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Sample records for abdominal white adipose

  1. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  2. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2014-07-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  3. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  4. Maintenance of white adipose tissue in man.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for diseases such as diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Together these diseases form a cluster referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Despite the negative health consequences associated with excess adipose tissue, very little is known about the origin and maintenance of white adipose tissue in man. In this review we discuss what is known about the turnover of adult human adipocytes and their precursors, as well as adipose tissue heterogeneity, plasticity and developmental origins. The focus of this review is human tissue, however in many cases human data are missing and are inferred from animal studies. As such, reference to animal studies are made where human data is not available. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25240584

  5. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; Ptrend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT. PMID

  6. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  7. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  8. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research. PMID:27531474

  9. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  10. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  11. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  12. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges' g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z = 10.35, P < 0.05). Significant moderator effects of gender (Z = −2.90) and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z = −2.17) were found for visceral fat (P < 0.05), but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z = −5.10) and subcutaneous (Z = −7.09) abdominal adiposity volumes (P < 0.05). Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics) were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity. PMID:25525511

  13. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  14. Macrophage Elastase Suppresses White Adipose Tissue Expansion with Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J.; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S.; McGarry Houghton, A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. PMID:24914890

  15. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  16. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. PMID:23376694

  17. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078–1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323–5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003–1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489–0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC. PMID:26904670

  18. Oestrogen signalling in white adipose progenitor cells inhibits differentiation into brown adipose and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Kfir; Lim, Ajin; Clegg, Deborah J; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Oestrogen, often via oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signalling, regulates metabolic physiology, highlighted by post-menopausal temperature dysregulation (hot flashes), glucose intolerance, increased appetite and reduced metabolic rate. Here we show that ERα signalling has a role in adipose lineage specification in mice. ERα regulates adipose progenitor identity and potency, promoting white adipogenic lineage commitment. White adipose progenitors lacking ERα reprogramme and enter into smooth muscle and brown adipogenic fates. Mechanistic studies highlight a TGFβ programme involved in progenitor reprogramming downstream of ERα signalling. The observed reprogramming has profound metabolic outcomes; both female and male adipose-lineage ERα-mutant mice are lean, have improved glucose sensitivity and are resistant to weight gain on a high-fat diet. Further, they are hypermetabolic, hyperphagic and hyperthermic, all consistent with a brown phenotype. Together, these findings indicate that ERα cell autonomously regulates adipose lineage commitment, brown fat and smooth muscle cell formation, and systemic metabolism, in a manner relevant to prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:25330806

  19. Oestrogen signalling in white adipose progenitor cells inhibits differentiation into brown adipose and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Oestrogen, often via oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signalling, regulates metabolic physiology, highlighted by post-menopausal temperature dysregulation (hot flashes), glucose intolerance, increased appetite and reduced metabolic rate. Here we show that ERα signalling has a role in adipose lineage specification in mice. ERα regulates adipose progenitor identity and potency, promoting white adipogenic lineage commitment. White adipose progenitors lacking ERα reprogramme and enter into smooth muscle and brown adipogenic fates. Mechanistic studies highlight a TGFβ programme involved in progenitor reprogramming downstream of ERα signalling. The observed reprogramming has profound metabolic outcomes; both female and male adipose-lineage ERα-mutant mice are lean, have improved glucose sensitivity and are resistant to weight gain on a high-fat diet. Further, they are hypermetabolic, hyperphagic and hyperthermic, all consistent with a brown phenotype. Together, these findings indicate that ERα cell autonomously regulates adipose lineage commitment, brown fat and smooth muscle cell formation, and systemic metabolism, in a manner relevant to prevalent metabolic diseases. PMID:25330806

  20. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  1. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  2. In vivo Analysis of White Adipose Tissue in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E.N.; Rawls, John F.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major site of energy storage in bony vertebrates, and also serves central roles in the endocrine regulation of energy balance. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying WAT development and physiology are not well understood. This is due in part to difficulties associated with imaging adipose tissues in mammalian model systems, especially during early life stages. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new model system for adipose tissue research, in which WAT can be imaged in a transparent living vertebrate at all life stages. Here we present detailed methods for labeling adipocytes in live zebrafish using fluorescent lipophilic dyes, and for in vivo microscopy of zebrafish WAT. PMID:21951526

  3. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  4. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  5. Differential responses of white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue to caloric restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Okita, Naoyuki; Hayashida, Yusuke; Kojima, Yumiko; Fukushima, Mayumi; Yuguchi, Keiko; Mikami, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Akiko; Watanabe, Kyoko; Noguchi, Mituru; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Toshifusa; Higami, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows the aging process and extends longevity, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain debatable. It has recently been suggested that the beneficial action of CR may be mediated in part by adipose tissue remodeling. Mammals have two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this study, proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS, and subsequent analyses were performed on both WAT and BAT from 9-month-old male rats fed ad libitum or subjected to CR for 6 months. Our findings suggest that CR activates mitochondrial energy metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis in WAT. It is likely that in CR animals WAT functions as an energy transducer from glucose to energy-dense lipid. In contrast, in BAT CR either had no effect on, or down-regulated, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but enhanced fatty acid biosynthesis. This suggests that in CR animals BAT may change its function from an energy consuming system to an energy reservoir system. Based on our findings, we conclude that WAT and BAT cooperate to use energy effectively via a differential response of mitochondrial function to CR. PMID:22414572

  6. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the “beiging” of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  7. Metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Timothy D.; Holden, Candice R.; Sansbury, Brian E.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Shah, Jasmit; Zafar, Nagma; Tang, Yunan; Hellmann, Jason; Rai, Shesh N.; Spite, Matthew; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism is a critical regulator of adiposity and whole body energy expenditure; however, metabolic changes that occur in white adipose tissue (WAT) with obesity remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand the metabolic and bioenergetic changes occurring in WAT with obesity. Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed significant increases in whole body adiposity, had significantly lower V̇o2, V̇co2, and respiratory exchange ratios, and demonstrated worsened glucose and insulin tolerance compared with low-fat-fed mice. Metabolomic analysis of WAT showed marked changes in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleotide, and energy metabolism. Tissue levels of succinate and malate were elevated, and metabolites that could enter the Krebs cycle via anaplerosis were mostly diminished in high-fat-fed mice, suggesting altered mitochondrial metabolism. Despite no change in basal oxygen consumption or mitochondrial DNA abundance, citrate synthase activity was decreased by more than 50%, and responses to FCCP were increased in WAT from mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, Pgc1a was downregulated and Cox7a1 upregulated after 6 wk of HFD. After 12 wk of high-fat diet, the abundance of several proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain or matrix was diminished. These changes were accompanied by increased Parkin and Pink1, decreased p62 and LC3-I, and ultrastructural changes suggestive of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. These studies demonstrate coordinated restructuring of metabolism and autophagy that could contribute to the hypertrophy and whitening of adipose tissue in obesity. PMID:24918202

  8. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  9. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  10. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  11. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  12. Differences in In Vivo Cellular Kinetics in Abdominal and Femoral Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Women.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Fitch, Mark D; Beyl, Robbie A; Hellerstein, Marc K; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of fat in upper-body (abdominal) adipose tissue is associated with obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases, whereas lower-body (gluteal and femoral) fat may be protective. Studies suggest physiological and molecular differences between adipose depots and depot-specific cellular mechanisms of adipose expansion. We assessed in vivo cellular kinetics in subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) depots using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium ((2)H) from (2)H2O into the DNA of adipocytes and preadipocytes in 25 women with overweight or obesity. DNA synthesis rates denote new cell formation of preadipocytes and adipocytes in each depot. Formation of adipocytes was positively correlated to that of preadipocytes in the scABD and scFEM depots and was related to percent body fat in each depot. Notably, preadipocytes and adipocytes had higher formation rates in the scFEM depot relative to the scABD. This method to assess in vivo adipogenesis will be valuable to evaluate adipocyte kinetics in individuals with varying body fat distributions and degrees of metabolic health and in response to a variety of interventions, such as diet, exercise, or pharmacological treatment. PMID:26993068

  13. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = −0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  14. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  15. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  16. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  17. Different Anti-Contractile Function and Nitric Oxide Production of Thoracic and Abdominal Perivascular Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Jamaira A.; Fontes, Milene T.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Davel, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent phenotypes between the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding the abdominal and the thoracic aorta might be implicated in regional aortic differences, such as susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Although PVAT of the thoracic aorta exhibits anti-contractile function, the role of PVAT in the regulation of the vascular tone of the abdominal aorta is not well defined. In the present study, we compared the anti-contractile function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in PVAT and vessel walls of abdominal and thoracic aorta. Abdominal and thoracic aortic tissue from male Wistar rats were used to perform functional and molecular experiments. PVAT reduced the contraction evoked by phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium in the thoracic aorta, whereas this anti-contractile effect was not observed in the abdominal aorta. Abdominal PVAT exhibited a reduction in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression compared with thoracic PVAT, without differences in eNOS expression in the vessel walls. In agreement with this result, NO production evaluated in situ using 4,5-diaminofluorescein was less pronounced in abdominal compared with thoracic aortic PVAT, whereas no significant difference was observed for endothelial NO production. Moreover, NOS inhibition with L-NAME enhanced the phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelial-denuded rings with PVAT from thoracic but not abdominal aorta. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation products evaluated through the quantification of hydroethidine fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, respectively, were similar between PVAT and vessel walls from the abdominal and thoracic aorta. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was similar between the vessel walls and PVAT of the abdominal and thoracic aorta. However, Mn-SOD levels were reduced, while CuZn-SOD levels were increased in abdominal PVAT compared with thoracic aortic PVAT. In conclusion, our results

  18. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Conway, J M; Yanovski, S Z; Avila, N A; Hubbard, V S

    1995-04-01

    Fat distribution and metabolic variables were studied in 8 black and 10 white age- and weight-matched obese women undergoing a 6-mo weight-reducing regimen. Fat patterning was determined by using anthropometry and computed tomography to quantitate total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 levels of the lumbar spine, before, during, and after a modified fast. Black women had smaller depots of VAT than white women at both the L2-L3 (P = 0.004) and L4-L5 (P = 0.054) sites. Differences persisted after an average 17.2-kg weight loss. Although waist-hip ratio was similar in both groups, black women had 23% less VAT than white women (P = 0.007). Black women had significantly lower plasma glucose (P = 0.031) and triglycerides (P = 0.006) with significantly higher plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001). Data from this study suggest that racial differences exist in VAT and metabolic risk factors for obesity-related illness. PMID:7702017

  19. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    PubMed

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  20. White Adipose Tissue Browning: A Double-edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2016-08-01

    The study of white adipose tissue (WAT) 'browning' has become a 'hot topic' in various acute and chronic metabolic conditions, based on the idea that WAT browning might be able to facilitate weight loss and improve metabolic health. However, this view cannot be translated into all areas of medicine. Recent studies identified effects of browning associated with adverse outcomes, and as more studies are being conducted, a very different picture has emerged about WAT browning and its detrimental effect in acute and chronic hypermetabolic conditions. Therefore, the notion that browning is supposedly beneficial may be inadequate. In this review we analyze how and why browning in chronic hypermetabolic associated diseases can be detrimental and lead to adverse outcomes. PMID:27397607

  1. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  2. Abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Justin R; Vega-López, Sonia; Djedjos, Constantine S; Shaibi, Gabriel Q

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR) place youth at higher risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In adults, abdominal obesity and IR contribute to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether similar mechanisms are operational in Latino adolescents is unknown. Therefore, we determined whether IR and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher oxLDL concentrations in Latino adolescents. Data from 123 Latino adolescents (16.3 ± 2.5 years; female = 74) were used for the present analysis. Participants were assessed for waist circumference, fasting serum oxLDL, and insulin sensitivity by the whole body insulin sensitivity index. In separate linear regression models adjusting for age and sex, both waist circumference and insulin sensitivity were significant predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.9; p = 0.002; R2 = 0.13, β = -1.7; p = 0.006; R2 = 0.11, respectively). When insulin sensitivity and waist circumference were included in the same model, both remained independent predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.7; p = 0.016 and, β = -1.5; p = 0.055, respectively; R2 = 0.16). These results suggest that insulin resistance and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of LDL oxidation which may be a mechanism contributing to increased CVD risk in Latino adolescents. PMID:24238302

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  4. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  5. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  6. Cold-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue, White Adipose Tissue and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Andrew M.; Karamitri, Angeliki; Kemp, Paul; Speakman, John R.; Graham, Neil S.; Lomax, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold exposure imposes a metabolic challenge to mammals that is met by a coordinated response in different tissues to prevent hypothermia. This study reports a transcriptomic analysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose (WAT) and liver of mice in response to 24 h cold exposure at 8°C. Expression of 1895 genes were significantly (P<0.05) up- or down-regulated more than two fold by cold exposure in all tissues but only 5 of these genes were shared by all three tissues, and only 19, 14 and 134 genes were common between WAT and BAT, WAT and liver, and BAT and liver, respectively. We confirmed using qRT-PCR, the increased expression of a number of characteristic BAT genes during cold exposure. In both BAT and the liver, the most common direction of change in gene expression was suppression (496 genes in BAT and 590 genes in liver). Gene ontology analysis revealed for the first time significant (P<0.05) down regulation in response to cold, of genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolic processes and protease inhibitor activity, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT. The results reveal an unexpected importance of down regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression and apolipoprotein, in both BAT and liver, but not WAT, in response to cold exposure. Pathway analysis suggests a model in which down regulation of the nuclear transcription factors HNF4α and PPARα in both BAT and liver may orchestrate the down regulation of genes involved in lipoprotein and steroid metabolism as well as Phase I enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 group in response to cold stress in mice. We propose that the response to cold stress involves decreased gene expression in a range of cellular processes in order to maximise pathways involved in heat production. PMID:23894377

  7. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  8. Periadventitial adipose-derived stem cell treatment halts elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    PubMed Central

    Blose, Kory J; Ennis, Terri L; Arif, Batool; Weinbaum, Justin S; Curci, John A; Vorp, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aim Demonstrate that periadventitial delivery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) slows aneurysm progression in an established murine elastase-perfusion model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Materials & methods AAAs were induced in C57BL/6 mice using porcine elastase. During elastase perfusion, a delivery device consisting of a subcutaneous port, tubing and porous scaffold was implanted. Five days after elastase perfusion, 100,000 ADMSCs were delivered through the port to the aorta. After sacrifice at day 14, analyzed metrics included aortic diameter and structure of aortic elastin. Results ADMSC treated aneurysms had a smaller diameter and less fragmented elastin versus saline controls. Conclusion Periadventitial stem cell delivery prevented the expansion of an established aneurysm between days 5 and 14 after elastase perfusion. PMID:25431910

  9. Evaluation of markers of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue of the mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: There is a growing interest in exploiting the induction of beige or “brite” (brown in white) adipocytes (beigeing) to combat obesity and its comorbidities. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the best markers to evaluate the occurrence or magnitude of beigeing in white adipose t...

