll do is we'll take new 2-0s, and if we can kind of ... reconstruction performed from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. OR-Live makes it easy for you ...

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  7. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum localized PerA is required for cell wall integrity, azole drug resistance, and virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dawoon; Thammahong, Arsa; Shepardson, Kelly M.; Blosser, Sara J.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary GPI-anchoring is a universal and critical post-translational protein modification in eukaryotes. In fungi, many cell wall proteins are GPI-anchored, and disruption of GPI-anchored proteins impairs cell wall integrity. After being synthesized and attached to target proteins, GPI anchors undergo modification on lipid moieties. In spite of its importance for GPI-anchored protein functions, our current knowledge of GPI lipid remodeling in pathogenic fungi is limited. In this study, we characterized the role of a putative GPI lipid remodeling protein, designated PerA, in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. PerA localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and loss of PerA leads to striking defects in cell wall integrity. A perA null mutant has decreased conidia production, increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs, and is avirulent in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Interestingly, loss of PerA increases exposure of β-glucan and chitin content on the hyphal cell surface, but diminished TNF production by bone marrow derived macrophages relative to wild type. Given the structural specificity of fungal GPI-anchors, which is different from humans, understanding GPI lipid remodeling and PerA function in A. fumigatus is a promising research direction to uncover a new fungal specific antifungal drug target. PMID:24779420

  9. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  10. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems.

  11. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  12. The Conserved Hypothetical Protein Rv0574c Is Required for Cell Wall Integrity, Stress Tolerance, and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rajni; Tripathi, Deeksha; Kant, Sashi; Chandra, Harish; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is intimately related to its distinctive cell wall. The biological significance of poly-α-l-glutamine (PLG), a component in the cell wall of virulent mycobacteria, has not been explored adequately. The focus of this study is to investigate the role of a locus, Rv0574c, coding for a polyglutamate synthase-like protein, in the synthesis of poly-α-l-glutamine in the context of mycobacterial virulence. Evaluation of Rv0574c gene expression in M. tuberculosis demonstrated its growth-phase-linked induction with concomitant accumulation of poly-α-l-glutamine in the cell wall. Rv0574c was activated under conditions prevalent in the tubercular granuloma, e.g., hypoxia, nitric oxide, and CO2. For functional characterization, we produced a deletion mutant of the Rv0574c gene by allelic exchange. The mutant produced smaller amounts of poly-α-l-glutamine in the cell wall than did the wild-type bacterium. Additionally, the increased sensitivity of the mutant to antitubercular drugs, SDS, lysozyme, and mechanical stress was accompanied by a drastic reduction in the ability to form biofilm. Growth of the ΔRv0574c strain was normal under in vitro conditions but was retarded in THP-1 macrophages and in the lungs and spleen of BALB/c mice. This was in agreement with histopathology of the lungs showing slow growth and less severe pathology than that of the wild-type strain. In summary, this study demonstrates that the protein encoded by the Rv0574c locus, by virtue of modulating PLG content in the cell wall, helps in maintaining cellular integrity in a hostile host environment. Also, its involvement in protecting the pathogen from host-generated lethal factors contributes to the infectious biology of M. tuberculosis. PMID:25312955

  13. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Baohua; Soltis, Nicole E; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel A; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus; Glazebrook, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  14. Role of Protein Glycosylation in Candida parapsilosis Cell Wall Integrity and Host Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Luis A.; Csonka, Katalin; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Estrada-Mata, Eine; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; Németh, Tibor; López-Ramírez, Luz A.; Toth, Renata; López, Mercedes G.; Vizler, Csaba; Marton, Annamaria; Tóth, Adél; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Gácser, Attila; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an important, emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen. Highly mannosylated fungal cell wall proteins are initial contact points with host immune systems. In Candida albicans, Och1 is a Golgi α1,6-mannosyltransferase that plays a key role in the elaboration of the N-linked mannan outer chain. Here, we disrupted C. parapsilosis OCH1 to gain insights into the contribution of N-linked mannosylation to cell fitness and to interactions with immune cells. Loss of Och1 in C. parapsilosis resulted in cellular aggregation, failure of morphogenesis, enhanced susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents and defects in wall composition. We removed the cell wall O-linked mannans by β-elimination, and assessed the relevance of mannans during interaction with human monocytes. Results indicated that O-linked mannans are important for IL-1β stimulation in a dectin-1 and TLR4-dependent pathway; whereas both, N- and O-linked mannans are equally important ligands for TNFα and IL-6 stimulation, but neither is involved in IL-10 production. Furthermore, mice infected with C. parapsilosis och1Δ null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to wild-type (WT)-challenged counterparts. Therefore, our data are the first to demonstrate that C. parapsilosis N- and O-linked mannans have different roles in host interactions than those reported for C. albicans. PMID:27014229

  15. [The patient with intra-abdominal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sakka, Samir G

    2016-01-01

    An intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) defined as a pathological increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is commonly found on ICU admission or during the ICU stay. Several studies confirmed that an IAH is an independent predictor for mortality of critically ill patients. The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) which is defined as a sustained IAP>20 mmHg (with or without an abdominal perfusion pressure [APP]<60mmHg) that is associated with new organ dysfunction or failure has a mortality of up to 60%. In general, an IAH may be induced by several intra-abdominal as well as extra-abdominal conditions. Reduced abdominal wall compliance, intra-abdominal pathologies (either of the peritoneal space or parenchymateous organs) may lead to an IAH. Most commonly, intra-abdominal infections and/or sepsis and severe trauma or burns are predisposing for an IAH. An early sign may be a decrease in urinary output. The effects of an increased IAP on cardiovascular function are well recognized and include negative effects on preload, afterload and contractility. However, all other compartments of the body may be affected by an IAH. Thus, by an increase of the respective compartment pressure, e.g. intracranial pressure, a poly-compartment syndrome may result. Adequate prevention, a forward-looking strategy, and objective techniques for measurement of IAP are required to avoid or early detect an IAH or ACS. Finally, an immediate and consequent interdisciplinary management using conservative, interventional and operative options are necessary to solve an IAH or ACS. PMID:26863642

  16. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems. The testing methods presented in this report evaluate structural rim header designs over openings up to 6 ft wide and applicable to one- and two-story homes.

  17. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  18. Valproic Acid Affects Membrane Trafficking and Cell-Wall Integrity in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, Makoto; Kuno, Takayoshi; Kita, Ayako; Katsura, Kosaku; Takegawa, Kaoru; Uno, Satoshi; Nabata, Toshiya; Sugiura, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used to treat epilepsy and manic-depressive illness. Although VPA has been reported to exert a variety of biochemical effects, the exact mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects remain elusive. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of VPA action, a genetic screen for fission yeast mutants that show hypersensitivity to VPA was performed. One of the genes that we identified was vps45+, which encodes a member of the Sec1/Munc18 family that is implicated in membrane trafficking. Notably, several mutations affecting membrane trafficking also resulted in hypersensitivity to VPA. These include ypt3+ and ryh1+, both encoding a Rab family protein, and apm1+, encoding the μ1 subunit of the adaptor protein complex AP-1. More importantly, VPA caused vacuolar fragmentation and inhibited the glycosylation and the secretion of acid phosphatase in wild-type cells, suggesting that VPA affects membrane trafficking. Interestingly, the cell-wall-damaging agents such as micafungin or the inhibition of calcineurin dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type cells to VPA. Consistently, VPA treatment of wild-type cells enhanced their sensitivity to the cell-wall-digesting enzymes. Altogether, our results suggest that VPA affects membrane trafficking, which leads to the enhanced sensitivity to cell-wall damage in fission yeast. PMID:17287531

  19. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot.

    PubMed

    Stefanou, Christos; Zikos, Nicolaos; Pappas-Gogos, George; Koulas, Spyridon; Tsimoyiannis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically. PMID:27525150

  20. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma-some uncommon indications.

    PubMed

    Dharap, Satish B; Noronha, Jarin; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Trauma laparotomy after blunt abdominal trauma is conventionally indicated for patients with features of hemodynamic instability and peritonitis to achieve control of hemorrhage and control of spillage. In addition, surgery is clearly indicated for the repair of posttraumatic diaphragmatic injury with herniation. Some other indications for laparotomy have been presented and discussed. Five patients with blunt abdominal injury who underwent laparotomy for nonroutine indications have been presented. These patients were hemodynamically stable and had no overt signs of peritonitis. Three patients had solid organ (spleen, kidney) infarction due to posttraumatic occlusion of the blood supply. One patient had mesenteric tear with internal herniation of bowel loops causing intestinal obstruction. One patient underwent surgery for traumatic abdominal wall hernia. In addition to standard indications for surgery in blunt abdominal trauma, laparotomy may be needed for vascular thrombosis of end arteries supplying solid organs, internal or external herniation through a mesenteric tear or anterior abdominal wall musculature, respectively. PMID:26957824

  1. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    PubMed Central

    Koulas, Spyridon; Tsimoyiannis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically. PMID:27525150

  2. Single charge detection in capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Ishibashi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Single charge detection is demonstrated in the capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors (SETs) in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) quantum dots. Two SETs are fabricated based on two different SWCNTs aligned in parallel, by taking advantage of the aligned growth of SWCNTs and subsequent transfer-printed techniques. In order to make both two SETs be capacitively coupled, a metal finger is fabricated on the top of them. The charge sensing is proved by the response of a detector current in one SWCNT-SET when the number of electrons in the other SWCNT-SET is changed by sweeping the corresponding gate voltages. In this integrated device, shifts of Coulomb oscillation peaks due to the single electron event are also observed.

  3. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  4. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  5. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  6. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) inductive window band-pass filter based on post-wall irises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, K.; Haddadi, K.; Benzaïm, O.; Lasri, T.; Feham, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we demonstrate a new inductive-window 5.245-GHz-band-pass filter based on post-wall irises by standard PcB process on Epoxy FR4 substrate. A new and easy to build microstrip-to-waveguide transition that consists of three tapers is also designed to connect the filter to standard measurement system. Both simulated results and measurements have shown insertion-loss lower than 5 dB within 14% bandwidth around 5.245 GHz and input return loss better than 25 dB over the frequency range.

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  8. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  9. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  10. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  11. Hierarchical, multilayered cell walls reinforced by recycled silk cocoons enhance the structural integrity of honeybee combs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Huiling; Karihaloo, Bhushan L.; Wang, Jianxiang

    2010-01-01

    We reveal the sophisticated and hierarchical structure of honeybee combs and measure the elastic properties of fresh and old natural honeycombs at different scales by optical microscope, environmental scanning electron microscope, nano/microindentation, and by tension and shear tests. We demonstrate that the comb walls are continuously strengthened and stiffened without becoming fragile by the addition of thin wax layers reinforced by recycled silk cocoons reminiscent of modern fiber-reinforced composite laminates. This is done to increase its margin of safety against collapse due to a temperature increase. Artificial engineering honeycombs mimic only the macroscopic geometry of natural honeycombs, but have yet to achieve the microstructural sophistication of their natural counterparts. The natural honeycombs serve as a prototype of truly biomimetic cellular materials with hitherto unattainable improvement in stiffness, strength, toughness, and thermal stability. PMID:20439765

  12. Computation of macro-fiber composite integrated thin-walled smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, S. Y.; Chen, M.; Bai, J.; Li, J.

    2016-07-01

    Due to high flexibility, reliability, and strong actuation forces, piezo fiber based composite smart material, macro-fiber composite (MFC), is increasingly applied in various fields for vibration suppression, shape control, and health monitoring. The complexity arrangement of MFC materials makes them difficult in numerical simulations. This paper develops a linear electro-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) model for composite laminated thin-walled smart structures bonded with MFC patches considering arbitrary piezo fiber orientation. Two types of MFCs are considered, namely, MFC-d31 in which the d 31 effect dominates the actuation forces, and MFC-d33 which mainly uses the d 33 effect. The proposed FE model is validated by static analysis of an MFC bonded smart plate.

  13. Mycolic Acid Cyclopropanation is Essential for Viability, Drug Resistance, and Cell Wall Integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, Daniel; Liu, Zhen; Sacchettini, James C.; Glickman, Michael S.

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection remains a major global health problem complicated by escalating rates of antibiotic resistance. Despite the established role of mycolic acid cyclopropane modification in pathogenesis, the feasibility of targeting this enzyme family for antibiotic development is unknown. We show through genetics and chemical biology that mycolic acid methyltransferases are essential for M. tuberculosis viability, cell wall structure, and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. The tool compound dioctylamine, which we show acts as a substrate mimic, directly inhibits the function of multiple mycolic acid methyltransferases, resulting in loss of cyclopropanation, cell death, loss of acid fastness, and synergistic killing with isoniazid and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that mycolic acid methyltransferases are a promising antibiotic target and that a family of virulence factors can be chemically inhibited with effects not anticipated from studies of each individual enzyme.

  14. An Update on CoreWall Tool Suite Development: An Integrated Approach for Data Discovery, Description, Visualization, and Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, S. M.; Jenkins, C. J.; Morin, P.; Ito, E.; Kamp, B.; Yu-Chung Chen, J.; Lee, J.; Rao, A.; Leigh, J.; Johnson, A.; Renambot, L.

    2006-12-01

    The CoreWall Project is an NSF funded initiative (March, 2006) aimed at providing new geoinformatics tools to meet the broadly similar needs of various coring communities. A community wide workshop, sponsored by JOI-USSAC, was held in Washington DC in May 2006 to help establish the requirements for the Corewall Suite of software tools. The Corewall Suite consists of four main components: Corelyzer, Nclip, CoreNavigator, and the Workflow Database. This software is cross-platform compatible, requires normal computers, utilizes GeoWall technology, and is available over the web at www.corewall.org. Corelyzer is a wide-screen high-resolution computing facility for logging ice, lake, sediment and hard rock cores. It is described as a Collaborative Interactive Core Analysis Environment, allowing dispersed (even international and ship-side or in-the-field) logging and interpretation of core representing earth history via the internet. In addition, Corelyzer can retrieve images and data files from remote databases or web portals/services, such as CHRONOS. Corelyzer is designed to increase the efficiency of research, and the rate of new idea development and validation. NClip is newly upgraded version of the old IODP Splicer/Sagan software that is used for core-core or core-log integration. NClip provides graphic, interactive data analysis products for depth-merging and integrating core and downhole log data. CoreNavigator is a data discovery/ data browser tool that takes advantage of Google Earth capabilities to both find and explore existing data sets in spatial queries. The Workflow Database is a built in database that allows the user to work both locally or remotely from other databases and allow data to be both accessed and moved on the fly. Details are available: http://sqlcore.geo.umn.edu/CoreVault/docs/WorkflowDbPoster.pdf Through 2006, the Corewall group has made substantial advances: (1) Deployed Corelyzer for the first ANDRILL Antarctic field coring program along

  15. The Aspergillus fumigatus sitA Phosphatase Homologue Is Important for Adhesion, Cell Wall Integrity, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Winkelströter, Lizziane K.; Marine, Marçal; Hori, Juliana I.; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Brown, Neil Andrew; Rajendran, Ranjith; Ramage, Gordon; Walker, Louise A.; Munro, Carol A.; Rocha, Marina Campos; Malavazi, Iran; Hagiwara, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus able to infect immunocompromised patients, eventually causing disseminated infections that are difficult to control and lead to high mortality rates. It is important to understand how the signaling pathways that regulate these factors involved in virulence are orchestrated. Protein phosphatases are central to numerous signal transduction pathways. Here, we characterize the A. fumigatus protein phosphatase 2A SitA, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sit4p homologue. The sitA gene is not an essential gene, and we were able to construct an A. fumigatus null mutant. The ΔsitA strain had decreased MpkA phosphorylation levels, was more sensitive to cell wall-damaging agents, had increased β-(1,3)-glucan and chitin, was impaired in biofilm formation, and had decreased protein kinase C activity. The ΔsitA strain is more sensitive to several metals and ions, such as MnCl2, CaCl2, and LiCl, but it is more resistant to ZnSO4. The ΔsitA strain was avirulent in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and induces an augmented tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response in mouse macrophages. These results stress the importance of A. fumigatus SitA as a possible modulator of PkcA/MpkA activity and its involvement in the cell wall integrity pathway. PMID:25911225

  16. Calpains are involved in asexual and sexual development, cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Ning, Guo-Ao; Huang, Lu-Yao; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Dong, Bo; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Calpains are ubiquitous and well-conserved proteins that belong to the calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine protease family. In this study, 8 putative calpains were identified using Pfam domain analysis and BlastP searches in M. oryzae. Three single gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn9 and ΔMocapn14) and two double gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7) were obtained using the high-throughput gene knockout system. The calpain disruption mutants showed defects in colony characteristics, conidiation, sexual reproduction and cell wall integrity. The mycelia of the ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7 mutants showed reduced pathogenicity on rice and barley. PMID:27502542

  17. Integrated ternary artificial nacre via synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide/double-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-07-01

    The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.

  18. Calpains are involved in asexual and sexual development, cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Ning, Guo-Ao; Huang, Lu-Yao; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Dong, Bo; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Calpains are ubiquitous and well-conserved proteins that belong to the calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine protease family. In this study, 8 putative calpains were identified using Pfam domain analysis and BlastP searches in M. oryzae. Three single gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn9 and ΔMocapn14) and two double gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7) were obtained using the high-throughput gene knockout system. The calpain disruption mutants showed defects in colony characteristics, conidiation, sexual reproduction and cell wall integrity. The mycelia of the ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7 mutants showed reduced pathogenicity on rice and barley. PMID:27502542

  19. Integrating the digital library puzzle: The library without walls at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Current efforts at the Research Library, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to develop digital library services are described. A key principle of LANL`s approach to delivering library information is the integration of products into a common interface and the use of the Web as the medium of service provision. Products described include science databases such as the SciSearch at LANL and electronic journals. Project developments described have significant ramifications for delivering library services over the Internet.

