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Sample records for abdominal white adipose

  1. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  2. Abdominal adiposity and hot flashes among midlife women.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Sowers, MaryFran R; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    Two competing hypotheses suggest how adiposity may affect menopausal hot flashes. The "thin hypothesis" asserts that aromatization of androgens to estrogens in body fat should be associated with decreased hot flashes. Conversely, thermoregulatory models argue that body fat should be associated with increased hot flashes. The study objective was to examine associations between abdominal adiposity and hot flashes, including the role of reproductive hormones in these associations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Heart Study (2001-2003) is an ancillary study to the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a community-based cohort study. Participants were 461 women (35% African American, 65% white) ages 45 to 58 years with an intact uterus and at least one ovary. Measures included a computed tomography scan to assess abdominal adiposity; reported hot flashes over the previous 2 weeks; and a blood sample for measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin-adjusted estradiol (free estradiol index). Associations were evaluated within multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Every 1-SD increase in total (odds ratio [OR]=1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) and subcutaneous (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.07-1.58) abdominal adiposity was associated with increased odds of hot flashes in age- and site-adjusted models. Visceral adiposity was not associated with hot flashes. Associations were not reduced when models included reproductive hormone concentrations. Increased abdominal adiposity, particularly subcutaneous adiposity, is associated with increased odds of hot flashes, favoring thermoregulatory models of hot flashes. Body fat may not protect women from hot flashes as once thought.

  3. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  4. White adipose tissue coloring by intermittent fasting.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to promote metabolic health in several organisms. Two recent papers show that IF induces white adipose tissue beiging and increases thermogenesis, which improves metabolic health in mice.

  5. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: a favorable adipose depot for diabetes?

    PubMed

    Chen, Peizhu; Hou, Xuhong; Hu, Gang; Wei, Li; Jiao, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Siyu; Wu, Jingzhu; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2018-06-26

    Previous studies have documented that visceral adipose tissue is positively associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the association of subcutaneous adipose tissue with diabetes risk is still in dispute. We aimed to assess the associations between different adipose distributions and the risk of newly diagnosed diabetes in Chinese adults. The Shanghai Nicheng Cohort Study was conducted among Chinese adults aged 45-70 years. The baseline data of 12,137 participants were analyzed. Subcutaneous and visceral fat area (SFA and VFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetes was newly diagnosed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of newly diagnosed diabetes per 1-standard deviation increase in SFA and VFA were 1.29 (1.19-1.39) and 1.61 (1.49-1.74) in men, and 1.10 (1.03-1.18) and 1.56 (1.45-1.67) in women, respectively. However, the association between SFA and newly diagnosed diabetes disappeared in men and was reversed in women (OR 0.86 [95% CI, 0.78-0.94]) after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and VFA. The positive association between VFA and newly diagnosed diabetes remained significant in both sexes after further adjustment for BMI and SFA. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of newly diagnosed diabetes predicted by VFA (0.679 [95% CI, 0.659-0.699] for men and 0.707 [95% CI, 0.690-0.723] for women) were significantly larger than by the other adiposity indicators. SFA was beneficial for lower risk of newly diagnosed diabetes in women but was not associated with newly diagnosed diabetes in men after taking general obesity and visceral obesity into account. VFA, however, was associated with likelihood of newly diagnosed diabetes in both Chinese men and women.

  6. Longitudinal validity of abdominal adiposity assessment by regional bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; García-Romero, Jerónimo C; Carrillo de Albornoz-Gil, Margarita; Jiménez, Manuel; Correas-Gomez, Lorena; Peñaloza, Piero; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A

    2018-03-20

    The main goal of this study was to analyze the longitudinal agreement between changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity variables assessed by DXA and portable bioimpedance device (ViScan). A total of 44 women, enrolled in a 4-month exercise intervention, were included in this analysis. Trunk/abdominal compartments were assessed by ViScan and DXA. Adjusted correlations for age and FM at first assessment (pre) were utilized to perform concurrent validation among methods and completed with an agreement analysis. We observed significant differences between the changes detected by DXA and ViScan for %TFM (difference = -1.41%; p < 0.05), and proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = 0.53; p < 0.0001). Changes in abdominal adiposity were similar (difference = -0.1037 z-score units, p = 0.53), although there was proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = -0.24, p < 0.022). ViScan has a limited capability to evaluated changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity, at least for clinical purposes in adult women.

  7. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  8. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  9. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  10. Are overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity separate or redundant determinants of blood viscosity?

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In line with recent literature showing that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are independently associated with the risk of death, we recently reported that body mass index (BMI) and waist-to hip ratio (WHR) were independent predictors of blood viscosity, related to different determinants of viscosity (for BMI: plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation; for WHR: hematocrit). Since this report was challenged by a study showing that abdominal adiposity (as measured with waist circumference WC and not WHR) is the only independent determinant of viscosity, we re-assessed on our previous database correlations among viscosity factors, BMI, WHR and WC. Blood viscosity was correlated to BMI (r = 0.155 p = 0.004), WHR (r = 0.364; p = 0.027) and WC (r = 0.094; p = 0.05). Hematocrit was correlated to WHR (r = 0.524) but neither to BMI (r =-0.021) nor waist circumference (r = 0.053). WC was correlated with plasma viscosity (r = 0.154; p = 0.002) while WHR was not (r =-0.0102 NS). A stepwise regression analysis selected two determinants of whole blood viscosity at high shear rate: BMI (p = 0.0167) and WC (p = 0.0003) excluding WHR. Therefore, in this sample, abdominal fatness expressed by WC and whole body adiposity remain independent determinants of blood viscosity. WHR and WC have not the same meaning, WC measuring the size of abdominal fat while WHR measuring the shape of body distribution regardless the degree of fat excess. Interestingly, hematocrit is rather related to shape (even within a normal range of body size) than the extent of abdominal fatness, and is not related to whole body adiposity.

  11. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  12. Estimating abdominal adipose tissue with DXA and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison M; LaForgia, Joe; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-02-01

    To identify an anatomically defined region of interest (ROI) from DXA assessment of body composition that when combined with anthropometry can be used to accurately predict intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in overweight/obese individuals. Forty-one postmenopausal women (age, 49 to 66 years; BMI, 26 to 37 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric and body composition assessments. ROI were defined as quadrilateral boxes extending 5 or 10 cm above the iliac crest and laterally to the edges of the abdominal soft tissue. A single-slice computed tomography (CT) scan was measured at the L3 to L4 intervertebral space, and abdominal skinfolds were taken. Forward step-wise regression revealed the best predictor model of IAAT area measured by CT (r(2) = 0.68, standard error of estimate = 17%) to be: IAAT area (centimeters squared) = 51.844 + DXA 10-cm ROI (grams) (0.031) + abdominal skinfold (millimeters) (1.342). Interobserver reliability for fat mass (r = 0.994; coefficient of variation, 2.60%) and lean mass (r = 0.986, coefficient of variation, 2.67%) in the DXA 10-cm ROI was excellent. This study has identified a DXA ROI that can be reliably measured using prominent anatomical landmarks, in this case, the iliac crest. Using this ROI, combined with an abdominal skinfold measurement, we have derived an equation to predict IAAT in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. This approach offers a simpler, safer, and more cost-effective method than CT for assessing the efficacy of lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing IAAT. However, this warrants further investigation and validation with an independent cohort.

  13. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  14. Acute Hypercortisolemia Exerts Depot-Specific Effects on Abdominal and Femoral Adipose Tissue Function

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Michael W.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Arlt, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Context: Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic metabolic functions, and acute glucocorticoid excess affects fatty acid metabolism, increasing systemic lipolysis. Whether glucocorticoids exert adipose tissue depot-specific effects remains unclear. Objective: To provide an in vivo assessment of femoral and abdominal adipose tissue responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. Design and Outcome Measures: Nine healthy male volunteers were studied on two occasions, after a hydrocortisone infusion (0.2 mg/kg/min for 14 hours) and a saline infusion, respectively, given in randomized double-blind order. The subjects were studied in the fasting state and after a 75-g glucose drink with an in vivo assessment of femoral adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) using radioactive xenon washout and of lipolysis and glucose uptake using the arteriovenous difference technique. In a separate study (same infusion design), eight additional healthy male subjects underwent assessment of fasting abdominal ATBF and lipolysis only. Lipolysis was assessed as the net release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) from femoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results: Acute hypercortisolemia significantly increased basal and postprandial ATBF in femoral adipose tissue, but the femoral net NEFA release did not change. In abdominal adipose tissue, hypercortisolemia induced substantial increases in basal ATBF and NEFA release. Conclusions: Acute hypercortisolemia induces differential lipolysis and ATBF responses in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue, suggesting depot-specific glucocorticoid effects. Abdominal, but not femoral, adipose tissue contributes to the hypercortisolemia-induced systemic NEFA increase, with likely contributions from other adipose tissue sources and intravascular triglyceride hydrolysis. PMID:28323916

  15. Fasting rapidly increases fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue of young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Torchon, Emmanuelle; Ray, Rodney; Hulver, Matthew W; McMillan, Ryan P; Voy, Brynn H

    2017-01-02

    Upregulating the fatty acid oxidation capacity of white adipose tissue in mice protects against diet-induced obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Part of this capacity results from induction of brown-like adipocytes within classical white depots, making it difficult to determine the oxidative contribution of the more abundant white adipocytes. Avian genomes lack a gene for uncoupling protein 1 and are devoid of brown adipose cells, making them a useful model in which to study white adipocyte metabolism in vivo. We recently reported that a brief (5 hour) period of fasting significantly upregulated many genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation pathways in white adipose tissue of young broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine if the effects on gene expression manifested in increased rates of fatty acid oxidation. Abdominal adipose tissue was collected from 21 day-old broiler chicks that were fasted for 3, 5 or 7 hours or fed ad libitum (controls). Fatty acid oxidation was determined by measuring and summing 14 CO 2 production and 14 C-labeled acid-soluble metabolites from the oxidation of [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Fasting induced a progressive increase in complete fatty acid oxidation and citrate synthase activity relative to controls. These results confirm that fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue is dynamically controlled by nutritional status. Identifying the underlying mechanism may provide new therapeutic targets through which to increase fatty acid oxidation in situ and protect against the detrimental effects of excess free fatty acids on adipocyte insulin sensitivity.

  16. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  17. Association of lifestyle factors with abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity: The Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community-based setting. Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle factors (dietary quality, physical activity, smo...

  18. Differential effect of subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2018-03-09

    Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide due to the rise in the obesity epidemic. The metabolic consequences of obesity vary by distribution of adipose tissue. Visceral and ectopic adipose accumulation are associated with adverse cardiometabolic consequences, while gluteal-femoral adipose accumulation are negatively associated with these adverse complications and subcutaneous abdominal adipose accumulation is more neutral in its associations. Gender, race and ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution have been described and could account for the observed differences in risk for cardiometabolic disease. The mechanisms behind the differential impact of adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk have started to be unraveled and include differences in adipocyte biology, inflammatory profile, connection to systemic circulation and most importantly the inability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue to expand in response to positive energy balance.

  19. Regional Differences in Adipose Tissue Hormone/Cytokine Production Before and After Weight Loss in Abdominally Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    You, Tongjian; Wang, Xuewen; Murphy, Karin M.; Lyles, Mary F.; Demons, Jamehl L.; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the regional differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue hormone/cytokine production in abdominally obese women during weight loss. Design and Methods Forty-two abdominally obese, older women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention composed of hypocaloric diet with or without aerobic exercise (total energy expenditure: ~2800 kcal/week). Subcutaneous (gluteal and abdominal) adipose tissue biopsies were conducted before and after the intervention. Results Adipose tissue gene expression and release of leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (−10.1 ±0.7 kg, P<0.001). At baseline, gene expression of adiponectin were higher (P<0.01), and gene expression and release of IL-6 were lower (both P<0.05) in abdominal than in gluteal adipose tissue. After intervention, leptin gene expression and release were lower in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue compared to baseline (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Abdominal, but not gluteal, adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression and release increased after intervention (both P<0.05). Conclusion A 20-week weight loss program decreased leptin production in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue, but only increased adiponectin production from abdominal adipose tissue in obese women. This depot-specific effect may be of importance for the treatment of health complications associated with abdominal adiposity. PMID:24634403

  20. Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Cristy; Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-08-02

    Although previous research suggests a relationship between chronic low back pain (cLBP) and adiposity, this relationship is poorly understood. No research has explored the relationship between abdominal-specific subcutaneous and visceral adiposity with pain and disability in cLBP individuals. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationship of regional and total body adiposity to pain and disability in cLBP individuals. A preliminary explorative study design of seventy (n = 70) adult men and women with cLBP was employed. Anthropometric and adiposity measures were collected, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, total body adiposity and specific ultrasound-based abdominal adiposity measurements. Self-reported pain and disability were measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires respectively. Relationships between anthropometric and adiposity measures with pain and disability were assessed using correlation and regression analyses. Significant correlations between abdominal to lumbar adiposity ratio (A-L) variables and the waist-to-hip ratio with self-reported pain were observed. A-L variables were found to predict pain, with 9.1-30.5 % of the variance in pain across the three analysis models explained by these variables. No relationships between anthropometric or adiposity variables to self-reported disability were identified. The findings of this study indicated that regional distribution of adiposity via the A-L is associated with cLBP, providing a rationale for future research on adiposity and cLBP.

  1. Plasma and white adipose tissue lipid composition in marmots.

    PubMed

    Florant, G L; Nuttle, L C; Mullinex, D E; Rintoul, D A

    1990-05-01

    White adipose tissue biopsies and plasma samples were obtained from hibernating yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) maintained in the laboratory. In addition, biopsies and plasma samples were obtained from normothermic animals in the field and laboratory. Measurement of plasma free fatty acid (FA) levels indicated that winter laboratory animals exhibited increased lipolysis. Additionally, analysis of white adipose tissue triacylglycerol revealed that the FA composition of the storage fat in animals maintained on the standard laboratory diet is remarkably simple and uniform between different adipose depots in the same animal. Three FAs (palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids) made up greater than 95% of the total. Triene (alpha-linolenate) was found in newly captured animals, but the percentage of this FA decreased rapidly when the animals were maintained on the standard laboratory diet. Throughout the hibernation season (October to April), white adipose tissue-saturated FA percentage decreased, monoene percentage remained constant, and diene percentage increased. Analysis of plasma FA composition suggested that these animals tended to metabolize saturated FAs from stored lipid during hibernation and that dienes were mobilized briefly after the last arousal from hibernation in spring. From these observations, we hypothesize that marmots preferentially metabolize saturated fats during the hibernation period and that essential FAs of the omega 6 series tend to be metabolized more slowly than other FAs. These characteristics suggest that marmots are a valuable animal model in which to study lipid metabolism.

  2. Ultrasound Estimates of Visceral and Subcutaneous-Abdominal Adipose Tissues in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Modi, Neena; Uthaya, Sabita; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo; Stolk, Ronald P.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Other imaging techniques to quantify internal-abdominal adiposity (IA-AT) and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposity (SCA-AT) are frequently impractical in infants. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to validate ultrasound (US) visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths in assessing IA-AT and SCA-AT from MRI as the reference method in infants and (b) to analyze the association between US abdominal adiposity and anthropometric measures at ages 3 months and 12 months. Twenty-two infants underwent MRI and US measures of abdominal adiposity. Abdominal US parameters and anthropometric variables were assessed in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), n = 487 infants (23 girls) at age 3 months and n = 495 infants (237 girls) at 12 months. US visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths correlated with MRI quantified IA-AT (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and SCA-AT (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) volumes, respectively. In CBGS, mean US-visceral depths increased by ~20 % between ages 3 and 12 months (P < 0.0001) and at both ages were lower in infants breast-fed at 3 months than in other infants. US-visceral depths at both 3 and 12 months were inversely related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 at 3 and 12 months, resp.; adjusted for current skinfold thickness). In contrast, US-subcutaneous-abdominal depth at 3 months was positively related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.004). US measures can rank infants with higher or lower IA-AT and SCA-AT. Contrasting patterns of association with visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposities indicate that they may be differentially regulated in infancy. PMID:23710350

  3. White adipose tissue and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2005-12-01

    Adipocytes have recently been shown to secrete a variety of bioactive substances called 'adipocytokines', and have been recognized as endocrine cells. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alphaalpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) are among these adipocytokines, and they contribute to the development of vascular diseases. Visfatin is a visceral fat-specific protein that may be related to the development of obesity-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, adiponectin, an adipose-tissue-specific collagen-like protein, has recently been reported as an important anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic protein. Adipocytokine secretion may be regulated dynamically by the nutritional state. Visceral fat accumulation leads to dysfunction of adipocytes (including hypersecretion of TNF-alphaalpha, PAI-1 and HBEGF, and hyposecretion of adiponectin), which results in the development of a variety of metabolic and circulatory diseases. In this review, the importance of adipocytokines, including adiponectin, is discussed with respect to cardiovascular disease.

  4. The Role of Physical Exercise to Improve the Browning of White Adipose Tissue via POMC Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Kellen C da Cruz; Pereira, Rodrigo M; de Campos, Thaís D P; de Moura, Rodrigo F; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Pauli, José R; de Araújo, Michel B; de Moura, Leandro P

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling. On the other hand, stimulation of AgRP neurons suppresses WAT browning. The hypothalamic inflammatory process that occurs in obesity impairs insulin and leptin signaling in this tissue and, consequently, can decrease WAT browning. In addition, practicing physical exercise may be a great strategy for triggering the browning process since it reduces hypothalamic inflammation and increases POMC neurons gene expression. Moreover, physical exercise stimulates irisin gene expression, which has an important impact on thermogenesis, which in turn culminates in increased gene expression of proteins such as UCP-1 and Cidea, which are related to WAT browning. Furthermore, thermogenetic activation of WAT leads to increased energy expenditure, favoring obesity treatment. Therefore, this mini-review aimed to highlight the most recent studies that link the control of hypothalamic activity with the browning metabolism of adipose tissue in response to physical exercise.

  5. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078-1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323-5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003-1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489-0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC.

  7. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078–1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323–5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003–1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489–0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC. PMID:26904670

  8. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with amore » high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.« less

  9. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal 18 F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo 14 C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced 18 F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively.

  10. Liver fat contents, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The liver fat contents and abdominal adiposity correlate well with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. However, the relationship between liver fat content, abdominal adiposity and IR in non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the associations among these factors. This is a cross-sectional, observational study. All patients received abdominal ultrasound for liver fat content. Abdominal adiposity was quantified with the conicity index (Ci) and waist circumference (WC). We checked the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) for IR. A total of 112 patients (60 women) were analyzed. Subjects with higher liver fat contents and WC had higher IR indices. But Ci did not correlate with IR indices. In both the multi-variable linear regression model and the logistic regression model, only higher liver fat content predicted a severe IR status. Liver fat contents have a remarkable correlation with IR; however, abdominal adiposity, measured either by Ci or WC, dose not independently correlate with IR in non-diabetic prevalent HD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of initiating moderate wine intake on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Witkow, Shula; Friger, Michael; Chassidim, Yoash; Liberty, Idit F; Sarusi, Benjamin; Serfaty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-02-01

    To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3·0 (-8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (-1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1·9 (-5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT -3·2 (-8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (-2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT -0·15 (-3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT. Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

  12. Maternal adiposity negatively influences infant brain white matter development.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiawei; Thakali, Keshari M; Shankar, Kartik; Andres, Aline; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-05-01

    To study potential effects of maternal body composition on central nervous system (CNS) development of newborn infants. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to evaluate brain white matter development in 2-week-old, full-term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants from uncomplicated pregnancies of normal-weight (BMI < 25 at conception) or obese ( BMI = 30 at conception) and otherwise healthy mothers. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses were used for voxel-wise group comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA), a sensitive measure of white matter integrity. DNA methylation analyses of umbilical cord tissue focused on genes known to be important in CNS development were also performed. Newborns from obese women had significantly lower FA values in multiple white matter regions than those born of normal-weight mothers. Global and regional FA values negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with maternal fat mass percentage. Linear regression analysis followed by gene ontology enrichment showed that methylation status of 68 CpG sites representing 57 genes with GO terms related to CNS development was significantly associated with maternal adiposity status. These results suggest a negative association between maternal adiposity and white matter development in offspring. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  15. Impaired preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose of PCOS-like female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Keller, Erica; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Aguilera, Paul; Madrigal, Vanessa; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Dumesic, Daniel A; Abbott, David H

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome women and polycystic ovary syndrome-like, prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys worsen with age, with altered adipogenesis of sc abdominal adipose potentially contributing to age-related adverse effects on metabolism. This study examines whether adipocyte morphology and gene expression in sc abdominal adipose differ between late reproductive-aged PA female rhesus monkeys compared with age-matched controls (C). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose of both groups was obtained for histological imaging and mRNA determination of zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a marker of adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocytes, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ as well as C/EBPα/PPARγ as respective markers of early- and late-stage differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. In all females combined, serum testosterone (T) levels positively correlated with fasting serum levels of total free fatty acid (r(2) = 0.73, P < .002). PA females had a greater population of small adipocytes vs C (P < .001) in the presence of increased Zfp423 (P < .025 vs C females) and decreased C/EBPα (P < .003, vs C females) mRNA expression. Moreover, Zfp423 mRNA expression positively correlated with circulating total free fatty acid levels during iv glucose tolerance testing (P < .004, r(2) = 0.66), whereas C/EBPα mRNA expression negatively correlated with serum T levels (P < .02, r(2) = 0.43). Gene expression of PPARδ and PPARγ were comparable between groups (P = .723 and P = .18, respectively). Early-to-mid gestational T excess in female rhesus monkeys impairs adult preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes in sc abdominal adipose and may constrain the ability of this adipose depot to safely store fat with age.

  16. Androgenic Regulation of White Adipose Tissue-Prostate Cancer Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    compared to shamed mice but much higher level in ASC from Glipr1-/- than ASC from Glipr1+/+ male mice. Thus, concluding that the castrated Glipr1...mRNA for each ASC to the shamed Glipr1+/+ (ShWT). The amount of Glipr1 mRNA reduced approximately 40% after the castration. The amount of PLF mRNA in...Received 2 June 2011 Accepted 5 July 2011 Available online 12 July 2011 Keywords: Castration Regular diet High- fat diet Epididymal white adipose tissue

  17. Exercise-induced adaptations to white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lehnig, Adam C; Stanford, Kristin I

    2018-03-07

    The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity. Adaptations specific to scWAT include lipidomic remodeling of phospholipids and, in rodents, the beiging of scWAT. The changes to BAT are less clear: studies evaluating the effect of exercise on the BAT of humans and rodents have revealed contradictory data, making this an important area of current investigation. In this Review, we discuss the exercise-induced changes to WAT and BAT that have been reported by different studies and highlight the current questions in this field. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  19. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  20. Browning of white adipose tissue: lessons from experimental models.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-18

    Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis. Recent papers pointed that browning can occur in the WAT of humans, with beneficial metabolic effects. This fact indicates that these cells can be targeted to treat a range of diseases, with both pharmacological and nutritional activators. Pharmacological approaches to induce browning include the use of PPAR-α agonist, adrenergic receptor stimulation, thyroid hormone administration, irisin and FGF21 induction. Most of them act through the induction of PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC) 1-α and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 induction. About the nutritional inducers, several compounds have been described with multiple mechanisms of action. Some of these activators include specific amino acids restriction, capsaicin, bile acids, Resveratrol, and retinoic acid. Besides that, some classes of lipids, as well as many plant extracts, have also been implicated in the browning of WAT. In conclusion, the discovery of browning in human WAT opens the possibility to target the adipose tissue to fight a range of diseases. Studies have arisen showing promising results and bringing new opportunities in thermogenesis and obesity control.

  1. Catalpic acid decreases abdominal fat deposition, improves glucose homeostasis and upregulates PPAR alpha expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hontecillas, Raquel; Diguardo, Maggie; Duran, Elisa; Orpi, Marcel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-10-01

    Catalpic acid (CAT) is a conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) isomer containing trans-9, trans-11, cis-13 double bonds in an 18-carbon chain and it is found primarily in the seed oil of ornamental and medicinal trees and shrubs of the family Bignoniaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CAT decreases obesity and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice fed high-fat diets. To test the efficacy of CAT in decreasing obesity and diabetes we used both a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and a genetic model of obesity (i.e., mice lacking the leptin receptor). Blood was collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for determining fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in plasma. In addition, a glucose tolerance test was administered on day 28. We found that dietary CAT (1g/100g) decreased fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, ameliorated the glucose normalizing ability following glucose challenge and decreased abdominal white adipose tissue accumulation. In white adipose tissue (WAT), CAT upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and its responsive genes [i.e., stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) and enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)], increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. CAT decreased abdominal fat deposition, increased HDL cholesterol, decreased TG concentrations, decreased glucose and insulin homeostasis and modulated WAT gene expression in a manner reminiscent of the actions of the PPAR alpha-activating fibrate class of lipid-lowering drugs.

  2. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P < .001). In an age, sex, and WC-adjusted models, VAT area (P < .006) was directly associated with %IHF, while superficial-subcutaneous adipose tissue proportion was inversely associated with %IHF (P < .006). In these models, renal-sinus fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P < .003 for all). In these models, the associations remained robust even within the normal range strata of IHF < 5% for triglycerides and chemerin (P ≤ .004 for all). For the diagnosis of fatty liver, the joint area under the curve of WC, alanine-aminotransferase, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was 0.84(95% CI, 0.79-0.89). Intrahepatic fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. White Adipose Tissue Browning: A Double-edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2016-08-01

    The study of white adipose tissue (WAT) 'browning' has become a 'hot topic' in various acute and chronic metabolic conditions, based on the idea that WAT browning might be able to facilitate weight loss and improve metabolic health. However, this view cannot be translated into all areas of medicine. Recent studies identified effects of browning associated with adverse outcomes, and as more studies are being conducted, a very different picture has emerged about WAT browning and its detrimental effect in acute and chronic hypermetabolic conditions. Therefore, the notion that browning is supposedly beneficial may be inadequate. In this review we analyze how and why browning in chronic hypermetabolic associated diseases can be detrimental and lead to adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. White Adipose Tissue Is a Reservoir for Memory T Cells and Promotes Protective Memory Responses to Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong-Ji; Glatman Zaretsky, Arielle; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Collins, Nicholas; Dzutsev, Amiran; Shaik, Jahangheer; Morais da Fonseca, Denise; Harrison, Oliver J; Tamoutounour, Samira; Byrd, Allyson L; Smelkinson, Margery; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Bliska, James B; Brenchley, Jason M; Brodsky, Igor E; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2017-12-19

    White adipose tissue bridges body organs and plays a fundamental role in host metabolism. To what extent adipose tissue also contributes to immune surveillance and long-term protective defense remains largely unknown. Here, we have shown that at steady state, white adipose tissue contained abundant memory lymphocyte populations. After infection, white adipose tissue accumulated large numbers of pathogen-specific memory T cells, including tissue-resident cells. Memory T cells in white adipose tissue expressed a distinct metabolic profile, and white adipose tissue from previously infected mice was sufficient to protect uninfected mice from lethal pathogen challenge. Induction of recall responses within white adipose tissue was associated with the collapse of lipid metabolism in favor of antimicrobial responses. Our results suggest that white adipose tissue represents a memory T cell reservoir that provides potent and rapid effector memory responses, positioning this compartment as a potential major contributor to immunological memory. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparison of Dorsocervical With Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Patients With and Without Antiretroviral Therapy–Associated Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Sutinen, Jussi; Greco, Dario; Sievers, Meline; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Perttilä, Julia; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Wågsäter, Dick; Lidell, Martin E.; Enerbäck, Sven; Eriksson, Per; Walker, Ulrich A.; Auvinen, Petri; Ristola, Matti; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with lipodystrophy, i.e., loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdomen, limbs, and face and its accumulation intra-abdominally. No fat is lost dorsocervically and it can even accumulate in this region (buffalo hump). It is unknown how preserved dorsocervical fat differs from abdominal subcutaneous fat in HIV-1–infected cART-treated patients with (cART+LD+) and without (cART+LD−) lipodystrophy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used histology, microarray, PCR, and magnetic resonance imaging to compare dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in cART+LD+ (n = 21) and cART+LD− (n = 11). RESULTS Albeit dorsocervical adipose tissue in cART+LD+ seems spared from lipoatrophy, its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; copies/cell) content was significantly lower (by 62%) than that of the corresponding tissue in cART+LD−. Expression of CD68 mRNA, a marker of macrophages, and numerous inflammatory genes in microarray were significantly lower in dorsocervical versus abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Genes with the greatest difference in expression between the two depots were those involved in regulation of transcription and regionalization (homeobox genes), irrespective of lipodystrophy status. There was negligible mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1, a gene characteristic of brown adipose tissue, in either depot. CONCLUSIONS Because mtDNA is depleted even in the nonatrophic dorsocervical adipose tissue, it is unlikely that the cause of lipoatrophy is loss of mtDNA. Dorsocervical adipose tissue is less inflamed than lipoatrophic adipose tissue. It does not resemble brown adipose tissue. The greatest difference in gene expression between dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is in expression of homeobox genes. PMID:21602514

  6. Secular change in the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity in China (1993-2011).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yosuke; Howard, Annie Green; Thompson, Amanda L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to how the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity changes over the course of economic development in low-income and middle-income countries. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey waves 1993-2011 (seven waves). A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between community-level urbanisation with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; an indicator of abdominal adiposity). We incorporated interaction terms between urbanisation and study waves to understand how the association changed over time. The analyses were stratified by age (children vs adults). Adult WHtR was positively associated with urbanisation in earlier waves but became inversely associated over time. More specifically, a 1 SD increase in the urbanisation index was associated with higher WHtR by 0.002 and 0.005 in waves 1993 and 1997, while it was associated with lower WHtR by 0.001 in 2011. Among child participants, the increase in WHtR over time was predominantly observed in more urbanised communities. Our study suggests a shift in adult abdominal adiposity from more urbanised communities to less urbanised communities over a time of rapid economic development in China. Children living in more urbanised communities had higher increase in abdominal obesity with urbanisation over time relative to children living in less urbanised communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Distribution of abdominal adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in yaquis indians from sonora, méxico.

    PubMed

    Brito-Zurita, Olga; Domínguez-Banda, Alberto; Ugalde-Aguirre, Víctor; Cortez-Valenzuela, Ana; Villanueva-Pérez, Rosa; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    Studies on adiposity in indigenous populations from Mexico are scarce and there are not previous reports that examine the topography of abdominal fat depot and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we determined the distribution of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and analyzed its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors, in Yaqui Indians. In a cross-sectional population based study, a total of 82 apparently healthy Yaqui Indians (age 44 +/- 14 years and BMI 27.9 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly enrolled from Vicam, Bacum, and Potam, traditional Yaqui communities from Sonora, in northwest Mexico. Anthropometric parameters, single-slice computed tomography scans at the L(2)-L(3) intervertebral space, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. A total of 49 (59.7%) individuals were obese, showing a predominant area of abdominal SAT (319.5 +/- 118.2 cm(2)) over abdominal VAT (134.6 +/- 58.4 cm(2)). Both abdominal VAT (r = 0.54, P = .001; and r = 0.36, P = .01) and SAT (r = 0.15, P = .001; r = 0.47, P = .01) were positively correlated with age and BMI. Abdominal VAT was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.69, P = .0001) and triglycerides levels (r = 0.42, P = .01). Among Yaquis Indians, obesity with predominant abdominal SAT is common and hyperinsulinemia is the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor. Abdominal VAT, but not abdominal SAT, was related to hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  8. Germline Ablation of VGF Increases Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C.; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf−/Vgf− knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage, and that increased beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf−/Vgf− mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf−/Vgf− mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) (Ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), and phospho-perilipin, were higher in male Vgf−/Vgf− WAT compared to wild type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1), were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL Ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf−/Vgf− WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis. PMID:22942234

  9. Germline ablation of VGF increases lipolysis in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fargali, Samira; Scherer, Thomas; Shin, Andrew C; Sadahiro, Masato; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    Targeted deletion of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically induced obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice is responsible for increased energy expenditure and decreased fat storage and that increased β-adrenergic receptor stimulation induces lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) of Vgf-/Vgf- mice. We found that fat mass was markedly reduced in Vgf-/Vgf- mice. Within knockout WAT, phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrate increased in males and females, phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) (ser563) increased in females, and levels of adipose triglyceride lipase, comparative gene identification-58, and phospho-perilipin were higher in male Vgf-/Vgf- WAT compared with wild-type, consistent with increased lipolysis. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Thr172) and levels of the AMPK kinase, transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1, were decreased. This was associated with a decrease in HSL ser565 phosphorylation, the site phosphorylated by AMPK, in both male and female Vgf-/Vgf- WAT. No significant differences in phosphorylation of CREB or the p42/44 MAPK were noted. Despite this evidence supporting increased cAMP signaling and lipolysis, lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase protein expression and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase was not decreased. Our data suggest that the VGF precursor or selected VGF-derived peptides dampen sympathetic outflow pathway activity to WAT to regulate fat storage and lipolysis.

  10. PVAT and Its Relation to Brown, Beige, and White Adipose Tissue in Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Staffan; Stümer, Jasmin; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype. These three types of tissues also have endocrine functions and play major roles in whole body metabolism especially in obesity and its co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease. Over the last years, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has emerged as an adipose organ with endocrine and paracrine functions. Pro and anti-inflammatory agents released by PVAT affect vascular health, and are implicated in the inflammatory aspects of atherosclerosis. PVAT shares several of the defining characteristics of brown adipose tissue, including its cellular morphology and expression of thermogenic genes characteristic for brown adipocytes. However, PVATs from different vessels are phenotypically different, and significant developmental differences exist between PVAT and other adipose tissues. Whether PVAT represents classical BAT, beige adipose tissue, or WAT with changing characteristics, is unclear. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how PVAT relates to other types of adipose tissue, both in terms of functionality, developmental origins, and its role in obesity-related cardiovascular disease and inflammation. PMID:29467675

  11. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4α and PPARα in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  12. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m 2 ). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow-up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension for 1 SD increase in VAT and SAT was 1.27 (1.08-1.50, P=0.004) and 0.97 (0.81-1.15, P=0.70), respectively. Adjusting for body mass index instead of SAT attenuated the association between VAT and incident hypertension, but it was still significant (odds ratio, 1.22 [1.01-1.48, P=0.041] for each SD increase in VAT). In conclusion, ultrasound-determined VAT, but not SAT, was associated with incident hypertension in a random sample of Danish adults. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. [Sensitivity and specificity of abdominal adiposity with metabolic syndrome in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; García Vega, María Del Mar; García Lavigne, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez Linares, María Victoria; Martínez Blanco, Javier

    It is recognised that abdominal adiposity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as intolerance to glucose, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of trunk fat and visceral fat index, obtained by anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance, with metabolic syndrome (SM) in an elderly population. The study included 208 subjects (78 men and 130 women) with a mean age of 82.5 years. Abdominal obesity was assessed by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. ROC curves were calculated in order to assess the ability of these variables to diagnose metabolic syndrome. There are differences between men and women in body mass index, waist to height ratio, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance measurements as trunk fat and visceral fat (p<.05). Also, found differences in anthropometric indices and variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance between subjects with and without SM (p<.05) and only exist differences in blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (p<.05). There are significant correlations between anthropometric variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance (p<.05). Areas under the curve (AUC) of waist to height index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and trunk fat were greater than 0.8 (all p<.01), and in women did not exceed values of 0.65. The cut-off points obtained for BMI were 26.81 and 23.53kg/m 2 , 102 and 91cm for waist circumference, 22.1 and 20.7cm for sagittal abdominal diameter, 34% and 43.7% for trunk fat, and 17 and 11.5 for visceral fat ratio in men and women, respectively. There are different levels of predictive ability for metabolic syndrome according to gender. Trunk fat and visceral fat index and anthropometric measures have higher predictive ability for metabolic syndrome in men than in women. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal adiposity is not a mediator of the protective effect of Mediterranean diet on colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fasanelli, Francesca; Zugna, Daniela; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Caini, Saverio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2017-05-15

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has a preventive effect on colorectal cancer (CRC). Several biological mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this effect, but the involvement of clinical mediators has not been experimentally proven. We examined the role of abdominal adiposity (i.e., waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) as a potential mediator of the relationship between the MD and CRC in the Italian centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We evaluated the effect of the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) on WHR and of WHR on CRC risk. We then estimated the natural indirect effect (NIE, mediated by WHR) and the pure direct effect (PDE, unmediated) of IMI on CRC risk using mediation analyses, considering age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking and EPIC centre as confounders. Increased IMI was associated with significantly decreased odds of high WHR (odds ratio [OR] for an IMI of 6-11 vs. 0-1: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97). There was a positive relationship between WHR and CRC (hazard ratio [HR] for high vs. low WHR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66). The total effect of IMI was protective on CRC risk and was mainly explained by the PDE (HR for an IMI of 6-11 vs. 0-1: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.31-0.83), whereas the NIE was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.94-1.10). In this Mediterranean cohort, the protective effect of the MD on the development of CRC was not mediated by abdominal adiposity. Since this is the first study to investigate the mediating effect of abdominal obesity, other studies are needed to replicate this result. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Evaluation of markers of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue of the mouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: There is a growing interest in exploiting the induction of beige or “brite” (brown in white) adipocytes (beigeing) to combat obesity and its comorbidities. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the best markers to evaluate the occurrence or magnitude of beigeing in white adipose t...

  16. Evaluation of markers of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue of the mouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beige or brite (brown in white) adipocytes are cells that arise in white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to stimuli like excess energy, exercise, or cold exposure. The induction of beige adipocytes (beigeing) confers resistance to obesity and type-2 diabetes in animal models. There is a growing int...

  17. MKK6 controls T3-mediated browning of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matesanz, Nuria; Bernardo, Edgar; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Manieri, Elisa; Pérez-Sieira, Sonia; Hernández-Cosido, Lourdes; Montalvo-Romeral, Valle; Mora, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Elena; Leiva-Vega, Luis; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Torres, Jorge L; Crespo-Ruiz, Maria; Centeno, Francisco; Álvarez, Clara V; Marcos, Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Nogueiras, Ruben; Sabio, Guadalupe

    2017-10-11

    Increasing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissue to enhance organismal energy expenditure is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here, we report that expression of the p38 MAPK activator MKK6 is elevated in white adipose tissue of obese individuals. Using knockout animals and shRNA, we show that Mkk6 deletion increases energy expenditure and thermogenic capacity of white adipose tissue, protecting mice against diet-induced obesity and the development of diabetes. Deletion of Mkk6 increases T3-stimulated UCP1 expression in adipocytes, thereby increasing their thermogenic capacity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that, in white adipose tissue, p38 is activated by an alternative pathway involving AMPK, TAK, and TAB. Our results identify MKK6 in adipocytes as a potential therapeutic target to reduce obesity.Brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate heat via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Here the authors show that the stress activated kinase MKK6 acts as a repressor of UCP1 expression, suggesting that its inhibition promotes adipose tissue browning and increases organismal energy expenditure.