  10. Alternative Mechanism for White Adipose Tissue Lipolysis after Thermal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Li; Patsouris, David; Sadri, Ali-Reza; Dai, Xiaojing; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Extensively burned patients often suffer from sepsis, a complication that enhances postburn hypermetabolism and contributes to increased incidence of multiple organ failure, morbidity and mortality. Despite the clinical importance of burn sepsis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such infection-related metabolic derangements and organ dysfunction are still largely unknown. We recently found that upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the white adipose tissue (WAT) interacts with the liver via inflammatory and metabolic signals leading to profound hepatic alterations, including hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic fatty infiltration. We therefore hypothesized that burn plus infection causes an increase in lipolysis of WAT after major burn, partially through induction of ER stress, contributing to hyperlipidemia and profound hepatic lipid infiltration. We used a two-hit rat model of 60% total body surface area scald burn, followed by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 d postburn. One day later, animals were euthanized and liver and epididymal WAT (EWAT) samples were collected for gene expression, protein analysis and histological study of inflammasome activation, ER stress, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Our results showed that burn plus LPS profoundly increased lipolysis in WAT associated with significantly increased hepatic lipid infiltration. Burn plus LPS augmented ER stress by upregulating CHOP and activating ATF6, inducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and leading to increased apoptosis and lipolysis in WAT with a distinct enzymatic mechanism related to inhibition of AMPK signaling. In conclusion, burn sepsis causes profound alterations in WAT and liver that are associated with changes in organ function and structure. PMID:26736177

  11. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development.

    PubMed

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Kelley, Gary; Kimathi, Boniface; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K V; Donkor, Joseph; Darris, Carl; Tyus, James; Payne, Ashley; Byers, Shannon; Hui, Dafeng; Nahashon, Samuel; Chen, Fur-Chi; Ivy, Michael; Wang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  12. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K. V.; Donkor, Joseph; Tyus, James; Hui, Dafeng; Ivy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  13. Effect of Pioglitazone on the Fructose-Induced Abdominal Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E.; Rebolledo, Oscar R.; Gagliardino, Juan J.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction. PMID:23091482

  14. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  15. Biochemical properties of porcine white adipose tissue mitochondria and relevance to fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koekemoer, T C; Oelofsen, W

    2001-07-01

    The capacity of white adipose tissue mitochondria to support a high beta-oxidative flux was investigated by comparison to liver mitochondria. Based on marker enzyme activities and electron microscopy, the relative purity of the isolated mitochondria was similar thus allowing a direct comparison on a protein basis. The results confirm the comparable capacity of adipose tissue and liver mitochondria for palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation. Relative to liver, both citrate synthase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were increased 7.87- and 10.38-fold, respectively. In contrast, adipose tissue NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase was decreased (2.85-fold). Such modifications in the citric acid cycle are expected to severely restrict citrate oxidation in porcine adipose tissue. Except for cytochrome c oxidase, activities of the enzyme complexes comprising the electron transport chain were not significantly different. The decrease in adipose cytochrome c oxidase activity could partly be attributed to a decreased inner membrane as suggested by lipid and enzyme analysis. In addition, Western blotting indicated that adipose and liver mitochondria possess similar quantities of cytochrome c oxidase protein. Taken together these results indicate that not only is the white adipose tissue protoplasm relatively rich in mitochondria, but that these mitochondria contain comparable enzymatic machinery to support a relatively high beta-oxidative rate. PMID:11435134

  16. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  17. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Zhang, J J; Li, S F; Liang, Z; Wen, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  18. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Liu, R. R.; Zhao, G. P.; Li, Q.H.; Zheng, M. Q.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, S. F.; Liang, Z.; Wen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  19. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  20. General and abdominal adiposity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults: dependency of measures and socio-demographic factors' influence.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara

    2016-01-14

    The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country. PMID:26489926

  1. A Role of the Inflammasome in the Low Storage Capacity of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kursawe, Romy; Dixit, Vishwa D; Scherer, Philipp E; Santoro, Nicola; Narayan, Deepak; Gordillo, Ruth; Giannini, Cosimo; Lopez, Ximena; Pierpont, Bridget; Nouws, Jessica; Shulman, Gerald I; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26718495

  2. Computed tomography-defined abdominal adiposity is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashaty, Michael G. S.; Kalkan, Esra; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Reilly, John P.; Holena, Daniel N.; Cummins, Kathleen; Lanken, Paul N.; Feldman, Harold I.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after major trauma. Since BMI is non-specific, reflecting lean, fluid, and adipose mass, we evaluated the use of computed tomography (CT) to determine if abdominal adiposity underlies the BMI-AKI association. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Level I Trauma Center of a university hospital. Patients Patients older than 13 years with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 admitted to the trauma intensive care unit were followed for development of AKI over five days. Those with isolated severe head injury or on chronic dialysis were excluded. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Clinical, anthropometric, and demographic variables were collected prospectively. CT images at the level of the L4-5 intervertebral disc space were extracted from the medical record and used by two operators to quantitate visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) areas. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) creatinine and dialysis criteria. Of 400 subjects, 327 (81.8%) had CT scans suitable for analysis: 264/285 (92.6%) blunt trauma subjects, 63/115 (54.8%) penetrating trauma subjects. VAT and SAT areas were highly correlated between operators (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each) and within operator (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each). In multivariable analysis, the standardized risk of AKI was 15.1% (95% CI 10.6%,19.6%), 18.1% (14%,22.2%), and 23.1% (18.3%,27.9%) at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of VAT area, respectively (p=0.001), with similar findings when using SAT area as the adiposity measure. Conclusions Quantitation of abdominal adiposity using CT scans obtained for clinical reasons is feasible and highly reliable in critically ill trauma patients. Abdominal adiposity is independently associated with AKI in this population, confirming that excess adipose tissue contributes to the BMI-AKI association. Further studies of the potential

  3. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: The Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined- grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We examined the cross-sectional associati...

  4. The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vidal, H; Auboeuf, D; De Vos, P; Staels, B; Riou, J P; Auwerx, J; Laville, M

    1996-07-15

    The regulation of ob gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated using a reverse transcription-competitive PCR method to quantify the mRNA level of leptin. Leptin mRNA level was highly correlated with the body mass index of 26 subjects (12 lean, 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic, and 7 obese patients). The effect of fasting on ob gene expression was investigated in 10 subjects maintained on a hypocaloric diet (1045 KJ/d) for 5 d. While their metabolic parameters significantly changed (decrease in insulinemia, glycemia, and resting metabolic rate and increase in plasma ketone bodies), the caloric restriction did not modify the leptin mRNA level in the adipose tissue. To verify whether insulin regulates ob gene expression, six lean subjects underwent a 3-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (846 +/- 138 pmol/liter) clamp. Leptin and Glut 4 mRNA levels were quantified in adipose tissue biopsies taken before and at the end of the clamp. Insulin infusion produced a significant threefold increase in Glut 4 mRNA while leptin mRNA was not affected. It is concluded that ob gene expression is not acutely regulated by insulin or by metabolic factors related to fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:8755631

  5. Causes of (18)F-FDG uptake on white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Doh Yu; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Soon

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue usually shows negligible fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake. In certain clinical conditions this (18)F-FDG uptake has been reported to be increased like in HIV patients under treatment, in exogenous Cushing's syndrome, in cases related to premedication and other cases. PMID:26929935

  6. Heterogeneity of white adipose tissue: molecular basis and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Kelvin H M; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. The heterogeneity among different anatomical depots stems from their intrinsic differences in cellular and physiological properties, including developmental origin, adipogenic and proliferative capacity, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, hormonal control, thermogenic ability and vascularization. Additional factors that influence adipose tissue heterogeneity are genetic predisposition, environment, gender and age. Under obese condition, these depot-specific differences translate into specific fat distribution patterns, which are closely associated with differential cardiometabolic risks. For instance, individuals with central obesity are more susceptible to developing diabetes and cardiovascular complications, whereas those with peripheral obesity are more metabolically healthy. This review summarizes the clinical and mechanistic evidence for the depot-specific differences that give rise to different metabolic consequences, and provides therapeutic insights for targeted treatment of obesity. PMID:26964831

  7. Cellularity and Adipogenic Profile of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue From Obese Adolescents: Association With Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Eszlinger, Markus; Narayan, Deepak; Liu, Teresa; Bazuine, Merlijn; Cali, Anna M.G.; D'Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Sherman, Arthur; Caprio, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, 1H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents. PMID:20805387

  8. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Aric A.; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30+, 50+ and 90+ minutes after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p’s<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk. PMID:24060585

  9. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-06-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. PMID:24907349

  10. Abdominal adiposity and obstructive airway disease: testing insulin resistance and sleep disordered breathing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined associations of abdominal adiposity with lung function, asthma symptoms and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and mediation by insulin resistance (IR) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Methods A random sample of 2500 households was drawn from the community of Whyalla, South Australia (The Whyalla Intergenerational Study of Health, WISH February 2008 - July 2009). Seven-hundred twenty-two randomly selected adults (≥18 years) completed clinical protocols (32.2% response rate). Lung function was measured by spirometry. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was used to measure airway obstruction and reversibility of FEV1 was calculated. Current asthma was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosis and evidence of currently active asthma. Symptom scores for asthma (CASS) and SDB were calculated. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). IR was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results The prevalence of current doctor-diagnosed asthma was 19.9% (95% CI 16.7 – 23.5%). The ratio of observed to expected cases given the age and sex distribution of the population was 2.4 (95%CI 2.1, 2.9). IAF was not associated with current doctor-diagnosed asthma, FEV1/FVC or FEV1 reversibility in men or women but was positively associated with CASS independent of IR and SDB in women. A 1% increase in IAF was associated with decreases of 12 mL and 20 mL in FEV1 and FVC respectively in men, and 4 mL and 7 mL respectively in women. SDB mediated 12% and 26% of these associations respectively in men but had minimal effects in women. Conclusions In this population with an excess of doctor-diagnosed asthma, IAF was not a major factor in airway obstruction or doctor-diagnosed asthma, although women with higher IAF perceived more severe asthma symptoms which did not correlate with lower FEV1. Higher IAF was significantly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and in men SDB mechanisms may

  11. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates Adipocyte Morphology and Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Mejhert, Niklas; Fretz, Jackie A.; Arner, Erik; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Ehrlund, Anna; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Gong, Xiaowei; Strömblad, Staffan; Douagi, Iyadh; Laurencikiene, Jurga; Dahlman, Ingrid; Daub, Carsten O.; Rydén, Mikael; Horowitz, Mark C.; Arner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary White adipose tissue (WAT) morphology characterized by hypertrophy (i.e. fewer but larger adipocytes) associates with increased adipose inflammation, lipolysis, insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. However, the causal relationships and the mechanisms controlling WAT morphology are unclear. Herein, we identified EBF1 as an adipocyte-expressed transcription factor with decreased expression/activity in WAT hypertrophy. In human adipocytes, the regulatory targets of EBF1 were enriched for genes controlling lipolysis and adipocyte morphology/differentiation and in both humans and murine models, reduced EBF1 levels associated with increased lipolysis and adipose hypertrophy. Although EBF1 did not affect adipose inflammation, TNFα reduced EBF1 gene expression. High fat diet-intervention in Ebf1+/− mice resulted in more pronounced WAT hypertrophy and attenuated insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type littermate controls. We conclude that EBF1 is an important regulator of adipose morphology and fat cell lipolysis and may constitute a link between WAT inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance. PMID:24856929