  20. MrSkn7 controls sporulation, cell wall integrity, autolysis, and virulence in Metarhizium robertsii.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yanfang; Chen, Peilin; Chen, Yixiong; Lu, Yuzhen; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-04-01

    Two-component signaling pathways generally include sensor histidine kinases and response regulators. We identified an ortholog of the response regulator protein Skn7 in the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, which we named MrSkn7. Gene deletion assays and functional characterizations indicated that MrSkn7 functions as a transcription factor. The MrSkn7 null mutant of M. robertsii lost the ability to sporulate and had defects in cell wall biosynthesis but was not sensitive to oxidative and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type. However, the mutant was able to produce spores under salt stress. Insect bioassays using these spores showed that the virulence of the mutant was significantly impaired compared to that of the wild type due to the failures to form the infection structure appressorium and evade host immunity. In particular, deletion of MrSkn7 triggered cell autolysis with typical features such as cell vacuolization, downregulation of repressor genes, and upregulation of autolysis-related genes such as extracellular chitinases and proteases. Promoter binding assays confirmed that MrSkn7 could directly or indirectly control different putative target genes. Taken together, the results of this study help us understand the functional divergence of Skn7 orthologs as well as the mechanisms underlying the development and control of virulence in insect-pathogenic fungi. PMID:25710964

  1. Scaling the walls of discovery: using semantic metadata for integrative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Manning, Maurice; Aggarwal, Amit; Gao, Kevin; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg

    2009-03-01

    Current data integration approaches by bioinformaticians frequently involve extracting data from a wide variety of public and private data repositories, each with a unique vocabulary and schema, via scripts. These separate data sets must then be normalized through the tedious and lengthy process of resolving naming differences and collecting information into a single view. Attempts to consolidate such diverse data using data warehouses or federated queries add significant complexity and have shown limitations in flexibility. The alternative of complete semantic integration of data requires a massive, sustained effort in mapping data types and maintaining ontologies. We focused instead on creating a data architecture that leverages semantic mapping of experimental metadata, to support the rapid prototyping of scientific discovery applications with the twin goals of reducing architectural complexity while still leveraging semantic technologies to provide flexibility, efficiency and more fully characterized data relationships. A metadata ontology was developed to describe our discovery process. A metadata repository was then created by mapping metadata from existing data sources into this ontology, generating RDF triples to describe the entities. Finally an interface to the repository was designed which provided not only search and browse capabilities but complex query templates that aggregate data from both RDF and RDBMS sources. We describe how this approach (i) allows scientists to discover and link relevant data across diverse data sources and (ii) provides a platform for development of integrative informatics applications. PMID:19304872

  2. The influence of wall conductivity of film condensation with integral fin tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Robert L.

    1993-09-01

    Heat transfer performance of steam condensing on horizontal finned tubes made of copper, aluminum, copper nickel (90/10), and stainless steel (316) was studied using a condenser test rig at both vacuum and atmospheric conditions. Integral fin tubes included conventional rectangular shaped fins as well as rectangular fins having a radiussed root geometry (i.e., a fillet radius equal to half the fin spacing). All finned tubes had inner and outer diameters of 12.70 mm and 15.88 mm respectively, and had a fin thickness of 1.0 mm and a fin spacing of 1.5 mm. The overall heat transfer coefficient, U(sub o), was determined experimentally and the outside heat transfer coefficient, h(sub o), was obtained utilizing a modified Wilson plot procedure. Results indicate that the performance of a finned tube was strongly dependent on the tube material and weakly dependent on fin geometry. Radiussing the fin root to remove condensate between fins in the unflooded portion (i.e., top portion) of a finned tube reduced the heat transfer performance compared to a conventional rectangular shaped integral fin. Experimental data were compared to the models of Beatty and Katz as well as to a modified model of Rose.

  3. Moxifloxacin-loaded nanoemulsions having tocopheryl succinate as the integral component improves pharmacokinetics and enhances survival in E. coli-induced complicated intra-abdominal infection.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Prashant; Verma, Ajeet Kumar; Dwivedi, Pankaj; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, a novel nanoemulsion laden with moxifloxacin has been developed for effective management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Moxifloxacin nanoemulsion fabricated using high pressure homogenization was evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in rats with E. coli-induced peritonitis and sepsis. The developed nanoemulsion MONe6 (size 168 ± 28 nm and zeta potential (ZP) 24.78 ± 0.45 mV, respectively) was effective for intracellular delivery and sustaining the release of MOX. MONe6 demonstrated improved plasma (AUC(MONe6/MOX) = 2.38-fold) and tissue pharmacokinetics of MOX (AUC(MONe6/MOX) = 2.63 and 1.47 times in lung and liver, respectively). Calculated PK/PD index correlated well with a reduction in bacterial burden in plasma as well as tissues. Enhanced survival on treatment with MONe6 (65.44%) and as compared to the control group (8.22%) was a result of reduction in lipid peroxidation, neutrophil migration, and cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL6) as compared to untreated groups in the rat model of E. coli-induced sepsis. Parenteral nanoemulsions of MOX hold a promising advantage in the therapy of E. coli-induced complicated intra-abdominal infections and is helpful in the prevention of further complications like septic shock and death. PMID:25317848

  4. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  5. [Influences of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Ozawa, Y; Sato, J

    1999-02-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery. We measured the impedances of respiratory system (RS), lung, and chest wall (CW) in nine anesthetized paralyzed subjects employing a pseudorandom noise forced volume oscillation technique. These measurements were performed before and after the lifting chest wall by upper abdominal retractor. The effects of chest deformation was significant on the impedances of RS, lung, while no discernible effect was found in CW impedance. Lifting chest wall decreased RS resistance which was totally accounted for by the decrease in lung resistance, whereas the lifting did not affect reactance in either RS or lung. The mathematical modeling showed the significant lifting effect on the resistance of the parenchyma. In conclusion, change in RS mechanics produced by chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor is dominated in lung but not in CW. Among the lung mechanical components, parenchyma is the primary site of the lifting effect. PMID:10087819

  6. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  7. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  8. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  10. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  11. Design and implementation of an integral wall-mounted quartz crystal microbalance for atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Riha, Shannon C; Libera, Joseph A; Elam, Jeffrey W; Martinson, Alex B F

    2012-09-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements have played a vital role in understanding and expediting new atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes; however, significant barriers remain to their routine use and accurate execution. In order to turn this exclusively in situ technique into a routine characterization method, an integral QCM fixture was developed. This new design is easily implemented on a variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools, allows rapid sample exchange, prevents backside deposition, and minimizes both the footprint and flow disturbance. Unlike previous QCM designs, the fast thermal equilibration enables tasks such as temperature-dependent studies and ex situ sample exchange, further highlighting the utility of this QCM design for day-to-day use. Finally, the in situ mapping of thin film growth rates across the ALD reactor was demonstrated in a popular commercial tool operating in both continuous and quasi-static ALD modes. PMID:23020393

  12. Impact-acoustics inspection of tile-wall bonding integrity via wavelet transform and hidden Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, B. L.; Liu, K. P.; Tong, F.; Man, K. F.

    2010-05-01

    The impact-acoustics method utilizes different information contained in the acoustic signals generated by tapping a structure with a small metal object. It offers a convenient and cost-efficient way to inspect the tile-wall bonding integrity. However, the existence of the surface irregularities will cause abnormal multiple bounces in the practical inspection implementations. The spectral characteristics from those bounces can easily be confused with the signals obtained from different bonding qualities. As a result, it will deteriorate the classic feature-based classification methods based on frequency domain. Another crucial difficulty posed by the implementation is the additive noise existing in the practical environments that may also cause feature mismatch and false judgment. In order to solve this problem, the work described in this paper aims to develop a robust inspection method that applies model-based strategy, and utilizes the wavelet domain features with hidden Markov modeling. It derives a bonding integrity recognition approach with enhanced immunity to surface roughness as well as the environmental noise. With the help of the specially designed artificial sample slabs, experiments have been carried out with impact acoustic signals contaminated by real environmental noises acquired under practical inspection background. The results are compared with those using classic method to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  14. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  15. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  16. An integral perturbation model of flow and momentum transport in rotating microchannels with smooth or microstructured wall surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanin, Vince D.; Carey, Van P.

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the development of an integral perturbation solution of the equations governing flow momentum transport and energy conversion in microchannels between disks of multiple-disk drag turbines such as Tesla turbines. Analysis of this type of flow problem is a key element in optimal design of Tesla drag-type turbines for geothermal or solar alternative energy technologies. In multiple-disk turbines, high speed flow enters tangentially at the outer radius of cylindrical microchannels formed by closely spaced parallel disks, spiraling through the channel to an exhaust at a small radius, or at the center of the disk. Previous investigations have generally developed models based on simplifying idealizations of the flow in these circumstances. Here, beginning with the momentum and continuity equations for incompressible and steady flow in cylindrical coordinates, an integral solution scheme is developed that leads to a dimensionless perturbation series solution that retains the full complement of momentum and viscous effects to consistent levels of approximation in the series solution. This more rigorous approach indicates all dimensionless parameters that affect flow and transport and allows a direct assessment of the relative importance of viscous, pressure, and momentum effects in different directions in the flow. The resulting lowest-order equations are solved explicitly and higher order terms in the series solutions are determined numerically. Enhancement of rotor drag in this type of turbine enhances energy conversion efficiency. We also developed a modified version of the integral perturbation analysis that incorporates the effects of enhanced drag due to surface microstructuring. Results of the model analysis for smooth disk walls are shown to agree well with experimental performance data for a prototype Tesla turbine and predictions of performance models developed in earlier investigations. Model predictions indicate that enhancement of disk

  17. Flavin-based quasi-epitaxial organization on single walled carbon nanotubes: Separation, characterization and device integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanulo, Darlington C.

    Canonically defined as one atomically thin sheet of graphite (i.e. graphene), rolled up in a tube at a specific vector designated by a pair of indices ( n,m), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have generated much enthusiasm in the scientific community for their promise to revolutionize materials and their functionalities. Due to their exceptional electrical, optical, mechanical, chemical, thermal and electronic properties, SWNTs have already began and continue to be exploited in a number of new multi-faceted technologies in a broad range of applications. This thesis presents a working model for taking nanotubes from dispersions to devices. Utilizing comprehensive characterization and molecular simulations, we highlight the unique abilities of outfitting SWNTs with a seamless flavin sheath. The precise organization of flavin moieties on the nanotube lattice in forming a perfect helical coating around the nanotube led to the discovery of the first ever-reported quasi-epitaxial based separation scheme. We also present in this thesis the molecular origin for such selection, as well as other consequential ramifications such as enantioselection, superhelical formation and supramolecular assembly. Last but not least, the viability of FMN/SWNT integration in devices such as thin film transistors and other potential sensory applications is also discussed from a design standpoint.

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus MADS-Box Transcription Factor rlmA Is Required for Regulation of the Cell Wall Integrity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marina Campos; Fabri, João Henrique Tadini Marilhano; Franco de Godoy, Krissia; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Hori, Juliana Issa; Ferreira da Cunha, Anderson; Arentshorst, Mark; Ram, Arthur F. J.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Malavazi, Iran

    2016-01-01

    The Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway is the primary signaling cascade that controls the de novo synthesis of the fungal cell wall, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae this event is highly dependent on the RLM1 transcription factor. Here, we investigated the function of RlmA in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the ΔrlmA strain exhibits an altered cell wall organization in addition to defects related to vegetative growth and tolerance to cell wall-perturbing agents. A genetic analysis indicated that rlmA is positioned downstream of the pkcA and mpkA genes in the CWI pathway. As a consequence, rlmA loss-of-function leads to the altered expression of genes encoding cell wall-related proteins. RlmA positively regulates the phosphorylation of MpkA and is induced at both protein and transcriptional levels during cell wall stress. The rlmA was also involved in tolerance to oxidative damage and transcriptional regulation of genes related to oxidative stress adaptation. Moreover, the ΔrlmA strain had attenuated virulence in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Our results suggest that RlmA functions as a transcription factor in the A. fumigatus CWI pathway, acting downstream of PkcA-MpkA signaling and contributing to the virulence of this fungus. PMID:27473315

  19. Interplay between calcineurin and the Slt2 MAP-kinase in mediating cell wall integrity, conidiation and virulence in the insect fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuaishuai; He, Zhangjiang; Zhang, Shiwei; Keyhani, Nemat O; Song, Yulin; Yang, Zhi; Jiang, Yahui; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is of environmental and economic importance as an insect pathogen, currently used for the biological control of a number of pests. Cell wall integrity and conidiation are critical parameters for the ability of the fungus to infect insects and for production of the infectious propagules. The contribution of calcineurin and the Slt2 MAP kinase to cell wall integrity and development in B. bassiana was investigated. Gene knockouts of either the calcineurin CNA1 subunit or the Slt2 MAP kinase resulted in decreased tolerance to calcofluor white and high temperature. In contrast, the Δcna1 strain was more tolerant to Congo red but more sensitive to osmotic stress (NaCl, sorbitol) than the wild type, whereas the Δslt2 strain had the opposite phenotype. Changes in cell wall structure and composition were seen in the Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains during growth under cell wall stress as compared to the wild type. Both Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains showed significant alterations in growth, conidiation, and viability. Elevation of intracellular ROS levels, and decreased conidial hydrophobicity and adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces, were also seen for both mutants, as well as decreased virulence. Under cell wall stress conditions, inactivation of Slt2 significantly repressed CN-mediated phosphatase activity suggesting some level of cross talk between the two pathways. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains revealed alterations in the expression of distinct gene sets, with overlap in transcripts involved in cell wall integrity, stress response, conidiation and virulence. These data illustrate convergent and divergent phenotypes and targets of the calcineurin and Slt2 pathways in B. bassiana. PMID:26319315

  20. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  1. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  2. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  4. Does an expanding fetal abdominal mass produce pulmonary hypoplasia?

    PubMed

    Sauer, L; Harrison, M R; Flake, A W; Krummel, T R

    1987-06-01

    Fetal pulmonary hypoplasia has been related to multiple factors. In an effort to define which fetuses may benefit from prenatal intervention to prevent or reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, we studied the relative contribution of an enlarging abdominal mass in the fetus. We produced abdominal masses in fetal rabbits at 24 days gestation by two methods. In one group, a small cylindrical chip of Takasen, (a synthetic polymer that expands to 50 times its size in 1 week; Grobeast, Pop Art Co, Cleveland, OH) was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of the fetal rabbit; in another group, the bladder neck was obstructed with a surgical clip. Amniotic fluid volume was restored at the surgical procedure. Sham-operated littermates served as controls. At cesarean delivery on day 30, fetal lung, liver, and body weights were measured, and the abdominal masses were quantitated by volume displacement of the removed mass or bladder. In both groups large abdominal masses of comparable size were produced. Newborns with the synthetic abdominal mass did not have significant pulmonary hypoplasia, but often had a prune belly deformity of the abdominal wall, whereas newborns with bladder obstruction had significant pulmonary hypoplasia. Liver weight was not significantly affected. We conclude that a fetal abdominal mass does not independently produce pulmonary hypoplasia, possibly because the "mass effect" is relieved by distension of the abdominal wall rather than elevation of the diaphragm; the pulmonary hypoplasia that occurs in bladder outlet obstruction is probably due to the associated oligohydramnios rather than the mass effect of the dilated urinary tract; and prenatal decompression of an abdominal mass or dilated urinary tract is not justified to prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in the absence of oligohydramnios. PMID:3612441

  5. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  6. Abdominal closure using nonabsorbable mesh after massive resuscitation prevents abdominal compartment syndrome and gastrointestinal fistula.