  18. Effects of 8 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure on abdominal adiposity in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Sheila; Phillips, Craig L; Trenell, Michael I; Yee, Brendon J; Liu, Peter Y; Wong, Keith K; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients received both therapeutic and sham CPAP in a random order for 2 months each with an intervening 1-month washout. Abdominal subcutaneous, visceral and liver fat were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Liver enzymes and plasma glucose were also determined. Measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of both treatment arms. 38 eligible patients were randomly assigned to a treatment order, with 27 patients having complete MRI/MRS data. No significant difference was observed in subcutaneous (-28.6 cm(3); p=0.49) or visceral (-16.8 cm(3); p=0.59) adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipid (-0.2%; p=0.21), or fasting glucose measurements (-0.1 mmol·L(-1); p=0.46) between treatment modalities. Alkaline phosphatase decreased (-3.1 U·L(-1); p=0.02) while on therapeutic CPAP compared with sham CPAP but other liver enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase (0.3 U·L(-1); p=0.82), alanine aminotransferase (1.34 U·L(-1); p=0.59) and γ-glutamyltransferase (-2.3 U·L(-1); p=0.33), remained unchanged. In this first randomised, sham-controlled trial, there was no change in adipose tissue distribution after 8 weeks of therapeutic CPAP compared with 8 weeks of sham CPAP. Longer duration of CPAP use may be necessary to demonstrate a difference.

  19. 4E-BP1 regulates the differentiation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Katsume, Asao; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masayuki; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-07-01

    4E Binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) suppresses translation initiation. The absence of 4E-BP1 drastically reduces the amount of adipose tissue in mice. To address the role of 4E-BP1 in adipocyte differentiation, we characterized 4E-BP1(-/-) mice in this study. The lack of 4E-BP1 decreased the amount of white adipose tissue and increased the amount of brown adipose tissue. In 4E-BP1(-/-) MEF cells, PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression increased and exogenous 4E-BP1 expression suppressed PGC-1α expression. The level of 4E-BP1 expression was higher in white adipocytes than in brown adipocytes and showed significantly greater up-regulation in white adipocytes than in brown adipocytes during preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes. The amount of PGC-1α was consistently higher in HB cells (a brown preadipocyte cell line) than in HW cells (a white preadipocyte cell line) during differentiation. Moreover, the ectopic over-expression of 4E-BP1 suppressed PGC-1α expression in white adipocytes, but not in brown adipocytes. Thus, the results of our study indicate that 4E-BP1 may suppress brown adipocyte differentiation and PGC-1α expression in white adipose tissues. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling.

    PubMed

    Basse, Astrid L; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita; Tygesen, Malin P; Qvortrup, Klaus; Kristiansen, Karsten; Quistorff, Bjørn; Gupta, Ramneek; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Jacob B

    2015-03-19

    Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial abundance and down-regulation of gene expression related to mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation. Global gene expression profiling demonstrated that the time points grouped into three phases: a brown adipose phase, a transition phase and a white adipose phase. Between the brown adipose and the transition phase 170 genes were differentially expressed, and 717 genes were differentially expressed between the transition and the white adipose phase. Thirty-eight genes were shared among the two sets of differentially expressed genes. We identified a number of regulated transcription factors, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over time. Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. Moreover, our data set provides a useful resource for further studies in adipose tissue plasticity.

  1. Effect of Pioglitazone on the Fructose-Induced Abdominal Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E.; Rebolledo, Oscar R.; Gagliardino, Juan J.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction. PMID:23091482

  2. Effect of pioglitazone on the fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E; Rebolledo, Oscar R; Gagliardino, Juan J; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction.

  3. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  4. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  5. Inverse association between brown adipose tissue activation and white adipose tissue accumulation in successfully treated pediatric malignancy1234

    PubMed Central

    Chalfant, James S; Smith, Michelle L; Hu, Houchun H; Dorey, Fred J; Goodarzian, Fariba; Fu, Cecilia H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a risk factor for disease, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to have a protective role against obesity. Objective: We studied whether changes in BAT were related to changes in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children treated for malignancy. Design: We examined the effect of BAT activity on weight, SAT, and VAT in 32 pediatric patients with cancer whose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) scans at diagnosis showed no BAT activity. Changes in weight, SAT, and VAT from diagnosis to remission for children with metabolically active BAT at disease-free follow-up (BAT+) were compared with those in children without visualized BAT when free of disease (BAT−). Results: Follow-up PET-CT studies (4.7 ± 2.4 mo later) after successful treatment of the cancer showed BAT+ in 19 patients but no active BAT (BAT−) in 13 patients. BAT+ patients, in comparison with BAT− patients, gained significantly less weight (3.3 ± 6.6% compared with 11.0 ± 11.6%; P = 0.02) and had significantly less SAT (18.2 ± 26.5% compared with 67.4 ± 71.7%; P = 0.01) and VAT (22.6 ± 33.5% compared with 131.6 ± 171.8%; P = 0.01) during treatment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the inverse relations between BAT activation and measures of weight, SAT, and VAT persisted even after age, glucocorticoid treatment, and the season when the PET-CT scans were obtained were accounted for. Conclusion: The activation of BAT in pediatric patients undergoing treatment of malignancy is associated with significantly less adipose accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01517581. PMID:22456659

  6. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-05-01

    A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI:-0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and -1.30 mL (95% CI: -2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in Indian and Malay persons in our population. If such

  7. First-Trimester Abdominal Adipose Tissue Thickness to Predict Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bourdages, Mélodie; Demers, Marie-Élaine; Dubé, Samuel; Gasse, Cédric; Girard, Mario; Boutin, Amélie; Ray, Joel G; Bujold, Emmanuel; Demers, Suzanne

    2018-07-01

    To estimate the discriminative capacity of first-trimester subcutaneous (SATT), visceral (VATT), and total (TATT) adipose tissue thickness in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), including that requiring insulin. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 1048 nulliparous women. Ultrasound images were used to determine abdominal SATT, VATT, and TATT at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict GDM, as well as insulin-requiring GDM. Model discrimination was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). SATT (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.73), VATT (AUC 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.73), and TATT (AUC 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.76) were each associated with subsequent GDM. The respective AUC values for insulin-requiring GDM were 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.84). At a false-positive rate of 10%, the detection rate for insulin-requiring GDM was 19% for maternal age ≥35 years, 31% for a BMI ≥31.6 kg/m 2 , and 31% for TATT ≥61 mm, increasing to 42% in the model comprising all three measures. First-trimester ultrasound measurement of adipose tissue is associated with a higher chance of developing GDM, especially insulin-requiring GDM. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  9. Does the Mediterranean diet counteract the adverse effects of abdominal adiposity?

    PubMed

    Eguaras, S; Toledo, E; Buil-Cosiales, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Corella, D; Gutierrez-Bedmar, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Arós, F; Fiol, M; Fitó, M; Ros, E; Serra-Majem, L; Pintó, X; Martínez, J A; Sorlí, J V; Muñoz, M A; Basora, J; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M Á

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) could mitigate the well-known harmful effects of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular health. We assessed the relationship between baseline waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and major cardiovascular events during a median follow-up of 4.8 years in the Prevention with Mediterranean Diet (PREDIMED) randomized primary prevention trial, which tested a MeDiet against a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). We also examined whether the MeDiet intervention was able to counteract the detrimental cardiovascular effects of an increased WHtR. The trial included 7447 participants (55-80 years old, 57% women) at high cardiovascular risk but free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at enrollment. An increased risk of CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) was apparent for the highest versus the lowest quartile of WHtR (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 1.98) (95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.57; linear trend: p = 0.019) only in the control-diet group, but not in the two groups allocated to intervention with MeDiet (p for interaction = 0.034). This apparent interaction suggesting that the intervention counterbalanced the detrimental cardiovascular effects of adiposity was also significant for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.043). The MeDiet may counteract the harmful effects of increased adiposity on the risk of CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: The Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined- grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We examined the cross-sectional associati...

  11. Perilipin-2 Deletion Promotes Carbohydrate-Mediated Browning of White Adipose Tissue at Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Libby, Andrew E; Bales, Elise S; Monks, Jenifer; Orlicky, David J; McManaman, James L

    2018-06-04

    Mice lacking Perilipin-2 (Plin2-null) are resistant to obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver induced by western or high fat diets. In the current study, we found that compared to wild type (WT) mice on western diet, Plin2-null adipose tissue was more insulin sensitive, and that inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) exhibited profound browning and robust induction of thermogenic and carbohydrate responsive genetic programs at room temperature. Surprisingly, these Plin2-null responses correlated with the content of simple carbohydrates, rather than fat, in the diet, and were independent of adipose Plin2 expression. To define Plin2 and sugar effects on adipose browning, WT and Plin2-null mice were placed on chow diets containing 20% sucrose in their drinking water for 6 weeks. Compared to WT mice, iWAT of Plin2-null mice exhibited pronounced browning and striking increases in the expression of thermogenic and insulin responsive genes on this diet. Significantly, Plin2-null iWAT browning was associated with reduced sucrose intake and elevated serum FGF21 levels, which correlated with greatly enhanced hepatic FGF21 production. These data identify Plin2 actions as novel mediators of sugar-induced adipose browning through indirect effects of hepatic FGF21 expression, and suggest that adipose browning mechanisms may contribute to Plin2-null resistance to obesity. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Fructose-rich diet-induced abdominal adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Raschia, Agustina; Madrid, Viviana; Gaillard, Rolf C; Rebolledo, Oscar; Gagliardino, Juan J; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    We have currently studied the changes induced by administration of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to normal rats in the mass and the endocrine function of abdominal (omental) adipose tissue (AAT). Rats were fed ad libitum a standard commercial chow and tap water, either alone (control diet, CD) or containing fructose (10%, w/vol) (FRD). Three weeks after treatment, circulating metabolic markers and leptin release from adipocytes of AAT were measured. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in FRD than in CD rats. AAT mass was greater in FRD than in CD rats and their adipocytes were larger, they secreted more leptin and showed impaired insulin sensitivity. While leptin mRNA expression increased in AAT from FRD rats, gene expression of insulin receptor substrate, IRS1 and IRS2 was significantly reduced. Our study demonstrates that administration of a FRD significantly affects insulin sensitivity and several AAT endocrine/metabolic functions. These alterations could be part of a network of interacting abnormalities triggered by FRD-induced oxidative stress at the AAT level. In view of the impaired glucose tolerance observed in FRD rats, these alterations could play a key role in both the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and beta-cell failure.

  13. Visceral adiposity predicts subclinical white matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Evan P; Birdsill, Alex; Parker, Paige; Elmenshawy, Ahmed; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    Growing prevalence of neuropathology and cognitive impairment are emerging consequences of the obesity epidemic. Adiposity indices used in examining the relationships between obesity, neuropathology, and cognition vary substantially in the literature leading to incongruent findings. Our aim was to determine the anthropometric measures most strongly associated with early white matter disease and cognitive function at midlife. Multiple adiposity indices were measured in 126 adults aged 40-62 who also completed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to quantify white matter disease and a cognitive test battery. Anthropometric indices of obesity were compared to image-based estimates of visceral adipose tissue with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as predictors of current white matter disease and cognitive function. We also explored sex as a potential moderator of these relationships. Waist circumference (WC) was most strongly correlated with DEXA estimates of visceral adipose tissue (r=0.871, p<0.001). Increasing WC (β=0.231, p=0.034), percent body fat (β=0.230, p=0.045), and VAT (β=0.247, p=0.027) significantly predicted subclinical white matter hyperintensities in the absence of cognitive impairment after accounting for age, sex, years of education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Sex was not a significant moderator of any of the observed relationships. Of the anthropometric indices used in this study, WC, BF, and VAT successfully predicted subclinical white matter disease in cognitively normal adults at midlife. Increasing VAT may independently insidiously affect cerebral white matter prior to detectable cognitive changes, necessitating early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal and General Adiposity and Level of Asthma Control in Adults with Uncontrolled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Buist, A. Sonia; Strub, Peg; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Abdominal adiposity may be an important risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in adults, controlling for general obesity. Whether the relationship, if present, is explained by other factors (e.g., asthma onset age, sex, and/or coexisting conditions) is unclear. Objectives: To examine whether clinically applicable anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity—waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)—are related to poorer asthma control in adults with uncontrolled asthma controlling for body mass index (BMI), and whether the relationship (if present) is explained by gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD), sleep quality, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or differs by age of asthma onset or sex. Methods: Patients aged 18 to 70 years with uncontrolled asthma (n = 90) participated in a 6-month randomized clinical trial. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline measures included sociodemographics, standardized anthropometrics, Asthma Control Test (ACT), GERD Symptom Assessment Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Berlin Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea. Participants (mean [SD] age, 52 [12] yr) were racially and ethnically diverse, 67% women, and 69% overweight or obese, and 71% reported their age of asthma onset was 12 years or older. Participants had uncontrolled asthma (mean [SD] ACT score, 14.9 [3.7]) and low GERD symptoms score (0.6 [0.4]); 67% reported poor sleep quality, and 42% had a high OSA risk. General linear regression results showed that worse ACT scores were significantly associated with every SD increase in waist circumference (β= −1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.96 to −0.16; P = 0.02) and waist-to-height ratio (β= −1.16; 95% CI, −2.00 to −0.33; P = 0.008), controlling for sociodemographics. Waist-to-height ratio remained correlated with ACT (β= −2.30; 95% CI, −4.16 to −0.45; P = 0.02) after further adjusting for BMI. The BMI-controlled relationship between WHtR and ACT did not differ by age of asthma

  15. Abdominal adipose tissue thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in a Chinese patient population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Mu, Liangshan; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Tianyi; Mei, Zihan; Zeng, Wenrong; He, Jiawei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan

    2016-12-13

    The relationship between abdominal adiposity and disc degeneration remains largely uninvestigated. Here, we investigated the association between abdominal adipose tissue thickness and lumbar disc degeneration in a cross-sectional study of 2415 participants from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. All subjects were scanned with a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging system to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that men in the highest quartiles for abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), and ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST) were at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than men in the lowest quartiles. The adjusted model revealed that women in the highest quartiles for AD and SAD were also at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than women in the lowest quartiles. Our results suggest that abdominal obesity might be one of underlying mechanisms of lumbar disc degeneration, and preventive strategies including weight control could be useful to reduce the incidence of lumbar disc degeneration. Prospective studies are needed to this confirm these results and to identify more deeper underlying mechanisms.

  16. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Maternal adiposity negatively influences infant brain white matter development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To study potential effects of maternal body composition on central nervous system (CNS) development of newborn infants. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate brain white matter development in 2-week-old, full-term, appropriate for gestational age infants from uncomplicat...

  18. Physiological regulation and metabolic role of browning in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Stancic, Ana; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2017-09-01

    Great progress has been made in our understanding of the browning process in white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents. The recognition that i) adult humans have physiologically inducible brown adipose tissue (BAT) that may facilitate resistance to obesity and ii) that adult human BAT molecularly and functionally resembles beige adipose tissue in rodents, reignited optimism that obesity and obesity-related diabetes type 2 can be battled by controlling the browning of WAT. In this review the main cellular mechanisms and molecular mediators of browning of WAT in different physiological states are summarized. The relevance of browning of WAT in metabolic health is considered primarily through a modulation of biological role of fat tissue in overall metabolic homeostasis.

  19. Metabolic benefits of inhibition of p38α in white adipose tissue in obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengjie; Cao, Hongchao; Li, Yan; Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Shengnan; Ye, Cheng; Wang, Hui; Yu, Shuxian; Peng, Chengyuan; Hui, Lijian; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Haibing; Guo, Feifan; Zhai, Qiwei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Ruimin; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Ying, Hao

    2018-05-01

    p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure. In contrast, genetic ablation of p38α in adipose tissues not only markedly facilitates the browning in WAT upon cold stress but also prevents diet-induced obesity. Consistently, pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α remarkably enhances the browning of WAT and has metabolic benefits. Furthermore, our data suggest that p38α deficiency promotes white-to-beige adipocyte reprogramming in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, inhibition of p38α stimulates the UCP-1 transcription through PKA and its downstream cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which form a positive feedback loop that functions to reinforce the white-to-beige phenotypic switch during cold exposure. Together, our study reveals that inhibition of p38α is able to promote WAT browning and confer metabolic benefits. Our study also indicates that p38α in WAT represents an exciting pharmacological target to combat obesity and metabolic diseases.

  20. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve. PMID:26125027

  1. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.

    PubMed

    Elattar, Sawsan; Dimri, Manali; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2018-03-23

    Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hypermetabolism, increased energy expenditure, and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. By utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate here that the lipid mobilizing factor zinc-α 2 -glycoprotein (ZAG) induces WAT browning in mice. Increased circulating levels of ZAG not only induced lipolysis in adipose tissues but also caused robust browning in WAT. Stimulating WAT progenitors with ZAG recombinant protein or expression of ZAG in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly enhanced brown-like differentiation. At the molecular level, ZAG stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and early B cell factor 2 expression and promoted their recruitment to the PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of Prdm16, which determines brown cell fate. In brown adipose tissue, ZAG stimulated the expression of PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator 1α and promoted recruitment of PPARγ to the uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) promoter, leading to increased expression of Ucp1. Overall, our results reveal a novel function of ZAG in WAT browning and highlight the targeting of ZAG as a potential therapeutic application in humans with cachexia.-Elattar, S., Dimri, M., Satyanarayana, A. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.

  2. Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Juan Pablo; García, María Elisa; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Marra, Carlos Alberto; Spinedi, Eduardo; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of OS (oxidative stress) inhibition in rats fed on an FRD [fructose-rich diet; 10% (w/v) in drinking water] for 3 weeks. Normal adult male rats received a standard CD (commercial diet) or an FRD without or with an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, APO (apocynin; 5 mM in drinking water; CD-APO and FRD-APO). We thereafter measured plasma OS and metabolic-endocrine markers, AAT (abdominal adipose tissue) mass and cell size, FA (fatty acid) composition (content and release), OS status, LEP (leptin) and IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1/IRS-2 mRNAs, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, NADPH oxidase activity and LEP release by isolated AAT adipocytes. FRD-fed rats had larger AAT mass without changes in body weight, and higher plasma levels of TAG (triacylglycerol), FAs, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and LEP. Although no significant changes in glucose and insulin plasma levels were observed in these animals, their HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) values were significantly higher than those of CD. The AAT from FRD-fed rats had larger adipocytes, higher saturated FA content, higher NADPH oxidase activity, greater ROS production, a distorted FA content/release pattern, lower insulin sensitivity together with higher and lower mRNA content of LEP and IRS-1-/2 respectively, and released a larger amount of LEP. The development of all the clinical, OS, metabolic, endocrine and molecular changes induced by the FRD were significantly prevented by APO co-administration. The fact that APO treatment prevented both changes in NADPH oxidase activity and the development of all the FRD-induced AAT dysfunctions in normal rats strongly suggests that OS plays an important role in the FRD-induced MS (metabolic syndrome) phenotype.

  3. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J.; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity1. In response to cold or exercise brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (named beige cells), a process known as browning2,3,4. Here, we show that the development of functional beige fat is promoted by microbiota depletion either by antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice within the inguinal subcutaneous and perigonadal visceral adipose tissues (ingSAT and pgVAT, respectively). This leads to improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice and obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. These metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration and enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by suppression of the type 2 signaling and are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated, or the germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  4. White adipose tissue cells and the progression of cachexia: inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Rodrigo X.; Rosa‐Neto, José Cesar; Yamashita, Alex S.; Matos‐Neto, Emidio M.; Riccardi, Daniela M. R.; Lira, Fabio S.; Batista, Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a systemic syndrome leading to body wasting, systemic inflammation, and to metabolic chaos. It is a progressive condition, and little is known about its dynamics. Detection of the early signs of the disease may lead to the attenuation of the associated symptoms. The white adipose tissue is an organ with endocrine functions, capable of synthesising and secreting a plethora of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines. It is well established that different adipose tissue depots demonstrate heterogeneous responses to physiological and pathological stimuli. The present study aimed at providing insight into adipocyte involvement in inflammation along the progression of cachexia. Methods Eight‐weeks‐old male rats were subcutaneously inoculated with a Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cell suspension (2 × 107 cells in 1.0 mL; tumour‐bearing, T) or Phosphate‐buffered saline (control, C). The retroperitoneal, epididymal, and mesenteric adipose pads were excised on Days 0, 7, and 14 post‐tumour cell injection, and the adipocytes were isolated. Results Mesenteric and epididymal adipocytes showed up‐regulation of IL‐1β protein expression and activation of the inflammasome pathway, contributing for whole tissue inflammation. The stromal vascular fraction of the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, on the other hand, seems to be the major contributor for the inflammation in this specific pad. Conclusion Adipocytes seem to play a relevant role in the establishment of white adipose tissue inflammation, through the activation of the NF‐κB and inflammasome pathways. In epididymal adipocytes, induction of the inflammasome may be detected already on Day 7 post‐tumour cell inoculation. PMID:27493872

  5. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, p<0.001). The loss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (p<0.05). The presented fully automatic algorithm showed good performance in abdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xu, Wen Ming; Zhang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level. Case-control study. University teaching hospital. In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry. PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients. The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal adiposity, general obesity, and subclinical systolic dysfunction in the elderly: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Sera, Fusako; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-05-01

    General obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity, measured as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), are associated with heart failure and cardiovascular events. However, the relationship of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is unknown. We assessed the association of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in a population-based elderly cohort. Participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study underwent measurement of BMI, WC, and WHR. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiographic LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS). The study population included 729 participants (mean age 71 ± 9 years, 60% women). In multivariate analysis, higher BMI (but not WC and WHR) was associated with higher LVEF (β = 0.11, P = 0.003). Higher WC (β = 0.08, P = 0.038) and higher WHR (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) were associated with lower GLS, whereas BMI was not (P = 0.720). Compared with normal WHR, high WHR was associated with lower GLS in all BMI categories (normal, overweight, and obese), and was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction by GLS both in participants without [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.6, P = 0.020] and with general obesity (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.1-25.9, P = 0.034). WHR was incremental to BMI and risk factors in predicting LV dysfunction. Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction by GLS in all BMI categories. BMI was not associated with LV dysfunction. Increased abdominal adiposity may be a risk factor for LV dysfunction regardless of the presence of general obesity. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique

    2018-01-23

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D. C.; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M. Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; dos Santos, Ronaldo V. T.; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  11. Changes in visceral adiposity and serum cholesterol with a novel viscous polysaccharide in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Eller, Lindsay K; Lyon, Michael R; Gahler, Roland J; Kacinik, Veronica; Juneja, Prateek; Wood, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Evidence supports the role of dietary fiber in improving metabolic health. PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a viscous functional polysaccharide improves lipidemia and glycemia in healthy adults. Our objective was to examine the effects of PGX on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Sixty four subjects assigned to 14 weeks of 15 g day(-1) of PGX or placebo were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. At week 0 and 14, primary outcome measures were serum lipids, abdominal adiposity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Total and LDL cholesterol were reduced at week 14 with PGX but not placebo (P < 0.05). The reduction in waist circumference at week 14 was greater with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). In females, abdominal visceral fat was decreased to a greater extent with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). While glucose tolerance worsened with placebo over time, PGX reduced glucose total area under the curve from week 0 to 6 (P = 0.039). Serum concentrations of resistin and IL6 increased slightly in placebo and decreased slightly with PGX . PGX is a functional fiber that shows promise in reducing risk factors related to the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Ovariectomy and overeating palatable, energy-dense food increase subcutaneous adipose tissue more than intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA) adipose tissue (AT). This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to environmentally stimulated overeating, in which IAAT and subcutaneous (S) AT increase in similar proportions. The effect of menopause on adiposity is thought to be due to the decreased secretion of ovarian estrogens. Ovariectomy in rats and other animals is a commonly used model of menopause. It is well known that ovariectomy increases adiposity and that this can be reversed by estradiol treatment, but whether ovariectomy selectively increases IAAT has not been measured directly. Therefore, we used micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate this question in both chow-fed and dietary-obese rats. Methods Ovariectomized, ovariectomized and estradiol treated, and sham-operated (intact) rats were fed chow or chow plus Ensure (Abbott Nutrition; n = 7/group). Total (T) AT, IAAT and SAT were measured periodically by microCT. Regional distribution of AT was expressed as IAAT as a percentage of TAT (%IAAT). Excesses in these measures were calculated with respect to chow-fed intact rats to control for normal maturational changes. Chemical analysis of fat was done in chow-fed intact and ovariectomized rats at study end. Data were analyzed by t-tests and planned comparisons. Results Body mass, TAT, total fat mass, fat-free body mass, and %IAAT all increased in chow-fed intact rats during the 41 d study. In chow-fed rats, ovariectomy increased excess body mass, TAT, fat mass, fat-free body mass, and SAT, but had little effect on IAAT, in chow-fed rats, leading to a decrease in %IAAT. Ensure feeding markedly increased SAT, IAAT and TAT and did not significantly affect %IAAT. Ovariectomy had similar effects in Ensure-fed rats as in chow-fed rats, although less statistically reliable. Estradiol treatment prevented all the effects of ovariectomy. Conclusions

  13. Loss of ADAMTS5 enhances brown adipose tissue mass and promotes browning of white adipose tissue via CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Dries; Cobbaut, Mathias; Geys, Lotte; Van Lint, Johan; Hemmeryckx, Bianca; Lijnen, H Roger

    2017-07-01

    A potential strategy to treat obesity - and the associated metabolic consequences - is to increase energy expenditure. This could be achieved by stimulating thermogenesis through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or the induction of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Over the last years, it has become clear that several metalloproteinases play an important role in adipocyte biology. Here, we investigated the potential role of ADAMTS5. Mice deficient in ADAMTS5 ( Adamts5 -/- ) and wild-type ( Adamts5 +/+ ) littermates were kept on a standard of Western-type diet for 15 weeks. Energy expenditure and heat production was followed by indirect calorimetry. To activate thermogenesis, mice were treated with the β3-adrenergic receptor (β 3 -AR) agonist CL-316,243 or alternatively, exposed to cold for 2 weeks. Compared to Adamts5 +/+ mice, Adamts5 -/- mice have significantly more interscapular BAT and marked browning of their subcutaneous (SC) WAT. Thermogenic pathway analysis indicated, in the absence of ADAMTS5, enhanced β 3 -AR signaling via activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Additional β 3 -AR stimulation with CL-316,243 promoted browning of WAT in Adamts5 +/+ mice but had no additive effect in Adamts5 -/- mice. However, cold exposure induced more pronounced browning of WAT in Adamts5 -/- mice. These data indicate that ADAMTS5 plays a functional role in development of BAT and browning of WAT. Hence, selective targeting of ADAMTS5 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment/prevention of obesity and metabolic diseases.

  14. Insulin resistance and white adipose tissue inflammation are uncoupled in energetically challenged Fsp27-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linkang; Park, Shi-Young; Xu, Li; Xia, Xiayu; Ye, Jing; Su, Lu; Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Hur, Jang Ho; Oh, Hyunhee; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Zingaretti, Cristina M.; Cinti, Saverio; Argente, Jesús; Yu, Miao; Wu, Lizhen; Ju, Shenghong; Guan, Feifei; Yang, Hongyuan; Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Fsp27 is a lipid droplet-associated protein almost exclusively expressed in adipocytes where it facilitates unilocular lipid droplet formation. In mice, Fsp27 deficiency is associated with increased basal lipolysis, ‘browning’ of white fat and a healthy metabolic profile, whereas a patient with congenital CIDEC deficiency manifested an adverse lipodystrophic phenotype. Here we reconcile these data by showing that exposing Fsp27-null mice to a substantial energetic stress by crossing them with ob/ob mice or BATless mice, or feeding them a high-fat diet, results in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We also observe a striking reduction in adipose inflammation and increase in adiponectin levels in all three models. This appears to reflect reduced activation of the inflammasome and less adipocyte death. These findings highlight the importance of Fsp27 in facilitating optimal energy storage in adipocytes and represent a rare example where adipose inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance are disassociated. PMID:25565658

  15. Secular trends of physical growth and abdominal adiposity of school children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2017-02-01

    Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to age and sex. Positive trends for weight were identified for both males and females at all ages (p < .001). For height, significant increases were observed in males for all ages. No significant increases (p > .05) occurred in height for females between the ages of 6 and 8 years. However, commencing at age 9 until 12 years, females showed positive and significant increases (p < .001) in height. In 2015, BMI and waist circumference increased significantly for both sexes at all ages. Between 2001 and 2015, positive trends in physical growth and abdominal adiposity were identified for children and adolescents living in Arequipa, Peru. These changes may be associated with the rapid economic development in the country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. WAT-on-a-chip: A physiologically relevant microfluidic system incorporating white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Loskill, Peter; Sezhian, Thiagarajan; Tharp, Kevin; Lee-Montiel, Felipe T.; Jeeawoody, Shaheen; Reese, Willie Mae; Zushin, Pete-James H.; Stahl, Andreas; Healy, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Organ-on-a-chip systems possess a promising future as drug screening assays and as testbeds for disease modeling in the context of both single-organ systems and multi-organ-chips. Although it comprises approximately one fourth of the body weight of a healthy human, an organ frequently overlooked in this context is white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT-on-a-chip systems are required to create safety profiles of a large number of drugs due to their interactions with adipose tissue and other organs via paracrine signals, fatty acid release, and drug levels through sequestration. We report a WAT-on-a-chip system with a footprint of less than 1 mm2 consisting of a separate media channel and WAT chamber connected via small micropores. Analogous to the in vivo blood circulation, convective transport is thereby confined to the vasculature-like structures and the tissues protected from shear stresses. Numerical and analytical modeling revealed that the flow rates in the WAT chambers are less than 1/100 of the input flow rate. Using optimized injection parameters, we were able to inject pre-adipocytes, which subsequently formed adipose tissue featuring fully functional lipid metabolism. The physiologically relevant microfluidic environment of the WAT-chip supported long term culture of the functional adipose tissue for more than two weeks. Due to its physiological, highly controlled, and computationally predictable character, the system has the potential to be a powerful tool for the study of adipose tissue associated diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:28418430

  17. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kadooka, Y; Sato, M; Imaizumi, K; Ogawa, A; Ikuyama, K; Akai, Y; Okano, M; Kagoshima, M; Tsuchida, T

    2010-06-01

    In spite of the much evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics, their anti-obesity effects have not been well examined. We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other body measures in adults with obese tendencies. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Subjects (n=87) with higher body mass index (BMI) (24.2-30.7 kg/m(2)) and abdominal visceral fat area (81.2-178.5 cm(2)) were randomly assigned to receive either fermented milk (FM) containing LG2055 (active FM; n=43) or FM without LG2055 (control FM; n=44), and were asked to consume 200 g/day of FM for 12 weeks. Abdominal fat area was determined by computed tomography. In the active FM group, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas significantly (P<0.01) decreased from baseline by an average of 4.6% (mean (confidence interval): -5.8 (-10.0, -1.7) cm(2)) and 3.3% (-7.4 (-11.6, -3.1) cm(2)), respectively. Body weight and other measures also decreased significantly (P<0.001) as follows: body weight, 1.4% (-1.1 (-1.5, -0.7) kg); BMI, 1.5% (-0.4 (-0.5, -0.2) kg/m(2)); waist, 1.8% (-1.7 (-2.1, -1.4) cm); hip, 1.5% (-1.5 (-1.8, -1.1) cm). In the control group, by contrast, none of these parameters decreased significantly. High-molecular weight adiponectin in serum increased significantly (P<0.01) in the active and control groups by 12.7% (0.17 (0.07, 0.26) microg/ml) and 13.6% (0.23 (0.07, 0.38) microg/ml), respectively. The probiotic LG2055 showed lowering effects on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures, suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders.

  18. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Levitation Culture System Simulating White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hubert; Daquinag, Alexes C; Souza, Glauco R; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2018-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) has attracted interest for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies as an abundant source of adipose stem/stromal cells (ASC). However, technical challenges in WAT cell culture have limited its applications in regenerative medicine. Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models, which are essentially monolayers of cells on glass or plastic substrates, inadequately represent tissue architecture, biochemical concentration gradients, substrate stiffness, and most importantly for WAT research, cell phenotypic heterogeneity. Physiological cell culture platforms for WAT modeling must recapitulate the native diversity of cell types and their coordination within the organ. For this purpose, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) model using magnetic levitation. Here, we describe our protocol that we successfully employed to build adipose tissue organoids (adipospheres) that preserve the heterogeneity of the constituent cell types in vitro. We demonstrate the capacity of assembling adipospheres from multiple cell types, including ASCs, endohtelial cells, and leukocytes that recreate tissue organization. These adipospheres mimicked WAT organogenesis in that they enabled the formation of vessel-like endothelial structures with lumens and differentiation of unilocular adipocytes. Altogether, magnetic levitation is a cell culture platform that recreates tissue structure, function, and heterogeneity in vitro, and serves as a foundation for high-throughput WAT tissue culture and analysis.

  19. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Daquinag, Alexes; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Simmons, Paul J.; March, Keith L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2010-01-01

    The connection between obesity and accelerated cancer progression has been established, but the mediating mechanisms are not well understood. We have shown that stromal cells from white adipose tissue (WAT) cooperate with the endothelium to promote blood vessel formation through the secretion of soluble trophic factors. Here, we hypothesize that WAT directly mediates cancer progression by serving as a source of cells that migrate to tumors and promote neovascularization. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the recruitment of WAT-derived cells by tumors and the effect of their engraftment on tumor growth by integrating a transgenic mouse strain engineered for expansion of traceable cells with established allograft and xenograft cancer models. Our studies show that entry of adipose stromal and endothelial cells into systemic circulation leads to their homing to and engraftment into tumor stroma and vasculature, respectively. We show that recruitment of adipose stromal cells by tumors is sufficient to promote tumor growth. Finally, we show that migration of stromal and vascular progenitor cells from WAT grafts to tumors is also associated with acceleration of cancer progression. These results provide a biological insight for the clinical association between obesity and cancer, thus outlining potential avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19491274

  20. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study.

    PubMed

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass index (BMI). The association of BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR with stroke was assessed in 31,201 men and 23,516 women, free of vascular disease at baseline, from the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1130 strokes were recorded. Relative risks (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression after stratification for center and adjustment for age, smoking, educational level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI and model fit was assessed using log-likelihoods. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke in men. After full adjustment including BMI, the relative risks for stroke remained significant for WC (1.19 [1.02 to 1.34] per 1 SD increase in WC), WHR (1.14 [1.03 to 1.26]), and WHtR (1.50 [1.28 to 1.77]). Among women, the extent of the associations with stroke risk was similar for WHtR (1.31 [1.04 to 1.65]), WC (1.19 [0.96 to 1.47]), and WHR (1.08 [0.97 to 1.22]). Further analyses by World Health Organization obesity categories showed that WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke also in lean men and women (BMI<25 kg/m2), independently of confounders, cardiovascular risk factors, and BMI. Indicators of abdominal adiposity, especially WHtR, are more strongly associated with stroke risk than BMI. These results emphasize the importance of measuring abdominal adiposity, especially in lean subjects.

  1. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity) are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR) were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91) p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31) p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for the association of

  2. Abdominal adiposity contributes to adverse glycemic control and albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Ying; Sun, Wanwan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Xu, Min; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Yu; Ning, Guang

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, few data have suggested its role in the prognosis of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between waist-hip ratio (WHR), glycemic control, and early nephropathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1709 previously- and newly-diagnosed diabetic patients nested in a cohort study consisting of 10 375 participants aged ≥40 years in Shanghai, China. General characteristics through questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and biochemical results were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS v20.0. Each quartile increase in WHR was significantly associated with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl [OR (95% CI):1.18 (1.06-1.30)], an HbA1c ≥ 7.0% [1.21 (1.08-1.35)], and a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 [1.30 (1.16-1.46)] after multivariable adjustments. WHR was not associated with a 2h PG ≥ 200mg/dl [1.13 (0.97-1.31)]. The risk for increased albuminuria (UACR ≥10.18mg/g) was also significantly associated with higher WHR after adjustment for HbA1c [1.14 (1.02-1.27)]. However, no significant relationship was seen between WHR and an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 90 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . Interactions of sex, or physical activity with WHR in association with glycemic control and increased albuminuria were found (P values for interaction <0.05). These data demonstrated an independent role of abdominal adipose tissue in glycemic control and renal complications of type 2 diabetes. Interventions aiming to reduce abdominal adipose tissue may have additional benefits. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Characterization of the central neural projections to brown, white, and beige adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Nicole M; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J

    2017-11-01

    The functional recruitment of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible brown-like or beige fat is, to a large extent, dependent on intact sympathetic neural input. Whereas the central neural circuits directed specifically to BAT or white adipose tissue (WAT) are well established, there is only a developing insight into the nature of neural inputs common to both fat types. Moreover, there is no clear view of the specific central and peripheral innervation of the browned component of WAT: beige fat. The objective of the present study is to examine the neural input to both BAT and WAT in the same animal and, by exposing different cohorts of rats to either thermoneutral or cold conditions, define changes in central neural organization that will ensure that beige fat is appropriately recruited and modulated after browning of inguinal WAT (iWAT). At thermoneutrality, injection of the neurotropic (pseudorabies) viruses into BAT and WAT demonstrates that there are dedicated axonal projections, as well as collateral axonal branches of command neurons projecting to both types of fat. After cold exposure, central neural circuits directed to iWAT showed evidence of reorganization with a greater representation of command neurons projecting to both brown and beiged WAT in hypothalamic (paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus) and brainstem (raphe pallidus and locus coeruleus) sites. This shift was driven by a greater number of supraspinal neurons projecting to iWAT under cold conditions. These data provide evidence for a reorganization of the nervous system at the level of neural connectivity following browning of WAT.-Wiedmann, N. M., Stefanidis, A., Oldfield, B. J. Characterization of the central neural projections to brown, white, and beige adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  4. Identification of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 as a mediator in 17β-estradiol-induced white adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lun; Zhuo, Yong; Jiang, Dandan; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Zhen; Yan, Lijun; Jin, Chao; Jiang, Xuemei; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2018-05-02

    Both ovarian E2 and hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are critical for energy homeostasis and white adipose tissue browning. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is abundantly expressed in liver. However, whether FGF21 has a role in E2-induced white adipose tissue browning remains uncertain. In this study, we showed that hepatic Fgf21 expression and secretion during estrus cycle changed with the tetradian oscillatory secretion of circulation E2 in adult, female mice, with their peak expressions and secretions at the proestrus. In addition, exogenous E2 robustly stimulated liver Fgf21 expression and elevated serum FGF21 concentrations, which induced browning gene expression and reduced the tissue weight in subcutaneous white adipose in mice with ovariectomies. The inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and of ERα blocked the induction effect of E2 on the expression of Fgf21 in primary hepatocytes, which revealed that E2 might stimulate FGF21 expression via the ERα-mTOR pathway. Furthermore, FGF21 liver-specific deficiency abolished E2-induced white adipose browning in mice with ovariectomies. This study indicates that ovarian E2 increased liver FGF21 expression directly, which in turn, functioned as an endocrine signal to influence inguinal white adipose tissue browning.-Hua, L., Zhuo, Y., Jiang, D., Li, Jin., Huang, X., Zhu, Y., Li, Z., Yan, L., Jin, C., Jiang, X., Che, L., Fang, Z., Lin, Y., Xu, S. Li, Jia., Feng, B., Wu, D. Identification of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 as a mediator in 17β-estradiol-induced white adipose tissue browning.