  12. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ingSAT) and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue (pgVAT) is promoted by the depletion of microbiota either by means of antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice. This leads to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice, obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Such metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration, enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by the suppression of type 2 cytokine signaling, and they are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into the microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige-fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  13. Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Juan Pablo; García, María Elisa; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Marra, Carlos Alberto; Spinedi, Eduardo; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of OS (oxidative stress) inhibition in rats fed on an FRD [fructose-rich diet; 10% (w/v) in drinking water] for 3 weeks. Normal adult male rats received a standard CD (commercial diet) or an FRD without or with an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, APO (apocynin; 5 mM in drinking water; CD-APO and FRD-APO). We thereafter measured plasma OS and metabolic-endocrine markers, AAT (abdominal adipose tissue) mass and cell size, FA (fatty acid) composition (content and release), OS status, LEP (leptin) and IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1/IRS-2 mRNAs, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, NADPH oxidase activity and LEP release by isolated AAT adipocytes. FRD-fed rats had larger AAT mass without changes in body weight, and higher plasma levels of TAG (triacylglycerol), FAs, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and LEP. Although no significant changes in glucose and insulin plasma levels were observed in these animals, their HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) values were significantly higher than those of CD. The AAT from FRD-fed rats had larger adipocytes, higher saturated FA content, higher NADPH oxidase activity, greater ROS production, a distorted FA content/release pattern, lower insulin sensitivity together with higher and lower mRNA content of LEP and IRS-1-/2 respectively, and released a larger amount of LEP. The development of all the clinical, OS, metabolic, endocrine and molecular changes induced by the FRD were significantly prevented by APO co-administration. The fact that APO treatment prevented both changes in NADPH oxidase activity and the development of all the FRD-induced AAT dysfunctions in normal rats strongly suggests that OS plays an important role in the FRD-induced MS (metabolic syndrome) phenotype. PMID:23384123

  14. Lower "awake and fed thermogenesis" predicts future weight gain in subjects with abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Thearle, Marie S

    2013-12-01

    Awake and fed thermogenesis (AFT) is the energy expenditure (EE) of the nonactive fed condition above the minimum metabolic requirement during sleep and is composed of the thermic effect of food and the cost of being awake. AFT was estimated from whole-room 24-h EE measures in 509 healthy subjects (368 Native Americans and 141 whites) while subjects consumed a eucaloric diet. Follow-up data were available for 290 Native Americans (median follow-up time: 6.6 years). AFT accounted for ~10% of 24-h EE and explained a significant portion of deviations from expected energy requirements. Energy intake was the major determinant of AFT. AFT, normalized as a percentage of intake, was inversely related to age and fasting glucose concentration and showed a nonlinear relationship with waist circumference and BMI. Spline analysis demonstrated that AFT becomes inversely related to BMI at an inflection point of 29 kg/m(2). The residual variance of AFT, after accounting for covariates, predicted future weight change only in subjects with a BMI >29 kg/m(2). AFT may influence daily energy balance, is reduced in obese individuals, and predicts future weight gain in these subjects. Once central adiposity develops, a blunting of AFT may occur that then contributes to further weight gain. PMID:23974925

  15. Maternal adiposity negatively influences infant brain white matter development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To study potential effects of maternal body composition on central nervous system (CNS) development of newborn infants. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to evaluate brain white matter development in 2-week-old, full-term, appropriate for gestational age infants from uncomplicat...

  16. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. PMID:23228690

  17. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve. PMID:26125027

  18. ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE (SAT) AND VICERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE (VAT) MEASUREMENTS IN HIV+ ADULTS: INFLUENCES OF MEASUREMENT SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of SAT and an increase in VAT are common with HIV lipodystrophy. Excess abdominal VAT is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Computerized axial tomography (CT) can be used to measure SAT and VAT areas in cross-sectional images of the abdomen. The ideal site(s) and number of abdomina...

  19. Comparison of three detergent-free protein extraction protocols for white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Sajic, Tatjana; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Szanto, Ildiko; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2011-08-15

    A comparative study of three detergent-free protein extraction protocols--a differential centrifugal fractionation, a delipidation protocol based on the Bligh and Dyer method, and the trifluoroethanol addition as cosolvent to an aqueous buffer--was performed on white adipose tissue. The performance of the protocols directly compatible with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was evaluated based on the total protein extraction yield and the protein recovery from different functional and cellular compartments. The most suitable method for the extraction of white adipose tissue proteins from a wide range of cellular and structural compartments was the delipidation protocol based on the Bligh and Dyer method. PMID:21565151

  20. Diurnal gene expression of lipolytic natriuretic peptide receptors in white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julie; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Christoffersen, Christina; Goetze, Jens P

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to obesity and cardiovascular disease. In white adipose tissue, activation of the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) stimulates lipolysis. We have previously shown that natriuretic peptides are expressed in a circadian manner in the heart, but the temporal expression profile of their cognate receptors has not been examined in white adipose tissue. We therefore collected peri-renal white adipose tissue and serum from WT mice. Tissue mRNA contents of NPRs – NPR-A and NPR-C, the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1, and transcripts involved in lipid metabolism were quantified at 4-h intervals: in the diurnal study, mice were exposed to a period of 12 h light followed by 12 h darkness (n=52). In the circadian study, mice were kept in darkness for 24 h (n=47). Concomitant serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, triglycerides (TGs), and insulin were measured. Per1 and Bmal1 mRNA contents showed reciprocal circadian profiles (P<0.0001). NPR-A mRNA contents followed a temporal pattern (P=0.01), peaking in the dark (active) period. In contrast, NPR-C mRNA was expressed in an antiphase manner with nadir in the active period (P=0.007). TG concentrations in serum peaked in the active dark period (P=0.003). In conclusion, NPR-A and NPR-C gene expression is associated with the expression of clock genes in white adipose tissue. The reciprocal expression may thus contribute to regulate lipolysis and energy homeostasis in a diurnal manner. PMID:26286623

  1. Prdm4 induction by the small molecule butein promotes white adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Choi, Seri; Rajbhandari, Prashant; Chang, Seo-Hyuk; Kim, Suji; Vergnes, Laurent; Kwon, So-Mi; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sukchan; Ku, Jin-Mo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Reue, Karen; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Tontonoz, Peter; Park, Kye Won

    2016-07-01

    Increasing the thermogenic activity of adipocytes holds promise as an approach to combating human obesity and related metabolic diseases. We identified induction of mouse PR domain containing 4 (Prdm4) by the small molecule butein as a means to induce expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), increase energy expenditure, and stimulate the generation of thermogenic adipocytes. This study highlights a Prdm4-dependent pathway, modulated by small molecules, that stimulates browning of white adipose tissue. PMID:27159578

  2. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J.; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity1. In response to cold or exercise brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (named beige cells), a process known as browning2,3,4. Here, we show that the development of functional beige fat is promoted by microbiota depletion either by antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice within the inguinal subcutaneous and perigonadal visceral adipose tissues (ingSAT and pgVAT, respectively). This leads to improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice and obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. These metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration and enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by suppression of the type 2 signaling and are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated, or the germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  3. White adipose tissue cells and the progression of cachexia: inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Rodrigo X.; Rosa‐Neto, José Cesar; Yamashita, Alex S.; Matos‐Neto, Emidio M.; Riccardi, Daniela M. R.; Lira, Fabio S.; Batista, Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a systemic syndrome leading to body wasting, systemic inflammation, and to metabolic chaos. It is a progressive condition, and little is known about its dynamics. Detection of the early signs of the disease may lead to the attenuation of the associated symptoms. The white adipose tissue is an organ with endocrine functions, capable of synthesising and secreting a plethora of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines. It is well established that different adipose tissue depots demonstrate heterogeneous responses to physiological and pathological stimuli. The present study aimed at providing insight into adipocyte involvement in inflammation along the progression of cachexia. Methods Eight‐weeks‐old male rats were subcutaneously inoculated with a Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cell suspension (2 × 107 cells in 1.0 mL; tumour‐bearing, T) or Phosphate‐buffered saline (control, C). The retroperitoneal, epididymal, and mesenteric adipose pads were excised on Days 0, 7, and 14 post‐tumour cell injection, and the adipocytes were isolated. Results Mesenteric and epididymal adipocytes showed up‐regulation of IL‐1β protein expression and activation of the inflammasome pathway, contributing for whole tissue inflammation. The stromal vascular fraction of the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, on the other hand, seems to be the major contributor for the inflammation in this specific pad. Conclusion Adipocytes seem to play a relevant role in the establishment of white adipose tissue inflammation, through the activation of the NF‐κB and inflammasome pathways. In epididymal adipocytes, induction of the inflammasome may be detected already on Day 7 post‐tumour cell inoculation.

  4. Cafeteria diet-induced obesity causes oxidative damage in white adipose.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy R; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Sampey, Brante P; Troester, Melissa A; Hayes, D Neil; Makowski, Liza

    2016-04-29

    Obesity continues to be one of the most prominent public health dilemmas in the world. The complex interaction among the varied causes of obesity makes it a particularly challenging problem to address. While typical high-fat purified diets successfully induce weight gain in rodents, we have described a more robust model of diet-induced obesity based on feeding rats a diet consisting of highly palatable, energy-dense human junk foods - the "cafeteria" diet (CAF, 45-53% kcal from fat). We previously reported that CAF-fed rats became hyperphagic, gained more weight, and developed more severe hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance compared to the lard-based 45% kcal from fat high fat diet-fed group. In addition, the CAF diet-fed group displayed a higher degree of inflammation in adipose and liver, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an increased concentration of lipid-derived, pro-inflammatory mediators. Building upon our previous findings, we aimed to determine mechanisms that underlie physiologic findings in the CAF diet. We investigated the effect of CAF diet-induced obesity on adipose tissue specifically using expression arrays and immunohistochemistry. Genomic evidence indicated the CAF diet induced alterations in the white adipose gene transcriptome, with notable suppression of glutathione-related genes and pathways involved in mitigating oxidative stress. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated a doubling in adipose lipid peroxidation marker 4-HNE levels compared to rats that remained lean on control standard chow diet. Our data indicates that the CAF diet drives an increase in oxidative damage in white adipose tissue that may affect tissue homeostasis. Oxidative stress drives activation of inflammatory kinases that can perturb insulin signaling leading to glucose intolerance and diabetes. PMID:27033600

  5. IEX-1 deficiency induces browning of white adipose tissue and resists diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Mohd; Javed, Ammar A.; Chandra, David; Ramsey, Haley E.; Shah, Dilip; Khan, Mohammed F.; Zhao, Liping; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the primary mediators that affect energy homeostasis remain ill defined. Here, we report an unexpected role for immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), a downstream target of NF-κB, in energy metabolism. We found that IEX-1 expression was highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) in both epidydmal and subcutaneous depots but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Null mutation of IEX-1 protected mice against HFD-induced adipose and hepatic inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, IEX-1 knockout (IEX-1−/−) mice gained markedly less weight on HFD for 20 weeks as compared to wild-type (WT) littermates (37 ± 3 versus 48 ± 2 gm) due to increased energy expenditure. Mechanistically, we showed that IEX-1 deficiency induced browning and activated thermogenic genes program in WAT but not in BAT by promoting alternative activation of adipose macrophages. Consequently, IEX-1−/− mice exhibited enhanced thermogenesis (24 ± 0.1 versus 22 ± 0.1 kcal/hour/kg in WT mice) explaining increased energy expenditure and lean phenotype in these mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that IEX-1 is a novel physiological regulator of energy homeostasis via its action in WAT. PMID:27063893

  6. IEX-1 deficiency induces browning of white adipose tissue and resists diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohd; Javed, Ammar A; Chandra, David; Ramsey, Haley E; Shah, Dilip; Khan, Mohammed F; Zhao, Liping; Wu, Mei X

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the primary mediators that affect energy homeostasis remain ill defined. Here, we report an unexpected role for immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), a downstream target of NF-κB, in energy metabolism. We found that IEX-1 expression was highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) in both epidydmal and subcutaneous depots but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Null mutation of IEX-1 protected mice against HFD-induced adipose and hepatic inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, IEX-1 knockout (IEX-1(-/-)) mice gained markedly less weight on HFD for 20 weeks as compared to wild-type (WT) littermates (37 ± 3 versus 48 ± 2 gm) due to increased energy expenditure. Mechanistically, we showed that IEX-1 deficiency induced browning and activated thermogenic genes program in WAT but not in BAT by promoting alternative activation of adipose macrophages. Consequently, IEX-1(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced thermogenesis (24 ± 0.1 versus 22 ± 0.1 kcal/hour/kg in WT mice) explaining increased energy expenditure and lean phenotype in these mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that IEX-1 is a novel physiological regulator of energy homeostasis via its action in WAT. PMID:27063893

  7. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Luana Amorim; Lima Junior, Edson Alves; Souza, Camila Oliveira; Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D C; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Dos Santos, Ronaldo V T; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rosa Neto, José Cesar

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  8. Impact of Doxorubicin Treatment on the Physiological Functions of White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maysa Mariana; Cunha, Roberta D. C.; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel; Oyama, Lila Missae; Nascimento, Claudia M. Oller; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; dos Santos, Ronaldo V. T.; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining energy balance and important endocrine functions. The loss of WAT modifies adipokine secretion and disrupts homeostasis, potentially leading to severe metabolic effects and a reduced quality of life. Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used clinically because of its good effectiveness against various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin has deleterious effects in many healthy tissues, including WAT, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscles. Our objective was to investigate the effects of doxorubicin on white adipocytes through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Doxorubicin reduced the uptake of glucose by retroperitoneal adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells via the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase Thr172 phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 content. Doxorubicin also reduced the serum level of adiponectin and, to a greater extent, the expression of genes encoding lipogenic (Fas and Acc) and adipogenic factors (Pparg, C/ebpa, and Srebp1c) in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. In addition, doxorubicin inhibited both lipogenesis and lipolysis and reduced the hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase protein levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate the impact of doxorubicin on WAT. These results are important to understand some side effects observed in patients receiving chemotherapy and should encourage new adjuvant treatments that aim to inhibit these side effects. PMID:27015538

  9. Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Meritxell; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Okolo, Anthony; Chan, Yi-Wah; Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Millership, Steven; Fenech, Matthew E.; MacIntyre, David; Turner, Jeremy O.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Blackburn, Edith; Gullick, William J.; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G.