    PubMed

    Ciresi, D L; Cali, R F; Senagore, A J

    1999-08-01

    Patients who receive high-volume resuscitation after massive abdominopelvic trauma, or emergent repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), are at a significant risk for postoperative abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Absorbable prosthetic closure of the abdominal wall has been recommended as a means of managing ACS. However, use of absorbable prosthetic has been associated with very high rates of intestinal fistula formation and ventral hernia formation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review our experience with the use of nonabsorbable prosthetic abdominal closures in patients with documented ACS or at high risk for ACS. All patients managed by this technique from July 1995 through July 1997 after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm or massive abdominopelvic trauma were evaluated. A total of 18 patients were identified: 15 primary prosthetic placements (Gore-Tex patch, 12; Marlex mesh, 2; and silastic mesh, 1) and 3 delayed prosthetic placements for ACS (Gore-Tex, 1 and Marlex, 2). The mortality rate was 22 percent (4 of 18) and resulted from multisystem organ failure (2 patients), cardiac arrest 1 hour postoperatively (1 patient), and severe closed head injury (1 patient). Secondary closure and prosthetic removal was possible in 16 of 18 patients, including the 2 patients who died of multisystem organ failure within the same hospitalization. Delayed abdominal closure at a subsequent admission was performed in two cases. This same patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula 2 months after discharge. Importantly, only 1 of 18 closed in this manner developed ACS requiring reoperation. The results indicate that use of a nonabsorbable prosthetic, particularly with Gore-Tex, is efficacious in the prevention of postoperative ACS in high-risk patients, while it enhances the possibility for delayed abdominal closure and minimizes the risk of gastrointestinal fistulization associated with other techniques. PMID:10432080

  7. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  8. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  9. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  10. Comparative Lipidomics in Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans Reveal Crosstalk between Mitochondria, Cell Wall Integrity and Azole Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashutosh; Yadav, Vipin; Prasad, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged usage of antifungal azoles which target enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis invariably leads to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Candida albicans. We had earlier shown that membrane lipids and their fluidity are closely linked to the MDR phenomenon. In one of our recent studies involving comparative lipidomics between azole susceptible (AS) and azole resistant (AR) matched pair clinical isolates of C. albicans, we could not see consistent differences in the lipid profiles of AS and AR strains because they came from different patients and so in this study, we have used genetically related variant recovered from the same patient collected over a period of 2-years. During this time, the levels of fluconazole (FLC) resistance of the strain increased by over 200-fold. By comparing the lipid profiles of select isolates, we were able to observe gradual and statistically significant changes in several lipid classes, particularly in plasma membrane microdomain specific lipids such as mannosylinositolphosphorylceramides and ergosterol, and in a mitochondrial specific phosphoglyceride, phosphatidyl glycerol. Superimposed with these quantitative and qualitative changes in the lipid profiles, were simultaneous changes at the molecular lipid species levels which again coincided with the development of resistance to FLC. Reverse transcriptase-PCR of the key genes of the lipid metabolism validated lipidomic picture. Taken together, this study illustrates how the gradual corrective changes in Candida lipidome correspond to the development of FLC tolerance. Our study also shows a first instance of the mitochondrial membrane dysfunction and defective cell wall (CW) in clinical AR isolates of C. albicans, and provides evidence of a cross-talk between mitochondrial lipid homeostasis, CW integrity and azole tolerance. PMID:22761908

  11. Mitochondrial Sorting and Assembly Machinery Subunit Sam37 in Candida albicans: Insight into the Roles of Mitochondria in Fitness, Cell Wall Integrity, and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yue; Jelicic, Branka; Pettolino, Filomena; Perry, Andrew; Lo, Tricia L.; Hewitt, Victoria L.; Bantun, Farkad; Beilharz, Traude H.; Peleg, Anton Y.; Lithgow, Trevor; Djordjevic, Julianne T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial functions impinge on cell wall integrity, drug tolerance, and virulence of human fungal pathogens. However, the mechanistic aspects of these processes are poorly understood. We focused on the mitochondrial outer membrane SAM (Sorting and Assembly Machinery) complex subunit Sam37 in Candida albicans. Inactivation of SAM37 in C. albicans leads to a large reduction in fitness, a phenotype not conserved with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that slow growth of the sam37ΔΔ mutant results from mitochondrial DNA loss, a new function for Sam37 in C. albicans, and from reduced activity of the essential SAM complex subunit Sam35. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was hypersensitive to drugs that target the cell wall and displayed altered cell wall structure, supporting a role for Sam37 in cell wall integrity in C. albicans. The sensitivity of the mutant to membrane-targeting antifungals was not significantly altered. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was avirulent in the mouse model, and bioinformatics showed that the fungal Sam37 proteins are distant from their animal counterparts and could thus represent potential drug targets. Our study provides the first direct evidence for a link between mitochondrial function and cell wall integrity in C. albicans and is further relevant for understanding mitochondrial function in fitness, antifungal drug tolerance, and virulence of this major pathogen. Beyond the relevance to fungal pathogenesis, this work also provides new insight into the mitochondrial and cellular roles of the SAM complex in fungi. PMID:22286093

  12. Glycoside Hydrolase MoGls2 Controls Asexual/Sexual Development, Cell Wall Integrity and Infectious Growth in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengying; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Zhixi; Sun, Yi; Liu, Muxing; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a way of glycosylation for newly synthesized protein, which plays a key role in the maturation and transport of proteins. Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are essential in this process, and are involved in processing of N-linked glycoproteins or degradation of carbohydrate structures. Here, we identified and characterized MoGls2 in Magnaporthe oryzae, which is a yeast glucosidase II homolog Gls2 and is required for trimming the final glucose in N-linked glycans and normal cell wall synthesis. Target deletion of MoGLS2 in M. oryzae resulted in a reduced mycelial growth, an increased conidial production, delayed conidial germination and loss the ability of sexual reproduction. Pathogenicity assays revealed that the ΔMogls2 mutant showed significantly decreased in virulence and infectious growth. Further studies showed that the mutant was less sensitive to salt and osmotic stress, and increased sensitivity to cell wall stresses. Additionally, the ΔMogls2 mutant showed a defect in cell wall integrity. Our results indicate that MoGls2 is a key protein for the growth and development of M. oryzae, involving in the regulation of asexual/sexual development, stress response, cell wall integrity and infectious growth. PMID:27607237

  13. An integral wall model for Large Eddy Simulation (iWMLES) and applications to developing boundary layers over smooth and rough plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).

  14. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26257757

  15. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  16. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; et al

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  17. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J; Pedas, Pai R; Hansen, Sara F; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:26257757

  18. 'Strengthening the fungal cell wall through chitin-glucan cross-links: effects on morphogenesis and cell integrity'.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Javier; Farkaš, Vladimír; Sanz, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors. PMID:27185288

  19. Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) −1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

  20. Abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ERCOLAK, VEHBI; PAYDAS, SEMRA; ERGIN, MELEK; ATES, BERNA T.; DUMAN, BERNA B.; GUNALDI, MERAL; AFSAR, CIGDEM U.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, for which immune suppression is a predisposing factor. In unusual cases, this disease may present as an abdominal wall involvement simulating a soft tissue tumor as seen in the present case. The presented patient had no signs of trauma or surgical approach and the pathology was considered to be a primary abdominal wall actinomycosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the nonspecific nature of clinical presentation, radiographic and laboratory findings. Surgery combined with antibiotic treatment is a curative approach for this relatively rare infection. Surgeons must be aware of this disease in order to ensure correct diagnosis and to prevent performing any unnecessary procedures. The present study describes a case of abdominal actinomycosis with multiple myeloma, together with a review of important points related to this disease. PMID:25202429

  1. Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Budwig, R; Elger, D; Hooper, H; Slippy, J

    1993-11-01

    Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models has been examined for four aneurysm sizes over Reynolds numbers from 500 to 2600. The Reynolds number is based on entrance tube diameter, and the inlet condition is fully developed flow. Experimental and numerical methods have been used to determine: (i) the overall features of the flow, (ii) the stresses on the aneurysm walls in laminar flow, and (iii) the onset and characteristics of turbulent flow. The laminar flow field is characterized by a jet of fluid (passing directly through the aneurysm) surrounded by a recirculating vortex. The wall shear stress magnitude in the recirculation zone is about ten times less than in the entrance tube. Both wall shear stress and wall normal stress profiles exhibit large magnitude peaks near the reattachment point at the distal end of the aneurysm. The onset of turbulence in the model is intermittent for 2000 < Re < 2500. The results demonstrate that a slug of turbulence in the entrance tube grows much more rapidly in the aneurysm than in a corresponding length of uniform cross section pipe. When turbulence is present in the aneurysm the recirculation zone breaks down and the wall shear stress returns to a magnitude comparable to that in the entrance tube. PMID:8309237

  2. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM -pre-treated biomass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-04-23

    We report that cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is amore » trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. Lastly, we found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance.« less

  3. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass.

    PubMed

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P S

    2015-07-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  4. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    PubMed Central

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  5. Immersive virtual reality for visualization of abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A.; Bodenheimer, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  6. Abdominal breathing manoeuvre reduces passive drag acting on gliding swimmers.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yusuke; Yanai, Toshimasa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the passive drag acting on a gliding swimmer is reduced if the swimmer adopts an abdominal breathing manoeuvre (expanding the abdominal wall) rather than chest breathing manoeuvre (expanding the rib cage). Eleven male participants participated in this study. A specialised towing machine was used to tow each participant with tension set at various magnitudes and to record time series data of towing velocity. Participants were asked to inhale air by expanding the abdominal wall or the rib cage and to maintain the same body configuration throughout gliding. The steady-state velocity was measured and the coefficient of drag was calculated for each towing trial to compare between the breathing manoeuvres. The results showed that the towing velocity was increased by 0.02 m/s with a towing force of 34.3 N and by 0.06 m/s with a towing force of 98.1 N. The coefficient of drag was reduced by 5% with the abdominal breathing manoeuvre, which was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These results indicate that adopting the abdominal breathing manoeuvre during gliding reduces the passive drag and the hypothesis was supported. PMID:26715235

  7. Integrating sphere effect in whole-bladder wall photodynamic therapy: III. Fluence multiplication, optical penetration and light distribution with an eccentric source for human bladder optical properties.

    PubMed

    van Staveren, H J; Keijzer, M; Keesmaat, T; Jansen, H; Kirkel, W J; Beek, J F; Star, W M

    1996-04-01

    Whole-bladder-wall (WBW) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is performed using approximately 630 nm light emitted by an isotropic light source centered in the bladder cavity. The phenomenon of an increased fluence rate in this spherical geometry, due to light scattering, is denoted as the integrating sphere effect. The fluence rate and the optical penetration depth depend on a single tissue optical parameter, namely the reduced albedo. The optical properties of (diseased) human bladder tissue, i.e. absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, anisotropy factor and refractive index, were determined in vitro in the wavelength range of 450-880 nm. The integrating sphere effect and optical penetration depth were calculated with diffusion theory and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations using approximately 630 nm optical properties. With increasing albedo, the integrating sphere effect calculated with diffusion approximation is increasingly larger than that found with MC simulations. Calculated and simulated optical penetration depths are in reasonable agreement. The smaller the integrating sphere effect for a given tissue absorption, the larger the optical penetration depth into the bladder wall, as the effective attenuation coefficient decreases. Optical penetration depths up to approximately 7.5 mm (definition dependent) can be responsible for unintended tissue damage beyond the bladder tissue. MC simulations were also performed with an eccentric light source and the uniformity of the light distribution at the bladder wall was assessed. The simulations show that even for a small eccentricity, the extremes in deviation from the mean fluence rate are large. All these results indicate that WBW PDT should be performed with some kind of in situ light dosimetry. PMID:8730658

  8. Analysis of abdominal wounds made by surgical trocars using functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) technology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Barry P; O'Donovan, Deidre; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo; Schiretz, Rich; Heninrich, Russell; Gregersen, Hans

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to use a novel functional luminal imaging probe for evaluation of wound defects and tissue damage resulting from the use of trocars. Following general anesthesia of 4 adult pigs, 6 different trocars were randomly inserted at preselected locations in the porcine abdominal wall. The functional luminal imaging probe was used to profile the trocar holes during bag distension from 8 axial cross-sectional area measurements. The cross-sectional areas and pressure in the bag were recorded and exported to Matlab for analysis and data display. Geometric profiles were generated, and the minimum cross-sectional area and hole length (abdominal wall thickness) were used as endpoints. Successful distensions were made in all cases. The slope of the contours increased away from the narrowest point of the hole. The slope increased more rapidly toward the inner abdominal wall than toward the outer wall. The slope of the linear trend lines for the cross-sectional area-pressure relation represents the compliance at the narrowest point in the wall. The hole length (abdominal wall thickness) could be obtained at different cross-sectional area cutoff points. A cutoff point of 300 mm(2) gave good results when compared to the length of the hole measured after the tissue was excised. This technique represents a new and straightforward way to evaluate the effects of trocars on the abdominal wall. It may also prove useful in comparing techniques and technology from different manufacturers. PMID:18757380

  9. Defect in cell wall integrity of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by a mutation of the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene VIG9.

    PubMed

    Yoda, K; Kawada, T; Kaibara, C; Fujie, A; Abe, M; Hitoshi; Hashimoto; Shimizu, J; Tomishige, N; Noda, Y; Yamasaki, M

    2000-09-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae VIG9 gene encodes GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, which synthesizes GDP-mannose from GTP and mannose-1-phosphate. Although the null mutant was lethal, the vig9 mutants so far obtained showed no growth defect but immature protein glycosylation and drug hypersensitivity. During our search for cell-wall mutants, we found a novel temperature-sensitive mutant, JS30, which required an osmotic stabilizer for viability. JS30 excreted cell surface proteins in the medium without any indication of cell lysis. Although conventional genetic analysis using mating was impossible, by detailed characterization of JS30 including an in vitro enzyme assay and nucleotide sequencing, we found the defect of JS30 was due to a mutation in the VIG9 gene. These results indicated a critical role of GDP-mannose in maintenance of cell-wall integrity. PMID:11055399

  10. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  11. The effect of the cwf14 gene of fission yeast on cell wall integrity is associated with rho1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Maeng, Shinae; Lee, Hyemi; Nam, Miyoung; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2016-02-01

    In all eukaryotic organisms, a wide range of morphologies are responsible for critical cellular function and development. In particular, the Rho GTPases, which are highly conserved from yeast to mammals, are key molecules in signaling pathways that control cell polarity processes and cell wall biosynthesis, which are fundamental aspects of morphogenesis. Therefore, using haploinsufficiency deletion mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we screened the slow-growing mutants and their morphogenesis, specifically focusing on regulation of their Rho GTPases. Based on this screening, we found that the cwf14 mutant of S. pombe exhibited the slow growth and abnormal phenotypes with an elongated cell shape and thicker cell wall when compared with wild-type cells. In particular, cells with the cwf14 deletion showed excessive Rho1 expression. However, the wildtype strain with ectopically expressed Rho1 did not exhibited any significant change in the level of cwf14, suggesting that cwf14 may act on the upstream of Rho1. Furthermore, the cells with a cwf14 deletion also have increased sensitivity to β-glucanase, a cell wall-digesting enzyme, which is also seen in Rho1-overexpressing cells. Overall, our results suggest that the cwf14 plays a key role in fission yeast morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis and/or degradation possibly via the regulation of Rho1 expression. PMID:26832665

  12. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  13. Combined vesical and abdominal endometriosis following abdominal hysterotomy and tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Dhall, K; Bhatia, K; Sharma, S K

    1980-09-01

    The article reports on the case of a 29 year old patient who developed abdominal endometriosis 4 years after having had hysterotomy and tubal ligation. About a month after the excision of the endometrial tissue she was examined for suprapubic pains, strangury, and frequency of micturition. A nodule was found in the deepest part of the abdominal wall and the patient was treated for 6 months, without success, with medroxyprogesterone acetate. A subsequent laparotomy showed bladder endometriosis, obviously still an endometrial implant at the time of hysterotomy, which was missed at the time of the first excision. Total hysterectomy was carried out and the patient recovered successfully. Bladder endometriosis is the most common site of involvement among urinary tract endometriosis. The peculiarity of the case presented here is in the total absence of hematuria, and in the fact that pains had no relation with the menstrual cycle. Hormonal therapy is often ineffective, and surgery often the only advisable form of treatment. PMID:12311304

  14. Treatment options for traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the paravisceral abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sonny; Rowe, Vincent L; Rao, Rajeev; Hood, Douglas B; Harrell, Donald; Weaver, Fred A

    2005-09-01

    Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the abdominal aorta are frequently lethal. Alternative management options for treatment of traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the abdominal aorta are illustrated by three patient case histories. Patient A sustained two GSWs to the abdomen (midepigastrium, right subcostal region). He was hypotensive in the field. Emergent laparotomy was undertaken with suture ligature of a celiac injury and distal pancreatectomy/splenectomy for a pancreatic injury. Postoperative abdominal CT for an intraabdominal infection with leukocytosis revealed a 4 cm traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta that extended from the suprarenal aorta to the level of the renal arteries. Six weeks later, he underwent an open repair. Patient B sustained multiple GSWs to his right arm and right upper quadrant. He was hemodynamically stable. He underwent abdominal exploration for a grade 3 liver laceration. Postoperative abdominal CT revealed a supraceliac abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm. An aortogram demonstrated a 1.5 cm defect in the aortic wall above the celiac trunk communicating with the inferior vena cava (IVC). He underwent endovascular repair with covered aortic stent graft. Patient C sustained multiple thoracoabdominal GSWs. He was hemodynamically stable. Emergent laparotomy revealed multiple left colonic perforations, two duodenal lacerations, and an unsalvageable left kidney laceration. Postoperatively, he developed a duodenal-cutaneous fistula with multiple intraabdominal abscesses. Serial CT scans revealed an enlarging infrarenal aortic pseudoaneurysm. He underwent angiographic coil embolization and intraarterial injection of thrombin into the pseudoaneurysm sac. The average time from injury to surgical treatment was 46 days (range 29-67). Postoperatively, none of the patients developed paraplegia. Advances in endovascular techniques have provided options to deal with traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the abdominal aorta. In a hemodynamically stable

  15. Effect of Cellulose Synthesis Inhibition on Growth and the Integration of Xyloglucan into Pea Internode Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Hans G.; Fry, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB, 100 μm) inhibited by 80 to 85% the incorporation of [3H]glucose into cellulose in stem segments of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. The inhibition lasted for at least 24 h. In the period 1 to 4 h after the excision of the segments, DCB did not influence elongation in the presence or absence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). However, during the period 1 to 24 h after excision, DCB enhanced endogenous and 2,4-D-stimulated elongation by 65 and 34%, respectively. DCB did not affect the incorporation of 3H from [3H]arabinose into xyloglucan, and did not change the ability of the [3H]xyloglucan formed in vivo to bind strongly to the cell wall. Therefore, at least 80 to 85% of newly synthesized cellulose was excess to the requirements for tight wall binding of newly synthesized xyloglucan. This conflicts with the hypothesis that xyloglucan is held in the cell wall solely by direct hydrogen bonding to the surfaces of cellulosic microfibrils. PMID:16653086

  16. Double-walled Au nanocage/SiO2 nanorattles: integrating SERS imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guangcun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-02-25