  5. Changes of noradrenergic activity and lipolysis in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of hypo- and hyperthyroid patients: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Nedvidkova, Jara; Haluzik, Martin; Bartak, Vladimir; Dostalova, Ivana; Vlcek, Petr; Racek, Pavel; Taus, Michal; Behanova, Magdalena; Svacina, Stepan; Alesci, Salvatore; Pacak, Karel

    2004-06-01

    Thyroid function plays an important role in the regulation of overall metabolic rate and lipid metabolism. However, it is uncertain whether thyroid hormones directly affect lipolysis in adipose tissue and to what extent those changes contribute to overall metabolic phenotype. Our study was designed, using the microdialysis technique, to determine basal and isoprenaline-stimulated local lipolysis and to determine local concentrations of lipolysis-regulating catecholamines in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 12 patients with hypothyroidism, 6 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 12 healthy control subjects. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in hypothyroid subjects were significantly higher than in the control and hyperthyroid groups. In contrast, systemic, adipose NE levels in hypothyroid patients were decreased relative to controls. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, resulted in four-fold higher adipose NE levels. Basal lipolysis measured by glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue was significantly attenuated in hypothyroid patients and markedly increased in hyperthyroid patients in comparison with the control group. In addition to differences in basal lipolysis, hypothyroidism resulted in attenuated, and hyperthyroidism in enhanced, lipolytic response to local stimulation with beta(1,2)-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. These results demonstrate that lipolysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is strongly modulated by thyroid function. We suggest that thyroid hormones regulate lipolysis primarily by affecting local NE concentration and/or adrenergic postreceptor signaling.

  6. Systemic inhibition of Janus kinase induces browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity-related metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Qurania, Kikid Rucira; Ikeda, Koji; Wardhana, Donytra Arby; Barinda, Agian Jeffilano; Nugroho, Dhite Bayu; Kuribayashi, Yuko; Rahardini, Elda Putri; Rinastiti, Pranindya; Ryanto, Gusty Rizky Teguh; Yagi, Keiko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2018-07-07

    Browning of white adipose tissue is a promising strategy to tackle obesity. Recently, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition was shown to induce white-to-brown metabolic conversion of adipocytes in vitro; however effects of JAK inhibition on browning and systemic metabolic health in vivo remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that systemic administration of JAK inhibitor (JAKi) ameliorated obesity-related metabolic disorders. Administration of JAKi in mice fed a high-fat diet increased UCP-1 and PRDM16 expression in white adipose tissue, indicating the browning of white adipocyte. Food intake was increased in JAKi-treated mice, while the body weight and adiposity was similar between the JAKi- and vehicle-treated mice. In consistent with the browning, thermogenic capacity was enhanced in mice treated with JAKi. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue was not ameliorated by JAKi-treatment. Nevertheless, insulin sensitivity was well preserved in JAKi-treated mice comparing with that in vehicle-treated mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and free fatty acid were significantly reduced by JAKi-treatment, which is accompanied by ameliorated hepatosteatosis. Our data demonstrate that systemic administration of JAKi has beneficial effects in preserving metabolic health, and thus inhibition of JAK signaling has therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and its-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2015-08-01

    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold

  8. An automated segmentation for direct assessment of adipose tissue distribution from thoracic and abdominal Dixon-technique MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason E.; Fernandez-Del-Valle, Maria; Hayden, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) together have become the gold standard in the precise quantification of body fat. The study of the quantification of fat in the human body has matured in recent years from a simplistic interest in the whole-body fat content to detailing regional fat distributions. The realization that body-fat, or adipose tissue (AT) is far from being a mere aggregate mass or deposit but a biologically active organ in and of itself, may play a role in the association between obesity and the various pathologies that are the biggest health issues of our time. Furthermore, a major bottleneck in most medical image assessments of adipose tissue content and distribution is the lack of automated image analysis. This motivated us to develop a proper and at least partially automated methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution in the human body, which is to be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The AT considered here is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous) as well as around the internal organs and between muscles (visceral and inter-muscular). There are also special fat depots on and around the heart (pericardial) as well as around the aorta (peri-aortic). Our methods focus on measuring and classifying these various AT deposits in the human body in an intervention study that involves the acquisition of thoracic and abdominal MR images via a Dixon technique.

  9. Impact of Abdominal Adipose Depots and Race on Risk for Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Chaudhry, Vivek; Mar, Winnie; Patel, Bimal; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Freels, Sally; Braunschweig, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Visceral (VAT) but not subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is associated with obesity-related diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). Superficial SAT (SSAT) and deep SAT (DSAT), components of SAT, also appear to independently influence disease risk. These abdominal adipose tissues (AAT) are not extensively studied in connection with CRC and have not been explored in the United States (US) despite known racial variations in body composition. We conducted a case-control study that compared associations between AAT with CRC risk and race of AA and NHW males with incident CRC matched by age, BMI and race (N=158, 79/group). Cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images were used for assessment of AAT. Overall cases and controls had similar VAT areas (140±192 vs 149±152 cm2, p-value=0.93), however cases had lower SSAT than controls (88±39 vs 112±65 cm2, p<0.01). Among controls, AA had significantly lower VAT (114±168 vs 180±167, p<0.01) than NHW. Conditional logistic regression revealed AA males with greater SSAT had lower odds for CRC (OR: 0.24, 95%CI 0.07–0.85). Our findings indicate VAT does vary between cases and controls by race, however this variation is not a risk factor for CRC. The negative association between CRC and SSAT in AA men warrants further investigation. PMID:28323443

  10. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  11. Association of food consumption with total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in a Northern German population.

    PubMed

    Rüttgers, Daniela; Fischer, Karina; Koch, Manja; Lieb, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-12-14

    Excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases; further, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and the ratio of both (VAT:SAAT ratio) have been discussed as potentially detrimental. Information about the association between diet and adipose tissue is scarce. This study aimed to identify food group intake associated with VAT and SAAT and the VAT:SAAT ratio in a Northern German population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 344 men and 241 women who underwent an MRI to quantify total volumes of VAT and SAAT. Intake of fourteen food groups was assessed with a self-administered 112-item FFQ. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, intake of other food groups and mutual adjustment for VAT and SAAT were calculated to analyse the associations between standardised food group intake and VAT and SAAT, or the VAT:SAAT ratio. Intakes of potatoes (P=0·043) and cakes (P=0·003) were positively and inversely, respectively, associated with both VAT and SAAT. By contrast, intake of cereals was negatively associated with VAT (P=0·045) only, whereas intakes of eggs (P=0·006) and non-alcoholic beverages (P=0·042) were positively associated with SAAT only. The association between eggs and non-alcoholic beverages with SAAT remained significant after further consideration of VAT. Intake of non-alcoholic beverages was also inversely associated with the VAT:SAAT ratio (P=0·001). Our analysis adds to the evidence that intake of foods is independently associated with VAT or SAAT volumes.

  12. Curcuma longa Extract Associated with White Pepper Lessens High Fat Diet-Induced Inflammation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Memvanga, Patrick B.; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition. PMID:24260564

  13. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  14. Inorganic Nitrate Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end-product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach we mechanistically define that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown-adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious co-morbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Since resulting beige/brite cells exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

  15. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, S F; Horska, A; Brancati, F L; Diehl, A M; Smith, S; Clark, J M

    2008-01-01

    To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Feature evaluation and test-retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2-L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test-retest reliability. Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test-retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our results using SliceOmatic, Analyze or NIHImage were comparable and could

  16. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, SF; Horska, A; Brancati, FL; Diehl, AM; Smith, S; Clark, JM

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Design Feature evaluation and test–retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. Subjects A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Measurements Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2–L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test–retest reliability. Results Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test–retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Conclusion Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our

  17. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Drive Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Burns.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Auger, Christopher; Stanojcic, Mile; Patsouris, David; Parousis, Alexandra; Epelman, Slava; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown. WAT and blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital. Wild type, CCR2 KO, and interleukin (IL)-6 KO male mice were purchased from Jax laboratories and subjected to a 30% total body surface area burn injury. WAT and serum collected were analyzed for browning markers, macrophages, and metabolic state via histology, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration. In the present study, we show that burn-induced browning is associated with an increased macrophage infiltration, with a greater type 2 macrophage profile in the fat of burn patients. Similar to our clinical findings in burn patients, both an increase in macrophage recruitment and a type 2 macrophage profile were also observed in post burn mice. Genetic loss of the chemokine CCR2 responsible for macrophage migration to the adipose impairs burn-induced browning. Mechanistically, we show that macrophages recruited to burn-stressed subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production mediated by IL-6, factors required for browning of sWAT. Together, our findings uncover macrophages as the key instigators and missing link in trauma-induced browning.

  19. Cell-specific dysregulation of microRNA expression in obese white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Oger, Frédérik; Gheeraert, Celine; Mogilenko, Denis; Benomar, Yacir; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Caron, Sandrine; Dombrowicz, David; Pattou, François; Duez, Hélène; Eeckhoute, Jérome; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by the excessive accumulation of dysfunctional white adipose tissue (WAT), leading to a strong perturbation of metabolic regulations. However, the molecular events underlying this process are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs acting as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in multiple tissues and organs. However, their expression and roles in WAT cell subtypes, which include not only adipocytes but also immune, endothelial, and mesenchymal stem cells as well as preadipocytes, have not been characterized. Design/Results: By applying differential miRNome analysis, we demonstrate that the expression of several miRNAs is dysregulated in epididymal WAT from ob/ob and high-fat diet-fed mice. Adipose tissue-specific down-regulation of miR-200a and miR-200b and the up-regulation of miR-342-3p, miR-335-5p, and miR-335-3p were observed. Importantly, a similarly altered expression of miR-200a and miR-200b was observed in obese diabetic patients. Furthermore, cell fractionation of mouse adipose tissue revealed that miRNAs are differentially expressed in adipocytes and in subpopulations from the stromal vascular fraction. Finally, integration of transcriptomic data showed that bioinformatically predicted miRNA target genes rarely showed anticorrelated expression with that of targeting miRNA, in contrast to experimentally validated target genes. Taken together, our data indicate that the dysregulated expression of miRNAs occurs in distinct cell types and is likely to affect cell-specific function(s) of obese WAT.

  20. Comparing Measures of General and Abdominal Adiposity as Predictors of Blood Pressure in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius A.; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To compare anthropometric measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as predictors of blood pressure in college students. Participants: Students (N = 116) were recruited from November 2012 to May 2014 at an urban university and rural community…

  1. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for

  2. Intermittent Fasting Promotes White Adipose Browning and Decreases Obesity by Shaping the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Xie, Cen; Lu, Siyu; Nichols, Robert G; Tian, Yuan; Li, Licen; Patel, Daxeshkumar; Ma, Yinyan; Brocker, Chad N; Yan, Tingting; Krausz, Kristopher W; Xiang, Rong; Gavrilova, Oksana; Patterson, Andrew D; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-10-03

    While activation of beige thermogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of obesity-associated diseases, there are currently no known pharmacological means of inducing beiging in humans. Intermittent fasting is an effective and natural strategy for weight control, but the mechanism for its efficacy is poorly understood. Here, we show that an every-other-day fasting (EODF) regimen selectively stimulates beige fat development within white adipose tissue and dramatically ameliorates obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. EODF treatment results in a shift in the gut microbiota composition leading to elevation of the fermentation products acetate and lactate and to the selective upregulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 expression in beige cells. Microbiota-depleted mice are resistance to EODF-induced beiging, while transplantation of the microbiota from EODF-treated mice to microbiota-depleted mice activates beiging and improves metabolic homeostasis. These findings provide a new gut-microbiota-driven mechanism for activating adipose tissue browning and treating metabolic diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Heart over mind: metabolic control of white adipose tissue and liver.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Michinari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the heart controls the metabolism of peripheral organs. Olson and colleagues previously demonstrated that miR‐208a controls systemic energy homeostasis through the regulation of MED13 in cardiomyocytes (Grueter et al, 2012). In their follow‐up study in this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver are identified as the physiological targets of cardiac MED13 signaling, most likely through cardiac‐derived circulating factors, which boost energy consumption by upregulating metabolic gene expression and increasing mitochondrial numbers (Baskin et al, 2014). In turn, increased energy expenditure in WAT and the liver confers leanness. These findings strengthen the evidence of metabolic crosstalk between the heart and peripheral tissues through cardiokines and also set the stage for the development of novel treatments for metabolic syndrome.

  4. PCOS is associated with increased CD11c expression and crown-like structures in adipose tissue and increased central abdominal fat depots independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi Hua; Manickam, Buvana; Ryvkin, Victoria; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Mazzone, Theodore; Sam, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration is a major pathway for obesity-induced insulin resistance but has not been studied as a mechanism for insulin resistance in PCOS. We tested whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased ATM infiltration, especially of inflammatory subtype identified by the CD11c marker. We conducted a case-control study at an academic medical center in the United States. Fourteen PCOS and 14 control women of similar age and body mass index (BMI) underwent a gluteal fat biopsy. Markers of ATM, integrins, TNF-α, and adiponectin, were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR using a standard curve method. Crown-like structures (CLS) were identified by immunohistochemistry. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test were performed to assess abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity (SI). Women with PCOS were compared with control women of similar age and BMI for ATM markers, CLS density, adipose tissue expression of inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin, SI, and abdominal fat depots. Women with PCOS had an increase in CD11c expression (P = 0.03), CLS density (P = 0.001), α5 expression (P = 0.009), borderline increase in TNF-α expression (P = 0.08), and a decrease in adiponectin expression (P = 0.02) in gluteal adipose tissue. Visceral (P = 0.009) and sc abdominal fat (P = 0.005) were increased in PCOS. SI was lower in PCOS (P = 0.008). PCOS is associated with an increase in CD11c expression and CLS density and a decrease in adiponectin expression in sc adipose tissue. Additionally, PCOS is associated with higher central abdominal fat depots independent of BMI. These alterations are present among mostly nonobese women and could represent mechanisms for insulin resistance.

  5. Maternal Macronutrient Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Neonatal Abdominal Adiposity: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Kramer, Michael S; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-08-01

    Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic disease risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured by using MRI in a multiethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. The macronutrient intake of mothers was ascertained by using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 wk gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed by using MRI in week 2 of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n = 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models with the use of multivariable linear regressions. Mothers (mean age: 30 y) consumed (mean ± SD) 15.5% ± 4.3% of their energy from protein, 32.4% ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1% ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate or -fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 mL (-0.35, -0.001 mL) per 1% protein-to-carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 mL (-0.46, -0.04 mL) per 1% protein-to-fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interaction < 0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein, but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not associated consistently with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Higher maternal protein intake at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake at 26-28 wk gestation was associated with lower abdominal internal adiposity in neonates. Optimizing maternal dietary balance might be a new

  6. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure-induced epididymal adiposity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged and excessive glucocorticoids (GC) exposure resulted from Cushing's syndrome or GC therapy develops central obesity. Moreover, mitochondria are crucial in adipose energy homeostasis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to chronic GC exposure-induced epididymal adiposity in the present study. A total of thirty-six 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (∼20 g) were administrated with 100 µg/ml corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle through drinking water for 4 weeks. Chronic CORT exposure mildly decreased body weight without altering food and water intake in mice. The epididymal fat accumulation was increased, but adipocyte size was decreased by CORT. CORT also increased plasma CORT, insulin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations as measured by RIA or ELISA. Interestingly, CORT increased plasma levels of triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids, and up-regulated the expression of both lipolytic and lipogenic genes as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, CORT impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function in epididymal WAT. The reactive oxygen species production was increased and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were reduced by CORT treatment as well. Taken together, these findings reveal that chronic CORT administration-induced epididymal adiposity is, at least in part, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse epididymal white adipose tissue.

  7. Characterization of 5α-reductase activity and isoenzymes in human abdominal adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Fouad Mansour, Mohamed; Pelletier, Mélissa; Tchernof, André

    2016-07-01

    The substrate for the generation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is either androstenedione (4-dione) which is first converted to androstanedione and then to DHT through 17-oxoreductase activity, or testosterone, which is directly converted to DHT. Three 5α-reductase isoenzymes have been characterized and designated as types 1, 2 and 3 (SRD5A1, 2 and 3). To define the predominant source of local DHT production in human adipose tissues, identify 5α-reductase isoenzymes and test their impact on preadipocyte differentiation. Cultures of omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes were treated for 0, 6 or 24h with 30nM (14)C-4-dione or (14)C-testosterone, with and without 500nM 5α-reductase inhibitors 17-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5-androstan-3-one (4-MA) or finasteride. Protein level and mRNA abundance of 5α-reductase isoenzymes/transcripts were examined in whole SC and OM adipose tissue. HEK-293 cells stably transfected with 5α-reductase type 1, 2 or 3 were used to test 5α-reductase inhibitors. We also assessed the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors on preadipocyte differentiation. Over 24h, DHT formation from 4-dione increased gradually (p<0.05) and was significantly higher compared to that generated from testosterone (p<0.001). DHT formation from both 4-dione and testosterone was blocked by both 5α-reductase inhibitors. In whole adipose tissue from both fat compartments, SRD5A3 was the most highly expressed isoenzyme followed by SRD5A1 (p<0.001). SRD5A2 was not expressed. In HEK-293 cells, 4-MA and finasteride inhibited activity of 5α-reductases types 2 and 3 but not type 1. In preadipocyte cultures where differentiation was inhibited by 4-dione (p<0.05, n=7) or testosterone (p<0.05, n=5), the inhibitors 4-MA and finasteride abolished these effects. Although 4-dione is the main source of DHT in human preadipocytes, production of this steroid by 5α-reductase isoenzymes mediates the inhibitory effect of both 4-dione and testosterone on

  8. Improvement of mesh recolonization in abdominal wall reconstruction with adipose vs. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, M; Schubert, T; Guiot, Y; Goebbels, R M; Gianello, P

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction of muscle defects remains a challenge. Our work assessed the potential of an engineered construct made of a human acellular collagen matrix (HACM) seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to reconstruct abdominal wall muscle defects in a rodent model. This study compared 2 sources of MSCs (bone-marrow, BMSCs, and adipose, ASCs) in vitro and in vivo for parietal defect reconstruction. Cellular viability and growth factor release (VEGF, FGF-Beta, HGF, IGF-1, TGF-Beta) were investigated under normoxic/hypoxic culture conditions. Processed and recellularized HACMs were mechanically assessed. The construct was tested in vivo in full thickness abdominal wall defect treated with HACM alone vs. HACM+ASCs or BMSCs (n=14). Tissue remodeling was studied at day 30 for neo-angiogenesis and muscular reconstruction. A significantly lower secretion of IGF was observed with ASCs vs. BMSCs under hypoxic conditions (-97.6%, p<0.005) whereas significantly higher VEGF/FGF secretions were found with ASCs (+92%, p<0.001 and +72%, p<0.05, respectively). Processing and recellularization did not impair the mechanical properties of the HACM. In vivo, angiogenesis and muscle healing were significantly improved by the HACM+ASCs in comparison to BMSCs (p<0.05) at day 30. A composite graft made of an HACM seeded with ASCs can improve muscle repair by specific growth factor release in hypoxic conditions and by in vivo remodeling (neo-angiogenesis/graft integration) while maintaining mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeted delivery using peptide-functionalised gold nanoparticles to white adipose tissues of obese rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Sibuyi, Nicole; Meyer, Mervin; Onani, Martin; Madiehe, Abram

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease of excessive fat accumulation. It is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of people. Current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to systemic drug toxicity and undesirable side effects. The current epidemic raises a serious need for development of safer drugs to treat obesity. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve therapeutic effects is currently an exciting field in cancer treatment. Drug delivery involves either modification of drug release profile, absorption, distribution and/or elimination, for the benefit of improving drug efficacy and safety. Therefore, nanotechnology holds promise in the treatment of diseases including obesity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalised with different biomolecules have been successfully used as drug delivery, labelling and imaging tools in biomedical research. In this study, the binding-specificity and targeting ability of adipose homing peptide (AHP)-functionalised GNPs (AHP-GNPs) were evaluated using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Caco-2 cells and rats fed either chow or a high-fat diet were treated with either unfunctionalised GNPs or AHP-GNPs. Cellular uptake of GNPs was detected in cells treated with AHP-GNPs and not those treated with GNPs alone. Binding of AHP to cells was both temperature- and concentration-dependent. Compared to rats treated with GNPs alone, treatment of obese rats with AHP-GNPs resulted in the targeted delivery of the GNPs to the white adipose tissue (WAT). This paper reports the successful targeting of AHP-functionalised GNPs to WAT of obese rats.

  10. Intermittent fasting up-regulates Fsp27/Cidec gene expression in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-03-01

    Fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) is a novel lipid droplet protein that promotes triacylglycerol storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). The regulation of the Fsp27 gene expression in WAT is largely unknown. We investigated the nutritional regulation of FSP27 in WAT. The effects of intermittent fasting (48 d, eight cycles of 3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), caloric restriction (48 d), fasting-refeeding (3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), and fasting (3 d) on mRNA expression of FSP27, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ2), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and M isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (a positive control for PPARγ activation) in epididymal WAT and on serum triacylglycerol, insulin, and leptin levels were determined in Wistar rats. We also determined the effects of PPARγ activation by rosiglitazone or pioglitazone on FSP27 mRNA levels in primary rat adipocytes. Long-term intermittent fasting, in contrast to other dietary manipulations, significantly up-regulated Fsp27 gene expression in WAT. Moreover, in rats subjected to intermittent fasting, serum insulin levels were elevated; PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA expression in WAT was increased, and there was a positive correlation of Fsp27 gene expression with PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA levels. FSP27 mRNA expression was also increased in adipocytes treated with PPARγ agonists. Our study demonstrates that the transcription of the Fsp27 gene in adipose tissue may be induced in response to nutritional stimuli. Furthermore, PPARγ2, C/EBPα, and insulin may be involved in the nutritional regulation of FSP27. Thus intermittent fasting, despite lower caloric intake, may promote triacylglycerol deposition in WAT by increasing the expression of genes involved in lipid storage, such as Fsp27. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant peroxiredoxin 3 expression is regulated by 17beta-estradiol in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco; M Galmés-Pascual, Bel; Sbert-Roig, Miquel; J García-Palmer, Francisco; Gianotti, Magdalena; M Proenza, Ana; Lladó, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and brown adipocyte primary culture were used to study the roles of both E2 and testosterone in in vitro experiments. PRX3 levels were greater in the WAT of female rats than in males. This sexual dimorphism disappeared by HFD feeding but was magnified with Rsg supplementation. PRX3 sexual dimorphism was not observed in BAT, and neither HFD nor ovariectomy modified PRX3 levels. Rsg increased Prx3 expression in the BAT of both sexes. In vitro studies supported the results obtained in vivo and confirmed the contribution of E2 to sex differences in WAT Prx3 expression. Finally, we reported an E2 upregulation of both PRX3 and thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) in WAT but not in BAT that could play a key role in the sex dimorphism reported in the antioxidant defence of WAT in order to palliate the detrimental effect of the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoexpression of PPAR-γ and osteocalcin proteins for bone repair of critical-size defects treated with fragmented autogenous abdominal adipose tissue graft.

    PubMed

    Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Lopes, Tertuliano Ricardo; Zielak, João César; Moro, Alexandre; Baratto Filho, Flares; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Storrer, Carmen L Mueller

    2014-01-01

    Immunoexpression of PPAR-γ and osteocalcin proteins was evaluated for bone repair of critical-size defects (CSDs), created in rat calvaria (n=42) and treated with fragmented abdominal autogenous adipose tissue graft. Three groups (n=14) were formed: C (control - blood clot), AB (autogenous bone) and AT (fragmented adipose tissue). The groups were divided into subgroups (n=7) for euthanasia at 30 and 90 days. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics (mode). A complete bone closure was observed in Group AB 90 days after surgery. In Group C, repair was achieved by the formation of collagen fiber bundles oriented parallel to the wound surface at both post-surgery periods. In Group AT the type of healing was characterized by dense connective tissue containing collagen fiber bundles arranged amidst the remaining adipose tissue, with rare heterotopic bone formation associated with fibrosis and different types of tissue necrosis. Immunostaining of PPAR-γ was not observed in any specimen from Groups C and AB. In Group AT, the immunostaining of PPAR-γ was more evident 30 days after surgery. Immunostaining of osteocalcin was present in all groups and at both postoperative periods. The fragmented autogenous abdominal adipose tissue graft did not favor the repair of critical-size bone defects created surgically in rat calvaria as evidenced by the positive immunostaining of PPAR-γ protein and the negative immunostaining of osteocalcin in the osteoblast-like cells and bone matrix.

  14. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P; Gertz, Erik R; Souza, Elaine C; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Newman, John W; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D

    2013-08-26

    Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  15. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  16. Humans and Mice Display Opposing Patterns of "Browning" Gene Expression in Visceral and Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue Depots.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Maria A; Fuster, Jose J; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is much more strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in humans than subcutaneous adiposity. Browning, the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), has been shown to protect mice against metabolic dysfunction, suggesting the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. In mice, subcutaneous WAT depots express higher levels of browning genes when compared with visceral WAT, further suggesting that differences in WAT browning could contribute to the differences in the pathogenicity of the two depots. However, the expression of browning genes in different WAT depots of human has not been characterized. Here, it is shown that the expression of browning genes is higher in visceral than in subcutaneous WAT in humans, a pattern that is opposite to what is observed in mice. These results suggest that caution should be applied in extrapolating the results of murine browning gene expression studies to human pathophysiology.

  17. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Peppler, Willem T; Townsend, Logan K; Knuth, Carly M; Foster, Michelle T; Wright, David C

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. To test this, male C57BL/6 mice were provided access to voluntary wheel running (VWR) or remained as a cage control (SED) for 11 nights after iWAT removal via lipectomy (LIPX) or SHAM surgery. We found that SHAM and LIPX mice with access to VWR ran similar distances and had comparable reductions in body mass, increased food intake, and increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Further, VWR improved indexes of glucose homeostasis and insulin tolerance in both SHAM and LIPX mice. The lack of effect of LIPX in the response to VWR was not explained by compensatory increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue, or interscapular brown adipose tissue. Together, these data demonstrate that mice with and without iWAT have comparable adaptations to VWR, suggesting that iWAT may be dispensable for the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

  19. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  20. Dynamic changes in lipid droplet-associated proteins in the "browning" of white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Barneda, David; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Christian, Mark

    2013-05-01

    The morphological and functional differences between lipid droplets (LDs) in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues will largely be determined by their associated proteins. Analysing mRNA expression in mice fat depots we have found that most LD protein genes are expressed at higher levels in BAT, with the greatest differences observed for Cidea and Plin5. Prolonged cold exposure, which induces the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in mice WAT depots, was accompanied with the potentiation of the lipolytic machinery, with changes in ATGL, CGI-58 and G0S2 gene expression. However the major change detected in WAT was the enhancement of Cidea mRNA. Together with the increase in Cidec, it indicates that LD enlargement through LD-LD transference of fat is an important process during WAT browning. To study the dynamics of this phenotypic change, we have applied 4D confocal microscopy in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells under sustained β-adrenergic stimulation. Under these conditions the cells experienced a LD remodelling cycle, with progressive reduction on the LD size by lipolysis, followed by the formation of new LDs, which were subjected to an enlargement process, likely to be CIDE-triggered, until the cell returned to the basal state. This transformation would be triggered by the activation of a thermogenic futile cycle of lipolysis/lipogenesis and could facilitate the molecular mechanism for the unilocular to multilocular transformation during WAT browning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parkin-mediated mitophagy is downregulated in browning of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2017-04-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes increased energy expenditure through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and is an attractive target to promote weight loss in obesity. Lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential by UCP1 is uniquely beneficial in this context; in other tissues, reduced membrane potential promotes mitochondrial clearance via mitophagy. It is unknown how parkin-mediated mitophagy is regulated in beige adipocytes. The relationship between parkin expression and WAT browning was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and parkin-deficient male C57BL/6 mice in response to pharmacological browning stimuli. Rosiglitazone treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, UCP1 expression, and mitochondrial uncoupling. Parkin expression was decreased and reduced mitochondrial-associated parkin, and p62 indicated a reduction in mitophagy activity. Parkin overexpression prevented mitochondrial remodeling in response to rosiglitazone. In CL 316,243-treated wild-type mice, decreased parkin expression was observed in subcutaneous inguinal WAT, where UCP1 was strongly induced. CL 316,243 treatment weakly induced UCP1 expression in the gonadal depot, where parkin expression was unchanged. In contrast, parkin-deficient mice exhibited robust UCP1 expression in gonadal WAT following CL 316,243 treatment. WAT browning was associated with a decrease in parkin-mediated mitophagy, and parkin expression antagonized browning of WAT. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. White adipose tissue IFN-γ expression and signalling along the progression of rodent cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Alex Shimura; das Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa-Neto, José Cesar; Lira, Fábio Dos Santos; Batista, Miguel Luís; Alcantara, Paulo Sérgio; Otoch, José Pinhata; Seelaender, Marília

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cancer. The White adipose tissue (WAT) synthesizes and releases several pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a role in cancer cachexia-related systemic inflammation. IFN-γ is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates several immune and metabolic functions. To assess whether IFN-γ signalling in different WAT pads is modified along cancer-cachexia progression, we evaluated IFN-γ receptors expression (IFNGR1 and IFNGR2) and IFN-γ protein expression in a rodent model of cachexia (7, 10, and 14days after tumour implantation). IFN-γ protein expression was heterogeneously modulated in WAT, with increases in the mesenteric pad and decreased levels in the retroperitoneal depot along cachexia progression. Ifngr1 was up-regulated 7days after tumour cell injection in mesenteric and epididymal WAT, but the retroperitoneal depot showed reduced Ifngr1 gene expression. Ifngr2 gene expression was increased 7 and 14days after tumour inoculation in mesenteric WAT. The results provide evidence that changes in IFN-γ expression and signalling may be perceived at stages preceding refractory cachexia, and therefore, might be employed as a means to assess the early stage of the syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocannabinoid regulation in white and brown adipose tissue following thermogenic activation

    PubMed Central

    Krott, Lucia M.; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Heine, Markus; Borrino, Simona; Scheja, Ludger; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Heeren, Joerg; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoids and their main receptor, cannabinoid type-1 (CB1), suppress intracellular cyclic AMP levels and have emerged as key players in the control of energy metabolism. CB1 agonists and blockers have been reported to influence the thermogenic function of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT), affecting body weight through the inhibition and stimulation of energy expenditure, respectively. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the regulation of the endocannabinoid system in WAT and BAT following exposure to either cold or specific agonism of β3-adrenoceptors using CL316,243 (CL), conditions known to cause BAT activation and WAT browning. To address this question, we performed quantitative PCR-based mRNA profiling of genes important for endocannabinoid synthesis, degradation, and signaling, and determined endocannabinoid levels by LC-MS in WAT and BAT of control, cold-exposed, and CL-treated wild-type mice as well as primary brown adipocytes. Treatment with CL and exposure to cold caused an upregulation of endocannabinoid levels and biosynthetic enzymes in WAT. Acute β3-adrenoceptor activation increased endocannabinoids and a subset of genes of biosynthesis in BAT and primary brown adipocytes. We suggest that the cold-mediated increase in endocannabinoid tone is part of autocrine negative feed-back mechanisms controlling β3-adrenoceptor-induced BAT activation and WAT browning. PMID:26768656

  4. Acute and chronic cold exposure differentially affects the browning of porcine white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Qimuge, N R; Qin, J; Cai, R; Li, X; Chu, G Y; Pang, W J; Yang, G S

    2018-07-01

    Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal's response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed. Interestingly, acute cold exposure induced browning of porcine sWAT, smaller adipocytes and the upregulated expression of UCP1, PGC1α, PGC1β, C/EBPβ, Cidea, UCP3, CKMT1 and PM20D1. Conversely, chronic cold exposure impaired the browning process, reduced mitochondrial numbers and the expression of browning markers, including UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16. The present study demonstrated that acute cold exposure (but not chronic cold exposure) induces porcine sWAT browning. Thus, browning of porcine sWAT could be a novel strategy to balance the body temperature of piglets, and thus could be protective against cold exposure.

  5. Taming the Flames: Targeting White Adipose Tissue Browning in Hypermetabolic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-12-01

    In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the savior of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burn and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than beneficial. In fact, in the context of hypermetabolic states, the browning of WAT has presented with substantial clinical adverse outcomes related to cachexia, hepatic steatosis, and muscle catabolism. Therefore, the previous thought construct of understanding browning as an all-beneficial physiologic event has now been met with skepticism. In this review, we focus on current knowledge of browning of WAT and its adverse metabolic alterations during hypermetabolic states. We also discuss the regulators and signaling pathways involved in the browning process and their potential for being targeted by new or existing drugs to inhibit or alleviate browning, potentially leading to decreased hypermetabolism and improved clinical outcomes. Lastly, the imminent clinical applications of pharmacological agents are explored in the perspective of attenuating WAT browning and its associated adverse side effects reported in burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  7. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jennifer L; Castro, Victor M; Moore, Carolyn E; Kaplan, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass. Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y). Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level. Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (−12.7 ± 25.0 cm2) than in the control group (−1.3 ± 13.6 cm2). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (−13.1 ± 18.4 cm2) than in the control group (−6.4 ± 17.5 cm2) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115. PMID:22170363

  8. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  9. Kupffer cells activation promoted binge drinking-induced fatty liver by activating lipolysis in white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ying; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Mo; Guan, Min-Jie; Zhao, Ning; Zeng, Tao

    2017-09-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) have been suggested to play critical roles in chronic ethanol induced early liver injury, but the role of KCs in binge drinking-induced hepatic steatosis remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the roles of KCs inhibitor (GdCl 3 ) and TNF-α antagonist (etanercept) on binge drinking-induced liver steatosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to three doses of ethanol (6g/kg body weight) to mimic binge drinking-induced fatty liver. The results showed that both GdCl 3 and etanercept partially but significantly alleviated binge drinking-induced increase of hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. GdCl 3 but not etanercept significantly blocked binge drinking-induced activation of KCs. However, neither GdCl 3 nor etanercept could affect binge drinking-induced decrease of PPAR-α, ACOX, FAS, ACC and SCD protein levels, or increase of the LC3 II/LC3 I ratio and p62 protein level. Interestingly, both GdCl 3 and etanercept significantly suppressed binge drinking-induced phosphorylation of HSL in epididymal adipose tissues. Results of in vitro studies with cultured epididymal adipose tissues showed that TNF-α could increase the phosphorylation of HSL in adipose tissues and upgrade the secretion of free fatty acid (FFA) in the culture medium. Taken together, KCs inhibitor and TNF-α antagonist could partially attenuate binge drinking-induced liver steatosis, which might be attributed to the suppression of mobilization of white adipose tissues. These results suggest that KCs activation may promote binge drinking-induced fatty liver by TNF-α mediated activation of lipolysis in white adipose tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of adenosine monophosphate kinase in remodeling white adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gaidhu, Mandeep Pinky; Ceddia, Rolando Bacis

    2011-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the enzyme adenosine monophosphate (AMP) kinase exerts important fat-reducing effects in the adipose tissue, which has created great interest in this enzyme as a potential target for obesity treatment. This review summarizes our findings that chronic AMP kinase activation remodels adipocyte glucose and lipid metabolism and enhances the ability of adipose tissue to dissipate energy within itself and reduce adiposity.

  11. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Brake, Danett K; Smith, C Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow cytometry to analyze cell surface markers on leukocytes. Here, we present a technical approach to identify subsets of leukocytes that differentially express cell surface markers.

  12. Grape pomace extract induced beige cells in white adipose tissue from rats and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Landa, María Silvina; Fontana, Ariel; Antoniolli, Andrea; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Oteiza, Patricia Isabel; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a grape pomace extract (GPE) rich in phenolic compounds on brown-like adipocyte induction and adiposity in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD consumption for 10 weeks significantly increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in WKY but not in SHR rats. Supplementation with GPE (300 mg/kg body weight/day) reduced adipocyte diameter and increased levels of proteins that participate in adipogenesis and angiogenesis, i.e., peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), vascular endothelial grow factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor 2 (VEGF-R2), and partially increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in WKY. In both strains, GPE attenuated adipose inflammation. In eWAT from SHR, GPE increased the expression of proteins involved in adipose tissue "browning," i.e., PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), PPARγ, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and UCP-1. In primary cultures of SHR adipocytes, GPE-induced UCP-1 up-regulation was dependent on p38 and ERK activation. Accordingly, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with palmitate, the addition of GPE (30 μM) activated the β-adrenergic signaling cascade (PKA, AMPK, p38, ERK). This led to the associated up-regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PPARγ, PRDM16 and UCP-1) and fatty acid oxidation (ATGL). These effects were similar to those exerted by (-)-epicatechin and quercetin, major phenolic compounds in GPE. Overall, in HFD-fed rats, supplementation with GPE promoted brown-like cell formation in eWAT and diminished adipose dysfunction. Thus, winemaking residues, rich in bioactive compounds, could be useful to mitigate the adverse effects of HFD-induced adipose dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. White adipose tissue genome wide-expression profiling and adipocyte metabolic functions after soy protein consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Frigolet, Maria E; Torres, Nimbe; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel, Claudia; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Tovar, Armando R

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose tissue mass due to an imbalance between high dietary energy intake and low physical activity; however, the type of dietary protein may contribute to its development. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of soy protein versus casein on white adipose tissue genome profiling, and the metabolic functions of adipocytes in rats with diet-induced obesity. The results showed that rats fed a Soy Protein High-Fat (Soy HF) diet gained less weight and had lower serum leptin concentration than rats fed a Casein High-Fat (Cas HF) diet, despite similar energy intake. Histological studies indicated that rats fed the Soy HF diet had significantly smaller adipocytes than those fed the Cas HF diet, and this was associated with a lower triglyceride/DNA content. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes was reduced by the amount of fat consumed but not by the type of protein ingested. Expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation increased in adipose tissue of rats fed Soy diets; microarray analysis revealed that Soy protein consumption modified the expression of 90 genes involved in metabolic functions and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Network analysis showed that the expression of leptin was regulated by the type of dietary protein and it was identified as a central regulator of the expression of lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue. Thus, soy maintains the size and metabolic functions of adipose tissue through biochemical adaptations, adipokine secretion, and global changes in gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relation of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with dyslipidemia in 27 general populations of the WHO MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Wietlisbach, V; Marques-Vidal, P; Kuulasmaa, K; Karvanen, J; Paccaud, F

    2013-05-01

    The association between adiposity measures and dyslipidemia has seldom been assessed in a multipopulational setting. 27 populations from Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Canada (WHO MONICA project) using health surveys conducted between 1990 and 1997 in adults aged 35-64 years (n = 40,480). Dyslipidemia was defined as the total/HDL cholesterol ratio >6 (men) and >5 (women). Overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25% in men and 23% in women. Logistic regression showed that dyslipidemia was strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) in men and with waist circumference (WC) in women, after adjusting for region, age and smoking. Among normal-weight men and women (BMI<25 kg/m(2)), an increase in the odds for being dyslipidemic was observed between lowest and highest WC quartiles (OR = 3.6, p < 0.001). Among obese men (BMI ≥ 30), the corresponding increase was smaller (OR = 1.2, p = 0.036). A similar weakening was observed among women. Classification tree analysis was performed to assign subjects into classes of risk for dyslipidemia. BMI thresholds (25.4 and 29.2 kg/m(2)) in men and WC thresholds (81.7 and 92.6 cm) in women came out at first stages. High WC (>84.8 cm) in normal-weight men, menopause in women and regular smoking further defined subgroups at increased risk. standard categories of BMI and WC, or their combinations, do not lead to optimal risk stratification for dyslipidemia in middle-age adults. Sex-specific adaptations are necessary, in particular by taking into account abdominal obesity in normal-weight men, post-menopausal age in women and regular smoking in both sexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The additional effects of a probiotic mix on abdominal adiposity and antioxidant Status: A double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline Corado; de Sousa, Rávila Graziany Machado; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Gomes, Tatyanne Letícia Nogueira; Prada, Patrícia Oliveira; Mota, João Felipe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether a probiotic mix has additional effects when compared with an isolated dietary intervention on the body composition, lipid profile, endotoxemia, inflammation, and antioxidant profile. Women who had excess weight or obesity were recruited to a randomized, double-blind trial and received a probiotic mix (Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei; Lactococcus lactis; Bifidobacterium bifidum and lactis; 2 × 10 10 colony-forming units/day) (n = 21) or placebo (n = 22) for 8 weeks. Both groups received a dietary prescription. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The lipid profile, lipid accumulation product, plasma fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and the antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. In comparison with the dietary intervention group, the dietary intervention + probiotic mix group showed a greater reduction in the waist circumference (-3.40% vs. -5.48%, P = 0.03), waist-height ratio (-3.27% vs. -5.00%, P = 0.02), conicity index (-2.43% vs. -4.09% P = 0.03), and plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (5.65% vs. -18.63%, P = 0.04) and an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (-16.67% vs. 15.62%, P < 0.01). Supplementation of a probiotic mix reduced abdominal adiposity and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in a more effective way than an isolated dietary intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nazan; Yuksel, Oguz; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Gumus, Hikmet; Karakilic, Aslı; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Kandis, Sevim; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-05-29

    We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the open arms of elevated plus maze test; both which are indicators of low anxiety levels. Our results suggest that decrease in anxiolytic behavior due to regular voluntary exercise may be associated with locally produced brain irisin. White adipose tissue irisin levels also correlated very strongly with low anxiety. However, no serum irisin increase was detected, ruling out the possibility of increased peripheral irisin levels affecting the brain via the bloodstream. Further research is necessary to explain the mechanisms of which peripheral and central irisin effects anxiety and the brain region affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin Lowers Plasma Triglycerides Accompanied by White Adipose Tissue Browning in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Eline N; Dam, Andrea D van; Held, Ntsiki M; Mol, Isabel M; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2018-06-16

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, lowers plasma triglycerides (TG) in human intervention studies, and its intake is associated with lower CVD risk. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which quercetin lowers plasma TG levels in diet-induced obesity. C57Bl/6J mice received a high-fat diet (45% of calories derived from fat) with or without quercetin (0.1% w / w ) for 12 weeks. Quercetin decreased plasma TG levels from nine weeks onwards (−19%, p < 0.05), without affecting food intake, body composition, or energy expenditure. Mechanistically, quercetin did not reduce intestinal fatty acid (FA) absorption. Rather, quercetin induced a slight reduction in liver Apob expression (−13%, p < 0.05), which suggests decreased very-low density lipoprotein-TG production. Interestingly, quercetin also markedly increased the uptake of [³H]oleate, which was derived from glycerol tri[³H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like particles by subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT, +60%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, quercetin also markedly increased mRNA expression of Ucp1 (+229%, p < 0.05) and Elovl3 (+138%, p < 0.05), specifically in sWAT. Accordingly, only quercetin-treated animals showed uncoupling protein-1 protein-positive cells in sWAT, which is fully compatible with increased browning. Taken together, the TG-lowering effect of quercetin may, at least in part, be due to increased TG-derived FA uptake by sWAT as a consequence of browning.