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate energy, whereas white adipocytes are an energy storage site. We explored the plasticity of different white adipose tissue depots in acquiring a brown phenotype by cold exposure. By comparing cold-induced genes in white fat to those enriched in brown compared with white fat, at thermoneutrality we defined a “brite” transcription signature. We identified the genes, pathways, and promoter regulatory motifs associated with “browning,” as these represent novel targets for understanding this process. For example, neuregulin 4 was more highly expressed in brown adipose tissue and upregulated in white fat upon cold exposure, and cell studies showed that it is a neurite outgrowth-promoting adipokine, indicative of a role in increasing adipose tissue innervation in response to cold. A cell culture system that allows us to reproduce the differential properties of the discrete adipose depots was developed to study depot-specific differences at an in vitro level. The key transcriptional events underpinning white adipose tissue to brown transition are important, as they represent an attractive proposition to overcome the detrimental effects associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24549398

  10. Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Meritxell; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Okolo, Anthony; Chan, Yi-Wah; Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Millership, Steven; Fenech, Matthew E; MacIntyre, David; Turner, Jeremy O; Moore, Jonathan D; Blackburn, Edith; Gullick, William J; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G; Christian, Mark

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipocytes dissipate energy, whereas white adipocytes are an energy storage site. We explored the plasticity of different white adipose tissue depots in acquiring a brown phenotype by cold exposure. By comparing cold-induced genes in white fat to those enriched in brown compared with white fat, at thermoneutrality we defined a "brite" transcription signature. We identified the genes, pathways, and promoter regulatory motifs associated with "browning," as these represent novel targets for understanding this process. For example, neuregulin 4 was more highly expressed in brown adipose tissue and upregulated in white fat upon cold exposure, and cell studies showed that it is a neurite outgrowth-promoting adipokine, indicative of a role in increasing adipose tissue innervation in response to cold. A cell culture system that allows us to reproduce the differential properties of the discrete adipose depots was developed to study depot-specific differences at an in vitro level. The key transcriptional events underpinning white adipose tissue to brown transition are important, as they represent an attractive proposition to overcome the detrimental effects associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24549398

  11. Insulin resistance and white adipose tissue inflammation are uncoupled in energetically challenged Fsp27-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linkang; Park, Shi-Young; Xu, Li; Xia, Xiayu; Ye, Jing; Su, Lu; Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Hur, Jang Ho; Oh, Hyunhee; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Zingaretti, Cristina M.; Cinti, Saverio; Argente, Jesús; Yu, Miao; Wu, Lizhen; Ju, Shenghong; Guan, Feifei; Yang, Hongyuan; Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Fsp27 is a lipid droplet-associated protein almost exclusively expressed in adipocytes where it facilitates unilocular lipid droplet formation. In mice, Fsp27 deficiency is associated with increased basal lipolysis, ‘browning’ of white fat and a healthy metabolic profile, whereas a patient with congenital CIDEC deficiency manifested an adverse lipodystrophic phenotype. Here we reconcile these data by showing that exposing Fsp27-null mice to a substantial energetic stress by crossing them with ob/ob mice or BATless mice, or feeding them a high-fat diet, results in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We also observe a striking reduction in adipose inflammation and increase in adiponectin levels in all three models. This appears to reflect reduced activation of the inflammasome and less adipocyte death. These findings highlight the importance of Fsp27 in facilitating optimal energy storage in adipocytes and represent a rare example where adipose inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance are disassociated. PMID:25565658

  12. Insulin resistance and white adipose tissue inflammation are uncoupled in energetically challenged Fsp27-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linkang; Park, Shi-Young; Xu, Li; Xia, Xiayu; Ye, Jing; Su, Lu; Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Hur, Jang Ho; Oh, Hyunhee; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Zingaretti, Cristina M; Cinti, Saverio; Argente, Jesús; Yu, Miao; Wu, Lizhen; Ju, Shenghong; Guan, Feifei; Yang, Hongyuan; Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Fsp27 is a lipid droplet-associated protein almost exclusively expressed in adipocytes where it facilitates unilocular lipid droplet formation. In mice, Fsp27 deficiency is associated with increased basal lipolysis, 'browning' of white fat and a healthy metabolic profile, whereas a patient with congenital CIDEC deficiency manifested an adverse lipodystrophic phenotype. Here we reconcile these data by showing that exposing Fsp27-null mice to a substantial energetic stress by crossing them with ob/ob mice or BATless mice, or feeding them a high-fat diet, results in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We also observe a striking reduction in adipose inflammation and increase in adiponectin levels in all three models. This appears to reflect reduced activation of the inflammasome and less adipocyte death. These findings highlight the importance of Fsp27 in facilitating optimal energy storage in adipocytes and represent a rare example where adipose inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance are disassociated. PMID:25565658

  13. PPARγ Antagonist Gleevec Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jung, Ji-Eun; Marciano, David P; Jo, Ala; Koo, Ja Young; Choi, Soo Youn; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Park, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyug Moo; Lee, In Hee; Park, Seung Bum; Myung, Kyung-Jae; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Griffin, Patrick R; Choi, Jang Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Blocking phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ at Ser(273) is one of the key mechanisms for antidiabetes drugs to target PPARγ. Using high-throughput phosphorylation screening, we here describe that Gleevec blocks cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated PPARγ phosphorylation devoid of classical agonism as a PPARγ antagonist ligand. In high fat-fed mice, Gleevec improved insulin sensitivity without causing severe side effects associated with other PPARγ-targeting drugs. Furthermore, Gleevec reduces lipogenic and gluconeogenic gene expression in liver and ameliorates inflammation in adipose tissues. Interestingly, Gleevec increases browning of white adipose tissue and energy expenditure. Taken together, the results indicate that Gleevec exhibits greater beneficial effects on both glucose/lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis by blocking PPARγ phosphorylation. These data illustrate that Gleevec could be a novel therapeutic agent for use in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26740599

  14. Human periprostatic white adipose tissue is rich in stromal progenitor cells and a potential source of prostate tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Silvestre, Ricardo; Castela, Angela; Coutinho, Helena; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Lopes, José Manuel; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2012-10-01

    A body of growing evidence now implicates white adipose tissue as a relevant source of stromal progenitor cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment to form supportive tumor stroma. While the role of periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue in prostate cancer progression has been barely appreciated, we sought to determine the progenitor cell population in PP adipose tissue and the association with prostate cancer. We isolated and characterized CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) progenitor cells (adipose-derived stem cells [ASC]) in paired samples of PP and preperitoneal visceral adipose tissue from prostate tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer and nodular prostatic hyperplasia patients. ASC were quantified by flow cytometry and confirmed through target gene expression. Here we show a significantly higher amount of ASC in PP than in visceral adipose tissue, independent of body mass index and prostatic disease. In the prostate, ASC are increased in cancer compared with prostatic nodular hyperplasia patients. Concordantly, adipsin gene (CFD) expression, which is known to be up-regulated in adipose stem cells, was overexpressed in PP adipose tissue, in the prostate of cancer patients and in prostate CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) sorted cells. ASC were found at higher levels in the blood of prostate cancer patients simultaneously overweight/obese. Present findings indicate that PP adipose tissue is a reservoir of progenitor cells with the potential to migrate towards prostate tumors, although its clinical significance merits further evaluation. PMID:23038706

  15. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  16. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  17. Severe Burn Injury Induces Thermogenically Functional Mitochondria in Murine White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Bhattarai, Nisha; Ogunbileje, John O; Szczesny, Bartosz; Szabo, Csaba; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cold exposure induces functionally thermogenic mitochondria in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of mice. Whether this response occurs in pathophysiological states remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of severe burn trauma on iWAT mitochondrial function in mice. Male BALB/c mice (10-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns to ∼30% of the body surface area. Inguinal white adipose tissue was harvested from mice at 1, 4, 10, 20, and 40 days postinjury. Total and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mitochondrial thermogenesis were determined in iWAT. Citrate synthase activity was determined as a proxy of mitochondrial abundance. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess iWAT morphology and UCP1 expression. Uncoupling protein 1-dependent respiration was significantly greater at 4 and 10 days after burn compared with sham, peaking at 20 days after burn (P < 0.001). Citrate synthase activity was threefold greater at 4, 10, 20, and 40 days after burn versus sham (P < 0.05). Per mitochondrion, UCP1 function increased after burn trauma (P < 0.05). After burn trauma, iWAT exhibited numerous multilocular lipid droplets that stained positive for UCP1. The current findings demonstrate the induction of thermogenically competent mitochondria within rodent iWAT in a model of severe burn trauma. These data identify a specific pathology that induces the browning of white adipose tissue in vivo and may offer a mechanistic explanation for the chronic hypermetabolism observed in burn victims. PMID:26009824

  18. Association of food consumption with total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in a Northern German population.

    PubMed

    Rüttgers, Daniela; Fischer, Karina; Koch, Manja; Lieb, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-12-14

    Excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases; further, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and the ratio of both (VAT:SAAT ratio) have been discussed as potentially detrimental. Information about the association between diet and adipose tissue is scarce. This study aimed to identify food group intake associated with VAT and SAAT and the VAT:SAAT ratio in a Northern German population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 344 men and 241 women who underwent an MRI to quantify total volumes of VAT and SAAT. Intake of fourteen food groups was assessed with a self-administered 112-item FFQ. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, intake of other food groups and mutual adjustment for VAT and SAAT were calculated to analyse the associations between standardised food group intake and VAT and SAAT, or the VAT:SAAT ratio. Intakes of potatoes (P=0·043) and cakes (P=0·003) were positively and inversely, respectively, associated with both VAT and SAAT. By contrast, intake of cereals was negatively associated with VAT (P=0·045) only, whereas intakes of eggs (P=0·006) and non-alcoholic beverages (P=0·042) were positively associated with SAAT only. The association between eggs and non-alcoholic beverages with SAAT remained significant after further consideration of VAT. Intake of non-alcoholic beverages was also inversely associated with the VAT:SAAT ratio (P=0·001). Our analysis adds to the evidence that intake of foods is independently associated with VAT or SAAT volumes. PMID:26439793

  19. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  20. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  1. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning - a new role for RIP140.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A "Holy Grail" sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophages that migrate into adipose deposits. The coregulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), plays a key role in regulating this communication. In mice on a high-fat diet, the level of RIP140 in macrophages is dramatically elevated to activate their inflammatory M1 polarization and enhance their recruitment into WAT, facilitating IR. Conversely, lowering the level of RIP140 in macrophages not only reduces M1 macrophages but also expands alternatively polarized, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, triggering white adipose tissue browning, fat burning, and restoration of insulin sensitivity. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing IR, obesity, and atherosclerotic or even cosmetic fat deposits: therapeutic browning of white adipose deposits by diminishing RIP140 levels in macrophages. PMID:26167418

  2. Connexin 43 Mediates White Adipose Tissue Beiging by Facilitating the Propagation of Sympathetic Neuronal Signals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Gao, Yong; Tao, Caroline; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Shangang; Huang, Wei; Yao, Ting; Johnson, Joshua A; Liu, Tiemin; Cypess, Aaron M; Gupta, Olga; Holland, William L; Gupta, Rana K; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Cao, Lei; Lynes, Matthew D; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Elmquist, Joel K; Williams, Kevin W; Lin, Hua V; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-09-13

    "Beige" adipocytes reside in white adipose tissue (WAT) and dissipate energy as heat. Several studies have shown that cold temperature can activate pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC) neurons and increase sympathetic neuronal tone to regulate WAT beiging. WAT, however, is traditionally known to be sparsely innervated. Details regarding the neuronal innervation and, more importantly, the propagation of the signal within the population of "beige" adipocytes are sparse. Here, we demonstrate that beige adipocytes display an increased cell-to-cell coupling via connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction channels. Blocking of Cx43 channels by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid decreases POMC-activation-induced adipose tissue beiging. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Cx43 reduces WAT beiging to a level similar to that observed in denervated fat pads. In contrast, overexpression of Cx43 is sufficient to promote beiging even with mild cold stimuli. These data reveal the importance of cell-to-cell communication, effective in cold-induced WAT beiging, for the propagation of limited neuronal inputs in adipose tissue. PMID:27626200