    In this work, a novel type of nanomedical platform, the double-walled Au nanocage/SiO(2) nanorattle, is successfully fabricated by combining two "hollow-excavated strategies"--galvanic replacement and "surface-protected etching". The rational design of double-walled nanostructure based on gold nanocages (AuNCs) and hollow SiO(2) shells functionalized respectively with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) and Tat peptide simultaneously renders the nanoplatforms three functionalities: 1) the whole nanorattle serves as a high efficient drug carrier thanks to the structural characteristics of AuNC and SiO(2) shell with hollow interiors and porous walls; 2) the AuNC with large electromagnetic enhancement acts as a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to track the internalization process of the nanorattles by human MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as well as an efficient photothermal transducer for localized hyperthermia cancer therapy due to the strong near-infrared absorption; 3) Tat-functionalized SiO(2) shell not only improves biocompatibility and cell uptake efficiency resulting in enhanced anticancer efficacy but also prevents the AuNCs from aggregation and provides the stability of AuNCs so that the SERS signals can be used for cell tracking in high fidelity. The reported chemistry and the designed nanostructures should inspire more interesting nanostructures and applications. PMID:25348096

  17. Laparoscopic bridging vs. anatomic open reconstruction for midline abdominal hernia mesh repair [LABOR]: single-blinded, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial on long-term functional results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Re-approximation of the rectal muscles along the midline is recommended by some groups as a rule for incisional and ventral hernia repairs. The introduction of laparoscopic repair has generated a debate because it is not aimed at restoring abdominal wall integrity but instead aims just to bridge the defect. Whether restoration of the abdominal integrity has a real impact on patient mobility is questionable, and the available literature provides no definitive answer. The present study aims to compare the functional results of laparoscopic bridging with those of re-approximation of the rectal muscle in the midline as a mesh repair for ventral and incisional abdominal defect through an “open” access. We hypothesized that, for the type of defect suitable for a laparoscopic bridging, the effect of an anatomical reconstruction is near negligible, thus not a fixed rule. Methods and design The LABOR trial is a multicenter, prospective, two-arm, single-blinded, randomized trial. Patients of more than 60 years of age with a defect of less than 10 cm at its greatest diameter will be randomly submitted to open Rives or laparoscopic defect repair. All the participating patients will have a preoperative evaluation of their abdominal wall strength and mobility along with volumetry, respiratory function test, intraabdominal pressure and quality of life assessment. The primary outcome will be the difference in abdominal wall strength as measured by a double leg-lowering test performed at 12 months postoperatively. The secondary outcomes will be the rate of recurrence and changes in baseline abdominal mobility, respiratory function tests, intraabdominal pressure, CT volumetry and quality of life at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Discussion The study will help to define the most suitable treatment for small-medium incisional and primary hernias in patients older than 60 years. Given a similar mid-term recurrence rate in both groups, if the trial shows no differences

  18. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  19. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominalPa in inCh ildre n What is functional abdominal pain, and why does it happen? Most otherwise-healthy ... stomachaches for two months or more have functional abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that ...

  20. A report of three cases and review of the literature on rectal disruption following abdominal seatbelt trauma.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, J; Kraus, R; Guy, R

    2016-02-01

    Seatbelt associated blunt trauma to the rectum is a rare but well recognised injury. The exact mechanism of hollow visceral injury in blunt trauma is unclear. Stress and shear waves generated by abdominal compression may in part account for injury to gas containing structures. A 'seatbelt sign' (linear ecchymosis across the abdomen in the distribution of the lap belt) should raise the suspicion of hollow visceral injuries and can be more severe with disruption of the abdominal wall musculature. Three consecutive cases of rectal injury following blunt abdominal trauma, requiring emergency laparotomy and resection, are described. Lumbar spine injury occurred in one case and in the other two cases, there was injury to the iliac wing of the pelvis; all three cases sustained significant abdominal wall contusion or muscle disruption. Abdominal wall reconstruction and closure posed a particular challenge, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The literature on this topic is reviewed and potential mechanisms of injury are discussed. PMID:26741660

  1. Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Wan; Sohn, Tai Il; Shim, Hyo Sup; Kim, Choong Bai

    2005-12-31

    Esophageal duplication cysts are congenital anomalies of the foregut that are rarely found in the abdomen. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is not always possible, so the definitive diagnosis can be made by histologic examination of the surgical specimen. We experienced a case of Intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst in a 52-year-old female, who initially presented with an esophageal submucosal tumor on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. She did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. Barium esophagography, chest computed tomography scan and endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated the cystic lesion in the intra-abdominal esophagus. Transhiatal enucleation of the lesion was performed successfully via the abdominal approach with no postoperative complications. Histologic study showed that the cyst wall contained a two-layered muscle coat and the surface of the lumen was lined by pseudo-ciliated columnar epithelium. The patient has been doing well without any complaints for 3 months of follow-up period. PMID:16385665

  2. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  3. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane. PMID:26500635

  4. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane. PMID:26500635

  5. Role of tissue expanders in patients with loss of abdominal domain awaiting intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Melissa J; Kundu, Neilendu; Coppa, Christopher; Djohan, Risal; Hashimoto, Koji; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fujiki, Masato; Diago Uso, Teresa; Gandhi, Namita; Nassar, Ahmed; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Quintini, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal closure is a complex surgical problem in intestinal transplant recipients with loss of abdominal domain, as graft exposure results in profound morbidity. Although intraoperative coverage techniques have been described, this is the first report of preoperative abdominal wall augmentation using tissue expanders in patients awaiting intestinal transplantation. We report on five patients who received a total of twelve tissue expanders as a means to increase abdominal surface area. Each patient had a compromised abdominal wall (multiple prior operations, enterocutaneous fistulae, subcutaneous abscesses, stomas) with loss of domain and was identified as high risk for an open abdomen post-transplant. Cross-sectional imaging and dimensional analysis were performed to quantify the effect of the expanders on total abdominal and intraperitoneal cavity volumes. The overall mean increase in total abdominal volume was 958 cm(3) with a mean expander volume of 896.5 cc. Two expanders were removed in the first patient due to infection, but after protocol modification, there were no further infections. Three patients eventually underwent small bowel transplantation with complete graft coverage. In our preliminary experience, abdominal tissue expander placement is a safe, feasible, and well-tolerated method to increase subcutaneous domain and facilitate graft coverage in patients undergoing intestinal transplantation. PMID:24118196

  6. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  7. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  8. Micromanaging abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  9. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  10. Flow topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized widening of the abdominal aorta. Flow in AAA is dominated by recirculation, transitional turbulence and low wall shear stress. Image-based CFD has recently enabled high resolution flow data in patient-specific AAA. This study aims to characterize transport in different AAAs, and understand flow topology changes from rest to exercise, which has been a hypothesized therapy due to potential acute changes in flow. Velocity data in 6 patients with different AAA morphology were obtained using image-based CFD under rest and exercise conditions. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from integration of the velocity data to identify dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. The flow topology was compared between rest and exercise conditions. For all patients, the systolic inflow jet resulted in coherent vortex formation. The evolution of this vortex varied greatly between patients and was a major determinant of transport inside the AAA during diastole. During exercise, previously observed stagnant regions were either replaced with undisturbed flow, regions of uniform high mixing, or persisted relatively unchanged. A mix norm measure provided a quantitative assessment of mixing. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R21HL108272.

  11. Computational hemodynamics of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Three-dimensional ultrasound versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin; Lowe, Christopher; Ashton, Neil; Mandal, Parthasarathi; Rogers, Steven; Wein, Wolfgang; McCollum, Charles; Revell, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    The current criterion for surgical intervention in abdominal aortic aneurysms, based upon a maximal aortic diameter, is considered conservative due to the high mortality rate in case of rupture. The research community is actively investigating the use of computational mechanics tools combined with patient-specific imaging to help identify more accurate criteria. Widespread uptake of a successful metric will however be limited by the need for computed tomography, which is at present the primary image extraction method on account of the location and complex shape of the aneurysms. The use of three-dimensional ultrasound as the scanning method is more attractive on account of increased availability, reduced cost and reduced risk to patients. The suitability of three-dimensional ultrasound is assessed for this purpose in the present work; computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed on geometries obtained from the same patient using both ultrasound and computed tomography. The influence of different smoothing algorithms is investigated in the geometry preparation stage and Taubin's low-pass filter was found to best preserve geometry features. Laminar, Newtonian, steady-state simulation analysis identified haemodynamic characteristics to be qualitatively similar in terms of wall shear stress, velocity and vorticity. The study demonstrates the potential for three-dimensional ultrasound to be integrated into a more accessible patient-specific modelling tool able to identify the need for surgical intervention of abdominal aortic aneurysms. PMID:26893226

  12. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  13. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  14. Long Term Follow-Up of the Endovascular Trans-Vessel Wall Technique for Parenchymal Access in Rabbit with Full Clinical Integration

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Johan; Jonsson, Stefan; Holmin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Endovascular techniques are providing options to surgical/percutaneous cell transplantation methods. Some cells, e.g. insulin producing cells, are not suitable for intra-luminal transplantation and for such cells, other options must be found. We have constructed a “nanocatheter” with a penetrating tip for vessel perforation, thereby creating a working channel for parenchymal access by endovascular technique. To finish the procedure safely, the distal tip is detached to provide a securing plug in the vessel wall defect. Materials and Methods We have performed interventions with full clinical integration in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the subclavian artery and the external carotid artery in rabbits. No hemorrhagic- or thromboembolic events occurred during the procedure. Stenosis formation and distal embolisation were analyzed by angiography and macroscopic inspection during autopsy at five, 30 and 80 days. All animals and implanted devices were also evaluated by micro-dissections and histochemical analysis. Results In this study we show safety data on the trans-vessel wall technique by behavioral, angiographical and histological analysis. No stenosis formation was observed at any of the follow-up time points. No animals or organs have shown any signs of distress due to the intervention. Histological examination showed no signs of hemorrhage, excellent biocompatibility with no inflammation and a very limited fibrous capsule formation around the device, comparable to titanium implants. Further, no histological changes were detected in the endothelia of the vessels subject to intervention. Conclusions The trans-vessel wall technique can be applied for e.g. cell transplantations, local substance administration and tissue sampling with low risk for complications during the procedure and low risk for hemorrhage, stenosis development or adverse tissue reactions with an 80 days follow-up time. The benefit should be greatest in organs that are

  15. Wsc1 and Mid2 Are Cell Surface Sensors for Cell Wall Integrity Signaling That Act through Rom2, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rho1

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Bevin; Levin, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Wsc1 and Mid2 are highly O-glycosylated cell surface proteins that reside in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They have been proposed to function as mechanosensors of cell wall stress induced by wall remodeling during vegetative growth and pheromone-induced morphogenesis. These proteins are required for activation of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway that consists of the small G-protein Rho1, protein kinase C (Pkc1), and a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. We show here by two-hybrid experiments that the C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of Wsc1 and Mid2 interact with Rom2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho1. At least with regard to Wsc1, this interaction is mediated by the Rom2 N-terminal domain. This domain is distinct from the Rho1-interacting domain, suggesting that the GEF can interact simultaneously with a sensor and with Rho1. We also demonstrate that extracts from wsc1 and mid2 mutants are deficient in the ability to catalyze GTP loading of Rho1 in vitro, providing evidence that the function of the sensor-Rom2 interaction is to stimulate nucleotide exchange toward this G-protein. In a related line of investigation, we identified the PMT2 gene in a genetic screen for mutations that confer an additive cell lysis defect with a wsc1 null allele. Pmt2 is a member of a six-protein family in yeast that catalyzes the first step in O mannosylation of target proteins. We demonstrate that Mid2 is not mannosylated in a pmt2 mutant and that this modification is important for signaling by Mid2. PMID:11113201

  16. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases.

  17. The Houdini effect--an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in perforative appendicitis.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, F; Lim, K T; Hayes, B; Shields, W; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

    2012-03-01

    We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace's theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation. PMID:22558817

  18. A mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Jesper Damsgaard; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with HIV infection presented with acute severe abdominal pain radiating to the back. A CT scan revealed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, and an aortobifemoral bypass was undertaken. Subsequently, tissue specimens from the aortic wall grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient received 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment followed by oral sulfotrim as secondary prophylaxis and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:24443338

  19. Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP) Domain Transcription Factor MBZ1 Regulates Cell Wall Integrity, Spore Adherence, and Virulence in Metarhizium robertsii *

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Shang, Yanfang; Chen, Peilin; Cen, Kai; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) containing the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain are widely distributed in eukaryotes and display an array of distinct functions. In this study, a bZIP-type TF gene (MBZ1) was deleted and functionally characterized in the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. The deletion mutant (ΔMBZ1) showed defects in cell wall integrity, adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces, and topical infection of insects. Relative to the WT, ΔMBZ1 was also impaired in growth and conidiogenesis. Examination of putative target gene expression indicated that the genes involved in chitin biosynthesis were differentially transcribed in ΔMBZ1 compared with the WT, which led to the accumulation of a higher level of chitin in mutant cell walls. MBZ1 exhibited negative regulation of subtilisin proteases, but positive control of an adhesin gene, which is consistent with the observation of effects on cell autolysis and a reduction in spore adherence to hydrophobic surfaces in ΔMBZ1. Promoter binding assays indicated that MBZ1 can bind to different target genes and suggested the possibility of heterodimer formation to increase the diversity of the MBZ1 regulatory network. The results of this study advance our understanding of the divergence of bZIP-type TFs at both intra- and interspecific levels. PMID:25673695

  20. Candida albicans cell shaving uncovers new proteins involved in cell wall integrity, yeast to hypha transition, stress response and host-pathogen interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hernáez, María Luisa; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G.; Monteoliva, Lucia; Gil, Concha

    2015-01-01

    The ability to switch from yeast to hyphal growth is essential for virulence in Candida albicans. The cell surface is the initial point of contact between the fungus and the host. In this work, a free-gel proteomic strategy based on tryptic digestion of live yeast and hyphae cells and protein identification using LC-MS/MS methodology was used to identify cell surface proteins. Using this strategy, a total of 943 proteins were identified, of which 438 were in yeast and 928 were in hyphae. Of these proteins, 79 were closely related to the organization and biogenesis of the cell wall, including 28 GPI-anchored proteins, such as Hyr1 and Sod5 which were detected exclusively in hyphae, and Als2 and Sap10which were detected only in yeast. A group of 17 proteins of unknown function were subsequently studied by analysis of the corresponding deletion mutants. We found that four new proteins, Pst3, Tos1, Orf19.3060 and Orf19.5352 are involved in cell wall integrity and in C. albicans’ engulfment by macrophages. Moreover, the putative NADH-ubiquinone-related proteins, Ali1, Mci4, Orf19.287 and Orf19.7590, are also involved in osmotic and oxidative resistance, yeast to hypha transition and the ability to damage and invade oral epithelial cells. PMID:26087349

  1. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  2. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernia: one-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael S.

    1993-05-01

    In this study, 101 consecutive laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repairs (LTPR) were performed in 62 patients by a single surgeon. The series was begun in April 1991, and involved repair of 49 direct, 41 indirect, 4 femoral, 3 umbilical, 3 sliding, and 1 incisional hernias. Twelve cases were bilateral, eleven hernias were incarcerated, and fifteen hernias were recurrent. There were no intraoperative complications, and none of the procedures required conversion to open surgery. Patients experienced the following postoperative complications: transient testicular pain (1), transient anterior thigh paresthesias (2), urinary retention requiring TURP (1), and hernia recurrences (2). Follow up has ranged from 4 - 15 months and initial results have been encouraging.

  3. Abdominal wall hernias in the setting of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Belghiti, J; Durand, F

    1997-01-01

    In cirrhotic patients, umbilical hernias occur almost exclusively when longstanding ascites is present. Umbilical hernias expose cirrhotic patients to potentially life-threatening complications such as strangulation (which can be precipitated by rapid removal of ascitic fluid) and rupture (which is usually preceded by cutaneous ulcerations on the surface of the hernia). In cirrhotic patients, prevention of umbilical hernias is based on prevention of ascites. When prevention has failed, medical treatment of ascites should be first attempted. In patients in whom medical treatment is effective, and after ascites has disappeared, surgical treatment of umbilical hernia can be safely performed in most cases. In patients in whom medical treatment is ineffective and who develop refractory ascites, treatment strategy for umbilical hernia depends on the presence or absence of indication for liver transplantation. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation, careful local care with pressure bandage must be performed until transplantation. Herniorrhaphy must be performed at the time of transplantation. In patients with refractory ascites, and who are not candidates for transplantation, portocaval shunt, transjugular intrahepatic portocaval shunt (both followed by surgical herniorrhaphy when ascites has disappeared) or concomitant peritoneo-venous shunt and herniorrhaphy should be considered. In contrast to umbilical hernias, groin hernias are not markedly influenced by ascites. However, ascites is a major risk factor for surgery. Therefore, surgical repair should not be recommended in patients with ascites and poor liver function. In cirrhotic patients with incisional hernia, prosthetic devices should be avoided because of the high risk of bacterial infection. PMID:9308126

  4. The Rectangular Waveguide Board Wall Slot Array Antenna Integrated with One Dimensional Subwavelength Periodic Corrugated Grooves and Artificially Soft Surface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2009-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a high gain rectangular waveguide board wall slot array antenna, which is integrated with one dimensional subwavelength periodic corrugated grooves and artificially soft surface structure. The corresponding far field radiation characteristics are investigated. The simulation results show that the gain of planar 2 × 8 slot array antenna with the introduction of corrugated grooves structure is increased to 26.1 dB, and half power beamwidth in the E plane is considerably reduced. Compared with the subwavelength periodic grooves slits array antenna proposed by Huang et al.[Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143512 (2007)], the side and back lobe level of this antenna are also significantly reduced by 6 dB and 10 dB, respectively. The physical mechanism for radiation-pattern improvement has been well explained by the modulation of surface wave, the reradiation of surface energy, and suppression of surplus surface wave at the grounded edge.