  18. Microarray profiling of human white adipose tissue after exogenous leptin injection.

    PubMed

    Taleb, S; Van Haaften, R; Henegar, C; Hukshorn, C; Cancello, R; Pelloux, V; Hanczar, B; Viguerie, N; Langin, D; Evelo, C; Zucker, J; Clément, K; Saris, W H M

    2006-03-01

    Leptin is a secreted adipocyte hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body weight homeostasis. The leptin effect on human white adipose tissue (WAT) is still debated. The aim of this study was to assess whether the administration of polyethylene glycol-leptin (PEG-OB) in a single supraphysiological dose has transcriptional effects on genes of WAT and to identify its target genes and functional pathways in WAT. Blood samples and WAT biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy nonobese men before treatment and 72 h after the PEG-OB injection, leading to an approximate 809-fold increase in circulating leptin. The WAT gene expression profile before and after the PEG-OB injection was compared using pangenomic microarrays. Functional gene annotations based on the gene ontology of the PEG-OB regulated genes were performed using both an 'in house' automated procedure and GenMAPP (Gene Microarray Pathway Profiler), designed for viewing and analyzing gene expression data in the context of biological pathways. Statistical analysis of microarray data revealed that PEG-OB had a major down-regulated effect on WAT gene expression, as we obtained 1,822 and 100 down- and up-regulated genes, respectively. Microarray data were validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Functional gene annotations of PEG-OB regulated genes revealed that the functional class related to immunity and inflammation was among the most mobilized PEG-OB pathway in WAT. These genes are mainly expressed in the cell of the stroma vascular fraction in comparison with adipocytes. Our observations support the hypothesis that leptin could act on WAT, particularly on genes related to inflammation and immunity, which may suggest a novel leptin target pathway in human WAT.

  19. Impact of Preoperative Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Area and Nutritional Status on Renal Function After Donor Nephrectomy in Japanese Living Donors for Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Anai, Satoshi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Aoki, Katsuya; Yoneda, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-05-29

    BACKGROUND Living kidney donors face the risk of renal dysfunction, resulting in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, or cerebrovascular disease, after donor nephrectomy. Reducing this risk is important to increasing survival of living donors. In this study, we investigated the effect of preoperative distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and nutritional status on postoperative renal function in living donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-five living donors were enrolled in this retrospective study. Preoperative unenhanced computed tomography images were used to measure abdominal adipose tissue parameters. Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was used to assess preoperative nutritional status. Donors were divided into 2 groups according to abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae (<80 or ≥80 cm²). Postoperative renal function was compared in the 2 groups, and prognostic factors for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) G3b were identified using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Donors with a VAT area ≥80 significantly more often had hypertension preoperatively. Although there was no significant difference in preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the 2 groups, postoperative renal function was significantly decreased in donors with a VAT area ≥80 compared to those with a VAT area <80. In multivariate analysis, VAT area ≥80 and PNI <54 were independent factors predicting the development of CKD G3b after 12 months. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that preoperative VAT and PNI affect postoperative renal function. Further research is required to establish appropriate exercise protocols and nutritional interventions during follow-up to improve outcomes in living donors.

  20. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO 2 peak/3min, 50% VO 2 peak) or MICT (55% VO 2 peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1 H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P<0.05), while IHL was tightly matched between MICT and HIIT subjects (P>0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (P<0.01). Visceral abdominal adiposity, body mass, liver aminotransferases (ALT, AST), and hepatic apoptotic/inflammatory markers (cytokeratin 18 and fetuin a) were not reduced with either exercise training intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, P<0.05); however, the reduction in IHL was not statistically different between exercise intensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, P<0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that energy-matched high intensity and moderate intensity exercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The severity of nocturnal hypoxia but not abdominal adiposity is associated with insulin resistance in non-obese men with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = -0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.

  2. The Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia but Not Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Men with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. Methods The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Results Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = −0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Conclusion Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:23951064

  3. Seasonal changes in hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipase mRNA concentrations in marmot white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Deeb, S; Florant, G L

    1992-02-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) and plasma samples were obtained from yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) throughout the year. Mean plasma triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerol were determined. There was a clear increase in FFAs and decrease in mean TG and glycerol during the hibernation period when animals were fasting, suggesting increased lipolysis. RNA was isolated from WAT biopsies at four times in the year: spring, summer, fall, and winter. There were significant changes in the relative levels of mRNA for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) during the body mass cycle of the marmot. The relative levels of LPL mRNA are high during the mass gain phase of the year and that of HSL mRNA are high during the fasting period when endogenous lipid is utilized. These results suggest that the genes for LPL and HSL are regulated seasonally to control the adipose mass depot in marmots.

  4. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  5. Effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation on whole-body and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Jocken, J W E; Goossens, G H; van Hees, A M J; Frayn, K N; van Baak, M; Stegen, J; Pakbiers, M T W; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2008-02-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased triacylglycerol storage in adipose tissue. There is in vitro evidence for a blunted beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of obese individuals and evidence for this at the whole-body level in vivo. We hypothesised that the beta-adrenergically mediated effect on lipolysis in abdominal SAT is also impaired in vivo in obese humans. We investigated whole-body and abdominal SAT glycerol metabolism in vivo during 3 h and 6 h [2H5]glycerol infusions. Arterio-venous concentration differences were measured in 13 lean and ten obese men after an overnight fast and during intravenous infusion of the non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline [20 ng (kg fat free mass)(-1) min(-1)]. Lean and obese participants showed comparable fasting glycerol uptake by SAT (9.7+/-3.4 vs 9.3+/-2.5% of total release, p=0.92). Furthermore, obese participants showed an increased whole-body beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response versus lean participants. However, their fasting lipolysis was blunted [glycerol rate of appearance: 7.3+/-0.6 vs 13.1+/-0.9 micromol (kg fat mass)(-1) min(-1), p<0.01], as was the beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response per unit SAT [Delta total glycerol release: 140+/-71 vs 394+/-112 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p<0.05] compared with lean participants. Net triacylglycerol flux tended to increase in obese compared with lean participants during beta-adrenergic stimulation [Delta net triacylglycerol flux: 75+/-32 vs 16+/-11 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p=0.06]. We demonstrated in vivo that beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response is impaired systematically and in abdominal SAT of obese versus lean men. This may be important in the development or maintenance of increased triacylglycerol stores and obesity.

  6. Study and classification of the abdominal adiposity throughout the application of the two-dimensional predictive equation Garaulet et al., in the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Piernas Sánchez, C M; Morales Falo, E M; Zamora Navarro, S; Garaulet Aza, M

    2010-01-01

    The excess of visceral abdominal adipose tissue is one of the major concerns in obesity and its clinical treatment. To apply the two-dimensional predictive equation proposed by Garaulet et al. to determine the abdominal fat distribution and to compare the results with the body composition obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (M-BIA). We studied 230 women, who underwent anthropometry and M-BIA. The predictive equation was applied. Multivariate lineal and partial correlation analyses were performed with control for BMI and % body fat, using SPSS 15.0 with statistical significance P < 0.05. Overall, women were considered as having subcutaneous distribution of abdominal fat. Truncal fat, regional fat and muscular mass were negatively associated with VA/SA(predicted), while the visceral index obtained by M-BIA was positively correlated with VA/SA(predicted). The predictive equation may be useful in the clinical practice to obtain an accurate, costless and safe classification of abdominal obesity.

  7. Influence of simethicone and fasting on the quality of abdominal ultrasonography in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kassy Gomes; de Andrade, Carla; Sotomaior, Cristina Santos

    2017-07-17

    Presence of significant quantities of gas in the intestines may hinder a proper conduction of abdominal ultrasonography. In humans, preparatory techniques are used to solve this, but measures to avoid ultrasonographic complications due to intestinal gas in rabbits have not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of fasting and simethicone administered orally on the quality of ultrasonographic images of the gallbladder, kidneys, and jejunum in adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. A total of 28 adult NZW rabbits were included in a crossover design study, involving four groups: F: fasting for 4-6 h before the examination; FS: fasting and application of simethicone (20 mg/kg, orally) 20 to 30 min before the examination; S: application of simethicone 20-30 min before the examination without fasting; and C: controls without fasting and no application of simethicone. Evaluation of the ultrasonographic images was done in terms of percentage of visualization of each organ and image quality using a 3-point scoring system (unacceptable, acceptable, or excellent). The kidneys and the gallbladder were visualized at an equal frequency in all groups, while the jejunum was visualized more frequently in the FS group. The image quality scores for gallbladder, right kidney, and left kidney was similar for all groups, but for the jejunum, a higher number of images with acceptable scores was found within the FS group.

  8. Clofibrate-induced changes in the liver, heart, brain and white adipose lipid metabolome of Swiss-Webster mice

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Goto, Susumu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Newman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists are anti-hyperlipidemic drugs that influence fatty acid combustion, phospholipid biosynthesis and lipoprotein metabolism. To evaluate impacts on other aspects of lipid metabolism, we applied targeted metabolomics to liver, heart, brain and white adipose tissue samples from male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to a 5 day, 500 mg/kg/day regimen of i.p. clofibrate. Tissue concentrations of free fatty acids and the fatty acid content of sphingomyelin, cardiolipin, cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids were quantified. Responses were tissue-specific, with changes observed in the liver > heart ≫ brain > adipose. These results indicate that liver saturated fatty acid-rich triglycerides feeds clofibrate-induced monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) synthesis, which were incorporated into hepatic phospholipids and sphingomyelin. In addition, selective enrichment of docosahexeneoic acid in the phosphatidylserine of liver (1.7-fold), heart (1.6-fold) and brain (1.5-fold) suggests a clofibrate-dependent systemic activation of phosphatidylserine synthetase 2. Furthermore, the observed ~20% decline in cardiac sphingomyelin is consistent with activation of a sphingomeylinase with a substrate preference for polyunsaturate-containing sphingomyelin. Finally, perturbations in the liver, brain, and adipose cholesterol esters were observed, with clofibrate exposure elevating brain cholesterol arachidonyl-esters ~20-fold. Thus, while supporting previous findings, this study has identified novel impacts of PPARα agonist exposure on lipid metabolism that should be further explored. PMID:19079556

  9. Comparison of brown and white adipose tissues in infants and children with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI.

    PubMed

    Hu, Houchun H; Yin, Larry; Aggabao, Patricia C; Perkins, Thomas G; Chia, Jonathan M; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    To compare fat-signal fractions (FFs) and T2* values between brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue located within the supraclavicular fossa and subcutaneous depots, respectively. Twelve infants and 39 children were studied. Children were divided into lean and overweight/obese subgroups. Chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify FFs and T2* metrics in the supraclavicular and adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. Linear regression and t-tests were performed. Infants had lower supraclavicular FFs than children (P < 0.01) but T2* values were similar (P = 0.5). Lean children exhibited lower supraclavicular FFs and T2* values than overweight children (P < 0.01). In each individual infant and child, supraclavicular FFs were consistently lower than adjacent subcutaneous FFs. Supraclavicular T2* values were consistently lower than subcutaneous T2* values in children, but not in infants. FFs in both depots were positively correlated with age and weight in infants (P < 0.01). In children, they were correlated with weight and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01), but not age. Correlations between T2* and anthropometric variables existed in children (P < 0.01), but were absent in infants. Cross-sectional comparisons suggest variations in FF and T2* values in the supraclavicular and subcutaneous depots of infants and children, which are potentially indicative of physiological differences in adipose tissue fat content, amount, and metabolic activity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Correlations between quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Walker, Ronald C.; Towse, Theodore F.; Brian Welch, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Beyond estimation of depot volumes, quantitative analysis of adipose tissue properties could improve understanding of how adipose tissue correlates with metabolic risk factors. We investigated whether the fat signal fraction (FSF) derived from quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3.0 T correlates to CT Hounsfield units (HU) of the same tissue. These measures were acquired in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) at the umbilical level of 21 healthy adult subjects. A moderate correlation exists between MRI- and CT-derived WAT values for all subjects, R2=0.54, p<0.0001, with a slope of −2.6, (95% CI [−3.3,−1.8]), indicating that a decrease of 1 HU equals a mean increase of 0.38% FSF. We demonstrate that FSF estimates obtained using quantitative fat–water MRI techniques correlate with CT HU values in subcutaneous WAT, and therefore, MRI-based FSF could be used as an alternative to CT HU for assessing metabolic risk factors. PMID:26702407

  11. Foxc2 coordinates inflammation and browning of white adipose by leptin-STAT3-PRDM16 signal in mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, L; Liu, Z; Feng, F; Wu, T; Luo, D; Hu, C; Sun, C

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between forkhead box C2 protein (Foxc2) and leptin under adipose inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model was conducted. Data from wild-type and ob/ob mice were used to compare the alternative role of leptin on Foxc2-mediated inflammation and browning. Transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interaction were analyzed by bioinformatics and proved by chromatin immunoprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Foxc2 and leptin correlated with inflammation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in LPS-treated mice. Moreover, Foxc2-mediated inhibition of inflammation involved downstream activation of leptin signal and promoted WAT browning. We then determined CREB, the potential transcriptional factor of leptin, was required for Foxc2-mediated inflammation in the regulation of WAT browning. Foxc2 alleviated adipocyte inflammation by reducing leptin-mediated Janus-activated kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Importantly, STAT3 physically interacted with PRDM16 and formed a complex to promote WAT browning. Exogenous Foxc2 overexpression also ameliorated inflammation and promoted adipose browning in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Our results indicated that Foxc2 inhibited inflammation and promoted browning of WAT through positive regulation of leptin signal and the STAT3-PRDM16 complex. These findings identify a new potential means to prevent and treat obese caused metabolic syndrome of mammals.

  12. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity.

  13. Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging-based, Semiautomated Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael S; Haufe, William; Hooker, Jonathan; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Tunón, Patrik; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the repeatability and accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based, semiautomated method to quantify abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume and hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF). Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board- approved and HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Inclusion criteria were age of 18 years or older and willingness to participate. The exclusion criterion was contraindication to MR imaging. Three-dimensional T1-weighted dual-echo body-coil images were acquired three times. Source images were reconstructed to generate water and calibrated fat images. Abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle were segmented, and their volumes were estimated by using a semiautomated method and, as a reference standard, a manual method. Hepatic PDFF was estimated by using a confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded MR imaging method with hybrid complex-magnitude reconstruction and, as a reference standard, MR spectroscopy. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF intra- and interexamination repeatability were assessed by using intraclass correlation and coefficient of variation analysis. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF accuracy were assessed by means of linear regression with the respective reference standards. Results Adipose and thigh muscle tissue volumes of 20 subjects (18 women; age range, 25-76 years; body mass index range, 19.3-43.9 kg/m 2 ) were estimated by using the semiautomated method. Intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.996-0.998 and coefficients of variation were 1.5%-3.6%. For hepatic MR imaging PDFF, intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.994 and coefficients of variation were less than or equal to 7.3%. In the regression analyses of manual versus semiautomated volume and spectroscopy versus MR imaging, PDFF slopes and intercepts were close

  14. Allele compensation in tip60+/- mice rescues white adipose tissue function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/- mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/- mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/- displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/- mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice.

  15. Allele Compensation in Tip60+/− Mice Rescues White Adipose Tissue Function In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Hamers, Nicole; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Berger, Ruud; Lough, John; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy homestasis. The amount of adipose tissue is largely determined by adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), a process that is regulated by the concerted actions of multiple transcription factors and cofactors. Based on in vitro studies in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human primary preadipocytes, the transcriptional cofactor and acetyltransferase Tip60 was recently identified as an essential adipogenic factor. We therefore investigated the role of Tip60 on adipocyte differentiation and function, and possible consequences on energy homeostasis, in vivo. Because homozygous inactivation results in early embryonic lethality, Tip60+/− mice were used. Heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 had no effect on body weight, despite slightly higher food intake by Tip60+/− mice. No major effects of heterozygous inactivation of Tip60 were observed on adipose tissue and liver, and Tip60+/− displayed normal glucose tolerance, both on a low fat and a high fat diet. While Tip60 mRNA was reduced to 50% in adipose tissue, the protein levels were unaltered, suggesting compensation by the intact allele. These findings indicate that the in vivo role of Tip60 in adipocyte differentiation and function cannot be properly addressed in Tip60+/− mice, but requires the generation of adipose tissue-specific knock out animals or specific knock-in mice. PMID:24870614

  16. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. General and visceral adiposity in black and white adolescents and their relation with reported physical activity and diet.

    PubMed

    Stallmann-Jorgensen, I S; Gutin, B; Hatfield-Laube, J L; Humphries, M C; Johnson, M H; Barbeau, P

    2007-04-01

    Excess body fat accumulation may begin in youth and is linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Examination of physical activity (PA) and diet behaviours predictive of adiposity may help target efforts to reduce chronic disease risk. We hypothesized that energy intake (EI) from fat, vigorous PA (VPA), and their interaction would predict body fat percentage (%BF) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in youth and that sedentary behaviours and intake of dairy, fruit, vegetable and whole grain foods would be related to adiposity. A cross-sectional, observational study of reported PA and diet behaviours and objective adiposity measures. Six-hundred sixty-one healthy black and white adolescents aged 14-18 years. Diet by 24-h recalls using Nutrition Data Systems for Research (Minneapolis, MN, USA), VPA by previous day physical activity recalls (PAR), and %BF with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. VAT by magnetic resonance imaging for 434 subjects. Reported EI and VPA were positively correlated with each other and were negative predictors of %BF. Time spent watching television or movies and %EI from protein were positive predictors of %BF. Adjusted for EI, none of the independent variables predictive of %BF retained their significance. %BF and VAT were highly correlated (r=0.73, P<0.0001). EI was the sole and negative predictor of VAT. Higher energy 'throughput', not energy restriction, characterize leaner youths. Youths should be advised to engage in VPA so that they can eat sufficient calories to obtain the nutrients required for optimal health while remaining lean.

  18. Human skeletal muscles replaced to a high degree by white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ina, Keisuke; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Masaki, Takayuki; Tatsukawa, Shuji; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2011-02-01

    Extreme replacement of skeletal muscles by adipose tissue was found in an 86-year old Japanese male cadaver during dissection practice for medical students at Oita University School of Medicine. Especially, the bilateral sartorius muscles looked overall like adipose tissue. The man had suffered from diabetes mellitus, renal failure, hypertension and hypothyroidism before his death. He was also an alcohol drinker. He had been bedridden late in life. The cause of death was renal failure. In microscopy, the adipose tissue-like sartorius muscle was shown to consist of leptin-positive adipocytes with a small number of degenerated muscle fibers. Fatty replacement, or fatty degeneration, appears to result from endocrine and metabolic disorders, and being bedridden leads to muscle atrophy and damage, although the origin of the adipocytes which emerged in the degenerated muscles is unknown.

  19. Regulators of Human White Adipose Browning: Evidence for Sympathetic Control and Sexual Dimorphic Responses to Sprint Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Scalzo, Rebecca L.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Giordano, Gregory R.; Binns, Scott E.; Klochak, Anna L.; Paris, Hunter L. R.; Schweder, Melani M.; Szallar, Steve E.; Wood, Lacey M.; Larson, Dennis G.; Luckasen, Gary J.; Hickey, Matthew S.; Bell, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11). The measurements were performed twice, once with and once without prior/concurrent sympathetic inhibition via transdermal clonidine administration. FGF21 was unaffected by basal sympathetic inhibition (338±113 vs. 295±80 pg/mL; P = 0.43; mean±SE), but was increased during hypoxia mediated sympathetic activation (368±135); this response was abrogated (P = 0.035) with clonidine (269±93). Irisin was unaffected by sympathetic inhibition and/or hypoxia (P>0.21). Study 2: The plasma concentration of irisin and FGF21, and the skeletal muscle protein content of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) was determined in 19 young adults prior to and following three weeks of sprint interval training (SIT). SIT decreased FGF21 (338±78 vs. 251±36; P = 0.046) but did not affect FNDC5 (P = 0.79). Irisin was decreased in males (127±18 vs. 90±23 ng/mL; P = 0.045) and increased in females (139±14 vs. 170±18). Collectively, these data suggest a potential regulatory role of acute sympathetic activation pertaining to the browning of white adipose; further, there appears to be a sexual dimorphic response of irisin to SIT. PMID:24603718

  20. Rosiglitazone-Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis in White Adipose Tissue Is Independent of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Rosario; Enguix, Natàlia; Lasheras, Jaime; Feliu, Juan E.; Kralli, Anastasia; Villena, Josep A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thiazolidinediones, a family of insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, are thought to exert their effects in part by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipose tissue through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α). Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the role of PGC-1α in the control of rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that lacks expression of PGC-1α specifically in adipose tissues (PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice). We found that expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation, was similar in white adipose tissue of wild type and PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice. Furthermore, the absence of PGC-1α did not prevent the positive effect of rosiglitazone on mitochondrial gene expression or biogenesis, but it precluded the induction by rosiglitazone of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific genes in white adipose tissue. Consistent with the in vivo findings, basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was unaffected by the knockdown of PGC-1α but it was impaired when PGC-1β expression was knockdown by the use of specific siRNA. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that in white adipose tissue PGC-1α is dispensable for basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis but required for the rosiglitazone-induced expression of UCP1 and other brown adipocyte-specific markers. Our study suggests that PGC-1α is important for the appearance of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue. Our findings also provide evidence that PGC-1β and not PGC-1α regulates basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in white adipocytes. PMID:22087241

  1. Lean phenotype and resistance to diet-induced obesity in vitamin D receptor knockout mice correlates with induction of uncoupling protein-1 in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, Carmen J; Matthews, Donald; Broun, Emily; Chan, Michelle; Welsh, JoEllen

    2009-02-01

    Increased adiposity is a feature of aging in both mice and humans, but the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in adipose tissue stores remain unclear. In previous studies, we noted that 18-month-old normocalcemic vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (VDRKO) mice exhibited atrophy of the mammary adipose compartment relative to wild-type (WT) littermates, suggesting a role for VDR in adiposity. Here we monitored body fat depots, food intake, metabolic factors, and gene expression in WT and VDRKO mice on the C57BL6 and CD1 genetic backgrounds. Regardless of genetic background, both sc and visceral white adipose tissue depots were smaller in VDRKO mice than WT mice. The lean phenotype of VDRKO mice was associated with reduced serum leptin and compensatory increased food intake. Similar effects on adipose tissue, leptin and food intake were observed in mice lacking Cyp27b1, the 1alpha-hydroxylase enzyme that generates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), the VDR ligand. Although VDR ablation did not reduce expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma or fatty acid synthase, PCR array screening identified several differentially expressed genes in white adipose tissue from WT and VDRKO mice. Uncoupling protein-1, which mediates dissociation of cellular respiration from energy production, was greater than 25-fold elevated in VDRKO white adipose tissue. Consistent with elevation in uncoupling protein-1, VDRKO mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Collectively, these studies identify a novel role for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and the VDR in the control of adipocyte metabolism and lipid storage in vivo.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor mRNA levels in heart and white adipose tissue are associated with obesity in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Hossain, Intekhab; Perez, Lester J; Nzirorera, Carine; Tozer, Kathleen; D'Souza, Kenneth; Trivedi, Purvi C; Aguiar, Christie; Yip, Alexandra M; Shea, Jennifer; Brunt, Keith R; Legare, Jean-Francois; Hassan, Ansar; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra C

    2017-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been implicated in cardiovascular and obesity-related metabolic disease. However, the distribution and regulation of LPA receptors in the myocardium and adipose tissue remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize the mRNA expression of LPA receptors (LPA1-6) in the murine and human myocardium and adipose tissue, and its regulation in response to obesity. LPA receptor mRNA levels were determined by qPCR in i) heart ventricles, isolated cardiomyocytes, and perigonadal adipose tissue from chow or high fat-high sucrose (HFHS)-fed male C57BL/6 mice, ii) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HL-1 cardiomyocytes under conditions mimicking gluco/lipotoxicity, and iii) human atrial and subcutaneous adipose tissue from non-obese, pre-obese, and obese cardiac surgery patients. LPA1-6 were expressed in myocardium and white adipose tissue from mice and humans, except for LPA3, which was undetectable in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue. Obesity was associated with increased LPA4, LPA5 and/or LPA6 levels in mice ventricles and cardiomyocytes, HL-1 cells exposed to high palmitate, and human atrial tissue. LPA4 and LPA5 mRNA levels in human atrial tissue correlated with measures of obesity. LPA5 mRNA levels were increased in HFHS-fed mice and insulin resistant adipocytes, yet were reduced in adipose tissue from obese patients. LPA4, LPA5, and LPA6 mRNA levels in human adipose tissue were negatively associated with measures of obesity and cardiac surgery outcomes. This study suggests that obesity leads to marked changes in LPA receptor expression in the murine and human heart and white adipose tissue that may alter LPA receptor signaling during obesity.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor mRNA levels in heart and white adipose tissue are associated with obesity in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lester J.; Nzirorera, Carine; Tozer, Kathleen; D’Souza, Kenneth; Trivedi, Purvi C.; Aguiar, Christie; Yip, Alexandra M.; Shea, Jennifer; Brunt, Keith R.; Legare, Jean-Francois; Hassan, Ansar; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been implicated in cardiovascular and obesity-related metabolic disease. However, the distribution and regulation of LPA receptors in the myocardium and adipose tissue remain unclear. Objectives This study aimed to characterize the mRNA expression of LPA receptors (LPA1-6) in the murine and human myocardium and adipose tissue, and its regulation in response to obesity. Methods LPA receptor mRNA levels were determined by qPCR in i) heart ventricles, isolated cardiomyocytes, and perigonadal adipose tissue from chow or high fat-high sucrose (HFHS)-fed male C57BL/6 mice, ii) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HL-1 cardiomyocytes under conditions mimicking gluco/lipotoxicity, and iii) human atrial and subcutaneous adipose tissue from non-obese, pre-obese, and obese cardiac surgery patients. Results LPA1-6 were expressed in myocardium and white adipose tissue from mice and humans, except for LPA3, which was undetectable in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue. Obesity was associated with increased LPA4, LPA5 and/or LPA6 levels in mice ventricles and cardiomyocytes, HL-1 cells exposed to high palmitate, and human atrial tissue. LPA4 and LPA5 mRNA levels in human atrial tissue correlated with measures of obesity. LPA5 mRNA levels were increased in HFHS-fed mice and insulin resistant adipocytes, yet were reduced in adipose tissue from obese patients. LPA4, LPA5, and LPA6 mRNA levels in human adipose tissue were negatively associated with measures of obesity and cardiac surgery outcomes. This study suggests that obesity leads to marked changes in LPA receptor expression in the murine and human heart and white adipose tissue that may alter LPA receptor signaling during obesity. PMID:29236751

  4. Relationship between energy dense diets and white adipose tissue inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Marià

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a widespread pathologic state that manifests as multiple intertwined diseases affecting the entire body. This review analyzes the contribution of adipose tissue inflammation to its development. The main factor in the appearance of MS is an excess of dietary energy (largely fats), eliciting insulin resistance and creating the problem of excess energy disposal. Under these conditions, amino acid catabolism is diminished, which indirectly alters the production of nitric oxide and affects blood flow regulation. The oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite and nitrate affects microbiota composition and functions. Adipose tissue cannot incorporate excessive nutrients after cell enlargement and loss of function. Tissue damage is a form of aggression, and the response is proinflammatory cytokine release. Cytokines favor the massive penetration of immune system cells, such as macrophages, which unsuccessfully try to fight an elusive danger for which they are not prepared. The consequence is low-level maintenance of the inflammatory state, which affects endoplasmic reticulum function and the endothelial response to excess regulatory mechanisms affecting blood flow and substrate/oxygen supply. When inflammation becomes chronic, the pathologic consequences are disseminated throughout the body because unused substrates and signals from adipose tissue affect energy partitioning and organ function. This maintenance of an unbalanced state ultimately results in the establishment of MS and associated pathologies. New research should focus on identifying ways to disarm the inflammatory response of adipose tissue when the dangers of dietary excess have already been controlled. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  6. Homeobox a5 Promotes White Adipose Tissue Browning Through Inhibition of the Tenascin C/Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inflammatory Signaling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weina; Huang, Hongtao; Xia, Tianyu; Liu, Chenlong; Muhammad, Saeed; Sun, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid increase in systemic inflammatory factors. As adipose tissue is a key contributor to the inflammatory response to numerous metabolic stimuli, it is important to understand the mechanism behind the LPS-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). Homeobox a5 (Hoxa5) is an important transcription factor, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and its mRNA expression is increased at cold exposure in mice. So far, the function of Hoxa5 in adipose tissue browning has been poorly understood. So, the objective of this study was conducted to determine the role of Hoxa5 in adipose inflammatory response and white adipose browning in mice. LPS-induced inflammatory and cold-induced browning model were conducted. We compared the coordinated role of Hoxa5 in inflammation and thermogenesis of mice adipose. Transcriptional and methylation regulation was determined by luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and bisulfite conversion experiment. Hoxa5 and tenascin C (TNC) were involved in WAT inflammation and browning in mice with LPS injection. Furthermore, Hoxa5 inhibited the TNC-involved activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway and promoted WAT browning. Moreover, we found that a BMP4/Smad1 signal, closely related to browning, was activated by Hoxa5. Hoxa5 relieved adipocyte inflammation by decreasing TNC-mediated TLR4 transducer and activator of the NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, descended methylation level increased Hoxa5 expression in cold exposure. Our findings demonstrated that Hoxa5 alleviated inflammation and enhanced browning of adipose tissue via negative control of TNC/TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling and activating BMP4/Smad1 pathway. These findings indicated a novel potential means for the regulation of inflammation in adipocytes to prevent obesity and other inflammatory diseases.

  7. Agpat4/Lpaatδ deficiency highlights the molecular heterogeneity of epididymal and perirenal white adipose depots.

    PubMed

    Mardian, Emily B; Bradley, Ryan M; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Marvyn, Phillip M; Moes, Katherine A; Bombardier, Eric; Tupling, A Russell; Stark, Ken D; Duncan, Robin E

    2017-10-01

    Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4)/lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor of triacyl-glycerol (TAG). We investigated the effect of Agpat4 gene ablation on white adipose tissue (WAT) after finding consistent expression across depots. Epididymal WAT mass was 40% larger in male Agpat4 -/- mice than wild-type littermates, but unchanged in perirenal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal WAT and subscapular brown adipose tissue. Metabolic changes were identified in epididymal WAT that were not evident in perirenal WAT, which was analyzed for comparison. The total epididymal TAG content doubled, increasing adipocyte cell size without changing markers of differentiation. Enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis and complex lipid synthesis downstream of phosphatidic acid production were also unchanged. However, total epididymal TAG hydrolase activity was reduced, and there were significant decreases in total ATGL and reduced phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase at the S563 and S660 PKA-activation sites. Analysis of Agpats 1, 2, 3 , and 5 , as well as Gpats 1, 2, 3, and 4, demonstrated compensatory upregulation in perirenal WAT that did not occur in epididymal WAT. Our findings therefore indicate depot-specific differences in the redundancy of Agpat4 and highlight the molecular and metabolic heterogeneity of individual visceral depots. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Dielectric properties measurements of brown and white adipose tissue in rats from 0.5 to 10 GHz.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D B; Stauffer, P R; Colebeck, E; Hood, A Z; Salahi, S; Maccarini, P F; Topsakal, E

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and with appropriate stimulus could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although imaging techniques are available to detect subsurface BAT, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. Microwave (MW) radiometry is an emerging technology that allows the quantification of tissue temperature variations at depths of several centimeters. Such temperature differentials may be correlated with variations in metabolic rate, thus providing a quantitative approach to monitor BAT metabolism. In order to optimize MW radiometry, numerical and experimental phantoms with accurate dielectric properties are required to develop and calibrate radiometric sensors. Thus, we present for the first time, the characterization of relative permittivity and electrical conductivity of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues in rats across the MW range 0.5-10GHz. Measurements were carried out in situ and post mortem in six female rats of approximately 200g. A Cole-Cole model was used to fit the experimental data into a parametric model that describes the variation of dielectric properties as a function of frequency. Measurements confirm that the dielectric properties of BAT ( ε r = 14.0-19.4, σ = 0.3-3.3S/m) are significantly higher than those of WAT ( ε r = 9.1-11.9, σ = 0.1-1.9S/m), in accordance with the higher water content of BAT.

  9. Dielectric properties measurements of brown and white adipose tissue in rats from 0.5 to 10 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, D B; Stauffer, P R; Colebeck, E; Hood, A Z; Salahi, S; Maccarini, P F; Topsakal, E

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and with appropriate stimulus could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although imaging techniques are available to detect subsurface BAT, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. Microwave (MW) radiometry is an emerging technology that allows the quantification of tissue temperature variations at depths of several centimeters. Such temperature differentials may be correlated with variations in metabolic rate, thus providing a quantitative approach to monitor BAT metabolism. In order to optimize MW radiometry, numerical and experimental phantoms with accurate dielectric properties are required to develop and calibrate radiometric sensors. Thus, we present for the first time, the characterization of relative permittivity and electrical conductivity of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues in rats across the MW range 0.5–10GHz. Measurements were carried out in situ and post mortem in six female rats of approximately 200g. A Cole-Cole model was used to fit the experimental data into a parametric model that describes the variation of dielectric properties as a function of frequency. Measurements confirm that the dielectric properties of BAT (εr = 14.0–19.4, σ = 0.3–3.3S/m) are significantly higher than those of WAT (εr = 9.1–11.9, σ = 0.1–1.9S/m), in accordance with the higher water content of BAT. PMID:29354288

  10. Genipin ameliorates diet-induced obesity via promoting lipid mobilization and browning of white adipose tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Gong, Dezheng; Yang, Sirao; Shen, Nana; Zhang, Sai; Li, Yuchen; Wu, Qiong; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Yiping; Dai, Ning; Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Genipin is the major active component of Gardeniae fructus and has been shown to ameliorate diabetes and insulin resistance in rat models. In this study, we first investigated the effect of genipin on obesity and the related lipid metabolism mechanisms in diet-induced obese rats. Our results showed that genipin reduced body weight, food intake, and visceral fat mass; ameliorated dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, insulin intolerance, adipocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic steatosis; and reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α level in diet-induced obese rats. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction results further illustrated that genipin promoted lipolysis and β-oxidation of fatty acid by upregulating gene expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase in white adipose tissue (WAT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α in hepatic tissue. Moreover, genipin promoted browning of WAT by upregulating the mRNA and protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 and PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 in WAT. Additionally, genipin inhibited gene expressions of activin receptor-like kinase 7, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interlukin-6 in WAT. These results indicated that genipin had a potential therapeutic role in obesity, in which regulation of lipid mobilization and browning of WAT were involved. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue via the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-12-17

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism.

  12. Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue via the sympathetic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism. PMID:26673120

  13. Comparison of different constitutive models to characterize the viscoelastic properties of human abdominal adipose tissue. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Domínguez, Jaime; Gómez Cía, Tomás; Gómez Ciriza, Gorka; Martínez-Reina, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Knowing the mechanical properties of human adipose tissue is key to simulate surgeries such as liposuction, mammoplasty and many plastic surgeries in which the subcutaneous fat is present. One of the most important surgeries, for its incidence, is the breast reconstruction surgery that follows a mastectomy. In this case, achieving a deformed shape similar to the healthy breast is crucial. The reconstruction is most commonly made using autologous tissue, taken from the patient's abdomen. The amount of autologous tissue and its mechanical properties have a strong influence on the shape of the reconstructed breast. In this work, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human adipose tissue have been studied. Uniaxial compression stress relaxation tests were performed in adipose tissue specimens extracted from the human abdomen. Two different viscoelastic models were used to fit to the experimental tests: a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model and an internal variables viscoelastic (IVV) model; each one with four different hyperelastic strain energy density functions to characterise the elastic response: a 5-terms polynomial function, a first order Ogden function, an isotropic Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel function and a combination of a neoHookean and an exponential function. The IVV model with the Ogden function was the best combination to fit the experimental tests. The viscoelastic properties are not important in the simulation of the static deformed shape of the breast, but they are needed in a relaxation test performed under finite strain rate, particularly, to derive the long-term behaviour (as time tends to infinity), needed to estimate the static deformed shape of the breast. The so obtained stiffness was compared with previous results given in the literature for adipose tissue of different regions, which exhibited a wide dispersion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of rat white adipose tissue response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Houlahan, Kathleen E.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Sun, Ren X.