  3. Gene expression profiling of white adipose tissue reveals paternal transmission of proneness to obesity.

    PubMed

    Morita, Sumiyo; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Tomoko; Hayashi, Keiko; Horii, Takuro; Kimura, Mika; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Hatada, Izuho

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more prone to develop obesity than PWK mice. In addition, we analyzed reciprocal crosses between these mice and found that (PWK × B6) F1 mice, which have B6 fathers, are more likely to develop dietary obesity than (B6 × PWK) F1 mice, which have B6 mothers. These results suggested that diet-induced obesity is paternally transmitted. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of adipose tissues of B6, PWK, (PWK × B6) F1, and (B6 × PWK) F1 mice using next-generation sequencing. We found that paternal transmission of diet-induced obesity was correlated with genes involved in adipose tissue inflammation, metal ion transport, and cilia. Furthermore, we analyzed the imprinted genes expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) and obesity. Expression of paternally expressed imprinted genes (PEGs) was negatively correlated with body weight, whereas expression of maternally expressed imprinted genes (MEGs) was positively correlated. In the obesity-prone B6 mice, expression of PEGs was down-regulated by a high-fat diet, suggesting that abnormally low expression of PEGs contributes to high-fat diet-induced obesity in B6 mice. In addition, using single-nucleotide polymorphisms that differ between B6 and PWK, we identified candidate imprinted genes in WAT. PMID:26868178

  4. FGF21 Lowers Plasma Triglycerides by Accelerating Lipoprotein Catabolism in White and Brown Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Christian; Talukdar, Saswata; Heine, Markus; Fischer, Alexander W; Krott, Lucia M; Nilsson, Stefan K; Brenner, Martin B; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2016-03-01

    FGF21 decreases plasma triglycerides (TGs) in rodents and humans; however, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of FGF21 in production and disposal of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in mice. Treatment with pharmacological doses of FGF21 acutely reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), liver TG content, and VLDL-TG secretion. In addition, metabolic turnover studies revealed that FGF21 facilitated the catabolism of TRL in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). FGF21-dependent TRL processing was strongly attenuated in CD36-deficient mice and transgenic mice lacking lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissues. Insulin resistance in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice shifted FGF21 responses from WAT toward energy-combusting BAT. In conclusion, FGF21 lowers plasma TGs through a dual mechanism: first, by reducing NEFA plasma levels and consequently hepatic VLDL lipidation and, second, by increasing CD36 and LPL-dependent TRL disposal in WAT and BAT. PMID:26853749

  5. Gene expression profiling of white adipose tissue reveals paternal transmission of proneness to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Sumiyo; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Tomoko; Hayashi, Keiko; Horii, Takuro; Kimura, Mika; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Hatada, Izuho

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more prone to develop obesity than PWK mice. In addition, we analyzed reciprocal crosses between these mice and found that (PWK × B6) F1 mice, which have B6 fathers, are more likely to develop dietary obesity than (B6 × PWK) F1 mice, which have B6 mothers. These results suggested that diet-induced obesity is paternally transmitted. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of adipose tissues of B6, PWK, (PWK × B6) F1, and (B6 × PWK) F1 mice using next-generation sequencing. We found that paternal transmission of diet-induced obesity was correlated with genes involved in adipose tissue inflammation, metal ion transport, and cilia. Furthermore, we analyzed the imprinted genes expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) and obesity. Expression of paternally expressed imprinted genes (PEGs) was negatively correlated with body weight, whereas expression of maternally expressed imprinted genes (MEGs) was positively correlated. In the obesity-prone B6 mice, expression of PEGs was down-regulated by a high-fat diet, suggesting that abnormally low expression of PEGs contributes to high-fat diet-induced obesity in B6 mice. In addition, using single-nucleotide polymorphisms that differ between B6 and PWK, we identified candidate imprinted genes in WAT. PMID:26868178

  6. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, SF; Horska, A; Brancati, FL; Diehl, AM; Smith, S; Clark, JM

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Design Feature evaluation and test–retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. Subjects A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Measurements Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2–L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test–retest reliability. Results Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test–retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Conclusion Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our

  7. Decreased Transcription of ChREBP-α/β Isoforms in Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Giannini, Cosimo; Narayan, Deepak; Lin, Aiping; D’Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Cushman, Samuel W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with altered fat partitioning in liver and adipose tissues is a prediabetic condition in obese adolescents. We investigated interactions between glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the expression of lipogenic genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue in 53 obese adolescents. Based on their 2-h glucose tests they were stratified in the following groups: group 1, 2-h glucose level <120 mg/dL; group 2, 2-h glucose level between 120 and 140 mg/dL; and group 3, 2-h glucose level >140 mg/dL. Liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were greater in group 1 than in group 2 and group 3, and muscle insulin sensitivity progressively decreased from group 1 to group 3. The expression of the carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was decreased in adipose tissue but increased in the liver (eight subjects) in adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The expression of adipose ChREBPα and ChREBPβ was inversely related to 2-h glucose level and positively correlated to insulin sensitivity. Improvement of glucose tolerance in four subjects was associated with an increase of ChREBP/GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, early in the development of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in youth, ChREBPβ expression in adipose tissue predicts insulin resistance and, therefore, might play a role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. PMID:23209190

  8. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  9. Rapamycin Blocks Induction of the Thermogenic Program in White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cassie M; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Ye, Lan; Frederick, David W; Kissig, Megan; Davis, James G; Lamming, Dudley W; Seale, Patrick; Baur, Joseph A

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin extends life span in mice, yet paradoxically causes lipid dysregulation and glucose intolerance through mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Whole-body energy balance can be influenced by beige/brite adipocytes, which are inducible by cold and other stimuli via β-adrenergic signaling in white adipose depots. Induction of beige adipocytes is considered a promising strategy to combat obesity because of their ability to metabolize glucose and lipids, dissipating the resulting energy as heat through uncoupling protein 1. Here, we report that rapamycin blocks the ability of β-adrenergic signaling to induce beige adipocytes and expression of thermogenic genes in white adipose depots. Rapamycin enhanced transcriptional negative feedback on the β3-adrenergic receptor. However, thermogenic gene expression remained impaired even when the receptor was bypassed with a cell-permeable cAMP analog, revealing the existence of a second inhibitory mechanism. Accordingly, rapamycin-treated mice are cold intolerant, failing to maintain body temperature and weight when shifted to 4°C. Adipocyte-specific deletion of the mTORC1 subunit Raptor recapitulated the block in β-adrenergic signaling. Our findings demonstrate a positive role for mTORC1 in the recruitment of beige adipocytes and suggest that inhibition of β-adrenergic signaling by rapamycin may contribute to its physiological effects. PMID:26858361

  10. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.—Shan, T., Liu, W., Kuang, S. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues. PMID:23047894

  11. Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study1-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. Objective We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Macronutrient intakes of mothers were ascertained using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 weeks gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed using MRI in the second week of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n= 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models using multivariable linear regressions. Results Mothers [mean age: 30 y; 44% Chinese, 38% Malay, 18% Indians] consumed 15.5 ± 4.3% (mean ± SD) of their energy intakes from protein, 32.4 ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1 ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher protein, lower carbohydrate/fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 (-0.35, -0.001) mL per 1% protein to carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.04) mL per 1% protein to fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interactions <0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein [-0.26 (-0.47, -0.05) mL for fat substitution], but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not consistently associated with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Conclusions Higher maternal protein intake (at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake

  12. Curcuma longa Extract Associated with White Pepper Lessens High Fat Diet-Induced Inflammation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Memvanga, Patrick B.; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition. PMID:24260564

  13. Adipose VEGF Links the White-to-Brown Fat Switch With Environmental, Genetic, and Pharmacological Stimuli in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    During, Matthew J; Liu, Xianglan; Huang, Wei; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; McMurphy, Travis; Wang, Chuansong; Cao, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Living in an enriched environment (EE) decreases adiposity, increases energy expenditure, causes resistance to diet induced obesity, and induces brown-like (beige) cells in white fat via activating a hypothalamic-adipocyte axis. Here we report that EE stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a fat depot-specific manner prior to the emergence of beige cells. The VEGF up-regulation was independent of hypoxia but required intact sympathetic tone to the adipose tissue. Targeted adipose overexpression of VEGF reproduced the browning effect of EE. Adipose-specific VEGF knockout or pharmacological VEGF blockade with antibodies abolished the induction of beige cell by EE. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulated by EE regulated the adipose VEGF expression, and VEGF signaling was essential to the hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced white adipose tissue browning. Furthermore, VEGF signaling was essential to the beige cells induction by exercise, a β3-adrenergic agonist, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand, suggesting a common downstream pathway integrating diverse upstream mechanisms. Exploiting this pathway may offer potential therapeutic interventions to obesity and metabolic diseases. PMID:25763639

  14. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  15. In Vivo Adeno-Associated Viral Vector–Mediated Genetic Engineering of White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  16. Adipose VEGF Links the White-to-Brown Fat Switch With Environmental, Genetic, and Pharmacological Stimuli in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    During, Matthew J.; Liu, Xianglan; Huang, Wei; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; McMurphy, Travis; Wang, Chuansong

    2015-01-01

    Living in an enriched environment (EE) decreases adiposity, increases energy expenditure, causes resistance to diet induced obesity, and induces brown-like (beige) cells in white fat via activating a hypothalamic-adipocyte axis. Here we report that EE stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a fat depot-specific manner prior to the emergence of beige cells. The VEGF up-regulation was independent of hypoxia but required intact sympathetic tone to the adipose tissue. Targeted adipose overexpression of VEGF reproduced the browning effect of EE. Adipose-specific VEGF knockout or pharmacological VEGF blockade with antibodies abolished the induction of beige cell by EE. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulated by EE regulated the adipose VEGF expression, and VEGF signaling was essential to the hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced white adipose tissue browning. Furthermore, VEGF signaling was essential to the beige cells induction by exercise, a β3-adrenergic agonist, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand, suggesting a common downstream pathway integrating diverse upstream mechanisms. Exploiting this pathway may offer potential therapeutic interventions to obesity and metabolic diseases. PMID:25763639

  17. De novo generation of white adipocytes from the myeloid lineage via mesenchymal intermediates is age, adipose depot, and gender specific

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Fox, Keith E.; Psilas, John C.; Helm, Karen M.; Childs, Christine R.; Acosta, Alistaire S.; Janssen, Rachel C.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Woessner, Brian T.; Shade, Theodore R.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that white adipocytes arise from resident adipose tissue mesenchymal progenitor cells. We challenge this paradigm by defining a hematopoietic origin for both the de novo development of a subset of white adipocytes in adults and a previously uncharacterized adipose tissue resident mesenchymal progenitor population. Lineage and cytogenetic analysis revealed that bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes and adipocyte progenitors arise from hematopoietic cells via the myeloid lineage in the absence of cell fusion. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the BMP-derived fat cells are bona fide adipocytes but differ from conventional white or brown adipocytes in decreased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation, and increased inflammatory gene expression. The BMP-derived adipocytes accumulate with age, occur in higher numbers in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, and in female versus male mice. BMP-derived adipocytes may, therefore, account in part for adipose depot heterogeneity and detrimental changes in adipose metabolism and inflammation with aging and adiposity. PMID:20679227

  18. Inorganic Nitrate Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end-product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach we mechanistically define that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown-adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious co-morbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Since resulting beige/brite cells exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

  19. Common SIRT1 variants modify the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on aging-related lung function decline.

    PubMed

    Curjuric, Ivan; Imboden, Medea; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W; Haun, Margot; Keidel, Dirk; Kumar, Ashish; Pons, Marco; Rochat, Thierry; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Lung function is an independent predictor of mortality and serves as an aging marker in never smokers. The protein sirtuin-1 of gene SIRT1 has profound anti-inflammatory effects and regulates metabolic pathways. Its suggested longevity effects on lower organisms remain poorly studied in humans. In 1132 never smokers of the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs730821, rs10997868, rs10823116) of SIRT1 and aging-related lung function decline over 11 years in terms of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of FVC (FEF25-75) using multiple linear regression models. Interactions between the SIRT1 SNPs and adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), its change and weight gain) were tested by including multiplicative interaction terms into the models. SIRT1 polymorphisms exhibited no main effects, but modified the association between obesity measures and FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 decline (p = 0.009-0.046). Per risk allele, FEV1/FVC decline was accelerated up to -0.5 % (95 % CI -1.0 to 0 %) and -0.7 % (-1.3 to -0.2 %) over interquartile range increases in BMI (2.4 kg/m(2)) or weight (6.5 kg), respectively. For FEF25-75 decline, corresponding estimates were -57 mL/s (-117 to 4 mL/s) and -76 mL/s (-1429 to -9 mL/s). Interactions were not present in participants with genetically lowered C-reactive protein concentrations. Genetic variation in SIRT1 might therefore affect lung function and human longevity by modifying subclinical inflammation arising from abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:27125385

  20. Surgical removal of inflamed epididymal white adipose tissue attenuates the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, P; Morrison, M C; Wielinga, P Y; van Duyvenvoorde, W; Kooistra, T; Kleemann, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with abdominal obesity. Growing evidence suggests that inflammation in specific depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) has a key role in NAFLD progression, but experimental evidence for a causal role of WAT is lacking. Methods: A time-course study in C57BL/6J mice was performed to establish which WAT depot is most susceptible to develop inflammation during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Crown-like structures (CLS) were quantified in epididymal (eWAT), mesenteric (mWAT) and inguinal/subcutaneous (iWAT) WAT. The contribution of inflamed WAT to NAFLD progression was investigated by surgical removal of a selected WAT depot and compared with sham surgery. Plasma markers were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cytokines/adipokines) and lipidomics (lipids). Results: In eWAT, CLS were formed already after 12 weeks of HFD, which coincided with maximal adipocyte size and fat depot mass, and preceded establishment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). By contrast, the number of CLS were low in mWAT and iWAT. Removal of inflamed eWAT after 12 weeks (eWATx group), followed by another 12 weeks of HFD feeding, resulted in significantly reduced NASH in eWATx. Inflammatory cell aggregates (−40% P<0.05) and inflammatory genes (e.g., TNFα, −37% P<0.05) were attenuated in livers of eWATx mice, whereas steatosis was not affected. Concomitantly, plasma concentrations of circulating proinflammatory mediators, viz. leptin and specific saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, were also reduced in the eWATx group. Conclusions: Intervention in NAFLD progression by removal of inflamed eWAT attenuates the development of NASH and reduces plasma levels of specific inflammatory mediators (cytokines and lipids). These data support the hypothesis that eWAT is causally involved in the pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:26499443

  1. Maternal obesity enhances white adipose tissue differentiation and alters genome-scale DNA methylation in male rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of obesity in adulthood is strongly influenced by maternal body composition. Here we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences white adipose tissue (WAT) transcriptome and increases propensity for adipogenesis in the offspring, prior to the development of obesity, using an es...