  5. Multiphysics Engineering Analysis for an Integrated Design of ITER Diagnostic First Wall and Diagnostic Shield Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y.; Loesser, G.; Smith, M.; Udintsev, V.; Giacomin, T., T.; Khodak, A.; Johnson, D,; Feder, R,

    2015-07-01

    ITER diagnostic first walls (DFWs) and diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) inside the port plugs (PPs) are designed to protect diagnostic instrument and components from a harsh plasma environment and provide structural support while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of DFWs and DSMs are driven by 1) plasma radiation and nuclear heating during normal operation 2) electromagnetic loads during plasma events and associate component structural responses. A multi-physics engineering analysis protocol for the design has been established at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and it was used for the design of ITER DFWs and DSMs. The analyses were performed to address challenging design issues based on resultant stresses and deflections of the DFW-DSM-PP assembly for the main load cases. ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-Vessel Components (SDC-IC) required for design by analysis and three major issues driving the mechanical design of ITER DFWs are discussed. The general guidelines for the DSM design have been established as a result of design parametric studies.

  6. Posterior approach to kidney dissection: An old surgical approach for integrated medical curricula.

    PubMed

    Daly, Frank J; Bolender, David L; Jain, Deepali; Uyeda, Sheryl; Hoagland, Todd M

    2015-01-01

    Integrated medical curricular changes are altering the historical regional anatomy approach to abdominal dissection. The renal system is linked physiologically and biochemically to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems; yet, anatomists often approach the urinary system as part of the abdomen and pelvic regions. As part of an integrated curriculum, the renal system must be covered relatively quickly after the thorax in the cadaver laboratory, often without the opportunity to fully appreciate the rest of the abdominal contents. This article provides dissection instructions that follow one of the historical surgical approaches for nephrectomy, including preservation of the posterior abdominal wall neurovasclature. Dissection procedures were developed for first-year medical students, intending this posterior approach to the kidneys to be their first introduction to the renal system. It has been successfully implemented with the first-year medical students at the University of New England, College of Osteopathic Medicine. Utilizing this posterior approach to the kidney enabled the study of the anatomy of the kidneys, suprarenal glands, and renal vessels, as well as the muscles of the lumbar spine, while maintaining the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity for future gastrointestinal and reproductive system-based dissections. PMID:25688744

  7. Identification of putative negative regulators of yeast signaling through a screening for protein phosphatases acting on cell wall integrity and mating MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Martín, Humberto; Molina, María

    2015-04-01

    The lack of signaling through MAPK pathways leads to a defective cellular response to the corresponding stimulus, but an improper hyperactivation of these routes results in deleterious effects as well. Protein phosphorylation is an activating modification for signal transmission through components of MAPK pathways and thus, protein phosphatases are key negative regulators of these cellular routes by limiting excessive signaling activity. However, in contrast to most of the protein kinases operating in MAPK pathways, protein phosphatases usually exhibit redundancy and promiscuity, which has limited the identification of their function. In order to identify new putative phosphatases operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAPK signaling, we have taken advantage of growth inhibition promoted by overproduction of constitutively active components of the mating and cell wall integrity (CWI) pathways to perform a screen with a collection of 43 protein phosphatases or phosphatase-regulatory proteins. The phosphatases able to alleviate the induced growth inhibition when overproduced were further studied by testing their capacity to downregulate expression of mating and CWI responsive promoters and the consequences of their removal on MAPK signaling. Epistasis analysis placed the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppq1 as a regulator of the mating MAPK module downstream the MAPKKK Ste11. The dual specificity phosphatase Yvh1 was found to be important for the maintenance of cell wall integrity and appropriate signaling through the CWI pathway. Moreover, we have found that Ptc2 and Ptc4 bind to the CWI MAPK Slt2. Together with known phosphatases of the mating and CWI pathway, as Msg5 or Ptp2, other putative negative regulators of both pathways that came up in the screening were Ptc2, Oca2 and Ptp1. We show that Ptp1 physically interacts with Slt2 and the mating MAPK Fus3. Elimination of Ptp1 results in increased signaling through these pathways, suggesting that this tyrosine

  8. Different Anti-Contractile Function and Nitric Oxide Production of Thoracic and Abdominal Perivascular Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Jamaira A.; Fontes, Milene T.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Davel, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent phenotypes between the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding the abdominal and the thoracic aorta might be implicated in regional aortic differences, such as susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Although PVAT of the thoracic aorta exhibits anti-contractile function, the role of PVAT in the regulation of the vascular tone of the abdominal aorta is not well defined. In the present study, we compared the anti-contractile function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in PVAT and vessel walls of abdominal and thoracic aorta. Abdominal and thoracic aortic tissue from male Wistar rats were used to perform functional and molecular experiments. PVAT reduced the contraction evoked by phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium in the thoracic aorta, whereas this anti-contractile effect was not observed in the abdominal aorta. Abdominal PVAT exhibited a reduction in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression compared with thoracic PVAT, without differences in eNOS expression in the vessel walls. In agreement with this result, NO production evaluated in situ using 4,5-diaminofluorescein was less pronounced in abdominal compared with thoracic aortic PVAT, whereas no significant difference was observed for endothelial NO production. Moreover, NOS inhibition with L-NAME enhanced the phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelial-denuded rings with PVAT from thoracic but not abdominal aorta. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation products evaluated through the quantification of hydroethidine fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, respectively, were similar between PVAT and vessel walls from the abdominal and thoracic aorta. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was similar between the vessel walls and PVAT of the abdominal and thoracic aorta. However, Mn-SOD levels were reduced, while CuZn-SOD levels were increased in abdominal PVAT compared with thoracic aortic PVAT. In conclusion, our results

  9. Intra-abdominal inverted umblical cord in gastroschisis: a unique ultrasound finding.

    PubMed

    Koc, Gonca; Courtier, Jesse L; Kim, Jane S; Miniati, Douglas N; MacKenzie, John D

    2014-01-01

    A relatively new surgical technique allows for sutureless closure of a gastroschisis defect. Immediately after birth, a long umbilical cord stump is temporarily inverted into the abdominal cavity and later retracted and used to close the abdominal wall defect. Knowledge of this entity is important since the inverted umbilical cord simulates an intra-abdominal mass on cross-sectional imaging. While this procedure is well described in the surgical literature, the imaging features of inverted umbilical cord have yet to be reported. The case presented here highlights the sonographic imaging findings of the umbilical cord during the intestinal decompression phase of sutureless repair of gastroschisis. PMID:23907187

  10. The Candida albicans Exocyst Subunit Sec6 Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity and Is a Determinant of Hyphal Branching

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A.; Bernardo, Stella M.; Rane, Hallie S.; Herrera, Gloria; Kulkarny, Vibhati; Wagener, Jeanette; Cunningham, Iain; Brand, Alexandra C.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The yeast exocyst is a multiprotein complex comprised of eight subunits (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84) which orchestrates trafficking of exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane during polarized secretion. To study SEC6 function in Candida albicans, we generated a conditional mutant strain in which SEC6 was placed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. In the repressed state, the tetR-SEC6 mutant strain (denoted tSEC6) was viable for up to 27 h; thus, all phenotypic analyses were performed at 24 h or earlier. Strain tSEC6 under repressing conditions had readily apparent defects in cytokinesis and endocytosis and accumulated both post-Golgi apparatus secretory vesicles and structures suggestive of late endosomes. Strain tSEC6 was markedly defective in secretion of aspartyl proteases and lipases as well as filamentation under repressing conditions. Lack of SEC6 expression resulted in markedly reduced lateral hyphal branching, which requires the establishment of a new axis of polarized secretion. Aberrant localization of chitin at the septum and increased resistance to zymolyase activity were observed, suggesting that C. albicans Sec6 plays an important role in mediating trafficking and delivery of cell wall components. The tSEC6 mutant was also markedly defective in macrophage killing, indicating a role of SEC6 in C. albicans virulence. Taken together, these studies indicate that the late secretory protein Sec6 is required for polarized secretion, hyphal morphogenesis, and the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26002719

  11. The Candida albicans Exocyst Subunit Sec6 Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity and Is a Determinant of Hyphal Branching.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A; Bernardo, Stella M; Rane, Hallie S; Herrera, Gloria; Kulkarny, Vibhati; Wagener, Jeanette; Cunningham, Iain; Brand, Alexandra C; Gow, Neil A R; Lee, Samuel A

    2015-07-01

    The yeast exocyst is a multiprotein complex comprised of eight subunits (Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84) which orchestrates trafficking of exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane during polarized secretion. To study SEC6 function in Candida albicans, we generated a conditional mutant strain in which SEC6 was placed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. In the repressed state, the tetR-SEC6 mutant strain (denoted tSEC6) was viable for up to 27 h; thus, all phenotypic analyses were performed at 24 h or earlier. Strain tSEC6 under repressing conditions had readily apparent defects in cytokinesis and endocytosis and accumulated both post-Golgi apparatus secretory vesicles and structures suggestive of late endosomes. Strain tSEC6 was markedly defective in secretion of aspartyl proteases and lipases as well as filamentation under repressing conditions. Lack of SEC6 expression resulted in markedly reduced lateral hyphal branching, which requires the establishment of a new axis of polarized secretion. Aberrant localization of chitin at the septum and increased resistance to zymolyase activity were observed, suggesting that C. albicans Sec6 plays an important role in mediating trafficking and delivery of cell wall components. The tSEC6 mutant was also markedly defective in macrophage killing, indicating a role of SEC6 in C. albicans virulence. Taken together, these studies indicate that the late secretory protein Sec6 is required for polarized secretion, hyphal morphogenesis, and the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26002719

  12. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms “DIEP”, “deep inferior epigastric”, “TRAM”, “transverse rectus abdominis”, “perforator” and “laparotomy”, “abdominal wall”, “liposuction”, “liposculpture”, “fat graft”, “pfannenstiel”, with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Results: Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. Conclusions: We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months. PMID:25671046

  13. Computed tomography (CT) of bowel and mesenteric injury in blunt abdominal trauma: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian; Mohamed, Siti Kamariah Che

    2012-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is currently the diagnostic modality of choice in the evaluation of clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, including the assessment of blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries. CT signs of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries are bowel wall defect, free air, oral contrast material extravasation, extravasation of contrast material from mesenteric vessels, mesenteric vascular beading, abrupt termination of mesenteric vessels, focal bowel wall thickening, mesenteric fat stranding, mesenteric haematoma and intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal fluid. This pictorial essay illustrates CT features of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Pitfalls in interpretation of images are emphasized in proven cases. PMID:23082464

  14. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  15. Small bowel wall thickening: MDCT evaluation in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Akcalar, Seray; Turkbey, Baris; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akpinar, Erhan; Akhan, Okan

    2011-10-01

    Small bowel wall thickening detected on computed tomography is a frequent finding in patients referring to emergency room with acute abdominal pain. In this pictorial review, we aim to discuss patterns of small bowel wall thickening and to explain hints for differential diagnosis with imaging findings. PMID:21681404

  16. PRO40 Is a Scaffold Protein of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway, Linking the MAP Kinase Module to the Upstream Activator Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Ines; Steffens, Eva Katharina; Schnaß, Nicole; Fränzel, Benjamin; Krisp, Christoph; Wolters, Dirk A.; Kück, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes. Most ascomycetes possess three MAPK modules that are involved in key developmental processes like sexual propagation or pathogenesis. However, the regulation of these modules by adapters or scaffolds is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of the cell wall integrity (CWI) MAPK module in the model fungus Sordaria macrospora. Using a forward genetic approach, we found that sterile mutant pro30 has a mutated mik1 gene that encodes the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) of the proposed CWI pathway. We generated single deletion mutants lacking MAPKKK MIK1, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) MEK1, or MAPK MAK1 and found them all to be sterile, cell fusion-deficient and highly impaired in vegetative growth and cell wall stress response. By searching for MEK1 interaction partners via tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified previously characterized developmental protein PRO40 as a MEK1 interaction partner. Although fungal PRO40 homologs have been implicated in diverse developmental processes, their molecular function is currently unknown. Extensive affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that PRO40 is able to bind MIK1, MEK1, and the upstream activator protein kinase C (PKC1). We further found that the PRO40 N-terminal disordered region and the central region encompassing a WW interaction domain are sufficient to govern interaction with MEK1. Most importantly, time- and stress-dependent phosphorylation studies showed that PRO40 is required for MAK1 activity. The sum of our results implies that PRO40 is a scaffold protein for the CWI pathway, linking the MAPK module to the upstream activator PKC1. Our data provide important insights into the mechanistic role of a protein that has been implicated in sexual and asexual development, cell fusion, symbiosis, and pathogenicity in different fungal systems. PMID:25188365

  17. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization, and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Wang, Nancong; Yang, Guogen; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homolog in Colletotrichum lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum. PMID:27536296

  18. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Wang, Nancong; Yang, Guogen; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homolog in Colletotrichum lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum. PMID:27536296

  19. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved. This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH. PMID:26871848

  20. Abdominal bloating: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, A Young; Kim, Nayoung; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  1. Abdominal pain with a twist

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Malrotation in children is due to either an incomplete or non-rotation of the foetal mid-gut during perinatal development. Presentation is usually in the first few weeks of life, often with life-threatening volvulus and ischaemia. However, it can be a rare cause of abdominal pain in older children and young adults. We present such a case, as a reminder to emergency physicians that malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or chronic abdominal pain not only in children but also in adolescents. PMID:21635723

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  3. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  4. [Intra-abdominal infection and new quinolones].

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, C A

    1999-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infection is defined as the presence of an infectious process within the peritoneal cavity. It may be local or have a systemic consequence generating multiple organic disfunction. Most of the studies report a mortality of 30% in severe intra-abdominal infection. Secondary peritonitis is caused by the loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal apparatus, which contaminates with pathogens the peritoneal cavity. Invariably they are polymicrobial infections, mostly due to facultative anaerobic and anaerobic Gram negative bacilli. Prognosis of peritonitis depends on the struggle between two forces: local and systemic immunity of the host and the volume, nature and length of the contamination. Microorganisms and their products estimulate cellular defenses in the host and activate numerous inflammatory mediators responsible for sepsis. Antibiotic treatment of secondary peritonitis must act mainly against Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The adequate and early empirical administration of antibiotics against these bacteria is well established. It is necessary to consider if the infection is localized or generalized and if it is accompanied or not by organic disfunction. It also has to be taken into account if peritonitis is community or hospital-acquired when choosing the antibiotic scheme. In community-acquired peritonitis with low to moderate infections a combination of metronidazole-ceftriaxone, metronidazole-gentamycin or a monodrug like ampicillin-sulbactam may be used. In severe hospital-acquired peritonitis imipenem or the combination piperacillin-tazobactam are effective. New quinolones such as trovafloxacin or clinafloxacin, with excellent activity against aerobes and anaerobes producing intra-abdominal infections, may be effective. Future clinical trials are needed to determine their utility. Tertiary peritonitis represent a systemic inflammatory response with multiorganic failure due to the uncontrolled activation of the inflammatory

  5. Highly Dynamic and Specific Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Septin, and Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Responses Correlate with Caspofungin Activity against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Nguyen, M Hong; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively. PI(4,5)P2 was also visualized in GFP-PH domain-expressing C. albicans mkc1 mutants. Mkc1p phosphorylation was measured as a marker of PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation. Fungicidal activity was assessed using 20-h time-kill assays. Caspofungin immediately induced PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10p colocalization to aberrant foci, a process that was highly dynamic over 3 h. PI(4,5)P2 levels increased in a dose-response manner at caspofungin concentrations of ≤4× MIC and progressively decreased at concentrations of ≥8× MIC. Caspofungin exposure resulted in broad-based mother-daughter bud necks and arrested septum-like structures, in which PI(4,5)P2 and Cdc10 colocalized. PKC-Mkc1 pathway activation was maximal within 10 min, peaked in response to caspofungin at 4× MIC, and declined at higher concentrations. The caspofungin-induced PI(4,5)P2 redistribution remained apparent in mkc1 mutants. Caspofungin exerted dose-dependent killing and paradoxical effects at ≤4× and ≥8× MIC, respectively. Fluconazole, amphotericin B, calcofluor white, and H2O2 did not impact the PI(4,5)P2 or Cdc10p distribution like caspofungin did. Caspofungin exerts rapid PI(4,5)P2-septin and PKC-Mkc1 responses that correlate with the extent of C. albicans killing, and the responses are not induced by other antifungal agents. PI(4,5)P2-septin regulation is crucial in early

  6. The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F T; Taylor, W Robert

    2012-10-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and β-aminopropionitrile (β-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas β-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and β-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and β-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs. PMID:22904155

  7. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  8. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  9. Effect of rib cage and abdominal restriction on total respiratory resistance and reactance.

    PubMed

    van Noord, J A; Demedts, M; Clément, J; Cauberghs, M; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1986-11-01

    In 14 healthy male subjects we studied the effects of rib cage and abdominal strapping on lung volumes, airway resistance (Raw), and total respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). Rib cage, as well as abdominal, strapping caused a significant decrease in vital capacity (respectively, -36 and -34%), total lung capacity (TLC) (-31 and -27%), functional residual capacity (FRC) (-28 and -28%), and expiratory reserve volume (-40 and -48%) and an increase in specific airway conductance (+24 and +30%) and in maximal expiratory flow at 50% of control TLC (+47 and +42%). The decrease of residual volume (RV) was significant (-12%) with rib cage strapping only. Abdominal strapping resulted in a minor overall increase in Rrs, whereas rib cage strapping produced a more marked increase at low frequencies; thus a frequency dependence of Rrs was induced. A similar pattern, but with lower absolute values, of Rrs was obtained by thoracic strapping when the subject was breathing at control FRC. Xrs was decreased, especially at low frequencies, with abdominal strapping and even more with thoracic strapping; thus the resonant frequency of the respiratory system was shifted toward higher frequencies. Partitioning Rrs and Xrs into resistance and reactance of lungs and chest wall demonstrated that the different effects of chest wall and abdominal strapping on Rrs and Xrs reflect changes mainly of chest wall mechanics. PMID:3781983

  10. [Chest wall reconstruction after resection of malignant chest wall tumors].