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are environmental contaminants commonly produced as a by-product of industrial processes. The most potent of these, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (TCDD), is highly lipophilic, leading to bioaccumulation. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a major site for energy storage, and is one of the organs in which TCDD accumulates. In laboratory animals, exposure to TCDD causes numerous metabolic abnormalities, including a wasting syndrome. We therefore investigated the molecular effects of TCDD exposure on WAT by profiling the transcriptomic response of WAT to 100 μg/kg of TCDD at 1 or 4 days in TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (Turku/AB; L-E) rats. A comparative analysis was conductedmore » simultaneously in identically treated TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats one day after exposure to the same dose. We sought to identify transcriptomic changes coinciding with the onset of toxicity, while gaining additional insight into later responses. More transcriptional responses to TCDD were observed at 4 days than at 1 day post-exposure, suggesting WAT shows mostly secondary responses. Two classic AHR-regulated genes, Cyp1a1 and Nqo1, were significantly induced by TCDD in both strains, while several genes involved in the immune response, including Ms4a7 and F13a1 were altered in L-E rats alone. We compared genes affected by TCDD in rat WAT and human adipose cells, and observed little overlap. Interestingly, very few genes involved in lipid metabolism exhibited altered expression levels despite the pronounced lipid mobilization from peripheral fat pads by TCDD in L-E rats. Of these genes, the lipolysis-associated Lpin1 was induced slightly over 2-fold in L-E rat WAT on day 4. - Highlights: • Exposure to TCDD causes wasting syndrome in L-E rats but not in H/W rats. • We examined the transcriptome of TCDD-treated L-E and H/W rat white adipose tissue. • L-E WAT demonstrated altered abundance of several genes involved in immune response.

  15. Human hepatic lipase overexpression in mice induces hepatic steatosis and obesity through promoting hepatic lipogenesis and white adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; Santos, David; Roglans, Núria; Julve, Josep; Pallarès, Victor; Rivas-Urbina, Andrea; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Laguna, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Human hepatic lipase (hHL) is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL) is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo. Experiments were carried out in hHL transgenic and wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet. Triglyceride metabolism studies included β-oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in liver and WAT, hepatic triglyceride secretion, and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated free fatty acid (FFA) lipolysis and influx. The expression of hHL promoted hepatic triglyceride accumulation and de novo lipogenesis without affecting triglyceride secretion, and this was associated with an upregulation of Srebf1 as well as the main genes controlling the synthesis of fatty acids. Transgenic mice also exhibited more adiposity and an increased LPL-mediated FFA influx into the WAT without affecting glucose tolerance. Our results demonstrate that hHL promoted hepatic steatosis in mice mainly by upregulating de novo lipogenesis. HL also upregulated WAT LPL and promoted triglyceride-rich lipoprotein hydrolysis and adipose FFA uptake. These data support the important role of hHL in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis and confirm the broad cardiometabolic role of HL.

  16. Human hepatic lipase overexpression in mice induces hepatic steatosis and obesity through promoting hepatic lipogenesis and white adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; Santos, David; Roglans, Núria; Julve, Josep; Pallarès, Victor; Rivas-Urbina, Andrea; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Laguna, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Human hepatic lipase (hHL) is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL) is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo. Experiments were carried out in hHL transgenic and wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet. Triglyceride metabolism studies included β-oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in liver and WAT, hepatic triglyceride secretion, and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated free fatty acid (FFA) lipolysis and influx. The expression of hHL promoted hepatic triglyceride accumulation and de novo lipogenesis without affecting triglyceride secretion, and this was associated with an upregulation of Srebf1 as well as the main genes controlling the synthesis of fatty acids. Transgenic mice also exhibited more adiposity and an increased LPL-mediated FFA influx into the WAT without affecting glucose tolerance. Our results demonstrate that hHL promoted hepatic steatosis in mice mainly by upregulating de novo lipogenesis. HL also upregulated WAT LPL and promoted triglyceride-rich lipoprotein hydrolysis and adipose FFA uptake. These data support the important role of hHL in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis and confirm the broad cardiometabolic role of HL. PMID:29244870

  17. A comparative study of software programmes for cross-sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J; Burger, Jacobus W A; Willemsen, Sten P; de Bruin, Ron W F; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2017-04-01

    The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single-slice computed tomography (CT)-based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter-software, intra-observer, and inter-observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Bland-Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979-1.000, P < 0.001). All programmes adequately distinguished between the presence or absence of sarcopenia (κ = 0.88-0.96 for one observer and all κ = 1.00 for all comparisons of the other observer) and visceral obesity (all κ = 1.00). Furthermore, excellent intra-observer (ICC 0.999-1.000, P < 0.001) and inter-observer (ICC 0.998-0.999, P < 0.001) agreement for all software programmes were found. Accordingly, excellent Jaccard similarity coefficients were found

  18. A comparative study of software programmes for cross‐sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J.; Burger, Jacobus W.A.; Willemsen, Sten P.; de Bruin, Ron W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single‐slice computed tomography (CT)‐based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter‐observer, intra‐observer, and inter‐software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Methods Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross‐sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter‐software, intra‐observer, and inter‐observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra‐class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland–Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Results Bland–Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979–1.000, P < 0.001). All programmes adequately distinguished between the presence or absence of sarcopenia (κ = 0.88–0.96 for one observer and all κ = 1.00 for all comparisons of the other observer) and visceral obesity (all κ = 1.00). Furthermore, excellent intra‐observer (ICC 0.999–1.000, P < 0.001) and inter‐observer (ICC 0.998–0.999, P < 0.001) agreement for all software programmes were

  19. Bidirectional crosstalk between the sensory and sympathetic motor systems innervating brown and white adipose tissue in male Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Vitaly; Watts, Alan G; Xue, Bingzhong; Bartness, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of coinfected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia. These neurons are well positioned to act as sensorimotor links in the feedback circuits that control each fat pad. We have now determined the extent of sensorimotor crosstalk between interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT). PRV152 and HSV-1 H129 were each injected into IBAT or IWAT of the same animal: H129 into IBAT and PRV152 into IWAT. The reverse configuration was applied in a different set of animals. We found single-labeled neurons together with H129+PRV152 coinfected neurons in multiple brain sites, with lesser numbers in the sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia that innervate IBAT and IWAT. We propose that these coinfected neurons mediate sensory-sympathetic motor crosstalk between IBAT and IWAT. Comparing the relative numbers of coinfected neurons between the two injection configurations showed a bias toward IBAT-sensory and IWAT-sympathetic motor feedback loops. These coinfected neurons provide a neuroanatomical framework for functional interactions between IBAT thermogenesis and IWAT lipolysis that occurs with cold exposure, food restriction/deprivation, exercise, and more generally with alterations in adiposity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Perinatal maternal high-fat diet induces early obesity and sex-specific alterations of the endocannabinoid system in white and brown adipose tissue of weanling rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana M; Dias-Rocha, Camilla P; Souza, André S; Muros, Mariana F; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Trevenzoli, Isis H

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS's components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.

  1. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  2. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Hirani, V

    2011-06-01

    To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102 cm, men; > 88 cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases. Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys, the Health Survey for England (HSE). Non-institutionalised men and women aged ≥ 65 years (in HSE 2005, 1512 men and 1747 women). Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements were taken according to standardised HSE protocols. Information collected on socio-demographic, health behaviour and doctor diagnosed health conditions. Generalised obesity and abdominal obesity increased among men and women from 1993 to 2008. In 2005, the HSE 2005 focussed on older people. 72% of men and 68% of women aged over 65 were either overweight or obese. Prevalence of raised WC was higher in women (58%) than in men (46%). The prevalence of diabetes and arthritis was higher in people with generalised obesity in both sexes. Men were more likely to have had a joint replacement and had a higher prevalence of stroke if they were overweight only but women were more likely to have had a joint replacement only if they were obese (13%) and had a higher risk of falls with generalised obesity. The pattern was similar for the prevalence of chronic diseases by raised WC. Multivariate analysis showed that generalised and abdominal obesity was independently associated with risk of hypertension, diabetes and arthritis in both men and women. In women only, there was an association between generalised obesity and having a fall in the last year (OR: 1.5), and between abdominal obesity and having a joint replacement (OR: 1.9, p=0.01). Complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension and arthritis, are more common in men and women aged over 65 who are

  3. Regulation of leptin synthesis in white adipose tissue of the female fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx: role of melatonin with or without insulin.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Udin, S; Krishna, A

    2011-02-01

    Factors regulating leptin synthesis during adipogenesis in wild species are not well known. Studies in the female Cynopterus sphinx bat have shown that it undergoes seasonal changes in its fat deposition and serum leptin and melatonin levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of leptin synthesis by the white adipose tissue during the period of fat deposition in female C. sphinx. This study showed a significant correlation between the seasonal changes in serum melatonin level with the circulating leptin level (r = 0.78; P < 0.05) and with the changes in body fat mass (r = 0.88; P < 0.05) in C. sphinx. A significant correlation between circulating insulin and leptin levels (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) was also found in this species. This in vivo finding suggests that melatonin together with insulin may enhance leptin synthesis by increasing adipose tissue accumulation. The in vitro study showed that melatonin interacts synergistically with insulin in stimulating leptin synthesis by adipose tissue in C. sphinx. The study showed MT(2) receptors in adipose tissue and a stimulatory effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis, which was blocked by treatment with an MT(2) receptor antagonist, suggesting that the effect of melatonin on leptin synthesis by adipose tissue is mediated through the MT(2) receptor in C. sphinx. The in vitro study showed that the synthesis of leptin is directly proportional to the amount of glucose uptake by the adipose tissue. It further showed that melatonin together with insulin synergistically enhanced the leptin synthesis by adipose tissue through phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in C. sphinx.

  4. Adipogenic Signaling in Rat White Adipose Tissue: Modulation by Aging and Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Lee, Garrick D.; Ding, Liusong; Hu, Jingping; Qiu, Guang; de Cabo, Rafa; Bernier, Michel; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige

    2007-01-01

    Alterations in adipogenesis could have significant impact on several aging processes. We previously reported that calorie restriction (CR) in rats significantly increases the level of circulating adiponectin, a distinctive marker of differentiated adipocytes, leading to a concerted modulation in the expression of key transcription target genes and, as a result, to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced deleterious lipid accumulation in other tissues. These findings led us to investigate further the effects of aging on adipocytes and to determine how CR modulates adipogenic signaling in vivo. CR for 2 and 25 months, significantly increased the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPβ and Cdk-4, and partially attenuated age-related decline in C/EBPα expression relative to rats fed ad libitum (AL). As a result, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis, and greater responsiveness of adipose tissue to insulin. Moreover, CR significantly decreased the ratio of C/EBPß isoforms LAP/LIP, suggesting the suppression of gene transcription associated with terminal differentiation while facilitating preadipocytes proliferation. Morphometric analysis revealed a greater number of small adipocytes in CR relative to AL feeding. Immunostaining confirmed that small adipocytes were more strongly positive for adiponectin than the large ones. Overall these results suggest that CR increased the expression of adipogenic factors, and maintained the differentiated state of adipocytes, which is critically important for adiponectin biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity. PMID:17624709

  5. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  6. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R(2) range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2) 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R(2) was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  7. Gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in the white adipose tissue of obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Ancha; Gowder, Shobha J; Schlauch, Karen; Elariny, Hazem; Collantes, Rochelle; Afendy, Arian; Ong, Janus P; Goodman, Zachary; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair M

    2006-09-01

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes a variety of metabolically important substances including adipokines. These factors affect insulin sensitivity and may represent a link between obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (DM), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study uses real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification of mRNAs encoding adiponectin, leptin, and resistin on snap-frozen samples of intra-abdominal adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were studied. Patients were classified into two groups: Group A (with insulin resistance) (N=11; glucose 149.84 +/- 40.56 mg/dL; serum insulin 8.28 +/- 3.52 microU/mL), and Group B (without insulin resistance) (N=10; glucose 102.2 +/- 8.43 mg/dL; serum insulin 3.431 +/- 1.162 microU/mL). Adiponectin mRNA in intra-abdominal adipose tissue and serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in Group A compared to Group B patients (P<0.016 and P<0.03, respectively). Although serum resistin was higher in Group A than in Group B patients (P<0.005), resistin gene expression was not different between the two groups. Finally, for leptin, neither serum level nor gene expression was different between the two groups. Serum adiponectin level was the only predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in this study (P=0.024). Obese patients with insulin resistance have decreased serum adiponectin and increased serum resistin. Additionally, adiponectin gene expression is also decreased in the adipose tissue of these patients. This low level of adiponectin expression may predispose patients to the progressive form of NAFLD or NASH.

  8. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alleviates Acute Inflammation and Promotes Lipid Mobilization During the Inflammatory Response in White Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Shixing; Liu, Zhiqing; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, white adipose tissue has been shown to exhibit immunological activity, and may play an important role in host defense and protection against bacterial infection. Αlpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been demonstrated to function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. However, its influence on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue remains unknown. We used male C57BL/6 mice as models to study the effect of α-LA on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The non-esterified fatty acid content was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression of inflammation-, lipid- and energy metabolism-related genes and proteins was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that α-LA significantly decreased the epididymis fat weight index and the non-esterified fatty acid content in plasma compared with the control group. LPS significantly increased the expression of inflammation genes and α-LA reduced their expression. The LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB protein was decreased by α-LA. Regarding lipid metabolism, α-LA significantly counteracted the inhibitory effects of LPS on the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase gene and protein. α-LA evidently increased the gene expression of fatty acid transport protein 1 and cluster of differentiation 36. Regarding energy metabolism, α-LA significantly increased the expression of most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes compared with the control and LPS group. Accordingly, α-LA can alleviate acute inflammatory response and this action may be related with the promotion of lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue.

  9. Differential regulation of glyceroneogenesis by glucocorticoids in epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue from rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Graziella Nascimento; Rossi-Valentim, Rafael; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Paula-Gomes, Sílvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta Rissato; Frasson, Danúbia; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo

    2017-08-01

    Investigate the glycerol-3-phosphate generation pathways in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RETRO) adipose tissues from dexamethasone-treated rats. Rats were treated with dexamethasone for 7 days. Glycerol-3-phosphate generation pathways via glycolysis, glyceroneogenesis and direct phosphorylation of glycerol were evaluated, respectively, by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) activity and pyruvate incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG)-glycerol, and glycerokinase activity and glycerol incorporation into TAG-glycerol. Dexamethasone treatment markedly decreased the body weight, but increased the weight and lipid content of EPI and RETRO and plasma insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acid and TAG levels. EPI and RETRO from dexamethasone-treated rats showed increased rates of de novo fatty acid synthesis (80 and 100%) and basal lipolysis (20%). In EPI, dexamethasone decreased the 2-deoxyglucose uptake (50%), as well as glyceroneogenesis, evidenced by a decrease of PEPCK-C activity (39%) and TAG-glycerol synthesis from pyruvate (66%), but increased the glycerokinase activity (50%) and TAG-glycerol synthesis from glycerol (72%) in this tissue. In spite of a similar reduction in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in RETRO, dexamethasone treatment increased glyceroneogenesis, evidenced by PEPCK activity (96%), and TAG-glycerol synthesis from pyruvate (110%), accompanied by a decrease in glycerokinase activity (50%) and TAG-glycerol synthesis from glycerol (50%). Dexamethasone effects on RETRO were accompanied by a decrease in p-Akt content and by lower insulin effects on the rates of glycerol release in the presence of isoproterenol and on the rates of glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes. Our data demonstrated differential regulation of glyceroneogenesis and direct phosphorylation of glycerol by glucocorticoids in EPI and RETRO from rats.

  10. Role of white adipose lipolysis in the development of NASH induced by methionine-and choline-deficient diet

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Shogo; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Qu, Aijuan; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rodents. However, the mechanism of NASH development by dietary methionine/choline deficiency remains undetermined. To elucidate the early metabolic changes associated with MCD-NASH, serum metabolomic analysis was performed using mice treated with MCD and control diet for three days and one week, revealing significant increases in oleic and linoleic acids after MCD treatment. These increases were correlated with reduced body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase, and up-regulation of genes encoding carboxylesterase 3 and β2-adrenergic receptor in WAT, indicating accelerated lipolysis in adipocytes. The changes in serum fatty acids and WAT by MCD treatment were reversed by methionine supplementation, and similar alterations were detected in mice fed a methionine-deficient diet (MD), thus demonstrating that dietary methionine deficiency enhances lipolysis in WAT. MD treatment decreased glucose and increased fibroblast growth factor 21 in serum, thus exhibiting a similar metabolic phenotype as the fasting response. Comparison between MCD and choline-deficient diet (CD) treatments suggested that the addition of MD-induced metabolic alterations, such as WAT lipolysis, to CD-induced hepatic steatosis promotes liver injury. Collectively, these results demonstrate an important role for dietary methionine deficiency and WAT lipolysis in the development of MCD-NASH. PMID:25178843

  11. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-enriched fat grafting: experiments using White rabbits and an automated cell processing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    The grafting of fat mixed with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) is being increasingly applied to compensate for the disadvantages of previous fat grafting methods. Devices that automatically isolate fat stem cells also have recently been developed. ASCs were isolated from the inguinal region of White rabbits using Icellator ® , and the number of cells and their viability were measured. The cell count per fat graft (mL) was adjusted to the following concentrations and subcutaneously transplanted into the back: Control group, Fat + PBS; Fat + ASCs (×0.5) group, 1.6 × 10 5 cells/mL; and Fat + ASCs (×1) group, 3.2 × 10 5 cells/mL. Grafted fat weight was measured after 8 weeks, and histological, immunohistological, and specifically stained sections were prepared. Fat absorption was reduced in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups. The number of blood vessels was higher in Fat + ASCs (×1) than in the control group, and blood vessel areas were higher in Fat + ASCs (×0.5) and Fat + ASCs (×1) groups than in the control group. The usefulness of the automated cell processing apparatus, Icellator ® , was confirmed, and the results obtained suggest that grafted ASCs promote the vascularization and engraftment of fat grafts.

  12. Molecular insights into the role of white adipose tissue in metabolically unhealthy normal weight and metabolically healthy obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Badoud, Flavia; Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A; Mutch, David M

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it is now recognized that a subset of individuals have reduced cardiometabolic risk despite being obese. Paradoxically, a subset of lean individuals is reported to have high risk for cardiometabolic complications. These distinct subgroups of individuals are referred to as metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) and metabolically healthy obese (MHO). Although the clinical relevance of these subgroups remains debated, evidence shows a critical role for white adipose tissue (WAT) function in the development of these phenotypes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current state of knowledge regarding the molecular and metabolic characteristics of WAT associated with MUNW and MHO. In particular, we discuss the link between different WAT depots, immune cell infiltration, and adipokine production with MUNW and MHO. Furthermore, we also highlight recent molecular insights made with genomic technologies showing that processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid β-oxidation differ between these phenotypes. This review provides evidence that WAT function is closely linked with cardiometabolic risk independent of obesity and thus contributes to the development of MUNW and MHO. © FASEB.

  13. The Effects of Exercise Training on Obesity-Induced Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Takahashi, Motoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nagasawa, Junichi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR) not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT. PMID:24369466

  14. Proteomic analysis of adipose tissue during the last weeks of gestation in pure and crossbred Large White or Meishan fetuses gestated by sows of either breed.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Guével, B; Père, M C; Quesnel, H; Billon, Y; Com, E; Canario, L; Louveau, I; Liaubet, L

    2018-01-01

    The degree of adipose tissue development at birth may influence neonatal survival and subsequent health outcomes. Despite their lower birth weights, piglets from Meishan sows (a fat breed with excellent maternal ability) have a higher survival rate than piglets from Large White sows (a lean breed). To identify the main pathways involved in subcutaneous adipose tissue maturation during the last month of gestation, we compared the proteome and the expression levels of some genes at d 90 and d 110 of gestation in purebred and crossbred Large White or Meishan fetuses gestated by sows of either breed. A total of 52 proteins in fetal subcutaneous adipose tissue were identified as differentially expressed over the course of gestation. Many proteins involved in energy metabolism were more abundant, whereas some proteins participating in cytoskeleton organization were reduced in abundance on d 110 compared with d 90. Irrespective of age, 24 proteins differed in abundance between fetal genotypes, and an interaction effect between fetal age and genotype was observed for 13 proteins. The abundance levels of proteins known to be responsive to nutrient levels such as aldolase and fatty acid binding proteins, as well as the expression levels of FASN, a key lipogenic enzyme, and MLXIPL , a pivotal transcriptional mediator of glucose-related stimulation of lipogenic genes, were elevated in the adipose tissue of pure and crossbred fetuses from Meishan sows. These data suggested that the adipose tissue of these fetuses had superior metabolic functionality, whatever their paternal genes. Conversely, proteins participating in redox homeostasis and apoptotic cell clearance had a lower abundance in Meishan than in Large White fetuses. Time-course differences in adipose tissue protein abundance were revealed between fetal genotypes for a few secreted proteins participating in responses to organic substances, such as alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, transferrin and albumin. These results

  15. Contributions of white and brown adipose tissues and skeletal muscles to acute cold-induced metabolic responses in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Denis P; Labbé, Sébastien M; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C; Haman, François

    2015-01-01

    Cold exposure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), triggering the activation of cold-defence responses and mobilizing substrates to fuel the thermogenic processes. Although these processes have been investigated independently, the physiological interaction and coordinated contribution of the tissues involved in producing heat or mobilizing substrates has never been investigated in humans. Using [U-13C]-palmitate and [3-3H]-glucose tracer methodologies coupled with positron emission tomography using 11C-acetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we examined the relationship between whole body sympathetically induced white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and mapped the skeletal muscle shivering and metabolic activation pattern during a mild, acute cold exposure designed to minimize shivering response in 12 lean healthy men. Cold-induced increase in whole-body oxygen consumption was not independently associated with BAT volume of activity, BAT oxidative metabolism, or muscle metabolism or shivering intensity, but depended on the sum of responses of these two metabolic tissues. Cold-induced increase in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate was strongly associated with the volume of metabolically active BAT (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), total BAT oxidative metabolism (r = 0.70, P = 0.004) and BAT glucose uptake (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), but not muscle glucose metabolism. The total glucose uptake was more than one order of magnitude greater in skeletal muscles compared to BAT during cold exposure (674 ± 124 vs. 12 ± 8 μmol min−1, respectively, P < 0.001). Glucose uptake demonstrated that deeper, centrally located muscles of the neck, back and inner thigh were the greatest contributors of muscle glucose uptake during cold exposure due to their more important shivering response. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that the increase in plasma NEFA appearance from WAT lipolysis is

  16. Dietary xenosterols lead to infertility and loss of abdominal adipose tissue in sterolin-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Solca, Curzio; Tint, G. Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the human disease sitosterolemia (MIM 210250) has shed light not only on the pathways by which dietary sterols may traffic but also on how the mammalian body rids itself of cholesterol and defends against xenosterols. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, located at the sitosterolemia locus, each encodes a membrane-bound ABC half-transporter and constitutes a functional unit whose activity has now been shown to account for biliary and intestinal sterol excretion. Knockout mice deficient in Abcg5 or Abcg8 recapitulate many of the phenotypic features of sitosterolemia. During the course of our studies to characterize these knockout mice, we noted that these mice, raised on normal rodent chow, exhibited infertility as well as loss of abdominal fat. We show that, although sitosterolemia does not lead to any structural defects or to any overt endocrine defects, fertility could be restored if xenosterols are specifically blocked from entry and that the loss of fat is also reversed by a variety of maneuvers that limit xenosterol accumulation. These studies show that xenosterols may have a significant biological impact on normal mammalian physiology and that the Abcg5 or Abcg8 knockout mouse model may prove useful in investigating the role of xenosterols on mammalian physiology. PMID:23180829

  17. Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh-Moghadam, Arasb; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Morteza; Miri, Ali; Rahdar, Maliehe; Sadeghi, Omid

    2017-12-01

    To assess the association of red and white meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity among Iranian military families. In this cross-sectional study, 525 subjects with age range of 19-55 years belong to military families of Army of Islamic Republic of Iran were recruited during 2016. Dietary data were collected using semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men. Finally, we had complete data on 170 subjects for analysis. Mean age of subjects was 33.78 ± 6.48. We found a significant positive association between red meat consumption and abdominal obesity in fully adjusted model, so that subjects in the fourth quartile had 4.51 more odds to be abdominally obese compared with those in the first quartile of red meat consumption (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.32-15.40). Such relationship was not seen for general obesity. In addition, white meat consumption was not associated with general and abdominal obesity either before or after adjustment for covariates. Red meat consumption was positively associated with abdominal obesity. No significant relationship was found between white meat consumption, and general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  18. A 33-year-old white female with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and hypotension.

    PubMed

    Westfall, M D; Lumpkin, J

    1993-01-01

    A thirty-three year old female presented to our emergency department complaining of severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. On physical examination she was hypotensive with a firm, tender abdomen, cervical motion tenderness and a diffuse erythematous rash. A surgical diagnosis of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was made during laparoscopy. Coagulant studies, liver function tests, culture results, and the desquamation of the patient's palms led to the additional diagnosis of Toxic Shock Syndrome. A literature search failed to reveal any similar cases of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) occurring concomitantly. Patients may present severely ill with either of these disease entities but potential for serious illness is greater when both of these syndromes occur in the same patient. We conclude that in patients with a similar presentation, the symptoms should not be attributed completely to PID without further investigation and consideration of a concomitant disease process including TSS.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols increases DHA incorporation in brown, but not in white adipose tissue, of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paula A; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Marta S; Ferreira, Júlia; Guil-Guerrero, José L; Prates, José A M

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesised that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) across adipose tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position. Ten-week old male hamsters were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (n = 10): linseed oil (LSO-control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE) and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL) during 12 weeks. In opposition to the large variations found for fatty acid composition in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) was less responsive to diets. DHA was not found in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT depots but it was successfully incorporated in BAT reaching the highest percentage in DHA-SL. The PCA on plasma hormones (insulin, leptin, adiponectin) and fatty acids discriminated BAT from WATs pointing towards an individual signature on fatty acid deposition, but did not allow for full discrimination of dietary treatments within each adipose tissue.

  20. Resveratrol attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced macrophage migration to visceral white adipose tissue and insulin resistance in male mice.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Alba; Zhang, Shelley X L; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Peris, Eduard; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David

    2015-02-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), as occurs in sleep apnea, promotes systemic insulin resistance. Resveratrol (Resv) has been reported to ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of Resv on IH-induced metabolic dysfunction, male mice were subjected to IH or room air conditions for 8 weeks and treated with either Resv or vehicle (Veh). Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin were obtained, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index levels were calculated, and insulin sensitivity tests (phosphorylated AKT [also known as protein kinase B]/total AKT) were performed in 2 visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) depots (epididymal [Epi] and mesenteric [Mes]) along with flow cytometry assessments for VWAT macrophages and phenotypes (M1 and M2). IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice showed initial reductions in food intake with later recovery, with resultant lower body weights after 8 weeks but with IH-Resv showing better increases in body weight vs IH-Veh. IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, but only IH-Veh had increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index vs all 3 other groups. Leptin levels were preserved in IH-Veh but were significantly lower in IH-Resv. Reduced VWAT phosphorylated-AKT/AKT responses to insulin emerged in both Mes and Epi in IH-Veh but normalized in IH-Resv. Increases total macrophage counts and in M1 to M2 ratios occurred in IH-Veh Mes and Epi compared all other 3 groups. Thus, Resv ameliorates food intake and weight gain during IH exposures and markedly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance, thereby providing a potentially useful adjunctive therapy for metabolic morbidity in the context of sleep apnea.

  1. Dermal white adipose tissue undergoes major morphological changes during the spontaneous and induced murine hair follicle cycling: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Foster, April R; Nicu, Carina; Schneider, Marlon R; Hinde, Eleanor; Paus, Ralf

    2018-07-01

    In murine skin, dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT) undergoes major changes in thickness in synchrony with the hair cycle (HC); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to elucidate whether increased DWAT thickness during anagen is mediated by adipocyte hypertrophy or adipogenesis, and whether lipolysis or apoptosis can explain the decreased DWAT thickness during catagen. In addition, we compared HC-associated DWAT changes between spontaneous and depilation-induced hair follicle (HF) cycling to distinguish between spontaneous and HF trauma-induced events. We show that HC-dependent DWAT remodelling is not an artefact caused by fluctuations in HF down-growth, and that dermal adipocyte (DA) proliferation and hypertrophy are HC-dependent, while classical DA apoptosis is absent. However, none of these changes plausibly accounts for HC-dependent oscillations in DWAT thickness. Contrary to previous studies, in vivo BODIPY uptake suggests that increased DWAT thickness during anagen occurs via hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia. From immunohistomorphometry, DWAT thickness likely undergoes thinning during catagen by lipolysis. Hence, we postulate that progressive, lipogenesis-driven DA hypertrophy followed by dynamic switches between lipogenesis and lipolysis underlie DWAT fluctuations in the spontaneous HC, and dismiss apoptosis as a mechanism of DWAT reduction. Moreover, the depilation-induced HC displays increased DWAT thickness, area, and DA number, but decreased DA volume/area compared to the spontaneous HC. Thus, DWAT shows additional, novel HF wounding-related responses during the induced HC. This systematic reappraisal provides important pointers for subsequent functional and mechanistic studies, and introduces the depilation-induced murine HC as a model for dissecting HF-DWAT interactions under conditions of wounding/stress.

  2. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin improves glycemic control, white adipose tissue metabolism and reproductive axis of diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2018-04-15

    Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. IL-6 Signal From the Bone Marrow is Required for the Browning of White Adipose Tissue Post Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Chen, Peter; Stanojcic, Mile; Sadri, Ali-Reza; Coburn, Natalie; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The hypermetabolic stress response after burn contributes to multi-organ failure, sepsis, morbidity, and mortality. The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been hypothesized to mediate not only white adipose tissue (WAT) browning in burns, but also other hypermetabolic conditions. In addition to its inflammatory effects, IL-6 also acts as a metabolic mediator that affects metabolic tissues. Therefore, we sought to uncover the origin of circulating IL-6 post burn injury that regulates WAT browning. WAT and sera samples were collected from both adult burn patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital and mice subjected to a burn injury. Collected tissues were analyzed for browning markers and metabolic state via histology, gene expression, and resting energy expenditure. Increased WAT browning was observed in burn patients as well as mice subjected to burn injury. Circulating IL-6 levels were significantly elevated post burn injury in mice (<0.05) and in burn patients (<0.05), the latter of which was positively correlated with elevated REE. Genetic loss of whole body IL-6 in mice prevented burn-induced WAT browning. Transplanting IL-6 knockout (KO) mice with bone marrow (BM) from wild-type (WT) mice, recovered the browning phenotype in these mice, as evaluated by increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression (<0.05). Conversely, transplanting irradiated WT mice with BM from IL-6 KO mice impaired burn induced browning with no significant expression of UCP1. Together, our findings implicate BM derived IL-6 as the source controlling browning of WAT post burn injury. Thus, targeting IL-6 is a promising target for hypermetabolism in burns.

  4. Capsaicin induces browning of white adipose tissue and counters obesity by activating TRPV1 channel‐dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Padmamalini; Krishnan, Vivek; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases necessitates the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat such diseases. Current research suggests that browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes energy expenditure to counter obesity. Recent research suggests that activation of the TRPV1 channels counters obesity. However, the mechanism by which activation of TRPV1 channels counters obesity still remains unclear. Experimental Approach We evaluated the effect of dietary capsaicin to induce a browning program in WAT by activating TRPV1 channels to prevent diet‐induced obesity using wild‐type and TRPV1−/− mouse models. We performed experiments using preadipocytes and fat pads from these mice. Key Results Capsaicin stimulated the expression of brown fat‐specific thermogenic uncoupling protein‐1 and bone morphogenetic protein‐8b in WAT. Capsaicin triggered browning of WAT by promoting sirtuin‐1 expression and activity via TRPV1 channel‐dependent elevation of intracellular Ca2 + and phosphorylation of Ca2 +/calmodulin‐activated protein kinase II and AMP‐activated kinase. Capsaicin increased the expression of PPARγ 1 coactivator α and enhanced metabolic and ambulatory activity. Further, capsaicin stimulated sirtuin‐1‐dependent deacetylation of PPARγ and the transcription factor PRDM‐16 and facilitated PPARγ–PRDM‐16 interaction to induce browning of WAT. Dietary capsaicin did not protect TRPV1−/− mice from obesity. Conclusions and Interpretations Our results show for the first time that activation of TRPV1 channels by dietary capsaicin triggers browning of WAT to counteract obesity. Our results suggest that activation of TRPV1 channels is a promising strategy to counter obesity. PMID:27174467

  5. Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wang; Litherland, Gary J; Elias, Martina S; Kitson, Gareth I; Cawston, Tim E; Rowan, Andrew D; Young, David A

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of leptin on cartilage destruction. Collagen release was assessed in bovine cartilage explant cultures, while collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities in culture supernatants were determined by bioassay and gelatin zymography. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Signalling pathway activation was studied by immunoblotting. Leptin levels in cultured osteoarthritic joint infrapatellar fat pad or peri-enthesal deposit supernatants were measured by immunoassay. Leptin, either alone or in synergy with IL-1, significantly induced collagen release from bovine cartilage by upregulating collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity. In chondrocytes, leptin induced MMP1 and MMP13 expression with a concomitant activation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, MAPK (JNK, Erk, p38), Akt and NF-κB signalling pathways. Selective inhibitor blockade of PI3K, p38, Erk and Akt pathways significantly reduced MMP1 and MMP13 expression in chondrocytes, and reduced cartilage collagen release induced by leptin or leptin plus IL-1. JNK inhibition had no effect on leptin-induced MMP13 expression or leptin plus IL-1-induced cartilage collagen release. Conditioned media from cultured white adipose tissue (WAT) from osteoarthritis knee joint fat pads contained leptin, induced cartilage collagen release and increased MMP1 and MMP13 expression in chondrocytes; the latter being partly blocked with an anti-leptin antibody. Leptin acts as a pro-inflammatory adipokine with a catabolic role on cartilage metabolism via the upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and acts synergistically with other pro-inflammatory stimuli. This suggests that the infrapatellar fat pad and other WAT in arthritic joints are local producers of leptin, which may contribute to the inflammatory and degenerative processes in cartilage catabolism, providing a mechanistic link between obesity and osteoarthritis.

  6. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  7. Comparative analysis of human UCB and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells for their differentiation potential into brown and white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rashnonejad, Afrooz; Ercan, Gulinnaz; Gunduz, Cumhur; Akdemir, Ali; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer

    2018-06-01

    The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin. The UCP1 protein levels in brown adipocytes were investigated by immunofluoresence and western blot analysis. Cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers (CD34-, CD45-, CD90+ and CD105+) were successfully isolated from UCB and adipose tissue. Oil Red O staining demonstrated that white and brown adipocytes obtained from AD-MSCs showed 85 and 61% of red pixels, while it was 3 and 1.9%, respectively for white and brown adipocytes obtained from UCB-MSCs. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed strong uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) signaling in brown adipocytes, especially which were obtained from AD-MSCs. Quantification of UCP1 protein amount showed 4- and 10.64-fold increase in UCP1 contents of brown adipocytes derived from UCB-MSCs and AD-MSCs, respectively in comparison to undifferentiated MSCs (P < 0.004). UCB-MSCs showed only a little differentiation tendency into adipocytes means it is not an appropriate stem cell type to be differentiated into these cell types. In contrast, high differentiation efficiency of AD-MSCs into brown and white adipocytes make it appropriate stem cell type to use in future regenerative medicine of soft tissue disorders or fighting with obesity and its related disorders.

  8. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Cortese, R; Khalyfa, A; Bao, R; Andrade, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or sleep control during LG (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice per group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs 28.8 g; P=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs 497.0 mg; P=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs 250.1 mg; P=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs 87.6 mg dl(-1); P=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs 84.1 mg dl(-1); P=0.003) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values (8.1 vs 6.1; P=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs LG-SC; P<0.0001, model-based analysis of tilling-arrays algorithm). A large proportion of the DMR-associated genes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1 and so on. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways

  9. Managing incidental findings on abdominal CT: white paper of the ACR incidental findings committee.

    PubMed

    Berland, Lincoln L; Silverman, Stuart G; Gore, Richard M; Mayo-Smith, William W; Megibow, Alec J; Yee, Judy; Brink, James A; Baker, Mark E; Federle, Michael P; Foley, W Dennis; Francis, Isaac R; Herts, Brian R; Israel, Gary M; Krinsky, Glenn; Platt, Joel F; Shuman, William P; Taylor, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    As multidetector CT has come to play a more central role in medical care and as CT image quality has improved, there has been an increase in the frequency of detecting "incidental findings," defined as findings that are unrelated to the clinical indication for the imaging examination performed. These "incidentalomas," as they are also called, often confound physicians and patients with how to manage them. Although it is known that most incidental findings are likely benign and often have little or no clinical significance, the inclination to evaluate them is often driven by physician and patient unwillingness to accept uncertainty, even given the rare possibility of an important diagnosis. The evaluation and surveillance of incidental findings have also been cited as among the causes for the increased utilization of cross-sectional imaging. Indeed, incidental findings may be serious, and hence, when and how to evaluate them are unclear. The workup of incidentalomas has varied widely by physician and region, and some standardization is desirable in light of the current need to limit costs and reduce risk to patients. Subjecting a patient with an incidentaloma to unnecessary testing and treatment can result in a potentially injurious and expensive cascade of tests and procedures. With the participation of other radiologic organizations listed herein, the ACR formed the Incidental Findings Committee to derive a practical and medically appropriate approach to managing incidental findings on CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis. The committee has used a consensus method based on repeated reviews and revisions of this document and a collective review and interpretation of relevant literature. This white paper provides guidance developed by this committee for addressing incidental findings in the kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and pancreas. Copyright © 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel anti-inflammatory role for spleen-derived interleukin-10 in obesity-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Considering that obesity decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen, we assessed the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by the spleen, in the pathogenesis of obesity. Changes in obesity-related pathogenesis, including inflammatory responses in multiple organs, were assessed after systemic administration of exogenous IL-10 to splenectomy (SPX)-treated obese wild-type and IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice. Obesity resulted in the inability of the spleen to synthesize cytokines, including IL-10, and proinflammatory cytokines in obesity are then likely to emerge from tissues other than the spleen because serum levels of IL-10, but not proinflammatory cytokines, decreased despite the expression of these cytokines in the spleen being reduced in high fat-induced obese mice. SPX aggravated the inflammatory response in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver and suppressed adiposity in WAT. However, it accentuated adiposity in the liver. These SPX-induced changes were inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver of IL-10KO mice. These data show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 in diet-induced changes as a result of inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver.