  2. Inflammatory phenotyping identifies CD11d as a gene markedly induced in white adipose tissue in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In severe obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and macrophage infiltration are believed to contribute to WAT and whole-body insulin resistance. Specific players involved in triggering and maintaining inflammation (i.e., those regulating adipokine release and WAT macrophage recruitment, ...

  3. Sympathetic activation by chemical stimulation of white adipose tissues in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhen; Chen, Wei-Wei; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Han, Ying; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Injection of leptin into white adipose tissue (WAT) increases sympathetic outflow. The present study was designed to determine the effects of capsaicin and other chemicals in WAT on the sympathetic outflow and blood pressure and the roles of WAT afferents and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the adipose afferent reflex (AAR). The AAR was induced by injection of capsaicin, bradykinin, adenosine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or leptin into inguinal WAT (iWAT) or retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) in anesthetized rats. The iWAT injection of capsaicin increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) but not the heart rate. Bradykinin, adenosine, or leptin but not ATP in the iWAT caused similar effects to capsaicin on the RSNA and MAP. Intravenous, intramuscular, or intradermal injection of capsaicin had no significant effects on the RSNA and MAP. The effects of capsaicin in rWAT were similar to that in iWAT on the RSNA and MAP. Furthermore, injection of capsaicin into the iWAT increased the WAT afferent nerve activities, WAT efferent nerve activity, and brown adipose tissue efferent nerve activity. The iWAT denervation or chemical lesion of the PVN neurons with kainic acid abolished the AAR induced by the iWAT injection of capsaicin. These results indicate that the stimulation of iWAT afferents with capsaicin, bradykinin, adenosine, or leptin reflexly increases the RSNA and blood pressure. The iWAT afferents and the PVN are involved in the AAR induced by capsaicin in the iWAT. PMID:22223453

  4. Analysis and Measurement of the Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well. PMID:24480348

  5. BMP4 mediates the interplay between adipogenesis and angiogenesis during expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Qian, Shu-Wen; Wu, Meng-Yuan; Wang, Jue; Lu, Ping; Li, Xi; Huang, Hai-Yan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Xia; Xu, Cong-Jian; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of subcutaneous (SC) white adipose tissue (WAT) has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Our previous work showed an increased number of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-activated beige adipocytes in SC WAT, indicating a potential role of BMP4 in adipocyte recruitment. It was also demonstrated that BMP4 committed multipotent mesodermal C3H10T1/2 stem cells to the adipocyte lineage ex vivo However, the mechanism by which BMP4 regulates adipogenesis in vivo has not been clarified. In this study, we found that BMP4 stimulated de novo adipogenesis in SC WAT concomitant with enhanced blood vessel formation, thus promoting adipose tissue angiogenesis. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β-positive (PDGFRβ(+)) multipotent stem cells within the neoangiogenic vessels were found to be adipocyte progenitors. Moreover, BMP4 downregulated PDGFRβ by stimulating the lysosome-dependent degradation, which efficiently initiated adipogenic differentiation. These results suggest how BMP4 regulates adipocyte recruitment in SC WAT, and thus promote its beneficial metabolic effects. PMID:27030507

  6. Curcumin promotes browning of white adipose tissue in a norepinephrine-dependent way.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiuchao; Ye, Zichen; Xu, Chengming; Zhang, Ming; Ruan, Banjun; Wei, Ming; Jiang, Yinghao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Li; Lei, Xiaoying; Lu, Zifan

    2015-10-16

    Brown adipose tissue converts energy from food into heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1, defending against cold. In some conditions, inducible 'brown-like' adipocytes, also known as beige adipocytes, can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT). These beige adipocytes have characteristics similar to classical brown adipocytes and thus can burn lipids to produce heat. In the current study, we demonstrated that curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased bodyweight and fat mass without affecting food intake in mice. We further demonstrated that curcumin improves cold tolerance in mice. This effect was possibly mediated by the emergence of beige adipocytes and the increase of thermogenic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in inguinal WAT. In addition, curcumin promotes β3AR gene expression in inguinal WAT and elevates the levels of plasma norepinephrine, a hormone that can induce WAT browning. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin can potentially prevent obesity by inducing browning of inguinal WAT via the norepinephrine-β3AR pathway. PMID:26362189

  7. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans after Severe Adrenergic Stress.

    PubMed

    Sidossis, Labros S; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hawkins, Hal K; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N

    2015-08-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT was determined by the presence of multilocular adipocytes, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and increased mitochondrial density and respiratory capacity. Multilocular UCP1-positive adipocytes were found in sWAT samples from burn patients. UCP1 mRNA, mitochondrial density, and leak respiratory capacity in sWAT increased after burn trauma. Our data demonstrate that human sWAT can transform from an energy-storing to an energy-dissipating tissue, which opens new research avenues in our quest to prevent and treat obesity and its metabolic complications. PMID:26244931

  8. Loss of White Adipose Hyperplastic Potential Is Associated with Enhanced Susceptibility to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo M.; Lun, Mingyue; Wang, Mei; Senyo, Samuel E.; Guillermier, Christelle; Patwari, Parth; Steinhauser, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Fat mass expansion occurs by adipocyte hypertrophy or recruitment of differentiating adipocyte progenitors, the relative balance of which may impact systemic metabolism. We measured adipogenesis in murine subcutaneous (sWAT) and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) using stable isotope methodology and then modeled adipocyte turnover. Birth and death rates were similar within depots; however, turnover was higher in vWAT relative to sWAT. In juvenile mice, obesity increased adipogenesis, but in adults, this was only seen in vWAT after prolonged high-fat feeding. Statistical modeling suggests differentiation of adipocyte progenitors without an accompanying self-renewing division step may partially explain the age-dependent decline in hyperplastic potential. Additional metabolic interrogation of obese mice demonstrated an association between adipocyte turnover and insulin sensitivity. These data therefore identify adipocyte hypertrophy as the dominant mechanism of adult fat mass expansion and support the paradoxical concept that metabolic disease ensues due to a failure of adipose tissue plasticity. PMID:25456741

  9. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nino, Gustavo; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Ravindra, Anjani; Nino, Cesar L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC), as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 97th percentile) that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (n = 21). We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT (n = 7) with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (n = 14). Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) after AT (P ≤ 0.01). Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI), and neck circumference (NC). Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT. PMID:23251797

  10. Burn Induces Browning of the Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Patsouris, David; Qi, Peter; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Stanojcic, Mile; Chen, Peter; Parousis, Alexandra; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immunometabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury. Here, we show that burn induces a switch in the phenotype of the subcutaneous fat from white to beige, with associated characteristics such as increased mitochondrial mass and UCP1 expression. Our results further demonstrate the significant role of catecholamines and interleukin-6 in this process. We conclude that subcutaneous fat remodeling and browning represent an underlying mechanism that explains the elevated energy expenditure in burn-induced hypermetabolism. PMID:26586436

  11. Chronic glucocorticoid exposure-induced epididymal adiposity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Han, Guoquan; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged and excessive glucocorticoids (GC) exposure resulted from Cushing's syndrome or GC therapy develops central obesity. Moreover, mitochondria are crucial in adipose energy homeostasis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to chronic GC exposure-induced epididymal adiposity in the present study. A total of thirty-six 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (∼20 g) were administrated with 100 µg/ml corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle through drinking water for 4 weeks. Chronic CORT exposure mildly decreased body weight without altering food and water intake in mice. The epididymal fat accumulation was increased, but adipocyte size was decreased by CORT. CORT also increased plasma CORT, insulin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations as measured by RIA or ELISA. Interestingly, CORT increased plasma levels of triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids, and up-regulated the expression of both lipolytic and lipogenic genes as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, CORT impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function in epididymal WAT. The reactive oxygen species production was increased and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were reduced by CORT treatment as well. Taken together, these findings reveal that chronic CORT administration-induced epididymal adiposity is, at least in part, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse epididymal white adipose tissue. PMID:25389775

  12. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kristóf, Endre; Doan-Xuan, Quang-Minh; Vida, András; Nagy, Lilla; Horváth, Ambrus; Simon, József; Maros, Tamás; Szentkirályi, István; Palotás, Lehel; Debreceni, Tamás; Csizmadia, Péter; Szerafin, Tamás; Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Tóth, Attila; Kiss, Borbála; Bacsó, Zsolt; Bai, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when

  13. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Methods: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day−1) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg−1 min−1) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic–hyperglycemic clamp. Results: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue)−1; however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, P<0.001. During the clamp period, FFA and glycerol output declined significantly, P<0.05, with no differences before and after weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, P<0.05. Conclusions: In obese subjects, weight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:27136446

  14. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of Pacific White Shrimp L. vannamei and identification of abdominal muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Hachey, Amanda J; Rose, Kristie L; Grey, Angus C

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been applied to whole animal tissue sections of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in an effort to identify and spatially localize proteins in specific organ systems. Frozen shrimp were sectioned along the ventral-dorsal axis and methods were optimized for matrix application. In addition, tissue microextraction and homogenization was conducted followed by top-down LC-MS/MS analysis of intact proteins and searches of shrimp EST databases to identify imaged proteins. IMS images revealed organ system specific protein signals that highlighted the hepatopancreas, heart, nervous system, musculature, and cuticle. Top-down proteomics identification of abdominal muscle proteins revealed the sequence of the most abundant muscle protein that has no sequence homology to known proteins. Additional identifications of abdominal muscle proteins included titin, troponin-I, ubiquitin, as well as intact and multiple truncated forms of flightin; a protein known to function in high frequency contraction of insect wing muscles. The combined use of imaging mass spectrometry and top-down proteomics allowed for identification of novel proteins from the sparsely populated shrimp protein databases. PMID:26990122

  15. Neural Innervation of White Adipose Tissue and the Control of Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Bartness, Timothy J.; Liu, Yang; Shrestha, Yogendra B.; Ryu, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and its activation is necessary for lipolysis. WAT parasympathetic innervation is not supported. Fully-executed SNS-norepinephrine (NE)-mediated WAT lipolysis is dependent on β-adrenoceptor stimulation ultimately hinging on hormone sensitive lipase and perilipin A phosphorylation. WAT sympathetic drive is appropriately measured by electrophysiological and neurochemical (NE turnover) in non-human animals and this drive is fat pad-specific preventing generalizations among WAT depots and non-WAT organs. Leptin-triggered SNS-mediated lipolysis is weakly supported, whereas insulin or adenosine inhibition of SNS/NE-mediated lipolysis is strongly supported. In addition to lipolysis control, increases or decreases in WAT SNS drive/NE inhibit and stimulate white adipocyte proliferation, respectively. WAT sensory nerves are of spinal-origin and sensitive to local leptin and increases in sympathetic drive, the latter implicating lipolysis. Transsynaptic viral tract tracer use revealed WAT central sympathetic and sensory circuits including SNS-sensory feedback loops that may control lipolysis. PMID:24736043

  16. Neural innervation of white adipose tissue and the control of lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Bartness, Timothy J; Liu, Yang; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Ryu, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and its activation is necessary for lipolysis. WAT parasympathetic innervation is not supported. Fully-executed SNS-norepinephrine (NE)-mediated WAT lipolysis is dependent on β-adrenoceptor stimulation ultimately hinging on hormone sensitive lipase and perilipin A phosphorylation. WAT sympathetic drive is appropriately measured electrophysiologically and neurochemically (NE turnover) in non-human animals and this drive is fat pad-specific preventing generalizations among WAT depots and non-WAT organs. Leptin-triggered SNS-mediated lipolysis is weakly supported, whereas insulin or adenosine inhibition of SNS/NE-mediated lipolysis is strongly supported. In addition to lipolysis control, increases or decreases in WAT SNS drive/NE inhibit and stimulate white adipocyte proliferation, respectively. WAT sensory nerves are of spinal-origin and sensitive to local leptin and increases in sympathetic drive, the latter implicating lipolysis. Transsynaptic viral tract tracers revealed WAT central sympathetic and sensory circuits including SNS-sensory feedback loops that may control lipolysis. PMID:24736043