    PubMed

    Ayabe, H; Oka, T; Akamine, S; Takahashi, T; Nagayasu, T

    1998-05-01

    Full-thickness chest wall resection is performed for complete removal of primary and secondary malignant chest wall tumors. Large defects of the chest wall after resection must be repaired to maintain adequate ventilation, to protect important intrathoracic structures, and to preserve cosmetic integrity. Various materials have been utilized over the years to replace the rigid chest wall. At present, Marlex mesh and a composite of Marlex mesh and methylmethacrylate are frequently used to reconstruct rigid chest wall defects. On the other hand, to replace the soft part of the chest wall and cover the rigid materials, pedicled muscle flaps, myocutaneous flaps, or omentum are used. Major pedicled flaps include the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and latissimus dorsi muscular, and musculocutaneous flaps. Techniques are now available to repair any chest wall site, and to restore chest continuity in patients whose tumors are curatively resected. PMID:9656244

  11. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  12. Segmental Aortic Stiffening Contributes to Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development

    PubMed Central

    Raaz, Uwe; Zöllner, Alexander M.; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Brandt, Moritz; Emrich, Fabian C.; Kayama, Yosuke; Eken, Suzanne; Adam, Matti; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hertel, Thomas; Deng, Alicia; Jagger, Ann; Buerke, Michael; Dalman, Ronald L.; Spin, Joshua M.; Kuhl, Ellen; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stiffening of the aortic wall is a phenomenon consistently observed in age and in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, its role in AAA pathophysiology is largely undefined. Methods and Results Using an established murine elastase-induced AAA model, we demonstrate that segmental aortic stiffening (SAS) precedes aneurysm growth. Finite element analysis (FEA) reveals that early stiffening of the aneurysm-prone aortic segment leads to axial (longitudinal) wall stress generated by cyclic (systolic) tethering of adjacent, more compliant wall segments. Interventional stiffening of AAA-adjacent aortic segments (via external application of surgical adhesive) significantly reduces aneurysm growth. These changes correlate with reduced segmental stiffness of the AAA-prone aorta (due to equalized stiffness in adjacent segments), reduced axial wall stress, decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), attenuated elastin breakdown, and decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration, as well as attenuated apoptosis within the aortic wall. Cyclic pressurization of segmentally stiffened aortic segments ex vivo increases the expression of genes related to inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Finally, human ultrasound studies reveal that aging, a significant AAA risk factor, is accompanied by segmental infrarenal aortic stiffening. Conclusions The present study introduces the novel concept of segmental aortic stiffening (SAS) as an early pathomechanism generating aortic wall stress and triggering aneurysmal growth, thereby delineating potential underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. In addition, monitoring SAS may aid the identification of patients at risk for AAA. PMID:25904646

  13. The antimicrobial activity of Cbf-K16 against MRSA was enhanced by β-lactamantibiotics through cell wall non-integrity.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Kang, Wei; Liu, Hanhan; Wang, Yanrong; Yu, Changzhong; Zhu, Xinyi; Dou, Jie; Cai, Haibo; Zhou, Changlin

    2016-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens both in health care and in community-onset infections. Cbf-K16, a cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptide, presented broad antimicrobial activity during our previous studies. We evaluated the potential for synergy of Cbf-K16 with ceftazidime/ampicilin against MRSA, which was resistant to these two antibiotics with the minimum inhibitory concentration more than 64 μg/ml. The combinations showed a synergistic effect by a checkerboard assay with a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤0.5. The killing curves of the combination treatment against MRSA showed that CFU counts decreased rapidly within 4 h by almost five logs, while single medication groups and the control group exhibited little inhibitory effect. In addition, in a mice bacteremia model, studies indicated that the combination treatment significantly prolonged the survival time of mice infected with MRSA, with a death protection rate of 80 %. Flow cytometry analysis and transmission electron microscopy indicated that combination-treated MRSA was completely ruptured with the cellular contents leaked out. The synergistic effect showed that Cbf-K16 selectively killed cells with non-integrity induced by cell wall inhibition antibiotics, suggesting that Cbf-K16 is a potential therapeutic agent and adjuvant for antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:27287456

  14. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  15. Conservative management of an abdominal gunshot injury with a peritoneal breach: wisdom or absurdity?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salma; Pardhan, Amyn; Bawa, Tufail; Haroon, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    Surgical exploration has been the standard of care for abdominal gunshot injuries. The authors report a case of a 28-year-old man who sustained a transabdominal gunshot injury, which entered the anterior abdominal wall and exited adjacent to the T12 vertebra posteriorly with a tangential trajectory. On presentation, the patient was haemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Based on trajectory of the bullet, intra-abdominal injury was suspected. Therefore a CT scan abdomen with intravenous and rectal contrast was performed. The CT scan revealed no extravasation of the rectal contrast but showed free air specks behind the descending colon. Delayed renal images of the left ureter were also normal. Based on the clinical findings, the patient was managed non-operatively with nothing per oral, intravenous antibiotics and frequent abdominal assessments. He made an uneventful recovery without necessitating laparotomy. PMID:24272989

  16. Implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.; Green, W.L.; Dein, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a surgical procedure for implanting intra-abdominal radiotransmitters with external whip antennas in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Transmitters were implanted in the abdominal cavity and the antennas exited through the caudal abdominal wall and skin. Birds with implanted transmitters developed mild to moderate localized air sac reactions. These reactions involved adhesions of the right anterior abdominal air sac to the liver with contractions around the transmitters and antenna catheters. The adhesions were reinforced by a proliferation of connective tissue and lined by multinucleated giant cells (foreign body reaction). Casual observation indicated that neither behavior nor activity of the birds was altered by the histological reaction to the transmitter implant. No increase in systemic lesions (particularly liver or kidney) could be correlated with the histological reactions. Our evaluations indicate that the procedure is a reliable method for radiomarking ducks and the technique has been successfully used in 2 field studies.

  17. Isolated abdominal wound recurrence after lymph-node dissection for appendiceal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishimaru, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Uekusa, Toshimasa; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with acute abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant underwent an appendectomy via McBurney's incision. Postoperative histology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in the appendix that invaded the submucosa along with lymphatic involvement. Forty-three days later, an ileocecal resection with radical lymph node dissection was performed through a midline incision. Three of the 30 resected lymph nodes were found to have adenocarcinoma metastasis. Five years later, an isolated abdominal wall recurrence occurred within the wound scar of the midline incision. A complete excision of the tumor and the invaded portion of the ileum was performed. To date, the patient has been well, with no evidence of recurrence for 5 years since the resection. The mechanism of abdominal wound recurrence is considered the leakage of carcinoma cells from transected lymph vessels during lymph node dissection, followed by the implantation of these cells into the abdominal wound. PMID:19837396

  18. Sterile abdominal abscess resulting from remnant laparoscopic clips after sigmoidectomy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Komori, Koji; Kimura, Kenya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuichi; Uemura, Norihisa; Kawai, Ryosuke; Osawa, Takaaki; Kawakami, Jiro; Asano, Tomonari; Iwata, Yoshinori; Kurahashi, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2014-08-01

    The occurrence of intra-abdominal sterile abscesses due to remnant clips after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy is rare. Here, we report one such case in a 74-year-old woman. Two years after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, abdominal CT indicated an area of fluid accumulation approximately 5 cm in diameter and located in the middle of the abdominal cavity that contained a cluster of clips. Fine-needle aspiration of the fluid was performed through the wall of the sigmoid colon. The luminal fluid was found not to contain cancer cells on histological examination. After 1 year, abdominal surgery was performed. The abscess was located in the mesorectum at the anastomosis site; it was incised and a significant quantity of ivory-white viscous solution containing a cluster of clips was extracted. This case emphasizes the importance of reducing the number of clips used in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25131325

  19. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, V; Mylona, E; Mouravas, V; Tsakalidis, C; Spyridakis, I; Mitsiakos, G; Karagianni, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  20. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mylona, E.; Tsakalidis, C.; Spyridakis, I.; Mitsiakos, G.; Karagianni, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  1. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early

  2. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

  3. Respiratory kinematics by optoelectronic analysis of chest-wall motion and ultrasonic imaging of the diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliverti, Andrea; Pedotti, Antonio; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Macklem, P. T.

    1998-07-01

    Although from a respiratory point of view, compartmental volume change or lack of it is the most crucial variable, it has not been possible to measure the volume of chest wall compartments directly. Recently we developed a new method based on a optoelectronic motion analyzer that can give the three-dimensional location of many markers with the temporal and spatial accuracy required for respiratory measurements. Marker's configuration has been designed specifically to measure the volume of three chest wall compartments, the pulmonary and abdominal rib cage compartments and the abdomen, directly. However, it can not track the exact border between the two rib cage compartments (pulmonary and abdominal) which is determined by the cephalic extremity of the area of apposition of the diaphragm to the inner surface of the rib cage, and which can change systematically as a result of disease processes. The diaphragm displacement can be detected by ultrasonography. In the present study, we propose an integrated system able to investigate the relationships between external (chest wall) and internal (diaphragm) movements of the different respiratory structures by simultaneous external imaging with the optoelectronic system combined with internal kinematic imaging using ultrasounds. 2D digitized points belonging to the lower lung margin, taken from ultrasonographic views, are mapped into the 3D space, where chest wall markers are acquired. Results are shown in terms of accuracy of 3D probe location, relative movement between the probe and the body landmarks, dynamic relationships between chest wall volume and position of the diaphragm during quiet breathing, slow inspirations, relaxations and exercise.

  4. Typhlitis and abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli).

    PubMed

    Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Gál, János; Németh, Attila; Perge, Edina; Lajos, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor

    2012-06-01

    An abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis in a Mt. Carmel blind mole rat (Nannospalax (ehrenbergi) carmeli) is described. This case was most likely due to a congenital abnormality with long-term compensation by the animal. The case describes the clinical course and subsequent postmortem examination. The death in the animal was caused by an abscess in the peritoneal wall and subsequent peritonitis. PMID:22779253

  5. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the <10 kg, 10-19.9 kg, 20-29.9 kg and ≥30 kg weight groups, respectively. Mean (±SD) esophageal wall thicknesses were: 4.1 mm (±0.6), 5.1 mm (±1.3), 5.6 mm (±1), and 6.4 mm (±1.1) for the same weight groups, respectively. Measurements of wall thickness were significantly correlated with dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. PMID:24629089

  6. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  7. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

  8. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  9. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  10. Abdominal compartment syndrome as a rare complication following component separation repair: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Allen, H S; Hunter, C; Lee, G K

    2015-04-01

    One of the most feared complications following a massive ventral hernia repair is abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS is caused by an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which can lead to multi-organ dysfunction and ultimately result in death. Component separation repair (CST) has been successful for most large hernia repairs in reducing the risk of ACS by increasing abdominal volume and reducing abdominal wall tension during a tight closure. However, reduction of a large hernia can lead to elevated IAP and possible progression to ACS. Here, we describe the detailed intra-operative and post-operative course of a patient who developed abdominal compartment syndrome following CST repair. PMID:25739715

  11. Putative PmrA and PmcA are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hechun; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPases are Ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic Ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular Ca(2+) store lumens. In budding yeast, Pmr1 (plasma membrane ATPase related), and Pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-ATPase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. Here, we deleted two putative Ca(2+) pumps, designated AnPmrA and AnPmcA, from Aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants ΔanpmrA and ΔanpmcA, respectively. Then, using ΔanpmrA as the starting strain, the promoter of its anpmcA was replaced with the alcA promoter to secure the mutant ΔanpmrAalcApmcA or its anpmcA was deleted completely to produce the mutant ΔanpmrAΔpmcA. Different from the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double deletion of anpmrA and anpmcA was not lethal in A. nidulans. In addition, deletion of anpmrA and/or anpmcA had produced growth defects, although overexpression of AnPmc1 in ΔanpmrAalcApmcA could not restore the growth defects that resulted from the loss of AnPmrA. Moreover, we found AnPmrA was indispensable for maintenance of normal morphogenesis, especially in low-Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) environments. Thus, our findings suggest AnPmrA and AnPmcA might play important roles in growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in A. nidulans in a different way from that in yeasts. PMID:25118249

  12. MoGrr1, a novel F-box protein, is involved in conidiogenesis and cell wall integrity and is critical for the full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Gao, Fei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Nie, Xiang; Pan, YueMin; Gao, Zhimou

    2015-10-01

    The production of asexual spores plays a critical role in rice blast disease. However, the mechanisms of the genes involved in the conidiogenesis pathway are not well understood. F-box proteins are specific adaptors to E3 ubiquitin ligases that determine the fate of different substrates in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and play diverse roles in fungal growth regulation. Here, we identify a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grr1 homolog, MoGrr1, in Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted disruption of Mogrr1 resulted in defects in vegetative growth, melanin pigmentation, conidial production, and resistance to oxidative stress, and these mutants consequently exhibited attenuated virulence to host plants. Microscopy studies revealed that the inability to form conidiophores is responsible for the defect in conidiation. Although the Mogrr1 mutants could develop melanized appressoria from hyphal tips, the appressoria were unable to penetrate into plant tissues due to insufficient turgor pressure within the appressorium, thereby attenuating the virulence of the mutants. Quantitative RT-PCR results revealed significantly decreased expression of chitin synthase-encoding genes, which are involved in fungal cell wall integrity, in the Mogrr1 mutants. The Mogrr1 mutants also displayed reduced expression of central components of the MAP kinase and cAMP signaling pathways, which are required for appressorium differentiation. Furthermore, domain complementation analysis indicated that two putative protein-interacting domains in MoGrr1 play essential roles during fungal development and pathogenicity. Taken together, our results suggest that MoGrr1 plays essential roles in fungal development and is required for the full virulence of M. oryzae. PMID:26227409

  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins are required for the G1/S transition, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell wall integrity.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, Francisca; Panza, Andrea; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2006-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved polypeptides that participate in many biological processes by binding phosphorylated target proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMH1 and BMH2 genes, whose concomitant deletion is lethal, encode two functionally redundant 14-3-3 isoforms. To gain insights into the essential function(s) shared by these proteins, we searched for high-dosage suppressors of the growth defects of temperature-sensitive bmh mutants. Both the protein kinase C1 (Pkc1) and its upstream regulators Wsc2 and Mid2 were found to act as high dosage suppressors of bmh mutants' temperature sensitivity, indicating a functional interaction between 14-3-3 and Pkc1. Consistent with a role of 14-3-3 proteins in Pkc1-dependent cellular processes, shift to the restrictive temperature of bmh mutants severely impaired initiation of DNA replication, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, and budding, as well as cell wall integrity. Because Pkc1 acts in concert with the Swi4-Swi6 (SBF) transcriptional activator to control all these processes, the defective G(1)/S transition of bmh mutants might be linked to impaired SBF activity. Indeed, the levels of the G(1) cyclin CLN2 transcripts, which are positively regulated by SBF, were dramatically reduced in bmh mutants. Remarkably, budding and DNA replication defects of bmh mutants were suppressed by CLN2 expression from an SBF-independent promoter, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins might contribute to regulating the late G(1) transcriptional program. PMID:16648583

  14. Lung volumes, chest wall configuration, and pattern of breathing in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Paiva, M; Estenne, M; Engel, L A

    1989-10-01

    We studied the changes in functional residual capacity (FRC), thoracoabdominal volume (Vw), and chest wall configuration in five normal subjects seated in an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories resulting in 20-s periods of microgravity. We measured vital capacity (VC), inspiratory capacity, and tidal volume by integrating airflow at the mouth and changes in rib cage and abdominal volume (delta Vrc and delta Vab, respectively, where delta Vrc + delta Vab = delta Vw) using induction plethysmography. During microgravity (0 Gz) FRC decreased by 413 +/- 70 (SE) ml and VC by 0.37 liter. The decrease in Vw did not differ from that in FRC and was entirely the result of reduction of Vab, the Vrc showing no significant change. During tidal breathing the abdominal contribution (delta Vab/delta Vw) increased from 0.39 +/- 0.08 at 1 Gz to 0.57 +/- 0.08 at 0 Gz. During brief periods of hypergravity (approximately 1.8 Gz) all changes were opposite in sign and relatively smaller. Limited data during "roller coaster" flight patterns suggested that, in contrast to configurational changes, the temporal pattern of breathing was uninfluenced by changes in Gz. We conclude that at the onset of weightlessness there are substantial changes in lung volume and thoracoabdominal configuration. Abdominal contribution to tidal excursions increases but the temporal pattern of breathing is unchanged. PMID:2793756

  15. Multi-Atlas Segmentation for Abdominal Organs with Gaussian Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid/gray matter/white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation. PMID:25914508

  16. Multi-atlas segmentation for abdominal organs with Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid / gray matter / white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  17. Inhibition of microRNA-29b reduces murine abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Azuma, Junya; Toh, Ryuji; Merk, Denis R; Deng, Alicia; Chin, Jocelyn T; Raaz, Uwe; Schoelmerich, Anke M; Raiesdana, Azad; Leeper, Nicholas J; McConnell, Michael V; Dalman, Ronald L; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S

    2012-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play crucial roles in vascular integrity. As such, they may have a role in modifying abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) expansion, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which remain incompletely explored. Here, we investigate the role of miRs in 2 murine models of experimental AAA: the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) infusion model in C57BL/6 mice and the AngII infusion model in Apoe-/- mice. AAA development was accompanied by decreased aortic expression of miR-29b, along with increased expression of known miR-29b targets, Col1a1, Col3a1, Col5a1, and Eln, in both models. In vivo administration of locked nucleic acid anti-miR-29b greatly increased collagen expression, leading to an early fibrotic response in the abdominal aortic wall and resulting in a significant reduction in AAA progression over time in both models. In contrast, overexpression of miR-29b using a lentiviral vector led to augmented AAA expansion and significant increase of aortic rupture rate. Cell culture studies identified aortic fibroblasts as the likely vascular cell type mediating the profibrotic effects of miR-29b modulation. A similar pattern of reduced miR-29b expression and increased target gene expression was observed in human AAA tissue samples compared with that in organ donor controls. These data suggest that therapeutic manipulation of miR-29b and its target genes holds promise for limiting AAA disease progression and protecting from rupture. PMID:22269326

  18. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm treated by endovascular surgery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Alconero-Camarero, Ana Rosa; Cobo-Sánchez, José Luis; Casaus-Pérez, María; García-Campo, María Elena; García-Zarrabeitia, María José; Calvo-Diez, Marta; Mirones-Valdeolivas, Luz Elena

    2008-01-01

    An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually leads to rupture. Treatment is surgical, consisting of the introduction of a prosthesis, composed basically of a stent and an introducer, into the aorta. We report the case of a person diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm in a routine examination who was admitted for ambulatory surgical treatment. We designed a nursing care plan, following Virginia Henderson's conceptual model. The care plan was divided into 2 parts, a first preoperative phase and a second postimplantation or monitoring phase. The care plan contained the principal nursing diagnoses, based on the taxonomies of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), nursing interventions classification (NIC) and nursing outcomes classifications (NOC), and collaboration problems/potential complications. The patient was discharged to home after contact was made with his reference nurse in the primary health center, since during the hospital phase, some NOC indicators remained unresolved. PMID:18448049

  19. Direct calculation of wall interferences and wall adaptation for two-dimensional flow in wind tunnels with closed walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amecke, Juergen

    1986-01-01

    A method for the direct calculation of the wall induced interference velocity in two dimensional flow based on Cauchy's integral formula was derived. This one-step method allows the calculation of the residual corrections and the required wall adaptation for interference-free flow starting from the wall pressure distribution without any model representation. Demonstrated applications are given.