  11. The FGF21-CCL11 Axis Mediates Beiging of White Adipose Tissues by Coupling Sympathetic Nervous System to Type 2 Immunity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhe; Zhong, Ling; Lee, Jimmy Tsz Hang; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Donghai; Geng, Leiluo; Wang, Yu; Wong, Chi-Ming; Xu, Aimin

    2017-09-05

    Type 2 cytokines are important signals triggering biogenesis of thermogenic beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) during cold acclimation. However, how cold activates type 2 immunity in WAT remains obscure. Here we show that cold-induced type 2 immune responses and beiging in subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) are abrogated in mice with adipose-selective ablation of FGF21 or its co-receptor β-Klotho, whereas such impairments are reversed by replenishment with chemokine CCL11. Mechanistically, FGF21 acts on adipocytes in an autocrine manner to promote the expression and secretion of CCL11 via activation of ERK1/2, which drives recruitment of eosinophils into scWAT, leading to increases in accumulation of M2 macrophages, and proliferation and commitment of adipocyte precursors into beige adipocytes. These FGF21-elicited type 2 immune responses and beiging are blocked by CCL11 neutralization. Thus, the adipose-derived FGF21-CCL11 axis triggers cold-induced beiging and thermogenesis by coupling sympathetic nervous system to activation of type 2 immunity in scWAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carotenoids and their conversion products in the control of adipocyte function, adiposity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Luisa Bonet, M; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2015-04-15

    A novel perspective of the function of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived products - including, but not restricted to, the retinoids - is emerging in recent years which connects these compounds to the control of adipocyte biology and body fat accumulation, with implications for the management of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cell and animal studies indicate that carotenoids and carotenoids derivatives can reduce adiposity and impact key aspects of adipose tissue biology including adipocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, capacity for fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (including browning of white adipose tissue) and secretory function. Epidemiological studies in humans associate higher dietary intakes and serum levels of carotenoids with decreased adiposity. Specifically designed human intervention studies, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings in this area, place them in physiological contexts, and provide likely regulatory schemes whenever possible. The focus will be on the effects of carotenoids as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology and both animal and human studies, which support a role of carotenoids and retinoids in the prevention of abdominal adiposity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P < 0.0001). Thus, WheiR was used to evaluate the association between AbAd with HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P < 0.0001). The cutoff point for WheiR as a predictor for high HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed

  14. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; McKenna, Cristin

    2017-01-01

    Background Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Results Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01) and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05), respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05) and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05)]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Conclusions Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than

  15. Influence of adiposity on insulin resistance and glycemia markers among U.K. Children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean, and white European origin: child heart and health study in England.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Wells, Jonathan C K; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk between South Asians and white Europeans originate before adult life and are not fully explained by higher adiposity levels in South Asians. Although metabolic sensitivity to adiposity may differ between ethnic groups, this has been little studied in childhood. We have therefore examined the associations among adiposity, insulin resistance, and glycemia markers in children of different ethnic origins. Cross-sectional study of 4,633 9- to 10-year-old children (response rate 68%) predominantly of South Asian, black African-Caribbean, and white European origin (n = 1,266, 1,176, and 1,109, respectively) who had homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glycemia markers (HbA1c and fasting glucose), and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, and bioimpedance [fat mass]). All adiposity measures were positively associated with HOMA-IR in all ethnic groups, but associations were stronger among South Asians compared to black African-Caribbeans and white Europeans. For a 1-SD increase in fat mass percentage, percentage differences in HOMA-IR were 37.5% (95% CI 33.3-41.7), 29.7% (25.8-33.8), and 27.0% (22.9-31.2), respectively (P interaction < 0.001). All adiposity markers were positively associated with HbA1c in South Asians and black African-Caribbeans but not in white Europeans; for a 1-SD increase in fat mass percentage, percentage differences in HbA1c were 0.04% (95% CI 0.03-0.06), 0.04% (0.02-0.05), and 0.02% (-0.00 to 0.04), respectively (P interaction < 0.001). Patterns for fasting glucose were less consistent. South Asian children are more metabolically sensitive to adiposity. Early prevention or treatment of childhood obesity may be critical for type 2 diabetes prevention, especially in South Asians.

  16. Green tea extract induces genes related to browning of white adipose tissue and limits weight-gain in high energy diet-fed rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Han; Chien, Yi-Wen; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chan, Ching-Hung; Fan, Meng-Han; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77.5 or 155 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The gene expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: GTE modulated HED-induced body weight, fat accumulation, and serum levels of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acids, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, GTE enhanced the serum high-density lipoprotein. Most importantly, the biomarkers of beige adipose tissue were up-regulated in WAT in GTE-given groups. GTE induced genes involved in different pathways of browning, and reduced transducin-like enhancer protein-3 in WAT. Conclusion: Our results suggest that GTE may improve obesity through inducing browning in HED-fed rats. Abbreviations : ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase; BAT: Brown adipose tissue; BMP-7: Bone morphogenetic protein-7; BW: Body weight; CIDEA: Cell death activator; CPT-1: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1; EFP: Epididymal fat pad; FFA: Free fatty acid; FGF-21: Fibroblast growth factor-21; GTE: Green tea extract; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; HED: high-energy diet; LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; MFP: Mesenteric fat pad; PGC-1α: Activates PPAR-γ coactivator-1; PPAR-γ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; PRDM-16: PR domain containing 16; RFP: Renal fat pad; SD: Sprague Dawley; TC: Total

  17. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian'an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-03-01

    The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16-30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases

  18. Brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kristy; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is currently a global pandemic, and is associated with increased mortality and co-morbidities including many metabolic diseases. Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose mass due to increased energy intake, decreased energy expenditure, or both. While white adipose tissue is specialized for energy storage, brown adipose tissue has a high concentration of mitochondria and uniquely expresses uncoupling protein 1, enabling it to be specialized for energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Although brown fat was once considered only necessary in babies, recent morphological and imaging studies have provided evidence that, contrary to prior belief, this tissue is present and active in adult humans. In recent years, the topic of brown adipose tissue has been reinvigorated with many new studies regarding brown adipose tissue differentiation, function and therapeutic promise. This review summarizes the recent advances, discusses the emerging questions and offers perspective on the potential therapeutic applications targeting this tissue. PMID:23700507

  19. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  20. Dietary Sodium, Adiposity, and Inflammation in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K.; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. PMID:24488738

  1. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 shRNA ameliorates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis in mouse abdominal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Chaoying; Liu, Limei; Wang, Wei; Du, Hanze; Fan, Winnie; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Jiang, Meisheng; Friedman, Theodore C; Liu, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Prereceptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is an important mediator of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin-signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of p-Thr(172) AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with a reduction in p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11β-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11β-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and p-Thr(172) AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB, leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172) AMPK, which was accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11β-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  3. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively). Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  4. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munthali, Richard J.; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Norris, Shane A.

    2018-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. Objectives To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Methods Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0–2, 2–5, 5–8, 8–18, and 18–22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21–25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Results Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively). Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. Conclusions The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood. PMID:29338002

  5. Sleep Duration and Adiposity in Early Childhood: Evidence for Bidirectional Associations from the Born in Bradford Study.

    PubMed

    Collings, Paul J; Ball, Helen L; Santorelli, Gillian; West, Jane; Barber, Sally E; McEachan, Rosemary Rc; Wright, John

    2017-02-01

    To examine independent associations of sleep duration with total and abdominal adiposity, and the bidirectionality of these associations, in a young biethnic sample of children from a disadvantaged location. Child sleep duration (h/day) was parent-reported by questionnaire and indices of total (body weight, body mass index, percent body fat (%BF), sum of skinfolds) and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) were measured using standard anthropometric procedures at approximately 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children (58% South Asian; 42% White). Mixed effects models were used to quantify independent associations (expressed as standardised β-coefficients (95% confidence interval (CI)) of sleep duration with adiposity indices using data from all four time-points. Factors considered for adjustment in models included basic demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics, and lifestyle behaviours. With the exception of the sum of skinfolds, sleep duration was inversely and independently associated with indices of total and abdominal adiposity in South Asian children. For example, one standard deviation (SD) higher sleep duration was associated with reduced %BF by -0.029 (95% CI: -0.053, -0.0043) SDs. Higher adiposity was also independently associated with shorter sleep duration in South Asian children (for example, %BF: β = -0.10 (-0.16, -0.028) SDs). There were no significant associations in White children. Associations between sleep duration and adiposity are bidirectional and independent among South Asian children from a disadvantaged location. The results highlight the importance of considering adiposity as both a determinant of decreased sleep and a potential consequence. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  6. Sleep Duration and Adiposity in Early Childhood: Evidence for Bidirectional Associations from the Born in Bradford Study

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Helen L; Santorelli, Gillian; West, Jane; Barber, Sally E; McEachan, Rosemary RC; Wright, John

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Study Objectives: To examine independent associations of sleep duration with total and abdominal adiposity, and the bidirectionality of these associations, in a young biethnic sample of children from a disadvantaged location. Methods: Child sleep duration (h/day) was parent-reported by questionnaire and indices of total (body weight, body mass index, percent body fat (%BF), sum of skinfolds) and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference) were measured using standard anthropometric procedures at approximately 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children (58% South Asian; 42% White). Mixed effects models were used to quantify independent associations (expressed as standardised β-coefficients (95% confidence interval (CI)) of sleep duration with adiposity indices using data from all four time-points. Factors considered for adjustment in models included basic demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics, and lifestyle behaviours. Results: With the exception of the sum of skinfolds, sleep duration was inversely and independently associated with indices of total and abdominal adiposity in South Asian children. For example, one standard deviation (SD) higher sleep duration was associated with reduced %BF by -0.029 (95% CI: −0.053, −0.0043) SDs. Higher adiposity was also independently associated with shorter sleep duration in South Asian children (for example, %BF: β = -0.10 (-0.16, -0.028) SDs). There were no significant associations in White children. Conclusions: Associations between sleep duration and adiposity are bidirectional and independent among South Asian children from a disadvantaged location. The results highlight the importance of considering adiposity as both a determinant of decreased sleep and a potential consequence. PMID:28364513

  7. The effects of exercise and cold exposure on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Nana; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. [Methods] Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10). The mice performed swimming exercise (30 min to 60 min, 5 times) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, we confirmed mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene expression changes for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (NRF1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in soleus muscle and inguinal adipose tissue, and the related protein expression in soleus muscle. [Results] In soleus muscle, PGC-1α expression significantly increased in response to cold exposure (p = 0.006) and exercise (p = 0.05). There was also significant interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p = 0.005). Only exercise had a significant effect on NRF1 relative expression (p=0.001). Neither cold exposure nor the interaction showed significant effects (p = 0.1222 and p = 0.875, respectively). Relative Tfam expression did not show any significant effect from exercise. In inguinal adipose tissue, relative PGC-1α expression did not significantly change in any group. NRF1 expression showed a significant change from exercise (p = 0.01) and cold exposure (p = 0.011). There was also a significant interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p = 0.000). Tfam mRNA expression showed a significant effect from exercise (p=0.000) and an interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p=0.001). Only temperature significantly affected PGC-1α protein levels (p=0.045). Neither exercise nor the interaction were significant (p = 0.397 and p = 0.292, respectively

  8. Differential effects of cobalt and mercury on lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obesity mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u-ac.jp; Hanao, Norihide; Nishiyama, Kaori

    Metals and metalloid species are involved in homeostasis in energy systems such as glucose metabolism. Enlarged adipocytes are one of the most important causes of obesity-associated diseases. In this study, we studied the possibility that various metals, namely, CoCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}, NaAsO{sub 2} and MnCl{sub 2} pose risk to or have beneficial effects on white adipose tissue (WAT). Exposure to the four metals resulted in decreases in WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without changes in liver weight, suggesting that the size and function of adipocytes are sensitive to metals.more » Repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} significantly increased serum leptin, adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and normalized glucose level and adipose cell size in mice fed HFD. In contrast, HgCl{sub 2} treatment significantly decreased serum leptin level with the down-regulation of leptin mRNA expression in WAT and a reduction in adipocyte size. Next, we tried to investigate possible factors that affect adipocyte size. Repeated exposure to HgCl{sub 2} significantly decreased the expression levels of factors upon the regulation of energy such as the PPARα and PPARγ mRNA expression levels in adipocytes, whereas CoCl{sub 2} had little effect on those genes expressions compared with that in the case of the mice fed HFD with a vehicle. In addition, repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} enhanced AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, skeletal muscle and WAT; HgCl{sub 2} treatment also enhanced AMPK activation in the liver. Thus, both Co and Hg reduced WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes, possibly mediated by AMKP activation in the mice fed HFD. However, inorganic cobalt may have a preventive role in obesity-related diseases through increased leptin, adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas inorganic mercury may accelerate the development of such diseases. These results

  9. Differential actions of PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ on beige adipocyte formation: A study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Silva-Veiga, Flavia Maria; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Bringhenti, Isabele; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Material and methods Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks. Then each group was re-divided to begin the treatments that lasted 4 weeks, totalizing six groups: C, C-α (C plus PPAR-α agonist, 2.5 mg/kg BM), C-β (C plus PPAR-β/δ agonist, 1 mg/kg BM), HF, HF-α (HF plus PPAR-α agonist), HF-β (HF plus PPAR-β/δ agonist). Results HF animals presented with overweight, glucose intolerance and subcutaneous white adipocyte hypertrophy. Both treatments significantly attenuated these parameters. Browning, verified by UCP1 positive beige cells and enhanced body temperature, was just observed in PPAR-α treated groups. PPAR-α agonism also elicited an enhanced gene expression of the thermogenesis effector UCP1, the beige-selective gene TMEM26 and the PRDM16, an essential gene for brown-like phenotype maintenance in the beige adipocytes when compared to their counterparts. The enhanced CIDEA and the reduced UCP1 gene levels might justify the white phenotype predominance after the treatment with the PPAR-β/δ agonist. Conclusions This work provides evidence that the PPAR-β/δ agonist ameliorated metabolic disorders through enhanced beta-oxidation and better tolerance to glucose, whereas the PPAR-α agonism was confirmed as a promising therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases via beige cell induction and enhanced thermogenesis. PMID:29351550

  10. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  11. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  12. Reconstitution of UCP1 using CRISPR/Cas9 in the white adipose tissue of pigs decreases fat deposition and improves thermogenic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiantao; Lin, Jun; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xueying; Cao, Chunwei; Hambly, Catherine; Qin, Guosong; Yao, Jing; Song, Ruigao; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yongshun; Zhang, Nan; Piao, Zhengyu; Ye, Rongcai; Speakman, John R.; Wang, Hongmei; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Yanfang; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is localized on the inner mitochondrial membrane and generates heat by uncoupling ATP synthesis from proton transit across the inner membrane. UCP1 is a key element of nonshivering thermogenesis and is most likely important in the regulation of body adiposity. Pigs (Artiodactyl family Suidae) lack a functional UCP1 gene, resulting in poor thermoregulation and susceptibility to cold, which is an economic and pig welfare issue owing to neonatal mortality. Pigs also have a tendency toward fat accumulation, which may be linked to their lack of UCP1, and thus influences the efficiency of pig production. Here, we report application of a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated, homologous recombination (HR)-independent approach to efficiently insert mouse adiponectin-UCP1 into the porcine endogenous UCP1 locus. The resultant UCP1 knock-in (KI) pigs showed an improved ability to maintain body temperature during acute cold exposure, but they did not have alterations in physical activity levels or total daily energy expenditure (DEE). Furthermore, ectopic UCP1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) dramatically decreased fat deposition by 4.89% (P < 0.01), consequently increasing carcass lean percentage (CLP; P < 0.05). Mechanism studies indicated that the loss of fat upon UCP1 activation in WAT was linked to elevated lipolysis. UCP1 KI pigs are a potentially valuable resource for agricultural production through their combination of cold adaptation, which improves pig welfare and reduces economic losses, with reduced fat deposition and increased lean meat production. PMID:29078316

  13. Liver attenuation, pericardial adipose tissue, obesity, and insulin resistance: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul A; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Loman, Kurt K; Carr, J Jeffrey; Budoff, Matthew J; Szklo, Moyses; Sharrett, A Richey; Ding, Jingzhong

    2011-09-01

    Insulin resistance is linked to general and abdominal obesity, but its relation to hepatic lipid content and pericardial adipose tissue is less clear. The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations of liver attenuation, pericardial adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference with insulin resistance. We measured liver attenuation and pericardial adipose tissue using the existing cardiac computed tomography scans in 5,291 individuals free of clinical cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) during the study's baseline visit (2000-2002). Low liver attenuation was defined as the lowest quartile and high pericardial adipose tissue as the upper quartile of volume (cm(3)). We used standard clinical definitions for obesity and abdominal obesity. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index. In multivariate linear regression with all adiposity measures in the model simultaneously, all adiposity measures were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with insulin resistance: regression coefficients (±s.e.) were 0.31 (±0.02) for low liver attenuation, 0.27 (±0.02) for high pericardial adipose tissue, 0.27 (±0.02) for obesity, and 0.32 (±0.02) for abdominal obesity. We found significant differences (P = 0.003) between standardized liver attenuation and insulin resistance by ethnicity: regression coefficients per 1 s.d. increment were 0.10 ± 0.01 for whites, 0.11 ± 0.02 for Chinese, 0.08 ± 0.2 for blacks, and 0.14 ± 0.01 for Hispanics. Liver attenuation and pericardial adipose tissue were associated with insulin resistance, independent of BMI and waist circumference.

  14. Treating fructose-induced metabolic changes in mice with high-intensity interval training: insights in the liver, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Motta, Victor F; Bargut, Thereza L; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the metabolism of humans. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 wk one of the following diets: control (C; 5% of total energy from fructose) or fructose (F; 55% of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional 8-wk period, the groups were divided into nontrained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT. At the end of the experiment, fructose consumption in the F-NT group led to a high systolic blood pressure, high plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance with glucose intolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity. We also observed liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and diminished gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α and fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5; irisin) in this F-NT group. These results were accompanied by decreased gene expressions of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (markers of mitochondrial biogenesis), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (markers of β-oxidation). HIIT improved all of these data in the C-HIIT and F-HIIT groups. In conclusion, in mice fed a fructose diet, HIIT improved body mass, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and plasma triglycerides. Liver, WAT, and skeletal muscle were positively modulated by HIIT, indicating HIIT as a coadjutant treatment for diseases affecting these tissues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in mice fed a fructose-rich diet and the resulting severe negative effect on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and skeletal muscle, which reduced the expression of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, irisin) and

  15. Fluoxetine induces lean phenotype in rat by increasing the brown/white adipose tissue ratio and UCP1 expression.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A I; Braz, G R F; Pedroza, A A; Nascimento, L; Freitas, C M; Ferreira, D J S; Manhães de Castro, R; Lagranha, C J

    2015-08-01

    The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the energy balance regulation. Energy balance is mediated by food intake and caloric expenditure. Thus, the present study investigated the mechanisms that might be associated with fluoxetine treatment-induced weight reduction. Wistar male rat pups received daily injections with subcutaneous fluoxetine (Fx-group) or vehicle solution (Ct-group) from day 1 until 21 days of age. Several analyses were conducted to verify the involvement of mitochondria in weight reduction. We found that body weight in the Fx-group was lower compared to control. In association to lower fat mass in the Fx-group (25%). Neither neonatal caloric intake nor food intake reveals significant differences. Evaluating caloric expenditure (locomotor activity and temperature after stimulus), we did not observe differences in locomotor activity. However, we observed that the Fx group had a higher capacity to maintain body temperature in a cold environment compared with the Ct-group. Since brown adipose tissue-(BAT) is specialized for heat production and the rate of heat production is related to mitochondrial function, we found that Fx-treatment increases respiration by 36%, although after addition of GDP respiration returned to Ct-levels. Examining ROS production we observe that Fx-group produced less ROS than control group. Evaluating uncoupling protein (UCP) expression we found that Fx-treatment increases the expression by 23%. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of serotonin system results in positive modulation of UCP and mitochondrial bioenergetics in brown fat tissue.

  16. A low-protein diet induces body weight loss and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue through enhanced expression of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martí, Albert; Garcia-Guasch, Maite; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Alexandra; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2017-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD. This diet increased FGF21 production by inducing its overexpression in liver, and this correlated with a body weight decrease without changes in food intake. The LPD also caused FGF21-dependent browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), as indicated by an increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In a subgroup of 78 individuals from the PREDIMED trial, we observed an inverse correlation between protein intake and circulating FGF21 levels. Our results reinforce the involvement of FGF21 in coordinating energy homeostasis under a range of nutritional conditions. Moreover, here we describe an approach to increase the endogenous production of FGF21, which if demonstrated functional in humans, could generate a treatment for obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of a wide range of dietary nicotinamide riboside (NR) concentrations on metabolic flexibility and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a mildly obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenbiao; Hegeman, Maria A.; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; Tang, Jing; Suarez, Manuel; Swarts, Hans; van der Hee, Bart; Arola, Lluis

    2017-01-01

    Scope Metabolic flexibility is the ability to switch metabolism between carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and is a biomarker for metabolic health. The effect on metabolic health of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as an exclusive source of vitamin B3 is unknown and is examined here for a wide range of NR. Design and methods Nine‐week‐old male C57BL/6JRcc mice received a semi‐purified mildly obesogenic (40 en% fat) diet containing 0.14% L‐tryptophan and either 5, 15, 30, 180, or 900 mg NR per kg diet for 15 weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were analyzed. Metabolic flexibility was measured using indirect calorimetry. Gene expression in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) was measured using qRT‐PCR . Results The maximum delta respiratory exchange ratio when switching from CHO to FAO (maxΔRERCHO1→FAO) and when switching from FAO to CHO (maxΔRERFAO→CHO2) were largest in 30 mg NR per kg diet (30NR). In eWAT, the gene expression of Pparγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, and of Sod2 and Prdx3, two antioxidant genes, were significantly upregulated in 30NR compared to 5NR. Conclusion 30NR is most beneficial for metabolic health, in terms of metabolic flexibility and eWAT gene expression, of mice on an obesogenic diet. PMID:28211258

  18. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-08-22

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD.

  19. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tracing the destiny of mesenchymal stem cells from embryo to adult bone marrow and white adipose tissue via Pdgfrα expression.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hiroyuki; Era, Takumi

    2018-01-29

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are somatic stem cells that can be derived from adult bone marrow (BM) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and that display multipotency and self-renewal capacity. Although MSCs are essential for tissue formation and have already been used in clinical therapy, the origins and markers of these cells remain unknown. In this study, we first investigated the developmental process of MSCs in mouse embryos using the gene encoding platelet-derived growth factor receptor α ( Pdgfra ) as a marker. We then traced cells expressing Pdgfra and other genes (brachyury, Sox1 and Pmx1 ) in various mutant mouse embryos until the adult stage. This tracing of MSC origins and destinies indicates that embryonic MSCs emerge in waves and that almost all adult BM MSCs and WAT MSCs originate from mesoderm and embryonic Pdgfrα-positive cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adult Pdgfrα-positive cells are involved in some pathological conditions. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  2. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Vernochet, Cecile; Damilano, Federico; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A.; Smyth, Graham; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue occurs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of lipodystrophy, but whether this dysfunction contributes to or is the result of these disorders is unknown. To investigate the physiological consequences of severe mitochondrial impairment in adipose tissue, we generated mice deficient in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in adipocytes by using mice carrying adiponectin-Cre and TFAM floxed alleles. These adiponectin TFAM-knockout (adipo-TFAM-KO) mice had a 75–81% reduction in TFAM in the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), causing decreased expression and enzymatic activity of proteins in complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain (ETC). This mitochondrial dysfunction led to adipocyte death and inflammation in WAT and a whitening of BAT. As a result, adipo-TFAM-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, but exhibited insulin resistance on both normal chow and high-fat diets. These lipodystrophic mice also developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, isolated mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue can lead a syndrome of lipodystrophy with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.—Vernochet, C., Damilano, F., Mourier, A., Bezy, O., Mori, M. A., Smyth, G., Rosenzweig, A., Larsson, N.-G., Kahn, C. R. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:25005176

  3. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  4. The effect of adipose derived stromal cells on oxidative stress level, lung emphysema and white blood cells of guinea pigs model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Feizpour, Azadeh; Hashemzahi, Milad; Gholami, Lila; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Vafaee Bagheri, Farzaneh; Khodaei, Esmaeil; Mohammadian Roshan, Nema; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-02-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide epidemic disease and a major cause of death and disability. The present study aimed to elucidate pharmacological effects of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) on pathological and biochemical factors in a guinea pig model of COPD. Guinea pigs were randomized into 5 groups including: Control, COPD, COPD + intratracheal delivery of PBS as a vehicle (COPD-PBS), COPD + intratracheal delivery of ASCs (COPD-ITASC) and COPD + intravenous injection of ASCs (COPD-IVASC). COPD was induced by exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 3 months. Cell therapy was performed immediately after the end of animal exposure to cigarette smoke and 14 days after that, white blood cells, oxidative stress indices and pathological changes of the lung were measured. Compared with control group, emphysema was clearly observed in the COPD and COPD-PBS groups (p < 0.001). Lung histopathologic changes of COPD-ITASC and COPD-IVASC groups showed non-significant improvement compared to COPD-PBS group. The COPD-ITASC group showed a significant increase in total WBC compared to COPD-PBS group but there was not a significant increase in this regard in COPD-IVASC group. The differential WBC showed no significant change in number of different types of leukocytes. The serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased but thiol groups of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased in both cell treated groups (p < 0.05 for all cases). Weight of animals decreased during smoke exposure and improved after PBS or cell therapy. However, no significant change was observed between the groups receiving PBS and the ones receiving ASCs. Cell therapy with ASCs can help in reducing oxidative damage during smoking which may collectively hold promise in attenuation of the severity of COPD although the lung structural changes couldn't be ameliorated with these pharmacological therapeutic methods.

  5. Effects of a wide range of dietary nicotinamide riboside (NR) concentrations on metabolic flexibility and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a mildly obesogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenbiao; Hegeman, Maria A; van Dartel, Dorien A M; Tang, Jing; Suarez, Manuel; Swarts, Hans; van der Hee, Bart; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the ability to switch metabolism between carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and is a biomarker for metabolic health. The effect on metabolic health of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as an exclusive source of vitamin B3 is unknown and is examined here for a wide range of NR. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6JRcc mice received a semi-purified mildly obesogenic (40 en% fat) diet containing 0.14% L-tryptophan and either 5, 15, 30, 180, or 900 mg NR per kg diet for 15 weeks. Body composition and metabolic parameters were analyzed. Metabolic flexibility was measured using indirect calorimetry. Gene expression in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) was measured using qRT-PCR . The maximum delta respiratory exchange ratio when switching from CHO to FAO (maxΔRER CHO1→FAO ) and when switching from FAO to CHO (maxΔRER FAO→CHO2 ) were largest in 30 mg NR per kg diet (30NR). In eWAT, the gene expression of Pparγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, and of Sod2 and Prdx3, two antioxidant genes, were significantly upregulated in 30NR compared to 5NR. 30NR is most beneficial for metabolic health, in terms of metabolic flexibility and eWAT gene expression, of mice on an obesogenic diet. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The effect of adipose derived stromal cells on oxidative stress level, lung emphysema and white blood cells of guinea pigs model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide epidemic disease and a major cause of death and disability. The present study aimed to elucidate pharmacological effects of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) on pathological and biochemical factors in a guinea pig model of COPD. Guinea pigs were randomized into 5 groups including: Control, COPD, COPD + intratracheal delivery of PBS as a vehicle (COPD-PBS), COPD + intratracheal delivery of ASCs (COPD-ITASC) and COPD + intravenous injection of ASCs (COPD-IVASC). COPD was induced by exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 3 months. Cell therapy was performed immediately after the end of animal exposure to cigarette smoke and 14 days after that, white blood cells, oxidative stress indices and pathological changes of the lung were measured. Results Compared with control group, emphysema was clearly observed in the COPD and COPD-PBS groups (p < 0.001). Lung histopathologic changes of COPD-ITASC and COPD-IVASC groups showed non-significant improvement compared to COPD-PBS group. The COPD-ITASC group showed a significant increase in total WBC compared to COPD-PBS group but there was not a significant increase in this regard in COPD-IVASC group. The differential WBC showed no significant change in number of different types of leukocytes. The serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased but thiol groups of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) increased in both cell treated groups (p < 0.05 for all cases). Weight of animals decreased during smoke exposure and improved after PBS or cell therapy. However, no significant change was observed between the groups receiving PBS and the ones receiving ASCs. Conclusion Cell therapy with ASCs can help in reducing oxidative damage during smoking which may collectively hold promise in attenuation of the severity of COPD although the lung structural changes couldn’t be ameliorated with these pharmacological therapeutic methods. PMID:24495506

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of genes involved in lipid metabolism in rat epididymal white adipose tissue to different fasting conditions after long-term fructose consumption.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Xiu; Ke, Da-Zhi; Yao, Ling; Wang, Shang; Ma, Peng; Liu, Li; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Jiang, Li-Rong; Wang, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-04

    There has been much concern regarding the dietary fructose contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. High-fructose diet changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Levels of a number of hepatic lipogenic enzymes are increased by a high-carbohydrate diet in fasted-refed model rats/mice. Both the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver play a key role in the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis. Here, the aim of this study was to analyze the expression of key genes related to lipid metabolism in epididymal WAT (eWAT) in response to different fasting condition after long-term chronic fructose consumption. Rats were fed standard chow supplemented with 10% w/v fructose solution for 5 weeks, and killed after chow-fasting and fructose withdrawal (fasting) or chow-fasting and continued fructose (fructose alone) for 14 h. Blood parameters and the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (ChREBP, SREBP-1c, FAS, SCD1), triglyceride biosynthesis (DGAT-1, DGAT-2) and lipid mobilization (ATGL, HSL) in eWAT were analyzed. In addition, mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, CD36 and LPL were also detected. As expected, fructose alone increased the mRNA expression of FAS, SCD1, and correspondingly decreased ATGL and HSL mRNA levels. However, ChREBP, DGAT-2, ATGL and HSL mRNA levels restored near to normal while FAS and SCD1 tend to basic level under fasting condition. The mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-γ and LPL did not changed at any situations but CD36 mRNA decreased remarkably in fructose alone group. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that genes involved in lipid metabolism in rat eWAT are varied in response to different fasting conditions after long-term fructose consumption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. C-Reactive Protein and White Blood Cell Count as Triage Test Between Urgent and Nonurgent Conditions in 2961 Patients With Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L.; Atema, Jasper J.; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging. Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations. A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8 ×109/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9–16) versus (9.3 ×109/L; IQR 7.2–12.1) and (46 mg/L; IQR 12–100 versus 10 mg/L; IQR 7–26) (P < 0.001). The highest positive predictive value (PPV) (85.5%) and lowest false positives (14.5%) were reached when cutoff values of CRP level >50 mg/L and WBC count >15 ×109/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed. A high CRP level (>50 mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15 ×109/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48 hours). PMID:25738473

  10. UK-born Pakistani-origin infants are relatively more adipose than white British infants: findings from 8704 mother-offspring pairs in the Born-in-Bradford prospective birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    West, Jane; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fairley, Lesley; Bhopal, Raj; Cameron, Noel; McKinney, Patricia A; Sattar, Naveed; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown markedly lower birth weight among infants of South Asian origin compared with those of White European origin. Whether such differences mask greater adiposity in South Asian infants and whether they persist across generations in contemporary UK populations is unclear. Our aim was to compare birth weight, skinfold thickness and cord leptin between Pakistani and White British infants and to investigate the explanatory factors, including parental and grandparental birthplace. Methods We examined the differences in birth weight and skinfold thickness between 4649 Pakistani and 4055 White British infants born at term in the same UK maternity unit and compared cord leptin in a subgroup of 775 Pakistani and 612 White British infants. Results Pakistani infants were lighter (adjusted mean difference −234 g 95% CI −258 to −210) and were smaller in both subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements. The differences for subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (mean z-score difference −0.27 95% CI −0.34 to −0.20 and −0.23 95% CI −0.30 to −0.16, respectively) were smaller than the difference in birth weight (mean z-score difference −0.52 95% CI −0.58 to −0.47) and attenuated to the null with adjustment for birth weight (0.03 95% CI −0.03 to 0.09 and −0.01 95% CI −0.08 to 0.05, respectively). Cord leptin concentration (indicator of fat mass) was similar in Pakistani and White British infants without adjustment for birth weight, but with adjustment became 30% higher (95% CI 17% to 44%) among Pakistani infants compared with White British infants. The magnitudes of difference did not differ by generation. Conclusions Despite being markedly lighter, Pakistani infants had similar skinfold thicknesses and greater total fat mass, as indicated by cord leptin, for a given birth weight than White British infants. Any efforts to reduce ethnic inequalities in birth weight need to consider differences in adiposity and

  11. Brown adipose tissue volume in healthy lean south Asian adults compared with white Caucasians: a prospective, case-controlled observational study.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Leontine E H; Boon, Mariëtte R; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Arias-Bouda, Lenka Pereira; van Klinken, Jan B; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; Jukema, J Wouter; Tamsma, Jouke T; Havekes, Louis M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-03-01

    Individuals of south Asian origin have a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with white Caucasians. We aimed to assess volume and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is thought to have a role in energy metabolism by combusting fatty acids and glucose to produce heat and might contribute to the difference in incidence of type 2 diabetes between ethnic groups. We enrolled Dutch nationals with south Asian ancestry and matched Caucasian participants at The Rijnland Hospital (Leiderdorp, Netherlands). Eligible participants were healthy lean men aged 18-28 years, and we matched groups for BMI. We measured BAT volume and activity with cold-induced (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET CT scans, and assessed resting energy expenditure, non-shivering thermogenesis, and serum parameters. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number 2473. Between March 1, 2013, and June 1, 2013, we enrolled 12 participants in each group; one Caucasian participant developed hyperventilation after (18)F-FDG administration, and was excluded from all cold-induced and BAT measurements. Compared with Caucasian participants, south Asian participants did not differ in age (mean 23.6 years [SD 2.8] for south Asians vs 24.6 years [2.8] for Caucasians) or BMI (21.5 kg/m(2) [2.0] vs 22.0 kg/m(2) [1.6]), but were shorter (1.74 m [0.06] vs 1.85 m [0.04]) and lighter (65.0 kg [8.5] vs 75.1 kg [7.2]). Thermoneutral resting energy expenditure was 1297 kcal per day (SD 123) in south Asian participants compared with 1689 kcal per day (193) in white Caucasian participants (difference -32%, p=0.0008). On cold exposure, shiver temperature of south Asians was 2.0°C higher than Caucasians (p=0.0067) and non-shivering thermogenesis was increased by 20% in white Caucasians (p<0.0001) but was not increased in south Asians. Although the maximum and mean standardised uptake values of (18)F-FDG in BAT did not differ between groups, total BAT volume was lower in south

  12. High plasma apolipoprotein B identifies obese subjects who best ameliorate white adipose tissue dysfunction and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia after a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Simon; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Lamantia, Valerie; Leroux, Catherine; Provost, Viviane; Cyr, Yannick; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Faraj, May

    2018-06-18

    To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet. Fifty-nine men and postmenopausal women [mean ± SD age: 58 ± 6 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 32.6 ± 4.6] completed a prospective study with a 6-mo hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured by 1-h intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) followed by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, respectively. Ex vivo gynoid WAT function (i.e., hydrolysis and storage of 3H-triolein-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) and 6-h postprandial plasma clearance of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal were measured in a subsample (n = 25). Postintervention first-phase GIISIVGTT and total C-peptide secretion decreased in both sexes, whereas second-phase and total GIISIVGTT and clamp IS were ameliorated in men (P < 0.05). Baseline plasma apoB was associated with a postintervention increase in WAT function (r = 0.61) and IS (glucose infusion rate divided by steady state insulin (M/Iclamp) r = 0.30) and a decrease in first-phase, second-phase, and total GIISIVGTT (r = -0.30 to -0.35) without sex differences. The association with postintervention amelioration in WAT function and GIISIVGTT was independent of plasma cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL), sex, and changes in body composition. Subjects with high baseline plasma apoB (1.2 ± 0.2 g/L) showed a significant increase in WAT function (+105%; P = 0.012) and a decrease in total

  13. Caveolin-1 Deficiency Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Cell Death and Fibrosis in White Adipose Tissue: Characterization of a Lipodystrophic Model

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Amanda C.; Bastiani, Michele; Okano, Satomi; Nixon, Susan J.; Thomas, Gethin; Stow, Jennifer L.; Parton, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an important regulator of adipose tissue homeostasis. In the present study we examined the impact of CAV1 deficiency on the properties of mouse adipose tissue both in vivo and in explant cultures during conditions of metabolic stress. In CAV1−/− mice fasting caused loss of adipose tissue mass despite a lack of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation. In addition, fasting resulted in increased macrophage infiltration, enhanced deposition of collagen, and a reduction in the level of the lipid droplet protein perilipin A (PLIN1a). Explant cultures of CAV1−/− adipose tissue also showed a loss of PLIN1a during culture, enhanced secretion of IL-6, increased release of lactate dehydrogenase, and demonstrated increased susceptibility to cell death upon collagenase treatment. Attenuated PKA-mediated signaling to HSL, loss of PLIN1a and increased secretion of IL-6 were also observed in adipose tissue explants of CAV1+/+ mice with diet-induced obesity. Together these results suggest that while alterations in adipocyte lipid droplet biology support adipose tissue metabolism in the absence of PKA-mediated pro-lipolytic signaling in CAV1−/− mice, the tissue is intrinsically unstable resulting in increased susceptibility to cell death, which we suggest underlies the development of fibrosis and inflammation during periods of metabolic stress. PMID:23049990

  14. Jueming prescription and its ingredients, semen cassiae and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, stimulate lipolysis and enhance the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase in cultured rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiaojiao; Wen, Xiuying

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of jueming prescription (JMP) and its ingredients, semen cassiae (SC) and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (RCL), on lipolysis, and to examine their effect on the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase (HSL) in cultured rat white adipose tissue (WAT). Retroperitoneal WAT was aseptically excised from adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, minced into uniform sections and subjected to ex vivo culture for 24 h. The tissue sections were then distributed into a 24‑well culture plate and treated with normal saline (vehicle), isoproterenol (ISO), JMP, SC and RCL. Non‑esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol release from the intact WAT explants were determined as a measurement of lipolysis, which were measured using NEFA and glycerol assay kits. The phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 (P‑HSL S563) and 660 residues (P‑HSL S660) were determined using western blot analysis. The size of the adipocytes was visualized using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It was found that JMP‑, SC‑ and RCL‑stimulated lipolysis was responsible for increasing the release of NEFAs and glycerol from the intact WAT in vitro. In addition, JMP, SC and RCL increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser563: JMP water (JW) extract, 3.52‑fold; JMP ethanol (JE) extract, 3.38‑fold; SC water (SW) extract, 4.60‑fold; SC ethanol (SE) extract, 4.20‑fold; RCL water (RW) extract, 6.98‑fold; RCL ethanol (RE) extract, 6.60‑fold. JMP, SC and RCL also increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser660: JW extract, 3.16‑fold; JE extract, 2.92‑fold; SW extract, 4.57‑fold; SE extract, 4.13‑fold; RW extract, 5.41‑fold; RE 4.96‑fold) in the WAT. The RW extract had the most marked effect. The HE staining revealed that JMP, SC and RCL reduced the size of adipocytes in the WAT. In conclusion, JMP and its ingredients, SC and RC, stimulated lipolysis and reduced the size of adipocytes, possibly via the phosphorylation of HSL in cultured rat WAT.