  17. Dietary xenosterols lead to infertility and loss of abdominal adipose tissue in sterolin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Solca, Curzio; Tint, G Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B

    2013-02-01

    The investigation of the human disease sitosterolemia (MIM 210250) has shed light not only on the pathways by which dietary sterols may traffic but also on how the mammalian body rids itself of cholesterol and defends against xenosterols. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, located at the sitosterolemia locus, each encodes a membrane-bound ABC half-transporter and constitutes a functional unit whose activity has now been shown to account for biliary and intestinal sterol excretion. Knockout mice deficient in Abcg5 or Abcg8 recapitulate many of the phenotypic features of sitosterolemia. During the course of our studies to characterize these knockout mice, we noted that these mice, raised on normal rodent chow, exhibited infertility as well as loss of abdominal fat. We show that, although sitosterolemia does not lead to any structural defects or to any overt endocrine defects, fertility could be restored if xenosterols are specifically blocked from entry and that the loss of fat is also reversed by a variety of maneuvers that limit xenosterol accumulation. These studies show that xenosterols may have a significant biological impact on normal mammalian physiology and that the Abcg5 or Abcg8 knockout mouse model may prove useful in investigating the role of xenosterols on mammalian physiology. PMID:23180829

  18. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  19. Coexpression Network Analysis in Abdominal and Gluteal Adipose Tissue Reveals Regulatory Genetic Loci for Metabolic Syndrome and Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Halgrimsdottir, Ingileif; Almstrup, Kristian; Petri, Andreas; Barrett, Amy; Travers, Mary; Rayner, Nigel W.; Mägi, Reedik; Pettersson, Fredrik H.; Broxholme, John; Neville, Matt J.; Wills, Quin F.; Cheeseman, Jane; Allen, Maxine; Holmes, Chris C.; Spector, Tim D.; Fleckner, Jan; McCarthy, Mark I.; Karpe, Fredrik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB), from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS–associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6%) were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6%) in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (DABD-GLU = 0.89), seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01). The strongest associated module, significantly enriched for immune response–related processes, contained 94/620 (15%) genes with inter-depot differences. In an independent cohort of 145/141 twins with ABD and WB longitudinal expression data, median variability in ABD due to familiality was greater for MetS–associated versus un-associated modules (ABD: 0.48 versus 0.18, P = 0.08; GLU: 0.54 versus 0.20, P = 7.8×10−4). Cis-eQTL analysis of probesets associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01) and/or inter-depot differences (FDR P<0.01) provided evidence for 32 eQTLs. Corresponding eSNPs were tested for association with MetS–related phenotypes in two GWAS of >100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin), was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 6.0×10−4); and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10−4) and BMI–adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10−4). Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and

  20. Plasma leptin in non-diabetic Asian Indians: association with abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A; Snehalatha, C; Vijay, V; Satyavani, K; Latha, E; Haffner, S M

    1997-11-01

    Plasma leptin concentrations were measured in 144 non-diabetic men and women (age 21-73 years, BMI 14.8-37.7 kg m(-2)), in fasting samples collected during a population survey for diabetes mellitus. Leptin, fasting and 2-h post-glucose load plasma concentrations of glucose and immunoreactive insulin were measured. In a subset of 50 normoglycaemic individuals, subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) areas at L4-L5 level were also measured by CT. As in other populations, women had significantly higher plasma leptin concentrations than men (p < 0.001) but the values were similar in normal (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Geometric mean concentrations of leptin in men and women with NGT were 4.8 and 17.7 ng ml(-1), respectively, and the corresponding values in IGT were 6.2 and 19.0 ng ml(-1). Multiple regression analysis in the total group showed that the leptin concentration (log-transformed) was strongly dependent on sex (R2 = 53.4%), BMI (R2 = 17.4%), and to a lesser degree on the 2-h plasma insulin (R2 = 2.4%) and the WHR (R2 = 0.8%). In men, the total abdominal fat showed a strong association with leptin (R2 = 49.3%) and in women the subcutaneous fat area showed a similar effect (R2 = 39.5%). It is likely that subcutaneous and not visceral fat may be a determinant of plasma leptin in Asian Indians, and the correlation between leptin and insulin resistance may be less strong than in other ethnic groups. PMID:9400917

  1. Transcriptional profiling of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian Large White pigs divergent for backfat thickness.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, P; Gaffo, E; Zappaterra, M; Bortoluzzi, S; Davoli, R

    2016-06-01

    Fat deposition is a widely studied trait in pigs because of its implications with animal growth efficiency, technological and nutritional characteristics of meat products, but the global framework of the biological and molecular processes regulating fat deposition in pigs is still incomplete. This study describes the backfat tissue transcription profile in Italian Large White pigs and reports genes differentially expressed between fat and lean animals according to RNA-seq data. The backfat transcription profile was characterised by the expression of 23 483 genes, of which 54.1% were represented by known genes. Of 63 418 expressed transcripts, about 80% were non-previously annotated isoforms. By comparing the expression level of fat vs. lean pigs, we detected 86 robust differentially expressed transcripts, 72 more highly expressed (e.g. ACP5, BCL2A1, CCR1, CD163, CD1A, EGR2, ENPP1, GPNMB, INHBB, LYZ, MSR1, OLR1, PIK3AP1, PLIN2, SPP1, SLC11A1, STC1) and 14 lower expressed (e.g. ADSSL1, CDO1, DNAJB1, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, HSPA2, HSPB8, IGFBP5, OLFML3) in fat pigs. The main functional categories enriched in differentially expressed genes were immune system process, response to stimulus, cell activation and skeletal system development, for the overexpressed genes, and unfolded protein binding and stress response, for the underexpressed genes, which included five heat shock proteins. Adipose tissue alterations and impaired stress response are linked to inflammation and, in turn, to adipose tissue secretory activity, similar to what is observed in human obesity. Our results provide the opportunity to identify biomarkers of carcass fat traits to improve the pig production chain and to identify genetic factors that regulate the observed differential expression. PMID:26931818

  2. Transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue in a mouse model for 15q duplication syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Tamada, Kota; Kishimoto, Rui; Okubo, Hiroko; Ise, Satoko; Ohta, Hisashi; Ruf, Sandra; Nakatani, Jin; Kohno, Nobuoki; Spitz, François; Takumi, Toru

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is not only associated with unhealthy lifestyles, but also linked to genetic predisposition. Previously, we generated an autism mouse model (patDp/+) that carries a 6.3 Mb paternal duplication homologous to the human 15q11-q13 locus. Chromosomal abnormalities in this region are known to cause autism spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome in humans. We found that, in addition to autistic-like behaviors, patDp/+ mice display late-onset obesity and hypersensitivity to a high-fat diet. These phenotypes are likely to be the results of genetic perturbations since the energy expenditures and food intakes of patDp/+ mice do not significantly differ from those of wild-type mice. Intriguingly, we found that an enlargement of adipose cells precedes the onset of obesity in patDp/+ mice. To understand the underlying molecular networks responsible for this pre-obese phenotype, we performed transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue from patDp/+ and wild-type mice using microarray. We identified 230 genes as differentially expressed genes. Sfrp5 - a gene whose expression is positively correlated with adipocyte size, was found to be up-regulated, and Fndc5, a potent inducer of brown adipogenesis was identified to be the top down-regulated gene. Subsequent pathway analysis highlighted a set of 35 molecules involved in energy production, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry as the top candidate biological network responsible for the pre-obese phenotype of patDp/+. The microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE58191. Ultimately, our dataset provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of obesity and demonstrated that patDp/+ is a valuable mouse model for obesity research. PMID:26484295

  3. Transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue in a mouse model for 15q duplication syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Tamada, Kota; Kishimoto, Rui; Okubo, Hiroko; Ise, Satoko; Ohta, Hisashi; Ruf, Sandra; Nakatani, Jin; Kohno, Nobuoki; Spitz, François; Takumi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is not only associated with unhealthy lifestyles, but also linked to genetic predisposition. Previously, we generated an autism mouse model (patDp/+) that carries a 6.3 Mb paternal duplication homologous to the human 15q11–q13 locus. Chromosomal abnormalities in this region are known to cause autism spectrum disorder, Prader–Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome in humans. We found that, in addition to autistic-like behaviors, patDp/+ mice display late-onset obesity and hypersensitivity to a high-fat diet. These phenotypes are likely to be the results of genetic perturbations since the energy expenditures and food intakes of patDp/+ mice do not significantly differ from those of wild-type mice. Intriguingly, we found that an enlargement of adipose cells precedes the onset of obesity in patDp/+ mice. To understand the underlying molecular networks responsible for this pre-obese phenotype, we performed transcriptome profiling of white adipose tissue from patDp/+ and wild-type mice using microarray. We identified 230 genes as differentially expressed genes. Sfrp5 — a gene whose expression is positively correlated with adipocyte size, was found to be up-regulated, and Fndc5, a potent inducer of brown adipogenesis was identified to be the top down-regulated gene. Subsequent pathway analysis highlighted a set of 35 molecules involved in energy production, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry as the top candidate biological network responsible for the pre-obese phenotype of patDp/+. The microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession number GSE58191. Ultimately, our dataset provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of obesity and demonstrated that patDp/+ is a valuable mouse model for obesity research. PMID:26484295

  4. Flow cytometry on the stromal-vascular fraction of white adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue contains cell types other than adipocytes that may contribute to complications linked to obesity. For example, macrophages have been shown to infiltrate adipose tissue in response to a high-fat diet. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue allows one to use flow c...

  5. Improvement in insulin sensitivity following a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in viscerally obese men: contribution of abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. Abdominally obese, dyslipidemic men (waist circumference ≥90 cm, triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L) were recruited. The 1-year intervention/evaluation was completed by 104 men. Body weight, composition, and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk profile were measured. After 1 year, insulin sensitivity improved in association with decreases in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adiposity (SAT) as well as with the improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Further analyses were performed according to changes in glucose tolerance status: improvement (group I, n = 39), no change (group N, n = 50), or worsening (group W, n = 15) after 1 year. Groups I and N improved their insulin sensitivity and their CRF, whereas group W did not, while losing less VAT than groups I and N. Multiple regressions showed that reduction in VAT was associated with an improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas reduction in SAT was rather associated with improvement of the insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda. Changes in CRF were not independently associated with changes in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. A 1-year lifestyle intervention improved plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis in viscerally obese men, including those with normal glucose tolerance status at baseline. Changes in SAT and VAT but not in CRF appeared to mediate these improvements

  6. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  7. Analysis of gene networks in white adipose tissue development reveals a role for ETS2 in adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Birsoy, Kivanç; Berry, Ryan; Wang, Tim; Ceyhan, Ozge; Tavazoie, Saeed; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is characterized by an expansion of white adipose tissue mass that results from an increase in the size and the number of adipocytes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of adipocytes during development and the molecular mechanisms regulating their increase and maintenance in adulthood are poorly understood. Here, we report the use of leptin-luciferase BAC transgenic mice to track white adipose tissue (WAT) development and guide the isolation and molecular characterization of adipocytes during development using DNA microarrays. These data reveal distinct transcriptional programs that are regulated during murine WAT development in vivo. By using a de novo cis-regulatory motif discovery tool (FIRE), we identify two early gene clusters whose promoters show significant enrichment for NRF2/ETS transcription factor binding sites. We further demonstrate that Ets transcription factors, but not Nrf2, are regulated during early adipogenesis and that Ets2 is essential for the normal progression of the adipocyte differentiation program in vitro. These data identify ETS2 as a functionally important transcription factor in adipogenesis and its possible role in regulating adipose tissue mass in adults can now be tested. Our approach also provides the basis for elucidating the function of other gene networks during WAT development in vivo. Finally these data confirm that although gene expression during adipogenesis in vitro recapitulates many of the patterns of gene expression in vivo, there are additional developmental transitions in pre and post-natal adipose tissue that are not evident in cell culture systems. PMID:21989915

  8. Injecting engineered anti-inflammatory macrophages therapeutically induces white adipose tissue browning and improves diet-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    We recently exploited a transgenic approach to coerce macrophage anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in vivo by lowering Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140) level in macrophages (mφRIP140KD), which induced browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). In vitro, conditioned medium from cultured adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) of mφRIP140KD mice could trigger preadipocytes' differentiation into beige cells. Here we describe a cell therapy for treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR). Injecting M2 ATMs retrieved from the WAT of mφRIP140KD mice into HFD-fed obese adult wild-type mice effectively triggers their WAT browning, reduces their pro-inflammatory responses, and improves their insulin sensitivity. These data provide a proof-of-concept that delivering engineered anti-inflammatory macrophages can trigger white fat browning, stimulate whole-body thermogenesis, and reduce obesity-associated IR. PMID:26167415