  20. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J

    1993-06-01

    The growing popularity of nonoperative treatment of children with splenic injuries has seduced some physicians into a false sense of security regarding care of the injured child. Although it has been established that hemodynamically stable children with splenic, hepatic, and even renal injuries can safely be treated "expectantly," this concept cannot be applied indiscriminately. Accurate diagnosis and effective care of the child with blunt abdominal trauma is an exercise of clinical precision that demands attention to detail and thorough evaluation. This review addresses this process in light of recent advances in diagnostic imaging and in consideration of recent reports analyzing different protocols for therapeutic decision making. PMID:8374651

  1. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  2. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  3. Assessing abdominal aorta narrowing using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawi, Mohammad; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of developing arterial blockage at the abdominal aorta on the blood pressure waves at an externally accessible location suitable for invasive measurements such as the brachial and the femoral arteries. Arterial blockages are created surgically within the abdominal aorta of healthy Wistar rats to create narrowing resemblance conditions. Blood pressure is measured using a catheter inserted into the right femoral artery. Measurements are taken at the baseline healthy condition as well as at four different severities (20, 50, 80 and 100 %) of arterial blockage. In vivo and in vitro measurements of the lumen diameter and wall thickness are taken using magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic techniques, respectively. These data are used to validate a 3D computational fluid dynamics model which is developed to generalize the outcomes of this work and to determine the arterial stress and strain under the blockage conditions. This work indicates that an arterial blockage in excess of 20 % of the lumen diameter significantly influences the pressure wave and reduces the systolic blood pressure at the right femoral artery. High wall shear stresses and low circumferential strains are also generated at the blockage site. PMID:26319006

  4. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: Structural and geometrical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesri, Yaser; Niazmand, Hamid; Deyranlou, Amin; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-08-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the result of the relatively complex interaction of blood hemodynamics and material behavior of arterial walls. In the present study, the cumulative effects of physiological parameters such as the directional growth, arterial wall properties (isotropy and anisotropy), iliac bifurcation and arterial wall thickness on prediction of wall stress in fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of five idealized AAA models have been investigated. In particular, the numerical model considers the heterogeneity of arterial wall and the iliac bifurcation, which allows the study of the geometric asymmetry due to the growth of the aneurysm into different directions. Results demonstrate that the blood pulsatile nature is responsible for emerging a time-dependent recirculation zone inside the aneurysm, which directly affects the stress distribution in aneurismal wall. Therefore, aneurysm deviation from the arterial axis, especially, in the lateral direction increases the wall stress in a relatively nonlinear fashion. Among the models analyzed in this investigation, the anisotropic material model that considers the wall thickness variations, greatly affects the wall stress values, while the stress distributions are less affected as compared to the uniform wall thickness models. In this regard, it is confirmed that wall stress predictions are more influenced by the appropriate structural model than the geometrical considerations such as the level of asymmetry and its curvature, growth direction and its extent.

  5. Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in large incisional hernia repair to prevent abdominal compartmental syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ANGELICI, A.M.; PEROTTI, B.; DEZZI, C.; AMATUCCI, C.; MANCUSO, G.; CARONNA, R.; PALUMBO, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The repair of large incisional hernias may occasionally lead to a substantial increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and rarely to abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) with subsequent respiratory, vascular, and visceral complications. Measurement of the IAP has recently become a common practice in monitoring critical patients, even though such measurements were obtained in the early 1900s. Patients and Methods A prospective study involving 54 patients undergoing elective abdominal wall gap repair (mean length, 17.4 cm) with a tension-free technique after incisional hernia was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not urinary pressure for indirect IAP measurement is a reliable method for the early identification of patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. IAP measurements were performed using a Foley catheter connected to a HOLTECH® medical manometer. IAP values were determined pre-operatively, after anesthetic induction, upon patient awakening, upon patient arrival in the ward after surgery, and 24 h after surgery before removing the catheter. All patients were treated by the same surgical team using a prosthetic composite mesh (PARIETEX®). Results Incisional hernia repair caused an increase in the mean IAP score of 2.68 mmHg in 47 of 54 patients (87.04%); the IAP was decreased in two patients (3.7%) and remained equal in five patients before and 24 h after surgery (9.26%). FEV-1, measured 24 h after surgery, increased in 50 patients (92.6%), remained stable in two patients (3.7%), and decreased in two patients (3.7%). The mean increase in FEV-1 was 0.0676 L (maximum increase = 0.42 L and minimum increase = 0.01 L) in any patient who developed ACS. Conclusions Measurement of urinary bladder pressure has been shown to be easy to perform and free of complications. Measurement of urinary bladder pressure can also be a useful tool to identify patients with a higher risk of developing ACS. PMID:27142823

  6. Hemodynamic Influences on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Application of Biomechanics to Aneurysm Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    “Atherosclerotic” abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur with the greatest frequency in the distal aorta. The unique hemodynamic environment of this area predisposes it to site-specific degenerative changes. In this review, we summarize the differential hemodynamic influences present along the length of the abdominal aorta, and demonstrate how alterations in aortic flow and wall shear stress modify AAA progression in experimental models. Improved understanding of aortic hemodynamic risk profiles provides an opportunity to modify patient activity patterns to minimize risk of aneurysmal degeneration. PMID:20347049

  7. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  8. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  9. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM -pre-treated biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-04-23

    We report that cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. Lastly, we found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance.

  10. A theory for turbulent curved wall jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    A simple theoretical model is proposed to describe the flow of a turbulent wall jet along a curved surface into a quiescent atmosphere. An integral method is used to solve the momentum equation and identifies three contributions to the spreading rate of the wall jet: (1) turbulent diffusion in the wall jet; (2) wall curvature; and (3) rate of change of wall curvature. Closed from approximate solutions are found for the case of a plane wall, a circular cylinder, and a logarithmic spiral surface. Comparison with experimental data for these three cases is made showing good agreement.

  11. Staged approach for abdominal wound closure following combined liver and intestinal transplantation from living donors in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Grevious, Mark A; Iqbal, Ronak; Raofi, Vandad; Beatty, Elizabeth; Oberholzer, José; Cohen, Mimis; Abcarian, Herand; Testa, Giuliano; Benedetti, Enrico

    2009-03-01

    Primary closure of the abdominal wall after combined liver and intestine transplantation from a living donor into a pediatric patient is usually not possible, because of the size of the donor organ, graft edema, and preexisting scars or stomas of the abdominal wall. Closure under tension may lead to abdominal compartment syndrome with vascular compromise and necrosis of the transplanted organ. We describe our experience of abdominal wound closure after liver and intestinal transplant in the pediatric patient using a staged approach. From February 2003 to June 2006, we managed five pediatric liver and intestinal living donor transplant recipients. Because of the large post-transplantation abdominal wall defect, a staged technique of abdominal wound closure was utilized. Initially, an absorbable Polygalactin mesh was sutured around the layer of the defect. As soon as adequate granulation tissue was formed over the mesh a STSG was applied. From the wound stand point all five patients were managed successfully with staged wound closure after transplantation. Granulation tissue filled and covered the mesh within 7.6 wk. A STSG was then used to cover the defect. All infants recovered well and none had a significant wound complication in the immediate post-operative period following STSG. At a mean follow-up of 24 months only one patient developed an entero-cutaneous fistula five months post-transplant. Staged abdominal wall coverage with the use of Polygalactin mesh followed by STSG is a simple and effective technique. A closed wound is achieved in a timely fashion with protection of the viscera. Residual ventral hernia will need to be managed in the future with one of several reconstructive techniques. PMID:18537902

  12. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  13. Wall shear stress manifolds and near wall flow topology in aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Gambaruto, Alberto M.; Chen, Guoning; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    Transport of atherogenic and thrombogenic chemicals near the vessel wall highly influences atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The high Schmidt number of these species leads to a thin concentration boundary layer near the wall. The wall shear stress (WSS) vector field can be scaled to obtain the near wall velocity in this region, thus providing first order approximation to near wall transport. In this study, the complex blood flow in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was considered. Lagrangian tracking of surface-bound tracers representing near wall species was employed to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) for the WSS surface vector field. The WSS LCS matched the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle type fixed points of the time-average WSS vector field, due to the quasi-steady nature of these near wall transport processes. A WSS exposure time measure is introduced to quantify the concentration of near wall species. The effect of diffusion and normal flow on these structures is investigated. The WSS LCS highly influence the concentration of near wall species, and provide a template for near-wall transport.

  14. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  15. Hypoxia inhibits abdominal expiratory nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, R F; Knuth, S L; Ward, D K; Bartlett, D

    1987-07-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of steady-state changes in chemical stimuli, as well as discrete peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, on abdominal expiratory motor activity. In decerebrate, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats that had bilateral pneumothoraces, we recorded efferent activity from a phrenic nerve and from an abdominal nerve (cranial iliohypogastric nerve, L1). All cats showed phasic expiratory abdominal nerve discharge at normocapnia [end-tidal PCO2 38 +/- 2 Torr], but small doses (2-6 mg/kg) of pentobarbital sodium markedly depressed this activity. Hyperoxic hypercapnia consistently enhanced abdominal expiratory activity and shortened the burst duration. Isocapnic hypoxia caused inhibition of abdominal nerve discharge in 11 of 13 cats. Carotid sinus nerve denervation (3 cats) exacerbated the hypoxic depression of abdominal nerve activity and depressed phrenic motor output. Stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with NaCN increased abdominal nerve discharge in 7 of 10 cats, although 2 cats exhibited marked inhibition. Four cats with intact neuraxis, but anesthetized with ketamine, yielded qualitatively similar results. We conclude that when cats are subjected to steady-state chemical stimuli in isolation (no interference from proprioceptive inputs), hypercapnia potentiates, but hypoxia attenuates, abdominal expiratory nerve activity. Mechanisms to explain the selective inhibition of expiratory motor activity by hypoxia are proposed, and physiological implications are discussed. PMID:3624126

  16. Autotransfusion utilization in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Barker, D E; Burns, R P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to investigate the utility of autotransfusion in trauma patients in the past 3 years. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts for whom the Haemonetics Cell Saver autotransfusion device (Haemonetics Corp., Natick, MA) was utilized between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995. The estimated blood loss and quantity of blood transfused were noted for abdominal trauma patients. Costs of autotransfusion were then compared to estimated blood bank costs for this group. The Haemonetics Cell Saver autotransfusion device was requested for 592 cases from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1995. Nonorthopedic trauma cases comprised 25 per cent of all autotransfusion cases. One hundred twenty-six patients had isolated abdominal trauma and had a mean estimated blood loss of 4864 +/- 6070 cc. The average volume of intraoperatively salvaged autologous blood transfused (autotransfusion) per patient was 1547 +/- 2359 cc, or a bank blood equivalent of 6.9 units of packed red blood cells. The total cost of autotransfusion in these patients was $63,252.00. Had bank blood been used instead of salvaged autologous blood, the cost would have been $114,523.00; thus, autotransfusion resulted in a savings of $51,271.00. The use of salvaged autologous blood comprised 45 per cent of total blood transfused. On a case-by-case basis, 75 per cent of cases were cost-effective compared to blood bank costs for an equivalent transfusion. Transfusion of intraoperatively salvaged autologous blood (autotransfusion) is a cost-effective, efficient way to provide blood products to operative trauma patients. PMID:8985070

  17. The Aspergillus fumigatus pkcAG579R Mutant Is Defective in the Activation of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway but Is Dispensable for Virulence in a Neutropenic Mouse Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marina Campos; de Godoy, Krissia Franco; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana Issa; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Malavazi, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes the life-threatening disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In fungi, cell wall homeostasis is controlled by the conserved Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. In A. fumigatus this signaling cascade is partially characterized, but the mechanisms by which it is activated are not fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PkcA) in this signaling cascade. Our results suggest that pkcA is an essential gene and is activated in response to cell wall stress. Subsequently, we constructed and analyzed a non-essential A. fumigatus pkcAG579R mutant, carrying a Gly579Arg substitution in the PkcA C1B regulatory domain. The pkcAG579R mutation has a reduced activation of the downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MpkA, resulting in the altered expression of genes encoding cell wall-related proteins, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, PkcAG579R is involved in the formation of proper conidial architecture and protection to oxidative damage. The pkcAG579R mutant elicits increased production of TNF-α and phagocytosis but it has no impact on virulence in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results highlight the importance of PkcA to the CWI pathway but also indicated that additional regulatory circuits may be involved in the biosynthesis and/or reinforcement of the A. fumigatus cell wall during infection. PMID:26295576

  18. The Aspergillus fumigatus pkcA G579R Mutant Is Defective in the Activation of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway but Is Dispensable for Virulence in a Neutropenic Mouse Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marina Campos; Godoy, Krissia Franco de; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana Issa; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira da; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Malavazi, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes the life-threatening disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In fungi, cell wall homeostasis is controlled by the conserved Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. In A. fumigatus this signaling cascade is partially characterized, but the mechanisms by which it is activated are not fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PkcA) in this signaling cascade. Our results suggest that pkcA is an essential gene and is activated in response to cell wall stress. Subsequently, we constructed and analyzed a non-essential A. fumigatus pkcAG579R mutant, carrying a Gly579Arg substitution in the PkcA C1B regulatory domain. The pkcAG579R mutation has a reduced activation of the downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MpkA, resulting in the altered expression of genes encoding cell wall-related proteins, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, PkcAG579R is involved in the formation of proper conidial architecture and protection to oxidative damage. The pkcAG579R mutant elicits increased production of TNF-α and phagocytosis but it has no impact on virulence in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results highlight the importance of PkcA to the CWI pathway but also indicated that additional regulatory circuits may be involved in the biosynthesis and/or reinforcement of the A. fumigatus cell wall during infection. PMID:26295576

  19. A Preclinical Evaluation of Alternative Synthetic Biomaterials for Fascial Defect Repair Using a Rat Abdominal Hernia Model

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; White, Jacinta F.; Supit, Tommy; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Lo, Camden; Rosamilia, Anna; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fascial defects are a common problem in the abdominal wall and in the vagina leading to hernia or pelvic organ prolapse that requires mesh enhancement to reduce operation failure. However, the long-term outcome of synthetic mesh surgery may be unsatisfactory due to post-surgical complications. We hypothesized that mesh fabricated from alternative synthetic polymers may evoke a different tissue response, and provide more appropriate mechanical properties for hernia repair. Our aim was to compare the in vivo biocompatibility of new synthetic meshes with a commercial mesh. Methods We have fabricated 3 new warp-knitted synthetic meshes from different polymers with different tensile properties polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyamide (PA) and a composite, gelatin coated PA (PA+G). The rat abdominal hernia model was used to implant the meshes (25×35 mm, n = 24/ group). After 7, 30, 60, 90 days tissues were explanted for immunohistochemical assessment of foreign body reaction and tissue integration, using CD31, CD45, CD68, alpha-SMA antibodies. The images were analysed using an image analysis software program. Biomechanical properties were uniaxially evaluated using an Instron Tensile® Tester. Results This study showed that the new meshes induced complex differences in the type of foreign body reaction over the time course of implantation. The PA, and particularly the composite PA+G meshes, evoked a milder early inflammatory response, and macrophages were apparent throughout the time course. Our meshes led to better tissue integration and new collagen deposition, particularly with the PA+G meshes, as well as greater and sustained neovascularisation compared with the PP meshes. Conclusion PA, PA+G and PEEK appear to be well tolerated and are biocompatible, evoking an overlapping and different host tissue response with time that might convey mechanical variations in the healing tissue. These new meshes comprising different polymers may provide an

  20. Estimated Probability of Traumatic Abdominal Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Weavr, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; McRae, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Abdominal Injury Module (AIM). The AIM calculates an incidence rate of traumatic abdominal injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The AIM was built so that the probability of traumatic abdominal injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. This result will be incorporated into the IMM Abdominal Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  1. The preventive effect of fish oil on abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Mouri, Youhei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Urano, Tetsumei; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta and high rupture-related mortality rates. AAA is histologically characterized by oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and extracellular matrix degradation in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that aortic hypoperfusion could cause the vascular inflammation and AAA formation. However, the preventive method for hypoperfusion-induced AAA remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fish oil on AAA development using a hypoperfusion-induced AAA animal model. Dilation of the abdominal aorta in the fish oil administration group was smaller than in the control group. Collagen destruction and oxidative stress were suppressed in the fish oil administration group than in the control group. These results suggested that fish oil could prevent the development of AAA induced by hypoperfusion. PMID:27022887

  2. [A rare variant of enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity of a woman].