  15. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Vernochet, Cecile; Damilano, Federico; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A; Smyth, Graham; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue occurs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of lipodystrophy, but whether this dysfunction contributes to or is the result of these disorders is unknown. To investigate the physiological consequences of severe mitochondrial impairment in adipose tissue, we generated mice deficient in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in adipocytes by using mice carrying adiponectin-Cre and TFAM floxed alleles. These adiponectin TFAM-knockout (adipo-TFAM-KO) mice had a 75-81% reduction in TFAM in the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), causing decreased expression and enzymatic activity of proteins in complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain (ETC). This mitochondrial dysfunction led to adipocyte death and inflammation in WAT and a whitening of BAT. As a result, adipo-TFAM-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, but exhibited insulin resistance on both normal chow and high-fat diets. These lipodystrophic mice also developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, isolated mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue can lead a syndrome of lipodystrophy with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. © FASEB.

  16. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  17. Autophagy in adipose tissue biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Xiangang; Jin, Shengkan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity, which predisposes individuals to type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, results from accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT comprises mainly white adipocytes that have a unique cellular structure in which almost the entire intracellular space is occupied by one single lipid droplet. The cytoplasm envelopes this lipid droplet and occupies negligible space. Differentiation of WAT, or adipogenesis, requires dramatic cytoplasmic reorganization, including a dynamic change in mitochondrial mass. Autophagy is a major cytoplasmic degradation pathway and a primary pathway for mitochondrial degradation. Recent studies indicate that autophagy is implicated in adipogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on autophagy in adipose tissue biology, with the emphasis on its role in mitochondrial degradation. Adipose tissue is a central component for whole-body energy homeostasis regulation. Advancement in this research area may provide novel venues for the intervention of obesity and obesity related diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  20. Exercise differentially affects metabolic functions and white adipose tissue in female letrozole- and dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Maliqueo, Manuel; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Hu, Min; Ivarsson, Niklas; Carlström, Mattias; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Maciel, Gustavo A R; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-06-15

    Here we hypothesized that exercise in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or letrozole (LET)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome mouse models improves impaired insulin and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue morphology, and expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, Notch pathway and browning in inguinal and mesenteric fat. DHT-exposed mice had increased body weight, increased number of large mesenteric adipocytes. LET-exposed mice displayed increased body weight and fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased frequency of small adipocytes and increased expression of genes related to lipolysis in mesenteric fat. In both models, exercise decreased fat mass and inguinal and mesenteric adipose tissue expression of Notch pathway genes, and restored altered mesenteric adipocytes morphology. In conclusion, exercise restored mesenteric adipocytes morphology in DHT- and LET-exposed mice, and insulin sensitivity and mesenteric expression of lipolysis-related genes in LET-exposed mice. Benefits could be explained by downregulation of Notch, and modulation of browning and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Loss of PPAR gamma in immune cells impairs the ability of abscisic acid to improve insulin sensitivity by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Ferrer, Gerardo; Casagran, Oriol; Wankhade, Umesh; Noble, Alexis M; Eizirik, Decio L; Ortis, Fernanda; Cnop, Miriam; Liu, Dongmin; Si, Hongwei; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural phytohormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist that significantly improves insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Although it has become clear that obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), the phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the mechanisms by which insulin-sensitizing compounds modulate their infiltration remain unknown. We used a loss-of-function approach to investigate whether ABA ameliorates insulin resistance through a mechanism dependent on immune cell PPARgamma. We characterized two phenotypically distinct ATM subsets in db/db mice based on their surface expression of F4/80. F4/80(hi) ATMs were more abundant and expressed greater concentrations of chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 and CCR5 when compared to F4/80(lo) ATMs. ABA significantly decreased CCR2(+) F4/80(hi) infiltration into WAT and suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in WAT and plasma. Furthermore, the deficiency of PPARgamma in immune cells, including macrophages, impaired the ability of ABA to suppress the infiltration of F4/80(hi) ATMs into WAT, to repress WAT MCP-1 expression and to improve glucose tolerance. We provide molecular evidence in vivo demonstrating that ABA improves insulin sensitivity and obesity-related inflammation by inhibiting MCP-1 expression and F4/80(hi) ATM infiltration through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  2. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Speaker, Kristin J; Paton, Madeline M; Cox, Stewart S; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1 β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF- α , subcutaneous WAT IL-1 β , and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  3. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Madeline M.; Cox, Stewart S.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress. PMID:28077915

  4. A microarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Grove, KL; Fried, SK; Greenberg, AS; Xiao, XQ; Clegg, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose tissue and gene expression, comparing differentially expressed genes in diet-induced obese mice with mice maintained on a chow diet. Research Design and Methods We used a microarray approach to determine whether there are sexual dimorphisms in gene expression in age-matched male, female or ovariectomized female (OVX) C57/BL6 mice maintained on a high-fat (HF) diet. We then compared expression of validated genes between the sexes on a chow diet. Results After exposure to a high fat diet for 12 weeks, females gained less weight than males. The microarray analyses indicate in intra-abdominal/gonadal adipose tissue in females 1642 genes differ by at least twofold between the depots, whereas 706 genes differ in subcutaneous/inguinal adipose tissue when compared with males. Only 138 genes are commonly regulated in both sexes and adipose tissue depots. Inflammatory genes (cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions and acute-phase protein synthesis) are upregulated in males when compared with females, and there is a partial reversal after OVX, where OVX adipose tissue gene expression is more ′male-like′. This pattern is not observed in mice maintained on chow. Histology of male gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) shows more crown-like structures than females, indicative of inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. In addition, genes related to insulin signaling and lipid synthesis are higher in females than males, regardless of dietary exposure. Conclusions These data suggest that male and female adipose tissue differ between the sexes regardless of diet. Moreover, HF diet exposure elicits a much greater inflammatory response in males when compared with females

  5. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  6. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A Disrupts Naturally Occurring Bimodal DNA Methylation at Proximal Promoter of fggy, an Obesity-Relevant Gene Encoding a Carbohydrate Kinase, in Gonadal White Adipose Tissues of CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Shioda, Keiko; Mitsunaga, Shino; Yawata, Shiomi; Angle, Brittany M; Nagel, Susan C; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Shioda, Toshi

    2018-02-01

    Exposure of mammalian fetuses to endocrine disruptors can increase the risk of adult-onset diseases. We previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. To examine roles of epigenetic changes in this delayed toxicity, we determined the effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in gonadal white adipose tissues (WATs) by deep sequencing, bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were dosed daily with 0, 5, or 500 μg/kg/d BPA during gestational days 9 to 18, and the weaned F1 animals were fed ad libitum with standard chow until they were euthanized at 19 weeks old. In the vehicle-exposed F1 animals, fggy promoter showed a clear bimodal pattern of very strong (55% to 95%) or very weak (5% to 30%) DNA methylation occurring at nearly equal incidence with no intermediate strength. Promoter hypermethylation completely suppressed mRNA expression. BPA exposure eliminated this naturally occurring dichotomy, shifting fggy promoter toward the hypomethylation state to release transcriptional suppression. The strength of Fggy mRNA expression significantly correlated with increased whole body weight and gonadal fat weight of males but not females. Bioinformatics studies showed that expression of Fggy mRNA is stronger in mouse WATs than in brown adipose tissues and enhanced in gonadal fat by diet-induced obesity. These observations suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may disrupt the physiological bimodal nature of epigenetic regulation of fggy in mouse WATs, possibly contributing to the adult-onset obesity phenotype. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of depot-specific gene expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Sandra; Brueckner, Bodo; Schepky, Andreas; Klein, Johannes; Iwen, Alexander; Bosch, Thomas C G; Wenck, Horst; Winnefeld, Marc; Hagemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In humans, adipose tissue is distributed in subcutaneous abdominal and subcutaneous gluteal depots that comprise a variety of functional differences. Whereas energy storage in gluteal adipose tissue has been shown to mediate a protective effect, an increase of abdominal adipose tissue is associated with metabolic disorders. However, the molecular basis of depot-specific characteristics is not completely understood yet. Using array-based analyses of transcription profiles, we identified a specific set of genes that was differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue. To investigate the role of epigenetic regulation in depot-specific gene expression, we additionally analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in abdominal and gluteal depots. By combining both data sets, we identified a highly significant set of depot-specifically expressed genes that appear to be epigenetically regulated. Interestingly, the majority of these genes form part of the homeobox gene family. Moreover, genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were also differentially expressed. Therefore we suppose that changes in gene expression profiles might account for depot-specific differences in lipid composition. Indeed, triglycerides and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue were more saturated compared to triglycerides and fatty acids in gluteal adipose tissue. Taken together, our results uncover clear differences between abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue on the gene expression and DNA methylation level as well as in fatty acid composition. Therefore, a detailed molecular characterization of adipose tissue depots will be essential to develop new treatment strategies for metabolic syndrome associated complications.

  9. Downregulation of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Trafficking in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Hodson, Leanne; Neville, Matthew J.; Dennis, A. Louise; Cheeseman, Jane; Humphreys, Sandy M.; Ruge, Toralph; Gilbert, Marjorie; Fielding, Barbara A.; Frayn, Keith N.; Karpe, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity. PMID:20943748

  10. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  11. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-02-01

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9-10 year old children and 264 17-18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the "Lie Scale" from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mouse Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Deficiency Reduces Body Fat via Increasing Energy Expenditure and Impairing Lipid Synthesis and Enhancing Glucose Oxidation in White Adipose Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ya-Wen; Ellis, Jessica M.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. In our initial report, we observed a reduced body weight in Bhmt−/− mice. We initiated this study to investigate the potential role of BHMT in energy metabolism. Compared with the controls (Bhmt+/+), Bhmt−/− mice had less fat mass, smaller adipocytes, and better glucose and insulin sensitivities. Compared with the controls, Bhmt−/− mice had increased energy expenditure, with no changes in food intake, fat uptake or absorption, or in locomotor activity. The reduced adiposity in Bhmt−/− mice was not due to hyperthermogenesis. Bhmt−/− mice failed to maintain a normal body temperature upon cold exposure because of limited fuel supplies. In vivo and ex vivo tests showed that Bhmt−/− mice had normal lipolytic function. The rate of 14C-labeled fatty acid incorporated into [14C]triacylglycerol was the same in Bhmt+/+ and Bhmt−/− gonadal fat depots (GWAT), but it was 62% lower in Bhmt−/− inguinal fat depots (IWAT) compared with that of Bhmt+/+ mice. The rate of 14C-labeled fatty acid oxidation was the same in both GWAT and IWAT from Bhmt+/+ and Bhmt−/− mice. At basal level, Bhmt−/− GWAT had the same [14C]glucose oxidation as did the controls. When stimulated with insulin, Bhmt−/− GWAT oxidized 2.4-fold more glucose than did the controls. Compared with the controls, the rate of [14C]glucose oxidation was 2.4- and 1.8-fold higher, respectively, in Bhmt−/− IWAT without or with insulin stimulus. Our results show for the first time a role for BHMT in energy homeostasis. PMID:22362777

  13. Adipose extracellular matrix remodelling in obesity and insulin resistance☆

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De; Chun, Tae-Hwa; Kang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues undergoes constant remodelling to allow adipocytes and their precursor cells to change cell shape and function in adaptation to nutritional cues. Abnormal accumulation of ECM components and their modifiers in adipose tissues has been recently demonstrated to cause obesity-associated insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Integrins and other ECM receptors (e.g. CD44) that are expressed in adipose tissues have been shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. It is well understood that a hypoxic response is observed in adipose tissue expansion during obesity progression and that hypoxic response accelerates fibrosis and inflammation in white adipose tissues. The expansion of adipose tissues should require angiogenesis; however, the excess deposition of ECM limits the angiogenic response of white adipose tissues in obesity. While recent studies have focused on the metabolic consequences and the mechanisms of adipose tissue expansion and remodelling, little attention has been paid to the role played by the interaction between peri-adipocyte ECM and their cognate cell surface receptors. This review will address what is currently known about the roles played by adipose ECM, their modifiers, and ECM receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding how excess ECM deposition in the adipose tissue deteriorates insulin sensitivity would provide us hints to develop a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27179976

  14. FABP4 blocker attenuates colonic hypomotility and modulates white adipose tissue-derived hormone levels in mouse models mimicking constipation-predominant IBS.

    PubMed

    Mosińska, P; Jacenik, D; Sałaga, M; Wasilewski, A; Cygankiewicz, A; Sibaev, A; Mokrowiecka, A; Małecka-Panas, E; Pintelon, I; Storr, M; Timmermans, J P; Krajewska, W M; Fichna, J

    2018-05-01

    The role of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in lower gastrointestinal (GI) motility is unknown. We aimed to verify the effect of inhibition of FABP4 on GI transit in vivo, and to determine the expression of FABP4 in mouse and human tissues. Fatty acid binding protein 4 inhibitor, BMS309403, was administered acutely or chronically for 6 and 13 consecutive days and its effect on GI transit was assessed in physiological conditions and in loperamide-induced constipation. Intracellular recordings were made to examine the effects of BMS309403 on colonic excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials. Abdominal pain was evaluated using behavioral pain response. Localization and expression of selected adipokines were determined in the mouse colon and serum using immunohistochemistry and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay respectively. mRNA expression of FABP4 and selected adipokines in colonic and serum samples from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and control group were assessed. Acute injection of BMS309403 significantly increased GI motility and reversed inhibitory effect of loperamide. BMS309403 did not change colonic membrane potentials. Chronic treatment with BMS309403 increased the number of pain-induced behaviors. In the mouse serum, level of resistin was significantly decreased after acute administration; no changes in adiponectin level were detected. In the human serum, level of adiponectin and resistin, but not of FABP4, were significantly elevated in patients with constipation-IBS (IBS-C). FABP4 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in the human colon in IBS-C. Fatty acid binding protein 4 may be involved in IBS pathogenesis and become a novel target in the treatment of constipation-related diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  16. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. OBJECTIVES This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm3 and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. RESULTS The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm3 for SAT and an increase of 703 cm3 for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm3 increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for each additional 5 HU decrease in abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. PMID:27687192

  17. The role of adipose tissue in cancer-associated cachexia.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Janina A; Celi, Francesco S

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning." While these adipose tissue depots are under investigation in the context of obesity, new evidence suggests a maladaptive role in other metabolic disturbances including cancer-associated cachexia, which is the topic of this review. This syndrome is multifactorial in nature and is an independent factor associated with poor prognosis. Here, we review the contributions of all three adipose depots - white, brown, and beige - to the development and progression of cancer-associated cachexia. Specifically, we focus on the local and systemic processes involving these adipose tissues that lead to increased energy expenditure and sustained negative energy balance. We highlight key findings from both animal and human studies and discuss areas within the field that need further exploration. Impact statement Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a complex, multifactorial syndrome that negatively impacts patient quality of live and prognosis. This work reviews a component of CAC that lacks prior discussion: adipose tissue contributions. Uniquely, it discusses all three types of adipose tissue, white, beige, and brown, their interactions, and their contributions to the development and progression of CAC. Summarizing key bench and clinical studies, it provides information that will be useful to both basic and clinical researchers in designing

  18. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  19. Adipose tissue and inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christopher; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2012-08-01

    Creeping fat has long been recognized as an indicator of Crohn's disease (CD) activity. Although most patients with CD have normal or low body mass index (BMI), the ratio of intraabdominal fat to total abdominal fat is far greater than that of controls. The obesity epidemic has instructed us on the inflammatory nature of hypertrophic adipose tissue and similarities between mesenteric depots in obese and CD patients can be drawn. However, several important physiological differences exist between these two depots as well. While the molecular basis of the crosstalk between mesenteric adipose and the inflamed intestine in CD is largely unknown, novel evidence implicates neuropeptides along with adipocyte-derived paracrine mediators (adipokines) as potential targets for future investigations and highlight adipose tissue physiology as a potential important determinant in the course of IBD. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  20. Recent Advances in Human Genetics and Epigenetics of Adiposity: Pathway to Precision Medicine?

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Mendelson, Michael; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the past decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions now are known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Gene expression associated with general adiposity is enriched in the nervous system. In contrast, genes associated with abdominal adiposity function in adipose tissue. Recent population-based epigenetic analyses have highlighted additional distinct loci. We discuss how associated genetic variants can lead to understanding causal mechanisms, and to disentangling reverse causation in epigenetic analyses. Discoveries emerging from population genomics are identifying new disease markers and potential novel drug targets to better define and combat obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term administration of GW501516 improves inflammatory state in white adipose tissue and liver damage in high-fructose-fed mice through modulation of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Magliano, D'Angelo C; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Vazquez-Carrera, Manuel; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2015-11-01

    High activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/(angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) AT1r axis is closely linked to pro-inflammatory effects and liver damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the short-term administration of GW501516 on pro-inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue (WAT) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), lipogenesis and insulin resistance in the liver upon high-fructose diet (HFru)-induced ACE/AT1r axis activation. Three-month-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed a standard chow diet or a HFru for 8 weeks. Then, the animals were separated randomly into four groups and treated with GW501516 for 3 weeks. Morphological variables, systolic blood pressure, and plasma determinations were analyzed. In the WAT, the ACE/AT1r axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed, and in the liver, the ACE/AT1r axis, HSCs, fatty acid oxidation, insulin resistance, and AMPK activation were evaluated. The HFru group displayed a high activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in both the WAT and liver; consequently, we detected inflammation and liver damage. Although GW501516 abolished the increased activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in the WAT, no differences were found in the liver. GW501516 blunted the inflammatory state in the WAT and reduced HSC activation in the liver. In addition, GW501516 alleviates damage in the liver by increasing the expression of the genes that regulate beta-oxidation and decreasing the expression of the genes and proteins that are involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that GW501516 may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of a highly activated ACE/AT1r axis in WAT and liver.

  2. Assessing the effect of a high-fat diet on rodents' adipose tissue using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Gobbell, Cassidy; Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-lipid diet on elasticity of adipose tissue. We employed dual Raman/Brillouin microspectroscopy to analyze brown and white adipose tissues obtained from adult rats. The rats were divided into two groups, one of which received a high-fat feed, while the other served as a control. We hypothesized that the changes in the elasticity of adipose tissues between the two groups can be successfully assessed using Brillouin spectroscopy. We found that the brown adipose tissue possessed a lesser Brillouin shift than the white adipose within each group and that the elastic modulus of both adipose tissues increases in the high-fat diet group. The Raman spectra provided supplementary chemical information and indicated an increase in the lipid-to-protein ratio in the brown adipose, but not in the white adipose.

  3. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Alemán, José O; Iyengar, Neil M; Walker, Jeanne M; Milne, Ginger L; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N; Hudis, Clifford A; Breslow, Jan L; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Prospective cohort study. Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β -hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites ( i.e. , lactate, β -hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss.

  4. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Neil M.; Walker, Jeanne M.; Milne, Ginger L.; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Breslow, Jan L.; Holt, Peter R.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. Objective: To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Participants: Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Main Outcome Measures: Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Results: Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Conclusion: Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites (i.e., lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss. PMID:29264516

  5. Oral Administration of Interferon Tau Enhances Oxidation of Energy Substrates and Reduces Adiposity in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Lei, Jian; Yao, Kang; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Xilong; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Carroll, Raymond J.; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-01-01

    Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used to study effects of oral administration of interferon tau (IFNT) in reducing obesity. Eighteen ZDF rats (28 days of age) were assigned randomly to receive 0, 4 or 8 μg IFNT/kg body weight (BW) per day (n=6/group) for 8 weeks. Water consumption was measured every two days. Food intake and BW were recorded weekly. Energy expenditure in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old rats was determined using indirect calorimetry. Starting at 7 weeks of age, urinary glucose and ketone bodies were tested daily. Rates of glucose and oleate oxidation in liver, brown adipose tissue, and abdominal adipose tissue, leucine catabolism in skeletal muscle, and lipolysis in white and brown adipose tissues were greater for rats treated with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day in comparison with control rats. Treatment with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day increased heat production, reduced BW gain and adiposity, ameliorated fatty liver syndrome, delayed the onset of diabetes, and decreased concentrations of glucose, free fatty acids, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and branched-chain amino acids in plasma, compared to control rats. Oral administration of 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day ameliorated oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue, as indicated by decreased ratios of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione and increased concentrations of the antioxidant tetrahydrobiopterin. These results indicate that IFNT stimulates oxidation of energy substrates and reduces obesity in ZDF rats and may have broad important implications for preventing and treating obesity-related diseases in mammals. PMID:23804503

  6. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Marcelo A.; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y.; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K.; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and “whitening” of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte–like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy. PMID:24983316

  7. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Tint, Mya-Thway; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. PMID:28025503

  8. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. VEGF and VEGFB Play Balancing Roles in Adipose Differentiation, Gene Expression, and Function.

    PubMed

    Jin, Honghong; Li, Dan; Wang, Xutong; Jia, Jia; Chen, Yang; Yao, Yapeng; Zhao, Chunlan; Lu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Shujie; Togo, Jacques; Ji, Yan; Zhang, Luqing; Feng, Xuechao; Zheng, Yaowu

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is the result of abnormal adipose development and energy metabolism. Using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B-knockout and inducible VEGF downregulation mouse models, we have shown that VEGFB inactivation caused expansion of white adipose, whitening of brown adipose, an increase in fat accumulation, and a reduction in energy consumption. At the same time, expression of the white adipose-associated genes was increased and brown adipose-associated genes decreased. VEGF repression, in contrast, induced brown adipose expansion and brown adipocyte development in white adipose, increased energy expenditure, upregulated brown adipose-associated genes, and downregulated white adipose-associated genes. When VEGFB-knockout and VEGF-repressed mice are crossed together, VEGF and VEGFB can counteractively regulate large numbers of genes and efficiently reverse each other's roles. These genes, under counteractive VEGF and VEGFB regulations, include transcription factors, adhesion molecules, and metabolic enzymes. This balancing role is confirmed by morphologic and functional changes. This study reports that VEGF and VEGFB counteractively regulate adipose development and function in energy metabolism.

  10. Neutron organ dose and the influence of adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Robert Wayne

    Neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients have been assessed considering the influences of human adipose tissue. Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used to simulate broad parallel beam monoenergetic neutrons ranging in energy from thermal to 10 MeV. Simulated Irradiations were conducted for standard irradiation geometries. The targets were on gender specific mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms modified to approximate human adipose tissue distributions. Dosimetric analysis compared adipose tissue influence against reference anthropomorphic phantom characteristics. Adipose Male and Post-Menopausal Female Phantoms were derived introducing interstitial adipose tissue to account for 22 and 27 kg additional body mass, respectively, each demonstrating a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30. An Adipose Female Phantom was derived introducing specific subcutaneous adipose tissue accounting for 15 kg of additional body mass demonstrating a BMI of 26. Neutron dose was shielded in the superficial tissues; giving rise to secondary photons which dominated the effective dose for Incident energies less than 100 keV. Adipose tissue impact on the effective dose was a 25% reduction at the anterior-posterior incidence ranging to a 10% increase at the lateral incidences. Organ dose impacts were more distinctive; symmetrically situated organs demonstrated a 15% reduction at the anterior-posterior Incidence ranging to a 2% increase at the lateral incidences. Abdominal or asymmetrically situated organs demonstrated a 50% reduction at the anterior-posterior incidence ranging to a 25% increase at the lateral incidences.

  11. Role of C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP in early adipogenic differentiation of human white adipose-derived progenitors and at later stages in immature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Zwerschke, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of the major isoforms of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP, in adipogenesis of human white adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASC). C/EBPβ gene expression was transiently induced early in adipogenesis. At later stages, in immature adipocytes, the C/EBPβ mRNA and protein levels declined. The C/EBPβ-LIP protein steady-state level decreased considerably stronger than the C/EBPβ-LAP level and the C/EBPβ-LIP half-life was significantly shorter than the C/EBPβ-LAP half-life. The turn-over of both C/EBPβ-isoforms was regulated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation. These data suggest that the protein stability of the C/EBPβ-isoforms is differentially regulated in the course of adipogenesis and in immature adipocytes. Constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LIP had antiadipogenic activity in human ASC. C/EBPβ-LAP, which promotes adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by directly activating expression of the adipogenic keyregulator PPARγ2, induced the expression of PPARγ2 and of the adipocyte differentiation gene product FABP4 in confluent ASC in the absence of adipogenic hormones. At later stages after hormone cocktail-induced adipogenesis, in immature adipocytes, constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP led to reduced expression of PPARγ2 and FABP4, C/EBPα expression was downregulated and the expression of the adipocyte differentiation gene products adiponectin and leptin was impaired. These findings suggest that constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP induces adipogenesis in human ASC and negatively regulates the expression of adipogenic regulators and certain adipocyte differentiation gene products in immature adipocytes. We conclude the regulation of both C/EBPβ gene expression and C/EBPβ-LIP and C/EBPβ-LAP protein turn-over plays an important role for the expression of adipogenic regulators and/or adipocyte differentiation genes in early adipogenic differentiation of

  12. Relationship of Adipocyte Size with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Ved Prakash; Seenu, V.; Sharma, M. C.; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Nandita; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions. Objectives We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians. Methodology Eighty (40 males and 40 females) non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2–3 level (computed tomography) and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP). During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination. Results Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF), total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR), the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity. Conclusion Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity. PMID:25251402

  13. Central Effects of Estradiol in the Regulation of Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, LM; Clegg, DJ

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, obesity and its associated health disorders and costs have increased. Accumulation of adipose tissue, or fat, in the intra-abdominal adipose depot is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems, type-2 diabetes mellitus, certain cancers, and other disorders like the metabolic syndrome. Males and females differ in terms of how and where their body fat is stored, in their hormonal secretions, and in their neural responses to signals regulating weight and body fat distribution. Men and post-menopausal women accumulate more fat in their intra-abdominal depots than pre-menopausal women, resulting in a greater risk of developing complications associated with obesity. The goal of this review is to discuss the current literature on sexual dimorphisms in body weight regulation, adipose tissue accrual and deposition. PMID:20035866

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  15. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  16. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values < 0.01). However, both groups had similar EAT thickness (P = 0.532), which was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, WC, HC, VAAT thickness, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, and serum triglyceride (TG) level (all P values < 0.01). We found no correlation between EAT thickness and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free thyroxine (FT4) level, or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and anti-TPO level (all P values > 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to perform.

  17. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of 580 nm-based-LED mixed light on growth, adipose deposition, skeletal development, and body temperature of chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yefeng; Zhen, Chenghuang; Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming

    2018-06-01

    Though previous study indicated that the 580 nm-yellow-LED-light showed an stimulating effect on growth of chickens, the low luminous efficiency of the yellow LED light cannot reflect the advantage of energy saving. In present study, the cool white LED chips and yellow LED chips have been combined to fabricate the white × yellow mixed LED light, with an enhanced luminous efficiency. A total 300 newly hatched chickens were reared under various mixed LED light. The results indicated that the white × yellow mixed LED light had "double-edged sword" effects on bird's body weight, bone development, adipose deposition, and body temperature, depending on variations in ratios of yellow component. Low yellow ratio of mixed LED light (Low group) inhibited body weight, whereas medium and high yellow ratio of mixed LED light (Medium and High groups) promoted body weight, compared with white LED light (White group). A progressive change in yellow component gave rise to consistent changes in body weight over the entire experiment. Moreover, a positive relationship was observed between yellow component and feed conversion ratio. High group-treated birds had greater relative abdominal adipose weight than Medium group-treated birds (P = 0.048), whereas Medium group-treated birds had greater relative abdominal adipose weight than Low group-treated birds (P = 0.044). We found that mixed light improved body weight by enhancing skeletal development (R 2  = 0.5023, P = 0.0001) and adipose deposition (R 2  = 0.6012, P = 0.0001). Birds in the Medium, High and Yellow groups attained significantly higher surface temperatures compared with the White group (P = 0.010). The results suggest that the application of the mixed light with high level of yellow component can be used successfully to improve growth and productive performance in broilers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Men at risk for paradoxical adipose hyperplasia after cryolipolysis.

    PubMed

    Keaney, Terrence C; Naga, Lina I

    2016-12-01

    Cryolipolysis, an aesthetic procedure that reduces adipose tissue by exposure to cold temperature, is generally well tolerated with mild side effects including temporary numbness, erythema, and tenderness. However, as cryolipolysis is gaining popularity and more treatments are being performed, reports of rare adverse events including delayed onset pain and paradoxical adipose hyperplasia (PAH) have been described. Recent studies have suggested that PAH can be more common than expected and have a predilection for males, as a disproportionate number of the cases reported in the literature have occurred in men despite the fact that fewer men are likely to be treated with cryolipolysis. Sexual dimorphism in adipose anatomy may provide insight into the increased susceptibility of men to PAH. Careful patient selection avoiding men with visceral abdominal adipose and firm, nondistensible, fibrous fat may be important to minimize the risk of PAH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  1. Maternal Visceral Adiposity by Consistency of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Catov, Janet; Ness, Roberta; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the assocation between lactation and maternal visceral adiposity among US women who were on average 7 years postpartum. This cross-sectional analysis included 89 women who gave birth between 1997 and 2002, who did not have preeclampsia, prepregnancy hypertension or prepregnancy diabetes, and enrolled in The Women and Infant Study of Healthy Hearts (WISH). Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. History of lactation was self-reported. Visceral adiposity was greater by 36.96 cm2 (95% CI: 20.92,53.01) among mothers who never breastfed than mothers who breastfed for ≥3 months after every birth, even after adjustment for age, parity, years since last birth, site, socioeconomic, lifestyle, psychological, and family history variables, early adult BMI, and current BMI. Similarly, in fully adjusted models, mothers who breastfed any of their children for less than 3 months had 20.38 cm2 (95% CI: 2.70, 38.06) greater visceral adiposity than mothers who consistently breastfed all their children for 3 or more months. This study found that 7 years postpartum visceral fat depots are significantly greater among mothers who lactated for less than 3 months after the birth of each of their children. These results provide a potential physiologic basis for prior findings that women who do not consistently breastfeed are at an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21404071

  2. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  3. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  4. Epicardial adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cikim, A Sertkaya; Topal, E; Harputluoglu, M; Keskin, L; Zengin, Z; Cikim, K; Ozdemir, R; Aladag, M; Yologlu, S

    2007-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a common companion of obesity. Moreover, the measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been reported to be related with both obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between hepatic steatosis, EAT and insulin resistance in obese patients. Sixty-three obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI) as follows: 20 patients with 30 < or = BMI < 35 kg/m2 (Group 1, mean age 39.3+/-12.9 yr), 25 patients with 35 < or = BMI < 40 kg/m2 (Group 2, mean age 41.7+/-9.3 yr), and 18 patients with BMI > or = 40 kg/m2 (Group 3, mean age 36.8+/-13.9 yr). EAT and grade of hepatic steatosis were assessed sonographically. Anthropometrical measurements were assessed with the foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis. Insulin resistance was assessed according to basal insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) equations. Although EAT was similarly higher in both groups 2 and 3, these groups were found to be similar in terms of the grade of hepatic steatosis. Both EAT and the grade of hepatic steatosis were correlated with whole body fat mass, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and triglyceridemia but waist circumference was the only factor affecting EAT thickness. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was the only metabolic parameter that was significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 (p=0.02). Hepatic steatosis should be assessed as a valuable predictor that reflects the increments of whole body fat mass as well as abdominal adiposity. However, in an attempt to demonstrate marginal differences between patients with similar obesity levels, epicardial adipose tissue appears to be a more sensitive marker compared to hepatic steatosis.

  5. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  6. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adipose tissue oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity independently of adiposity in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Gijs H; Vogel, Max A A; Vink, Roel G; Mariman, Edwin C; van Baak, Marleen A; Blaak, Ellen E

    2018-04-23

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown that altered AT oxygenation affects adipocyte functionality, but it remains to be elucidated whether altered AT oxygenation is more strongly related to obesity or insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AT oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity rather than adiposity in humans. Thirty-five lean and obese individuals (21 men and 14 women, aged 40-65 years) with either normal or impaired glucose metabolism participated in a cross-sectional single-centre study. We measured abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygenation, body composition and insulin sensitivity. AT oxygenation was higher in obese insulin resistant as compared to obese insulin sensitive (IS) individuals with similar age, body mass index and body fat percentage, both in men and women. No significant differences in AT oxygenation were found between obese IS and lean IS men. Moreover, AT oxygenation was positively associated with insulin resistance (r = 0.465; P = .005), even after adjustment for age, sex and body fat percentage (standardized β = 0.479; P = .005). In conclusion, abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity both in men and women, independently of adiposity. AT oxygenation may therefore be a promising target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modulations of calcium in adipose tissue by TRPC1: a key player in obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The disruption of metabolic homeostasis, the regulation of energy the body extracts, stores and uses, leads to excess adipose tissue accumulation and the onset of obesity. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a metabolically dynamic endocrine organ responsible for maintaining metabolic homeostasis through ...

  9. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001). These findings demonstrate that the volume of abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  11. Substantial Metabolic Activity of Human Brown Adipose Tissue during Warm Conditions and Cold-Induced Lipolysis of Local Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Graeme; Ramage, Lynne E; Akyol, Murat; Rhodes, Jonathan K; Kyle, Catriona J; Fletcher, Alison M; Craven, Thomas H; Wakelin, Sonia J; Drake, Amanda J; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Ashton, Ceri; Weir, Nick; van Beek, Edwin J R; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2018-06-05

    Current understanding of in vivo human brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology is limited by a reliance on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanning, which has measured exogenous glucose and fatty acid uptake but not quantified endogenous substrate utilization by BAT. Six lean, healthy men underwent 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scanning to localize BAT so microdialysis catheters could be inserted in supraclavicular BAT under CT guidance and in abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Arterial and dialysate samples were collected during warm (∼25°C) and cold exposure (∼17°C), and blood flow was measured by 133 xenon washout. During warm conditions, there was increased glucose uptake and lactate release and decreased glycerol release by BAT compared with WAT. Cold exposure increased blood flow, glycerol release, and glucose and glutamate uptake only by BAT. This novel use of microdialysis reveals that human BAT is metabolically active during warm conditions. BAT activation substantially increases local lipolysis but also utilization of other substrates such as glutamate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) regulates VEGFA in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fatima, L A; Campello, R S; Santos, R de Souza; Freitas, H S; Frank, A P; Machado, U F; Clegg, D J

    2017-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is a key factor in the regulation of angiogenesis in adipose tissue. Poor vascularization during adipose tissue proliferation causes fibrosis and local inflammation, and is associated with insulin resistance. It is known that 17-beta estradiol (E2) regulates adipose tissue function and VEGFA expression in other tissues; however, the ability of E2 to regulate VEGFA in adipose tissue is currently unknown. In this study, we showed that, in 3T3-L1 cells, E2 and the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) agonist PPT induced VEGFA expression, while ESR1 antagonist (MPP), and selective knockdown of ESR1 using siRNA decreased VEGFA and prevented the ability of E2 to modulate its expression. Additionally, we found that E2 and PPT induced the binding of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A) in the VEGFA gene promoter. We further found that VEGFA expression was lower in inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissues of ESR1 total body knockout female mice compared to wild type mice. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of an important role for E2/ESR1 in modulating adipose tissue VEGFA, which is potentially important to enhance angiogenesis, reduce inflammation and improve adipose tissue function.

  13. Regulation of adiposity by mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Magdalon, Juliana; Festuccia, William Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling pathway that controls lipid metabolism, and adipocyte formation and maintenance. Curiously, mTORC1 is also involved in the control of nonshivering thermogenesis and recruitment as well as browning of white adipose tissue. In this review, we explored mTORC1 functions in adipocytes and presented evidence, suggesting that mTORC1 may either increase or reduce adiposity, depending on the conditions and activation levels. PMID:29364369

  14. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years) underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9), caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13), or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8). Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P < 0.05). Compared to pre-intervention, CR did not change abdominal, but decreased gluteal CB1 (Δ = -0.82 ± 0.25, P < 0.05) and FAAH (Δ = -0.49 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) gene expression. CRM or CRV alone did not change adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression. However, combined CRM and CRV (CRM+CRV) decreased abdominal adipose tissue FAAH gene expression (Δ = -0.37 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). The changes in gluteal CB1 and abdominal FAAH gene expression levels in the CR alone and the CRM+CRV group were different (P < 0.05) or tended to be different (P = 0.10). Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue

  15. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  16. Central adiposity is negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Baym, Carol L; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Moore, R Davis; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-02-01

    To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (age 7-9 years; n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th percentile body mass index [BMI]-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th percentile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks. Performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (ie, percent whole-body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Backward regression identified significant (P < .05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, oxygen consumption, and BMI z-score. Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with SES jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of SES and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Regional, but not whole-body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  18. Effect of exercise dosages on adiposity indices in overweight girls.

    PubMed

    Kellam, Stephanie; Olvera, Norma; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Jian; Smith, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of two exercise dosages on reducing adiposity in minority girls. Sixty-two overweight Hispanic and African-American girls participated in one of two intense summer interventions in Houston, TX: Intervention A (exposure to about 40 hours physical activities) or Intervention B (exposure to 60 hours of physical activities). Adiposity indices (percent body fat, waist circumference, body mass index) were taken pre- and post-intervention. Intervention B had a significantly greater decrease in adiposity indicators (p= 0.006) when compared to Intervention A. Waist circumference displayed the most significant decrease (p = 0.001). Both interventions significantly increased daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p= 0.020). Intense physical activity interventions may effectively reduce abdominal fat in minority girls.

  19. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, George; Mitrou, Panayota; Lambadiari, Vaia; Boutati, Eleni; Maratou, Eirini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Koukkou, Efi; Tzanela, Marinela; Thalassinos, Nikos; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2006-12-01

    Although insulin resistance in thyroid hormone excess is well documented, information on insulin action in hypothyroidism is limited. To investigate this, a meal was given to 11 hypothyroid (HO; aged 45 +/- 3 yr) and 10 euthyroid subjects (EU; aged 42 +/- 4 yr). Blood was withdrawn for 360 min from veins (V) draining the anterior abdominal sc adipose tissue and the forearm and from the radial artery (A). Blood flow (BF) in adipose tissue was measured with 133Xe and in forearm with strain-gauge plethysmography. Tissue glucose uptake was calculated as (A-V)glucose(BF), lipoprotein lipase as (A-V)Triglycerides(BF), and lipolysis as [(V-A)glycerol(BF)]-lipoprotein lipase. The HO group had higher glucose and insulin levels than the EU group (P < 0.05). In HO vs. EU after meal ingestion (area under curve 0-360 min): 1) BF (1290 +/- 79 vs. 1579 +/- 106 ml per 100 ml tissue in forearm and 706 +/- 105 vs. 1340 +/- 144 ml per 100 ml tissue in adipose tissue) and glucose uptake (464 +/- 74 vs. 850 +/- 155 micromol per 100 ml tissue in forearm and 208 +/- 42 vs. 406 +/- 47 micromol per 100 ml tissue in adipose tissue) were decreased (P < 0.05), but fractional glucose uptake was similar (28 +/- 6 vs. 33 +/- 6% per minute in forearm and 17 +/- 4 vs. 14 +/- 3% per minute in adipose tissue); 2) suppression of lipolysis by insulin was similar; and 3) plasma triglycerides were elevated (489 +/- 91 vs. 264 +/- 36 nmol/liter.min, P < 0.05), whereas adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (42 +/- 11 vs. 80 +/- 21 micromol per 100 ml tissue) and triglyceride clearance (45 +/- 10 vs. 109 +/- 21 ml per 100 ml tissue) were decreased in HO (P < 0.05). In hypothyroidism: 1) glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue is resistant to insulin; 2) suppression of lipolysis by insulin is not impaired; and 3) hypertriglyceridemia is due to decreased clearance by the adipose tissue.