    PubMed

    Vinnik, Yu S; Prusov, I A; Serova, E V; Shirokobokov, A O; Berdnikov, S I; Struzik, A S; Loginovsky, A S

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal enterocele is a result of entering abdominal organs into peritoneal pockets and folds through the holes in mesenterium or into the adjoining cavities through defects in their walls. Enteroceles are localized at the sites where one segment of the gastrointestinal tract passes into another, in a pocket behind the cecum and sigmoid, between mesenteric layers of small intestine and colon, in the holes of mesenterium of vermiform appendage, gastrocolic and falciform ligaments, pockets and holes of broad ligament of the uterine, omental foramen, rectouterine excavation, and diaphragmal defects. We observed a 26 year old woman with enterocele entrapment in the abdominal cavity complicated by necrosis of part of the small intestine. PMID:26031155

  3. Laparoscopic resection of an intra-abdominal esophageal duplication cyst: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Ikuo; Ito, Yuzuru; Akimoto, Eigo; Sekine, Yuuki; Haruyama, Yurie; Amemiya, Kota; Kawano, Fumihiro; Fujita, Shohei; Omori, Satoshi; Miyano, Shozo; Kosaka, Taijiro; Machida, Michio; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Kojima, Kuniaki; Sakaguchi, Asumi; Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the alimentary tract is a rare congenital malformation that occurs most often in the abdominal region, whereas esophageal duplication cyst develops typically in the thoracic region but occasionally in the neck and abdominal regions. Esophageal duplication cyst is usually diagnosed in early childhood because of symptoms related to bleeding, infection, and displacement of tissue surrounding the lesion. We recently encountered a rare adult case of esophageal duplication cyst in the abdominal esophagus. A 50-year-old man underwent gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging to investigate epigastric pain and dysphagia that started 3 months earlier. Imaging findings suggested esophageal duplication cyst, and the patient underwent laparoscopic resection followed by intraoperative esophagoscopy to reconstruct the esophagus safely and effectively. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed two layers of smooth muscle in the cystic wall, confirming the diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst. PMID:25883826

  4. Cytokine amplification and macrophage effector functions in aortic inflammation and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Talha; Tilton, Ronald G; Brasier, Allan R

    2016-08-01

    On April 29, 2015, Son and colleagues published an article entitled "Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is required for aortic dissection/intramural haematoma" in Nature Communications. The authors observed that the heterozygous Kruppel-like transcription factor 6 (KLF6) deficiency or absence of myeloid-specific KLF6 led to upregulation of macrophage GM-CSF expression, promoted the development of aortic hematoma/dissection, and stimulated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation when the vessel wall was subjected to an inflammatory stimulus. The additional findings of increased adventitial fibrotic deposition, marked infiltration of macrophages, and increased expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and IL-6 were blocked with neutralizing GM-CSF antibodies, or recapitulated in normal mice with excess GM-CSF administration. The authors concluded that GM-CSF is a key regulatory molecule in the development of AAA and further suggested that activation of GM-CSF is independent of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-Smad pathway associated with the Marfan aortic pathology. In this perspective, we expand on this mechanism, drawing from previous studies implicating a similar essential role for IL-6 signaling in macrophage activation, Th17 expansion and aortic dissections. We propose a sequential "two-hit" model of vascular inflammation involving initial vascular injury followed by recruitment of Ly6C(hi) macrophages. Aided by fibroblast interactions inflammatory macrophages produce amplification of IL-6 and GM-CSF expression that converge on a common, pathogenic Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activations of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. This pathway stimulates effector functions of macrophages, promotes differentiation of Th17 lymphocytes and enhances matrix metalloproteinase expression, ultimately resulting in deterioration of vascular wall structural integrity. Further research evaluating the impact of

  5. Cytokine amplification and macrophage effector functions in aortic inflammation and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Talha; Tilton, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    On April 29, 2015, Son and colleagues published an article entitled “Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is required for aortic dissection/intramural haematoma” in Nature Communications. The authors observed that the heterozygous Kruppel-like transcription factor 6 (KLF6) deficiency or absence of myeloid-specific KLF6 led to upregulation of macrophage GM-CSF expression, promoted the development of aortic hematoma/dissection, and stimulated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation when the vessel wall was subjected to an inflammatory stimulus. The additional findings of increased adventitial fibrotic deposition, marked infiltration of macrophages, and increased expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and IL-6 were blocked with neutralizing GM-CSF antibodies, or recapitulated in normal mice with excess GM-CSF administration. The authors concluded that GM-CSF is a key regulatory molecule in the development of AAA and further suggested that activation of GM-CSF is independent of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-Smad pathway associated with the Marfan aortic pathology. In this perspective, we expand on this mechanism, drawing from previous studies implicating a similar essential role for IL-6 signaling in macrophage activation, Th17 expansion and aortic dissections. We propose a sequential “two-hit” model of vascular inflammation involving initial vascular injury followed by recruitment of Ly6Chi macrophages. Aided by fibroblast interactions inflammatory macrophages produce amplification of IL-6 and GM-CSF expression that converge on a common, pathogenic Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activations of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. This pathway stimulates effector functions of macrophages, promotes differentiation of Th17 lymphocytes and enhances matrix metalloproteinase expression, ultimately resulting in deterioration of vascular wall structural integrity. Further research evaluating the impact of

  6. Endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm as a late complication of inferior vena cava filter placement.

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos R; Indes, Jeffrey; Smith, Christopher

    2006-06-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of abdominal aorta after inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement are uncommon, with associated morbidity and mortality. We report a case in which an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm resulted from erosion of a Bird's Nest (Cook, Bloomington, IN) IVC filter into the wall of the abdominal aorta. A 64-year-old woman with an IVC filter placed 10 years prior presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a 1.4-cm x 2.0-cm infrarenal aortic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the IVC filter site. A Zenith endograft (Cook) was used via an open femoral artery exposure to successfully treat the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:16765254

  7. ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY IN A SERVAL (LEPTAILURUS SERVAL) SECONDARY TO UTERINE RUPTURE.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Blue-McLendon, Alice; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    A 14-yr-old female serval (Leptailurus serval) died unexpectedly after 2 wk of inappetence and lethargy. Necropsy revealed a pyoabdomen with a full-term, well-developed fetus in the caudal abdomen covered by a mesenteric sac. The mesenteric sac communicated with a tear in the wall of the right uterine horn, supporting a diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy. The uterine wall had evidence of adenomyosis at the rupture site with no evidence of pyometra. The fetus, supporting mesentery, and peritoneum were coated with mixed bacteria, which may have ascended through an open cervix to the site of uterine rupture. This is the first case of abdominal pregnancy related to uterine rupture reported in a large felid species. PMID:26056905

  8. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  9. Trehalose-6-Phosphate Phosphatase is required for cell wall integrity and fungal virulence but not trehalose biosynthesis in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Willger, Sven D.; Grahl, Nora; Perfect, John R.; Movahed, Navid; Bothner, Brian; Park, Steven; Paderu, Padmaja; Perlin, David S.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The trehalose biosynthesis pathway is critical for virulence in human and plant fungal pathogens. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) is required for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. A mutant of the A. fumigatus T6PP, OrlA, displayed severe morphological defects related to asexual reproduction when grown on glucose (1%) minimal media. These defects could be rescued by addition of osmotic stabilizers, reduction in incubation temperature, or increase in glucose levels (>4%). Subsequent examination of the mutant with cell wall perturbing agents revealed a link between cell wall biosynthesis and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) levels. As expected, high levels of T6P accumulated in the absence of OrlA resulting in depletion of free inorganic phosphate (Pi) and inhibition of hexokinase activity. Surprisingly, trehalose production persisted in the absence of OrlA. Further analyses revealed that A. fumigatus contains two trehalose phosphorylases that may be responsible for trehalose production in the absence of OrlA. Despite a normal growth rate under in vitro growth conditions, the orlA mutant was virtually avirulent in two distinct murine models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Our results suggest that further study of this pathway will lead to new insights into regulation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis and virulence. PMID:20545865

  10. The biaxial biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Healey, Donagh A; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2014-12-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. Knowledge of AAA wall mechanics plays a fundamental role in the development and advancement of AAA rupture risk assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the biaxial mechanical properties of AAA tissue. Multiple biaxial test protocols were performed on AAA samples harvested from 28 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Both the Tangential Modulus (TM) and stretch ratio (λ) were recorded and compared in both the circumferential (ϴ) and longitudinal (L) directions at physiologically relevant stress levels, the influence of patient specific factors such as sex, age AAA diameter and status were examined. The biomechanical response was also fit to a hyperplastic material model. The AAA tissue was found to be anisotropic with a greater tendency to stiffen in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model represented the data well and the properties were not influenced by the investigated patient specific factors however, a future study utilizing a larger cohort of patients is warranted to confirm these findings. This work provides further insights on the biomechanical behavior of AAA and may be useful in the development of more reliable rupture risk assessment tools. PMID:25201606

  11. Treatment of Abdominal Segmental Hernia, Constipation, and Pain Following Herpes Zoster with Paravertebral Block.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saeyoung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) most commonly occurs in elderly patients and involves sensory neurons resulting in pain and sensory changes. Clinically significant motor deficits and visceral neuropathies are thought to be relatively rare. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal segmental hernia, constipation, and pain following HZ in the left T9-10 dermatome. Sixteen days before presentation, he had developed a painful herpetic rash in the left upper abdominal quadrant. Approximately 10 days after the onset of the rash, constipation occurred and was managed with daily oral medication with bisacodyl 5 mg. In addition, 14 days after the onset of HZ, the patient noticed a protrusion of the left upper abdominal wall. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and electrolyte analysis showed no abnormalities. General physical examination revealed a reducible bulge in his left upper quadrant and superficial abdominal reflexes were diminished in the affected region. Electromyographic testing revealed denervational changes limited to the left thoracic paraspinal muscles and supraumbilical muscles, corresponding to the affected dermatomes. He was prescribed with 500 mg of famciclovir 3 times a day for 7 days, and pregabalin 75 mg twice a day and acetaminophen 650 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. However, his pain was rated at an intensity of 5 on the numerical analogue scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). A paravertebral block was performed at T9-10 with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 3 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. One day after the procedure, the abdominal pain disappeared. In addition, 5 days after the intervention, the abdominal protrusion and constipation were resolved. He currently remains symptom free at a 6 month follow-up. PMID:26431148

  12. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. PMID:27133249

  13. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  14. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  15. [Diagnostic laparocentesis in closed abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Berkutov, A N; Deriabin, I I; Zakurdaev, V E

    1976-09-01

    To improve the diagnosis of closed abdominal trauma since 1966 the authors have been widely employing laparocentesis. The results of using abdominal punctures an 260 patients are reported. The method proved to be reliable in 97.7%. The use of laparocentesis enabled the authors to reduce the number of errors by 7.3 times, to shorten the terms of establishing the diagnosis by 4 times as compared with the control group of patients (190 subjects in whom the recognition of abdominal injuries is based on common clinical symptoms). PMID:136785

  16. Thoracic Disk Herniation, a not Infrequent Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lara, F.J. Pérez; Berges, A. Ferrer; Quesada, J. Quintero; Ramiro, J.A. Moreno; Toledo, R. Bustamante; Muñoz, H. Oliva

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the proportion of patients presenting with nonvisceral chronic abdominal pain who have thoracic disk herniation as a possible cause. We designed a descriptive transversal study of patients attending our offices between February 2009 and October 2010, with a complaint of chronic abdominal pain of suspected abdominal wall source (positive Carnett sign). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the spinal column was performed on all patients. When the NMR showed thoracic disk herniation the patients were treated according to their etiology. We also evaluated the symptoms in patients with thoracic disk herniation and their response to the applied treatment. Twenty-seven patients with chronic abdominal pain were evaluated. The NMR results in 18 of these 27 patients (66.66%) showed evidence of disk herniation. We report on the results of these 18 patients, emphasizing that the symptoms are florid and varied. Many patients had been previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thoracic disk herniation may account for chronic abdominal pain in many patients who remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, this possibility needs to be taken into account to achieve a correct diagnosis and a suitable mode of treatment. PMID:23101998

  17. Unexpected multiple intra-abdominal injuries after projectile fragmentation: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Unlü, Aytekin; Petrone, Patrizio; Karşıdağ, Tamer; Asensio, Juan A

    2012-11-01

    Explosives create and energize particles that act as projectiles prone to further fragmentation or create other secondary missiles in the body. These fragments may result in secondary injuries. This has been repeatedly described in the orthopedic and neurosurgical literature. We report the same process for abdominal injuries after fascial penetration in the military setting. This is an observational case series study. Local wound exploration as a standard approach was performed in conscious patients who sustained abdominal wall injuries. Patients with negative physical examination were excluded from the study. An intraperitoneal injury was assumed in those with a full-thickness fascial defect, and laparotomy was performed. Twenty patients met the study eligibility criteria. Of those 20 patients, 12 had negative wound exploration and were excluded from the study, while abdominal organ injuries were found in eight (40%) patients. During laparotomy, projectile-induced injuries in a sprayed distribution were found in three (38%) of these patients. These injuries were far from the predictable trajectory and in the absence of bone fragmentation. The overall mean number of peritoneal defects was 1.7, and a mean 6.8 intra-abdominal injuries for each peritoneal defect were found when through-and-through injuries were excluded.Despite a single peritoneal defect, there may be multiple intraperitoneal injuries due to further fragmentation of the projectile. Under mass casualties, wound exploration with a full-thickness fascial defect could serve as an indicator of possible intra-abdominal injuries, and consequently indicate exploratory laparotomy. PMID:23588915

  18. Major abdominal evisceration injuries in dogs and cats: 12 cases (1998-2008).

    PubMed

    Gower, Sara B; Weisse, Chick W; Brown, Dorothy C

    2009-06-15

    OBJECTIVE- To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, complications, and outcome of dogs and cats treated surgically for major abdominal evisceration. DESIGN- Retrospective case series. ANIMALS- 8 dogs and 4 cats. PROCEDURES- Medical records from January 1998 through March 2008 were reviewed to identify animals that underwent surgery for major abdominal evisceration. Data regarding cause of evisceration, signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables were collected. Details of treatment, duration of hospitalization, and outcome were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables on the number of days of hospitalization. RESULTS- Major abdominal evisceration was secondary to a traumatic event in 4 animals and to postsurgical dehiscence in 8 animals. All animals had evisceration of the intestines and gross contamination with dirt, leaves, or litter. Two animals eviscerated the spleen, and 1 animal had a perforated colon and was leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. All animals underwent exploratory abdominal surgery. Surgical procedures performed included resection of compromised intestine, body wall repair, diaphragmatic hernia repair, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and primary colonic repair. All animals survived to discharge from the hospital. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1 to 7 days). Factors associated with an increase in duration of hospitalization included evisceration secondary to trauma, high lactate concentration at time of admission, and small body size. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE- Despite the dramatic appearance of major abdominal evisceration in cats and dogs, prompt and aggressive medical and surgical intervention can provide a favorable outcome. PMID:19527132

  19. Scars and perforator-based flaps in the abdominal region: A contraindication?

    PubMed Central

    Dragu, Adrian; Unglaub, Frank; Wolf, Maya B.; Beier, Justus P.; Schnabl, Saskia M.K.; Kneser, Ulrich; Leffler, Mareike; Horch, Raymund E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although multiple strategies for autologous breast reconstruction exist, a vertical midline scar in the abdominal wall as a result of previous laparatomy or abdominoplasty represents a major surgical challenge. To date, little research has been conducted on the regeneration potential of the abdominal wall’s superficial vascular, perforator and choke vessel system after surgery using a vertical approache. Methods We present the cases of 8 patients, of whom 7 underwent autologous breast reconstruction. One patient received a thigh reconstruction. All patients had a vertical abdominal midline scar as a result of a previous surgical intervention. In 3 of the 7 patients, the breast was reconstructed using an MS-2-vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) free flap. In 4 of these patients, an MS-2-transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) free flap was performed. The thigh reconstruction used a transverse deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap. Clinical follow-up was done 12 months after operation. Results All 3 patients who received an MS-2-VRAM had good aesthetic results. Vertical midline scars had no negative effect on surgical outcomes, perfusion and tissue viability of the 4 MS-2-TRAM and transverse DIEP free flaps. Conclusion These clinical findings indicate that the regeneration potential of the abdominal wall’s superficial vascular system in the presence of vertical surgical scars has been greatly underestimated. Use of MS-2-VRAM free flaps in patients with vertical abdominal scars seems to be a suitable and successful alternative in the reconstruction algorithm. PMID:20334747

  20. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.