  20. Television, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Gupta, Alok K.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown how TV use relates to depot-specific adiposity or cardiometabolic risk in children. Purpose To examine relationships between having a TV in the bedroom and TV viewing time with total fat mass, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study of 369 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years was conducted (2010–2011; analysis 2011–2012). Waist circumference; resting blood pressure; fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and glucose; fat mass by DXA; and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity by MRI were assessed. Cardiometabolic risk was defined as three or more risk factors including adverse levels of waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-C, and glucose. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute ORs of high fat mass, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue mass (top age-adjusted quartile), and cardiometabolic risk, based on self-reported TV present in the bedroom and TV viewing time, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level, and unhealthy diet. Results In multivariable models, presence of a TV in the bedroom and TV viewing time were associated with (p<0.05) higher odds of high waist circumference (OR= 1.9–2.1); fat mass (OR= 2.0–2.5); and subcutaneous adiposity (OR= 2.1–2.9), while viewing TV ≥5 hours/day was associated with high visceral adiposity (OR=2.0). Having a TV in the bedroom was associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk (OR=2.9) and high triglycerides (OR=2.0). Conclusions Having a bedroom TV and TV viewing time were related to high waist circumference, fat mass, and abdominal subcutaneous adiposity. TV viewing time was related to visceral adiposity, and bedroom TV was related to cardiometabolic risk in children, controlling for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and an unhealthy diet. Registration This study is

  1. Refeeding meal-fed rats increases lipoprotein lipase activity and deposition of dietary [14C]lipid in white adipose tissue and decreases oxidation to 14CO2. The role of undernutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, M L; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    Meal-fed (3 h) rats had a decreased food intake, body weight and carcass fat compared with rats fed ad libitum. On refeeding a chow meal containing [1-14C]triolein, the production of 14CO2 was lower (45%) and the accumulation of carcass [14C]lipid higher (37%) in the meal-fed rats. There was higher lipoprotein lipase activity and greater accumulation of [14C]lipid in the epididymal and subcutaneous adipose-tissue depots of the meal-fed rats. In contrast, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase was not increased in perfused hearts of meal-fed rats on refeeding. Return of meal-fed rats to feeding ad libitum reversed these changes before the restoration of body weight or carcass fat. Evidence is presented that decreased dietary intake rather than meal pattern is an important determinant of the alterations in adipose lipid metabolism in the meal-fed rat in response to a meal. PMID:1497615

  2. Overall Adiposity, Adipose Tissue Distribution, and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Backonja, Uba; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Lauver, Diane R

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis has been associated with a lean body habitus. However, we do not understand whether endometriosis is also associated with other characteristics of adiposity, including adipose tissue distribution and amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT; adipose tissue lining inner organs). Having these understandings may provide insights on how endometriosis develops-some of the physiological actions of adipose tissue differ depending on tissue amount and location and are related to proposed mechanisms of endometriosis development. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution and/or VAT, and endometriosis. We reviewed and synthesized studies indexed in PubMed and/or Web of Science. We included studies that had one or more measures of overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, and/or VAT and women with and without endometriosis for comparison. We summarized the findings and commented on the methods used and potential sources of bias. Of 366 identified publications, 19 (5.2%) were eligible. Two additional publications were identified from reference lists. Current research included measures of overall adiposity (e.g., body figure drawings) or adipose tissue distribution (e.g., waist-to-hip ratio), but not VAT. The weight of evidence indicated that endometriosis was associated with low overall adiposity and with a preponderance of adipose tissue distributed below the waist (peripheral). Endometriosis may be associated with being lean or having peripherally distributed adipose tissue. Well-designed studies with various sampling frameworks and precise measures of adiposity and endometriosis are needed to confirm associations between adiposity measures and endometriosis and delineate potential etiological mechanisms underlying endometriosis.

  3. Overall Adiposity, Adipose Tissue Distribution, and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Backonja, Uba; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Lauver, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis has been associated with a lean body habitus. However, we do not understand whether endometriosis is also associated with other characteristics of adiposity, including adipose tissue distribution and amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT; adipose tissue lining inner organs). Having these understandings may provide insights on how endometriosis develops—some of the physiologic actions of adipose tissue differ depending on tissue amount and location, and are related to proposed mechanisms of endometriosis development. Objectives To review the literature regarding overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution and/or VAT, and endometriosis. Methods We reviewed and synthesized studies indexed in PubMed and/or Web of Science. We included studies that had one or more measures of overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, and/or VAT, and women with and without endometriosis for comparison. We summarized the findings and commented on the methods used and potential sources of bias. Results Out of 366 identified publications, 19 (5.2%) were eligible. Two additional publications were identified from reference lists. Current research included measures of overall adiposity (e.g., body figure drawings) or adipose tissue distribution (e.g., waist-to-hip ratio), but not VAT. The weight of evidence indicated that endometriosis was associated with low overall adiposity and with a preponderance of adipose tissue distributed below the waist (peripheral). Discussion Endometriosis may be associated with being lean or having peripherally distributed adipose tissue. Well-designed studies with various sampling frameworks and precise measures of adiposity and endometriosis are needed to confirm associations between adiposity measures and endometriosis, and delineate potential etiologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis. PMID:26938364

  4. Regulation of adipose branched chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated blood branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. One possibility is that under these conditions there is a reduced cellular utilization and/or lower complete oxidation of BCAAs. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a...

  5. Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures.

    PubMed

    Monnereau, Claire; Vogelezang, Suzanne; Kruithof, Claudia J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F

    2016-08-18

    Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified many loci and biological pathways that influence adult body mass index (BMI). We aimed to identify if biological pathways related to adult BMI also affect infant growth and childhood adiposity measures. We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,975 children with a mean age of 6 years. Genetic risk scores were constructed based on the 97 SNPs associated with adult BMI previously identified with GWAS and on 28 BMI related biological pathways based on subsets of these 97 SNPs. Outcomes were infant peak weight velocity, BMI at adiposity peak and age at adiposity peak, and childhood BMI, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat ratio, and preperitoneal fat area. Analyses were performed using linear regression models. A higher overall adult BMI risk score was associated with infant BMI at adiposity peak and childhood BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat ratio, and preperitoneal fat area (all p-values < 0.05). Analyses focused on specific biological pathways showed that the membrane proteins genetic risk score was associated with infant peak weight velocity, and the genetic risk scores related to neuronal developmental processes, hypothalamic processes, cyclicAMP, WNT-signaling, membrane proteins, monogenic obesity and/or energy homeostasis, glucose homeostasis, cell cycle, and muscle biology pathways were associated with childhood adiposity measures (all p-values <0.05). None of the pathways were associated with childhood preperitoneal fat area. A genetic risk score based on 97 SNPs related to adult BMI was associated with peak weight velocity during infancy and general and abdominal fat measurements at the age of 6 years. Risk scores based on genetic variants linked to specific biological pathways, including central nervous system and hypothalamic processes, influence body fat development from early life onwards.

  6. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  7. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases.

  8. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  9. Meta-review of protein network regulating obesity between validated obesity candidate genes in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Eun Jung; Seo, Seung-Won; Hur, Cheol-Goo; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide obesity and related comorbidities are increasing, but identifying new therapeutic targets remains a challenge. A plethora of microarray studies in diet-induced obesity models has provided large datasets of obesity associated genes. In this review, we describe an approach to examine the underlying molecular network regulating obesity, and we discuss interactions between obesity candidate genes. We conducted network analysis on functional protein-protein interactions associated with 25 obesity candidate genes identified in a literature-driven approach based on published microarray studies of diet-induced obesity. The obesity candidate genes were closely associated with lipid metabolism and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg) appeared to be a core obesity gene, and obesity candidate genes were highly interconnected, suggesting a coordinately regulated molecular network in adipose tissue. In conclusion, the current network analysis approach may help elucidate the underlying molecular network regulating obesity and identify anti-obesity targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    Background The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the AT between muscles and within the boundary of the muscle fascia. Design Analyses were conducted on 227 women [AA (n = 79): body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), 29.0 ± 5.5; age, 45.7 ± 16.9 y; Asian (n = 38): BMI, 21.7 ± 2.9; age, 47.2 ± 19.9 y; whites (n = 110): BMI, 24.9 ± 5.4; age, 43.7 ± 16.2 y]) and 111 men [AA (n = 39): BMI, 25.6 ± 3.2; age, 45.5 ± 18.8 y; Asian (n = 13): BMI, 24.9 ± 2.5; age, 45.6 ± 25.0 y; white (n = 59): BMI, 25.8 ± 3.8; age 44.5 ± 16.3 y]. Results IMAT depots were not significantly different in size between race groups at low levels of adiposity; however, with increasing adiposity, AAs had a significantly greater increment in the proportion of total AT (TAT) than did the whites and Asians (58, 46, and 44 g IMAT/kg TAT, respectively; P = 0.001). VAT depots were not significantly different in size at low levels of adiposity but, with increasing adiposity, VAT accumulation was greater than IMAT accumulation in the Asians and whites; no significant differences were observed in AAs. Conclusion Race differences in AT distribution extend to IMAT, a depot that may influence race-ethnicity differences in dysglycemia. PMID:15817870

  11. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  12. Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue of obese patients show changes in their transcriptomic profile that indicate loss in stemcellness and increased commitment to an adipocyte-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adipose tissue is an endocrine regulator and a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease when by excessive accumulation induces obesity. Although the adipose tissue is also a reservoir for stem cells (ASC) their function and “stemcellness” has been questioned. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms by which obesity affects subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) stem cells. Results Transcriptomics, in silico analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blots were performed on isolated stem cells from subcutaneous abdominal WAT of morbidly obese patients (ASCmo) and of non-obese individuals (ASCn). ASCmo and ASCn gene expression clustered separately from each other. ASCmo showed downregulation of “stemness” genes and upregulation of adipogenic and inflammatory genes with respect to ASCn. Moreover, the application of bioinformatics and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that the transcription factor Smad3 was tentatively affected in obese ASCmo. Validation of this target confirmed a significantly reduced Smad3 nuclear translocation in the isolated ASCmo. Conclusions The transcriptomic profile of the stem cells reservoir in obese subcutaneous WAT is highly modified with significant changes in genes regulating stemcellness, lineage commitment and inflammation. In addition to body mass index, cardiovascular risk factor clustering further affect the ASC transcriptomic profile inducing loss of multipotency and, hence, capacity for tissue repair. In summary, the stem cells in the subcutaneous WAT niche of obese patients are already committed to adipocyte differentiation and show an upregulated inflammatory gene expression associated to their loss of stemcellness. PMID:24040759

  13. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  14. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Fasting energy homeostasis in mice with adipose deficiency of desnutrin/adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Wang, Shu Pei; Casavant, Stéphanie; Moreau, Alain; Yang, Gong She; Mitchell, Grant A

    2012-05-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step of lipolysis of cytoplasmic triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue (WAT) and several other organs. We created adipose-specific ATGL-deficient (ATGLAKO) mice. In these mice, in vivo lipolysis, measured as the increase of plasma nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol levels after injection of a β3-adrenergic agonist, was undetectable. In isolated ATGLAKO adipocytes, β3-adrenergic-stimulated glycerol release was 10-fold less than in controls. Under fed conditions, ATGLAKO mice had normal viability, mild obesity, low plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased daytime food intake. After 5 h of fasting, ATGLAKO WAT showed phosphorylation of the major protein kinase A-mediated targets hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A and ATGLAKO liver showed low glycogen and triacylglycerol contents. During a 48-h fast, ATGLAKO mice developed striking and complex differences from controls: progressive reduction of oxygen consumption, high respiratory exchange ratio, consistent with reduced fatty acid availability for energy production, lethargy, hypothermia, and undiminished fat mass, but greater loss of lean mass than controls. Plasma of 48 h-fasted ATGLAKO mice had a unique pattern: low 3-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 with elevated leptin and corticosterone. ATGLAKO WAT, liver, skeletal muscle, and heart showed increased levels of mRNA related to autophagy and proteolysis. In murine ATGL deficiency, adipose lipolysis is critical for fasting energy homeostasis, and fasting imposes proteolytic stress on many organs, including heart and skeletal muscle.

  16. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  17. Adipose-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Meliga, Emanuele; Strem, Brian M; Duckers, H J; Serruys, Patrick W

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure is by far the most common cause of hospitalization in Western countries, with onerous economic consequences. Cell therapy holds great promise for use in tissue regeneration and is increasingly used in an effort to improve outcomes in cardiac disease. Recently it has been shown that adipose tissue, in addition to committed adipogenic, endothelial progenitor cells and pluripotent vascular progenitor cells, also contains multipotent cell types (adipose-derived stem cells, ADSCs) that, in cell culture conditions, have shown to have an impressive developmental plasticity including the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation and self-renewal. ADSCs express multiple CD marker antigens similar to those observed on MSCs and are also capable of secreting a large number of angiogenesis-related cytokines, including vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor, stromal-derived factor-1alpha, and hepatocyte growth factor. Adipose tissue can be harvested in large quantities with minimal morbidity in several regions of the body and, on average, 100 ml of human adipose tissue yields about 1 x 10(6) stem cells. Studies conducted in porcine AMI models have shown a significant LV functional improvement, with no report of any potentially fatal arrhythmias. The APOLLO trial, a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial currently in the recruiting phase, is a "first-in-man" study that explores the safety and feasibility of ADSC transplantation in patients with acute MI.

  18. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  19. Junk food consumption and screen time: association with childhood adiposity.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Alexander H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Alaimo, Katherine; Betz, Heather Hayes; Paek, Hye-Jin; Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2013-05-01

    To determine the joint association of junk food consumption (JFC) and screen time (ST) with adiposity in children. Two hundred fourteen (121 girls, 93 boys) third-to-fifth-grade students (54% Hispanic, 35% African American, 8% white) completed a lifestyle behavior survey, which included self-reported JFC and ST, as part of a school-based lifestyle intervention program. Neither JFC nor ST, independently or jointly, was associated with adiposity measures. JFC and ST were significantly correlated (r = .375). The low achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations and high prevalence of overweight/obesity in this mostly minority, low socioeconomic status population indicates a potential focus for intervention.

  20. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a ‘precaudal flow sensor’. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  1. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Brett R; Stewart, Thomas A; Hale, Melina E

    2016-03-16

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a 'precaudal flow sensor'. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Associations between adiposity indicators and elevated blood pressure among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-04-01

    Adiposity is closely related to elevated blood pressure (BP); however, which adiposity indicator is the best predictor of elevated BP among children and adolescents is unclear. To clarify this, 99,366 participants aged 7-17 years from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 were included in this study. The adiposity indicators, including weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference, body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness, were converted into z-scores before use. The associations between elevated BP and adiposity indicators z-scores were assessed by using logistic regression model and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In general, BAI, BMI and WHtR z-scores were superior for predicting elevated BP compared with weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and skinfold thickness z-scores. In both sexes, BMI z-score revealed slightly higher AUCs than other indicators. Our findings suggest that general adiposity indicators were equivalent, if not superior, to abdominal adiposity indicators to predict elevated BP. BMI could be a better predictor of elevated BP than other studied adiposity indicators in children.

  3. Brown adipose tissue and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2018-06-01

    This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis. WAT-derived fatty acids are internalized directly by BAT, or indirectly after hepatic conversion to very low-density lipoproteins and acylcarnitines. In the postprandial state, chylomicrons hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase - activated specifically in thermogenic adipocytes - are the predominant fatty acid source. Cholesterol-enriched chylomicron remnants and HDL generated by intravascular lipolysis in BAT are cleared more rapidly by the liver, explaining the antiatherogenic effects of BAT activation. Notably, increased cholesterol flux and elevated hepatic synthesis of bile acids under cold exposure further promote BAT-dependent thermogenesis. Although pathways providing fatty acids for activated BAT have been identified, more research is needed to understand the integration of lipid metabolism in BAT, WAT and liver, and to determine the relevance of BAT for human energy metabolism.

  4. Adipose tissue engineering: state of the art, recent advances and innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Farè, Silvia

    2009-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a highly specialized connective tissue found either in white or brown forms, the white form being the most abundant in adult humans. Loss or damage of white adipose tissue due to aging or pathological conditions needs reconstructive approaches. To date, two main strategies are being investigated for generating functional adipose tissue: autologous tissue/cell transplantation and adipose tissue engineering. Free-fat transplantation rarely achieves sufficient tissue augmentation owing to delayed neovascularization, with subsequent cell necrosis and graft volume shrinkage. Tissue engineering approaches represent, instead, a more suitable alternative for adipose tissue regeneration; they can be performed either with in situ or de novo adipogenesis. In situ adipogenesis or transplantation of encapsulated cells can be useful in healing small-volume defects, whereas restoration of large defects, where vascularization and a rapid volumetric gain are strict requirements, needs de novo strategies with 3D scaffold/filling matrix combinations. For adipose tissue engineering, the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (both adipose- and bone marrow-derived stem cells) or of preadipocytes is preferred to the use of mature adipocytes, which have low expandability and poor ability for volume retention. This review intends to assemble and describe recent work on this topic, critically presenting successes obtained and drawbacks faced to date.

  5. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia – before severe fat loss – in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34–42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

  6. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat Quantity and Quality With Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-10-04

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm(3) and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm(3) for SAT and an increase of 703 cm(3) for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5 HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm(3) increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for each additional 5 HU decrease in abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Androgen Effects on Adipose Tissue Architecture and Function in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Varlamov, Oleg; White, Ashley E.; Carroll, Julie M.; Bethea, Cynthia L.; Reddy, Arubala; Slayden, Ov; O'Rourke, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The differential association of hypoandrogenism in men and hyperandrogenism in women with insulin resistance and obesity suggests that androgens may exert sex-specific effects on adipose and other tissues, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Moreover, recent studies also suggest that rodents and humans may respond differently to androgen imbalance. To achieve better insight into clinically relevant sex-specific mechanisms of androgen action, we used nonhuman primates to investigate the direct effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on white adipose tissue. We also employed a novel ex vivo approach that provides a convenient framework for understanding of adipose tissue physiology under a controlled tissue culture environment. In vivo androgen deprivation of males did not result in overt obesity or insulin resistance but did induce the appearance of very small, multilocular white adipocytes. Testosterone replacement restored normal cell size and a unilocular phenotype and stimulated adipogenic gene transcription and improved insulin sensitivity of male adipose tissue. Ex vivo studies demonstrated sex-specific effects of androgens on adipocyte function. Female adipose tissue treated with androgens displayed elevated basal but reduced insulin-dependent fatty acid uptake. Androgen-stimulated basal uptake was greater in adipose tissue of ovariectomized females than in adipose tissue of intact females and ovariectomized females replaced with estrogen and progesterone in vivo. Collectively, these data demonstrate that androgens are essential for normal adipogenesis in males and can impair essential adipocyte functions in females, thus strengthening the experimental basis for sex-specific effects of androgens in adipose tissue. PMID:22547568

  8. The Association between Adiposity and the Risk of Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jiawen; Chen, Yiyi; Wu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the potential association between adiposity and glaucoma incidence. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and ISI Web of Science. A meta-analysis was conducted using STATA software. Results Fifteen eligible studies involving 2,445,980 individuals were included to investigate the association between adiposity and glaucoma incidence. The relative risks (RRs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by using a random-effects model. The pooled RR between adiposity and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.18–2.54), whereas that between adiposity and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.83–1.13). The pooled RR between abdominal adiposity and glaucoma was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.15–1.41), whereas that between general adiposity and glaucoma was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.87–1.37). Results of subgroup analysis by sex indicated the association between adiposity and glaucoma in the female group (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05–1.64), but not in the male group (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77–1.60). The pooled RR of cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.84–1.20) and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.89–1.66), respectively. Conclusions Adiposity has a higher risk of elevated IOP, and abdominal adiposity has a positive association with glaucoma, especially in female patients. PMID:28695005

  9. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  10. Association between duration of overall and abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in middle age.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Loria, Catherine M; Lewis, Cora E; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wei, Gina S; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Liu, Kiang

    2013-07-17

    Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985-1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000-2001), year 20 (2005-2006), or year 25 (2010-2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000-2001 to 2010-2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010-2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC for each additional year of overall or abdominal obesity were 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03) and 1.03 (95% CI

  11. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  12. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  13. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  14. Reduced Adipose Tissue Oxygenation in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Sereda, Olga R.; Redman, Leanne M.; Albarado, Diana C.; Hymel, David T.; Roan, Laura E.; Rood, Jennifer C.; Burk, David H.; Smith, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Based on rodent studies, we examined the hypothesis that increased adipose tissue (AT) mass in obesity without an adequate support of vascularization might lead to hypoxia, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Oxygen partial pressure (AT pO2) and AT temperature in abdominal AT (9 lean and 12 overweight/obese men and women) was measured by direct insertion of a polarographic Clark electrode. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Abdominal subcutaneous tissue was used for staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and chemokine secretion assay. RESULTS— AT pO2 was lower in overweight/obese subjects than lean subjects (47 ± 10.6 vs. 55 ± 9.1 mmHg); however, this level of pO2 did not activate the classic hypoxia targets (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). AT pO2 was negatively correlated with percent body fat (R = −0.50, P < 0.05). Compared with lean subjects, overweight/obese subjects had 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower VEGF, suggesting AT rarefaction (capillary drop out). This might be due to lower peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ1 and higher collagen VI mRNA expression, which correlated with AT pO2 (P < 0.05). Of clinical importance, AT pO2 negatively correlated with CD68 mRNA and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α secretion (R = −0.58, R = −0.79, P < 0.05), suggesting that lower AT pO2 could drive AT inflammation in obesity. CONCLUSIONS— Adipose tissue rarefaction might lie upstream of both low AT pO2 and inflammation in obesity. These results suggest novel approaches to treat the dysfunctional AT found in obesity. PMID:19074987

  15. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  16. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  17. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  18. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  19. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  20. Neighborhood Walkability and Adiposity in the Women's Health Initiative Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Urshila; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Barrington, Wendy E; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Garcia, Lorena; Going, Scott B; LaMonte, Michael J; Manson, JoAnn E; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Stefanick, Marcia L; Waring, Molly E; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2016-11-01

    Neighborhood environments may play a role in the rising prevalence of obesity among older adults. However, research on built environmental correlates of obesity in this age group is limited. The current study aimed to explore associations of Walk Score, a validated measure of neighborhood walkability, with BMI and waist circumference in a large, diverse sample of older women. This study linked cross-sectional data on 6,526 older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Long Life Study (2012-2013) to Walk Scores for each participant's address (collected in 2012). Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations of BMI and waist circumference with continuous and categorical Walk Score measures. Secondary analyses examined whether these relationships could be explained by walking expenditure or total physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2015. Higher Walk Score was not associated with BMI or overall obesity after adjustment for sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. However, participants in highly walkable areas had significantly lower odds of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >88 cm) as compared with those in less walkable locations. Observed associations between walkability and adiposity were partly explained by walking expenditure. Findings suggest that neighborhood walkability is linked to abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, among older women and provide support for future longitudinal research on associations between Walk Score and adiposity in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Associations between Adiposity, Cognitive Function, and Achievement in Children.

    PubMed

    Raine, Lauren; Drollette, Eric; Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; Khan, Naiman; Hillman, Charles

    2018-04-27

    Although obesity has been related to measures of academic achievement and cognition in children, the influence of fat distribution, specifically visceral adiposity, on select aspects of achievement and cognitive function remains poorly characterized among preadolescent children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue, on achievement and cognitive function among children. Children with obesity (ages 7-9 years old, N= 55, 35 females) completed cognitive and academic tests. Normal weight children (N= 55, 35 females) were matched to this group on demographic characteristics and aerobic fitness. Covariate analyses included age, Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA), SES, and fat free VO2 (VO2 peak adjusted for lean mass; ml/kg lean/min). Adiposity (i.e., whole body percent fat, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results of this study revealed that, relative to their normal weight counterparts, children with obesity had significantly lower performance on tests of reading and math. Analyses revealed that among children with obesity, %Fat and SAAT were not related to cognitive abilities. However, higher VAT was associated with poorer intellectual abilities, p's≤0.04; and cognitive performance (i.e. Thinking Ability and Cognitive Efficiency), p's≤0.04. However, among normal weight children, VAT was positively associated with intellectual abilities and cognitive efficiency. In conclusion, the results suggest that VAT was selectively and negatively related with cognition among children with obesity. Along with the dangerous metabolic nature of VAT, its detrimental relationship with obese children's intellectual and cognitive functioning is concerning.

  2. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  3. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial1,2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. Design: We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype–dietary fat interaction was also examined. Results: The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene–dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype–dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  4. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. [Assessment of body adiposity in school students in Arequipa, Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Pablos Abella, Carlos; Arruda, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relation between the percentage of body fat, the Body Mass Index and the abdominal perimeter in a population of school students who live at a moderate altitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted, for which 394 boys and 405 girls between 6 and 11 years of age were selected using a probabilistic method. All the school students chosen were middle class children who lived in the urban area of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude (2320m above sea level). The percentage of fat, the Body Mass Index and the abdominal perimeter were assessed. There was a moderate correlation between the percentage of fat and the abdominal perimeter in boys (0.59) and girls (0.68). Lower figures were obtained between the percentage of fat and the Body Mass Index in boys (0.56) and girls (0.66). A connection among the categories of fat percentage (%F) and the abdominal perimeter (p<0.05) was observed; yet, there was no connection between the %F and the Body Mass Index (p>0.05). The abdominal perimeter has a moderate correlation with the percentage of body fat and can be used as an indicator of adiposity in the mid-section of the body of children who live in Arequipa (Peru) at a moderate altitude.

  6. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  7. Roles of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kimie; Sata, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature. However, recent studies showed that PVAT influences vasodilation and vasocontraction, suggesting that PVAT regulates vascular tone and diameter. Adipocytokines secreted from PVAT appear to have direct access to the adjacent arterial wall by diffusion or via vasa vasorum. In fact, PVAT around atherosclerotic lesions and mechanically-injured arteries displayed inflammatory cytokine profiles, suggesting that PVAT functions to promote vascular lesion formation. Many clinical studies revealed that increased accumulation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which surrounds coronary arteries, is associated with coronary artery disease. In this review article, we will summarize recent findings about potential roles of PVAT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, particularly focusing on a series of basic and clinical studies from our laboratory. PMID:29487532

  8. [Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk].

    PubMed

    González Calvo, G; Hernández Sánchez, S; Pozo Rosado, P; García López, D

    2011-01-01

    The consequences related to the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels create a considerable organic damage. Among the physiological consequences we can highlight heart diseases, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, which drastically reduce life expectancy and quality. Evidence shows that health improvement is correlated to greater levels of physical activity. However, physical exercise can create oxidative damage on organs and muscular tissue, more relevant in subjects with a high percentage of abdominal fat. This piece of work determines which are the fundamental variables of the exercise program in order to optimize its advantages while minimizing oxidative stress. To know the key variables in the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels, and the role of exercise in prevention and improvement of such issue. SPECIFIC PURPOSES: 1) to identify the key variables in an exercise program aimed at reducing abdominal fat; 2) to understand the relationship between abdominal fat, health and exercise; 3) to review the latest research related to physical exercise and its effect on abdominal adipose tissue. A search and identification of original and reviewed articles will be carried out in indexed impact journals within the main databases. Regular physical exercise, most notably aerobic one, reduces body adipose tissue deposits in general, and abdominal ones in particular, both in obese and overweight subjects.

  9. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Ivan R. B.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. Methods We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular-hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. Results We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17y and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m2 (range 16–47kg/m2). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P< 0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=−0.53) and NC (r=−0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Conclusion Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. PMID:27733254

  10. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway patency and whole-body adiposity.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ivan R B; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular plane to hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17years and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m 2 (range 16-47kg/m 2 ). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P<0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=-0.53) and NC (r=-0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  13. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  14. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  16. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  17. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  18. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  19. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-08-28

    Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFalpha) values showed overexpression (198%). Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  20. High-Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity, Adipose Inflammation, Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulinemia in Outbred CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  1. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population.

  2. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    PubMed

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  3. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    PubMed Central

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  4. Abdominal obesity, ethnicity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Douglas A; Kubo, Ai; Zhao, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between abdominal obesity and gastro‐oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and their interactions with ethnicity and gender. Design A cross‐sectional study. Participants completed detailed symptom questionnaires and underwent a standardised examination, including anthropometric measurements. Setting A large integrated healthcare system. Patients 80 110 members of the Kaiser Permanente multiphasic health check‐up cohort. Main outcome measures Gastro‐oesophageal reflux‐type symptoms. Results Recent reflux‐type symptoms were present in 11% of the population. The multivariate OR for symptoms with an abdominal diameter (adjusted for body mass index (BMI)) of ⩾26 vs <16.3 cm was 1.85 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.21) for the white population, 0.95 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) for the black population and 0.64 (95% CI 0.18 to 2.30) for Asians. The mean abdominal diameter was greater in men (22.0 cm, 95% CI 21.9 to 22.0) than in women (20.1 cm, 95% CI 20.0 to 20.1, p<0.01), but the risk of symptoms for any given diameter did not differ markedly by gender. The association between increasing BMI and symptoms was also much stronger among the white population than among the black population. The association between BMI and reflux‐type symptoms was partially mediated through abdominal diameter. Conclusions There was a consistent association between abdominal diameter (independent of BMI) and reflux‐type symptoms in the white population, but no consistent associations in the black population or Asians. The BMI association was also strongest among the white population. These findings, combined with the increased prevalence of abdominal obesity in male subjects, suggest that an increased obesity may disproportionately increase GORD‐type symptoms in the white population and in male subjects. PMID:17047097

  5. Adipose tissue in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Su, Leon; Siegel, John E; Fishbein, Michael C

    2004-01-01

    The histologic evolution of myocardial infarction (MI) has been studied in some detail. However, there is little mention of the presence of adipose tissue in healed MI(HMI). Ninety-one hearts explanted during 1997-2001 were examined to determine the extent of adipose tissue within HMI. The medical records, surgical pathology reports, and all histologic sections of the explanted heart, from patients undergoing heart transplantation for ischemic heart disease, were reviewed. Adipose tissue within the areas of HMI was quantified. The location of the HMI, the age and gender of the patient, age of HMI, and whether the patient was treated with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) were noted. Of the 91 hearts examined, 168 HMIs were identified; 141 (84%) contained some mature fat within the HMI. Adipose tissue increased with increasing age, in males, and in those patients who had CABG surgery. The amount of adipose tissue was not related to the location or age of the HMI. Adipose tissue is a prevalent histological finding in HMIs. The pathogenesis of adipose tissue is unknown, but may be influenced by current medical therapy for ischemic heart disease, thus explaining why adipose tissue in HMIs was not reported until 1997. The presence of fat supports the speculation that a regenerative cell, or multipotent stem cell, exists within the heart, and under the influence of microenvironmental or therapeutic factors can differentiate into fat, other mesenchymal tissues, and potentially even myocardium.

  6. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  7. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  8. A Common Variant of NGEF Is Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seungbok; Son, Ho-Young; Hwang, Jinha; Chae, Jeesoo; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuktae; Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Belong

    2015-01-01

    Central adiposity, rather than body mass index (BMI), is a key pathophysiological feature of the development of obesity-related diseases. Although genetic studies by anthropometric measures such as waist circumference have been widely conducted, genetic studies for abdominal fat deposition measured by computed tomography (CT) have been rarely performed. A total of 1,243 participants who were recruited from two health check-up centers were included in this study. We selected four and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NGEF and RGS6, respectively, and analyzed the associations between the seven SNPs and central adiposity measured by CT using an additive, dominant, or recessive model. The participants were generally healthy middle-aged men (50.7 ± 5.3 years). In the additive model, the rs11678490 A allele of NGEF was significantly associated with total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (all P < 0.05). The AA genotype of this SNP in the recessive model showed a more significant association with all adiposity traits, and its association with VAT remained significant even after adjustment for BMI (P = 0.005). In the overall or visceral obesity group analysis, the AA genotype of rs11678490 showed no association with overall obesity (P = 0.148), whereas it was significantly associated with visceral obesity both before (P = 0.010) and after (P = 0.029) adjustment for BMI. In particular, an AA genotype effect was conspicuous between lower and upper groups with 5% extreme VAT phenotypes (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 1.50-61.31). However, we found no significant association between SNPs of RGS6 and central adiposity. We identified a visceral-fat-associated SNP, rs11678490 of NGEF, in Korean men. This study suggests that the genetic background of central adiposity and BMI is different, and that additional efforts should be made to find the unique genetic architecture of intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  9. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue express and secrete functional alpha2hsglycoprotein (fetuin a) especially in obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Larrosa-García, María; Castelao, Cecilia; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Crujeiras, Ana Belen; Seoane, Luisa María; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2017-02-01

    The secretion of the hepatokine alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/Fetuin A, implicated in pathological processes including systemic insulin resistance, by adipose tissue has been recently described. Thus, we have recently identified its presence in white adipose tissue secretomes by mass spectrometry. However, the secretion pattern and function of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and secretion of total and active phosphorylated alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein by adipose tissue from visceral and subcutaneous localizations in animals at different physiological and nutritional status including anorexia and obesity. Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein expression and secretion in visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants from animals under fasting and exercise training, at pathological situations such as anorexia and obesity, and from human obese individuals were assayed by immunoblotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We reveal that visceral adipose tissue expresses and secretes more alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein than subcutaneous adipose tissue, and that this secretion is diminished after fasting and exercise training. Visceral adipose tissue from anorectic animals showed reduced alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secretion; on the contrary, alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein is over-secreted by visceral adipose tissue in the occurrence of obesity. While secretion of active-PhophoSer321α2HSG by visceral adipose tissue is independent of body mass index, we found that the fraction of active-alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secreted by subcutaneous adipose tissue increments significantly in situations of obesity. Functional studies show that the inhibition of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein increases insulin sensitivity in differentiated adipocytes. In

  10. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    PubMed

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p < 0.0001) for the former, and 0.861 (n = 469, p < 0.01) for the latter. These new BIA methods are useful for evaluating abdominal adiposity in clinical study and routine clinical practice of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  12. Ontogenesis of muscle and adipose tissues and their interactions in ruminants and other species.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Chilliard, Y; Picard, B

    2010-07-01

    The lean-to-fat ratio, that is, the relative masses of muscle and adipose tissue, is a criterion for the yield and quality of bovine carcasses and meat. This review describes the interactions between muscle and adipose tissue (AT) that may regulate the dynamic balance between the number and size of muscle v. adipose cells. Muscle and adipose tissue in cattle grow by an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia), mainly during foetal life. The total number of muscle fibres is set by the end of the second trimester of gestation. By contrast, the number of adipocytes is never set. Number of adipocytes increases mainly before birth until 1 year of age, depending on the anatomical location of the adipose tissue. Hyperplasia concerns brown pre-adipocytes during foetal life and white pre-adipocytes from a few weeks after birth. A decrease in the number of secondary myofibres and an increase in adiposity in lambs born from mothers severely underfed during early pregnancy suggest a balance in the commitment of a common progenitor into the myogenic or adipogenic lineages, or a reciprocal regulation of the commitment of two distinct progenitors. The developmental origin of white adipocytes is a subject of debate. Molecular and histological data suggested a possible transdifferentiation of brown into white adipocytes, but this hypothesis has now been challenged by the characterization of distinct precursor cells for brown and white adipocytes in mice. Increased nutrient storage in fully differentiated muscle fibres and adipocytes, resulting in cell enlargement (hypertrophy), is thought to be the main mechanism, whereby muscle and fat masses increase in growing cattle. Competition or prioritization between adipose and muscle cells for the uptake and metabolism of nutrients is suggested, besides the successive waves of growth of muscle v. adipose tissue, by the inhibited or delayed adipose tissue growth in bovine genotypes exhibiting strong muscular development. This

  13. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  14. Impairment of nutritional regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase expression with age.

    PubMed

    Caimari, A; Oliver, P; Palou, A

    2008-08-01

    Fasting-induced lipolysis becomes less effective with age. We have studied whether nutritional regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)--with an important role in lipolysis in low energy states--is affected by age. Wistar rats of different ages (from 1 to 13 months) were distributed in control and fasted groups (14 h-food deprivation). ATGL mRNA expression was measured in different adipose depots at different ages and in only one depot at 13 months by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. ATGL protein levels were determined at 3 and 7 months (not at 13 months) by western blot. Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), insulin and leptin levels were assessed in serum by enzymatic assays. ATGL expression was dependent on regional fat distribution, with higher levels in brown than in white adipose tissue depots; and was affected by age: ATGL mRNA was increased with age in the brown adipose tissue and was decreased in two of the studied white depots, the inguinal and retroperitoneal, not being affected in the epididymal and mesenteric. Age also affected ATGL nutritional regulation: fasting increased ATGL gene expression and protein levels in the different white adipose depots of the youngest rats (up to the age of 5 months), whereas there was no change in the oldest rats studied (7 and 13-months old). This was in agreement with the pattern of NEFA levels, which did not increase in serum of fasted rats in the oldest animals, whereas other homeostatic parameters, such as insulin and leptin, responded to fasting independently of age. ATGL expressed by brown adipose tissue was not affected by feeding conditions at any age. Nutritional regulation of ATGL expression in white adipose tissue is impaired with age, which could contribute to the increased difficulty for mobilizing lipids when animals are exposed to nutritional stress such as fasting.

  15. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amin acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated blood branched-chain amin acids (BCAA)are often assoicated with insulin resistance and type2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metaboli...

  16. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Denise E.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Olson, Kristine C.; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H.; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Thomas, Anthony P.; Oort, Pieter J.; Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G.; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35–50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals. PMID:23512805

  17. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  18. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of the mechanisms involved in increased adiposity in zebrafish triggered by the environmental contaminant tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Ouadah-Boussouf, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    One proposed contributing factor to the rise in overweight and obesity is exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an organotin, induces adipogenesis in cell culture models and may increases adipose mass in vivo in vertebrate model organisms. It has been hypothesized that TBT acts via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of TBT exposure on in vivo adipose tissue metabolism remain unexplored. Semitransparent zebrafish larvae, with their well-developed white adipose tissue, offer a unique opportunity for studying the effects of toxicant chemicals and pharmaceuticals on adipocyte biology and whole-organism adiposity in a vertebrate model. Within hours, zebrafish larvae, treated at environmentally-relevant nanomolar concentrations of TBT, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity linked to adipocyte hypertrophy. Under the experimental conditions used, we also demonstrated that zebrafish larvae adipose tissue proved to be highly responsive to selected human nuclear receptor agonists and antagonists. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and RXR/liver X receptor heterodimers were suggested to be in vivo effectors of the obesogenic effect of TBT on zebrafish white adipose tissue. RXR/PPARγ heterodimers may be recruited to modulate adiposity in zebrafish but were not a necessary requirement for the short term in vivo TBT obesogenic effect. Together, the present results suggest that TBT may induce the promotion of triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes via RXR-dependent pathways without necessary using PPAR isoforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    PubMed

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.