  9. Adipogenic role of alternatively activated macrophages in β-adrenergic remodeling of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    De novo brown adipogenesis involves the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors, yet the mechanisms that guide these events in vivo are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) agonist triggers brown/beige adipogenesis in gonadal white adipose tissue following adipocyte death and clearance by tissue macrophages. The close physical relationship between adipocyte progenitors and tissue macrophages suggested that the macrophages that clear dying adipocytes might generate proadipogenic factors. Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages from mice treated with CL 316,243 identified a subpopulation that contained elevated lipid and expressed CD44. Lipidomic analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-isolated macrophages demonstrated that CD44+ macrophages contained four- to five-fold higher levels of the endogenous peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE), and 13-HODE compared with CD44- macrophages. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ADRB3 agonist treatment upregulated expression of ALOX15, the lipoxygenase responsible for generating 9-HODE and 13-HODE. Using an in vitro model of adipocyte efferocytosis, we found that IL-4-primed tissue macrophages accumulated lipid from dying fat cells and upregulated expression of Alox15. Furthermore, treatment of differentiating adipocytes with 9-HODE and 13-HODE potentiated brown/beige adipogenesis. Collectively, these data indicate that noninflammatory removal of adipocyte remnants and coordinated generation of PPARγ ligands by M2 macrophages provides localized adipogenic signals to support de novo brown/beige adipogenesis. PMID:26538237

  10. Expression and distribution of acyl-CoA thioesterases in the white adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Takayuki; Hoshino, Atsuko; Yajima, Masako; Tsuchiya, Akiharu; Momose, Atsushi; Tanonaka, Kouichi; Toyoda, Hiroo; Kato, Tetsuta; Yamada, Junji

    2013-08-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterases (Acots) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids and coenzyme A, and have the potential to regulate the intracellular levels of these molecules. In this study, we show that a cytosolic isoform, Acot1, is expressed and distributed in immature adipocytes located in the perivascular region of the white adipose tissue (WAT) of rats. Immunoblot analyses detected Acot1 in all of the WATs examined, while immunohistochemistry revealed positively stained layered structures surrounding the adventitia of blood vessels in the subcutaneous WAT. When the subcutaneous WAT was digested with collagenase and centrifuged, Acot1 was recovered in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and not in the large mature adipocytes. In the SVF, undigested cells attached to short tubular fragments of blood vessels showed positive immunostaining, as well as a proportion of the dispersed cells. These fibroblast-like cells contained fine particulate lipid droplets, stained by oil-red O dye, in their cytoplasm, or expressed fatty acid-binding protein 4, an adipocyte marker. After induction of adipocyte differentiation following a 15-day preculture without insulin, the dedifferentiated cells showed increased Acot1 expression with a diffuse distribution throughout the cytosol. These findings suggest that Acot1 expression is transiently upregulated at an early stage of adipocyte maturation, possibly to maintain cytosolic acyl-CoAs below a certain level until the cells acquire their full capability for fat storage. PMID:23385637

  11. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique; Okey, Allan B.

    2008-07-01

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment.

  12. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  13. Lou/C obesity-resistant rat exhibits hyperactivity, hypermetabolism, alterations in white adipose tissue cellularity, and lipid tissue profiles.

    PubMed

    Soulage, Christophe; Zarrouki, Bader; Soares, Anisio Francesco; Lagarde, Michel; Geloen, Alain

    2008-02-01

    Lou/C obesity-resistant rat constitutes an original model to understand the phenomena of overweight and obesity. The aim of the present study was to identify metabolic causes for the outstanding leanness of Lou/C rat. To this end, the metabolic profiles (food intake, energy expenditure, and physical activity) and the cellular characteristics of white adipose tissue (lipogenesis, lipolysis, cellularity, and lipid composition) in 30-wk-old Lou/C rats were compared with age-matched Wistar rats. Lou/C rats exhibited a lower body weight (-45%), reduced adiposity (-80%), increased locomotor activity (+95%), and higher energy expenditure (+11%) than Wistar rats. Epididymal adipose tissue of Lou/C rat was twice lower than that of Wistar rat due to both a reduction in both adipocyte size (-25%) and number (three times). Basal lipolysis and sensitivity to noradrenaline were similar; however, the responsiveness to noradrenaline was lower in adipocytes from Lou/C compared with that from Wistar rats. Lipidomic analysis of plasma, adipose tissue, and liver revealed profound differences in lipid composition between the two strains. Of note, the desaturation indexes (ratio C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0) were lower in Lou/C, indicating a blunted activity of delta-9-desaturase such as stearoyl-coenzyme A-desaturase-1. Increased physical activity, increased energy expenditure, and white adipose tissue cellularity are in good agreement with previous observations suggesting that a higher sympathetic tone in Lou/C could contribute to its lifelong leanness. PMID:18006635

  14. Pdcd4 restrains the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Y; Shang, Q; Zhao, H; Pan, Z; Guo, C; Zhang, L; Wang, Q

    2016-01-01

    The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby

  15. Pdcd4 restrains the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Shang, Q; Zhao, H; Pan, Z; Guo, C; Zhang, L; Wang, Q

    2016-01-01

    The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby

  16. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter induces macrophage infiltration, unfolded protein response, and lipid deposition in white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Roberto; Zheng, Ze; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between exposure to ambient air-pollution and susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as Type II diabetes mellitus. Previously, we provided evidence that both short- and long-term exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) induces multiple abnormalities associated with the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus, including insulin resistance, visceral adipose inflammation, brown adipose mitochondrial adipose changes, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, we show that chronic inhalation exposure to PM2.5 (10 months exposure) induces macrophage infiltration and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), an intracellular stress signaling that regulates cell metabolism and survival, in mouse white adipose tissue in vivo. Gene expression studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure induces two distinct UPR signaling pathways mediated through the UPR transducer inositol-requiring 1α (IRE1α): 1) ER-associated Degradation (ERAD) of unfolded or misfolded proteins, and 2) Regulated IRE1-dependent Decay (RIDD) of mRNAs. Along with the induction of the UPR pathways and macrophage infiltration, expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid droplet formation was increased in the adipose tissue of the mice exposed to PM2.5. In vitro study confirmed that PM2.5 can trigger phosphorylation of the UPR transducer IRE1α and activation of macrophages. These results provide novel insights into PM2.5-triggered cell stress response in adipose tissue and increase our understanding of pathophysiological effects of particulate air pollution on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:23573366

  17. Morphological Changes in Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue After Severe Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Manish Kumar; Herndon, David N; Porter, Craig; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Chao, Tony; Chondronikola, Maria; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury produces a plethora of metabolic abnormalities which contribute to the prolonged morbidity of burn survivors. The authors have recently demonstrated trans-differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT) after burn trauma, toward a more thermogenic phenotype. However, the impact of burn injury on subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) morphology in humans is unknown. Here, the authors studied the effect of severe burn injury on the architecture of sWAT. sWAT was collected from 11 severely burned children (11 ± 3 years; 55 ± 16% total BSA burned) and 12 nonburned healthy children (9 ± 3 years). Histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were performed on fixed adipose tissue sections. sWAT cytokine and collagen concentrations were measured by multiplex assay and sirius/fast green staining method, respectively. sWAT histology demonstrated multiple fat droplets, significantly (P < .05) reduced mean cell size (104 ± 6 vs 68 ± 3 μm) and higher collagen content (7 ± 0.8 vs 4 ± 0.4) in burn patients. sWAT from burn victims stained positive for CD68 suggesting infiltration of macrophages. Furthermore, electron microscopic analysis showed multiple fat droplets and greater mitochondrial abundance in sWAT of burn survivors. In agreement with this, mitochondrial respiratory capacity in the leak and coupled state increased by 100% in sWAT of burned children from 1 to 3 weeks postinjury. The cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-1a, IL-1b, MCP-1, and TNF-α were all significantly greater in the sWAT of burned children versus healthy children (P < .05). Furthermore, IL-6, IL-8, IL1-a, IL-1b, and TNF-α significantly increased after injury in sWAT of burned children (P < .05). This study provides detailed evidence of morphological and functional changes in sWAT of burn survivors which was associated with tissue inflammation. A better understanding of morphological and functional changes in sWAT will help discern the mechanisms underlying

  18. White Adipose Tissue Browning in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Andrew C; Jakobsson, Lovisa; Larsson, Sara; Holm, Cecilia; Piel, Sarah; Elmér, Eskil; Björkqvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterised not only by progressive cognitive, motor and psychiatric impairments, but also of peripheral pathology. In both human HD and in mouse models of HD there is evidence of increased energy expenditure and weight loss, alongside altered body composition. Unlike white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as brown-like cells within WAT, expresses the mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 enables dissociation of cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Hyperplasia of brown/beige cells in WAT has been suggested to enhance energy expenditure. In this study, we therefore investigated the gene expression profile, histological appearance, response to cold challenge and functional aspects of WAT in the R6/2 HD mouse model and selected WAT gene expression in the full-length Q175 mouse model of HD. WAT from R6/2 mice contained significantly more brown-like adipocyte regions and had a gene profile suggestive of the presence of brown-like adipocytes, such as higher Ucp1 expression. Cold exposure induced Ucp1 expression in R6/2 inguinal WAT to a markedly higher degree as compared to the thermogenic response in WT WAT. Alongside this, gene expression of transcription factors (Zfp516 and Pparα), important inducers of WAT browning, were increased in R6/2 inguinal WAT, and Creb1 was highlighted as a key transcription factor in HD. In addition to increased WAT Ucp1 expression, a trend towards increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to enhanced uncoupling activity was found in inguinal R6/2 WAT. Key gene expressional changes (increased expression of (Zfp516 and Pparα)) were replicated in inguinal WAT obtained from Q175 mice. In summary, for the first time, we here show that HD mouse WAT undergoes a process of browning, resulting in molecular and functional alterations that may

  19. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  20. Oxygen Deprivation and the Cellular Response to Hypoxia in Adipocytes – Perspectives on White and Brown Adipose Tissues in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Trayhurn, Paul; Alomar, Suliman Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Relative hypoxia has been shown to develop in white adipose tissue depots of different types of obese mouse (genetic, dietary), and this leads to substantial changes in white adipocyte function. These changes include increased production of inflammation-related adipokines (such as IL-6, leptin, Angptl4, and VEGF), an increase in glucose utilization and lactate production, and the induction of fibrosis and insulin resistance. Whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue depots in obesity has been little considered. However, a recent study has reported low pO2 in brown fat of obese mice, this involving mitochondrial loss and dysfunction. We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells – particularly changes in adipokine production, increased glucose uptake and lactate release, and insulin resistance. This would be expected to compromise thermogenic activity and the role of brown fat in glucose homeostasis and triglyceride clearance, underpinning the development of the metabolic syndrome. Hypoxia-induced augmentation of lactate production may also stimulate the “browning” of white fat depots through recruitment of UCP1 and the development of brite adipocytes. PMID:25745415

  1. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Kristin A; Marvyn, Phillip M; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M; Stark, Ken D; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-06-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of ChREBP Binding Sites on Male Mouse Liver and White Adipose Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Poungvarin, Naravat; Chang, Benny; Imamura, Minako; Chen, Junsheng; Moolsuwan, Kanya; Sae-Lee, Chanachai; Li, Wei; Chan, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Glucose is an essential nutrient that directly regulates the expression of numerous genes in liver and adipose tissue. The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) links glucose as a signaling molecule to multiple glucose-dependent transcriptional regulatory pathways, particularly genes involved in glycolytic and lipogenic processes. In this study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing to identify specific ChREBP binding targets in liver and white adipose tissue. We found a large number of ChREBP binding sites, which are attributable to 5825 genes in the liver, 2418 genes in white adipose tissue, and 5919 genes in both tissues. The majority of these target genes were involved in known metabolic processes. Pathways in insulin signaling, the adherens junction, and cancers were among the top 5 pathways in both tissues. Motif analysis revealed a consensus sequence CAYGYGnnnnnCRCRTG that was commonly shared by ChREBP binding sites. Putative ChREBP binding sequences were enriched on promoters of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, insulin resistance, and tumorigenesis. PMID:25751637

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of ChREBP Binding Sites on Male Mouse Liver and White Adipose Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Poungvarin, Naravat; Chang, Benny; Imamura, Minako; Chen, Junsheng; Moolsuwan, Kanya; Sae-Lee, Chanachai; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is an essential nutrient that directly regulates the expression of numerous genes in liver and adipose tissue. The carbohydrate response element–binding protein (ChREBP) links glucose as a signaling molecule to multiple glucose-dependent transcriptional regulatory pathways, particularly genes involved in glycolytic and lipogenic processes. In this study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing to identify specific ChREBP binding targets in liver and white adipose tissue. We found a large number of ChREBP binding sites, which are attributable to 5825 genes in the liver, 2418 genes in white adipose tissue, and 5919 genes in both tissues. The majority of these target genes were involved in known metabolic processes. Pathways in insulin signaling, the adherens junction, and cancers were among the top 5 pathways in both tissues. Motif analysis revealed a consensus sequence CAYGYGnnnnnCRCRTG that was commonly shared by ChREBP binding sites. Putative ChREBP binding sequences were enriched on promoters of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, insulin resistance, and tumorigenesis. PMID:25751637

  4. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  5. Heterogeneity among white adipose tissue depots in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Munn, Rachel D; Lubbers, Ellen R; Kopchick, John J

    2012-01-01

    The widespread prevalence of obesity has lead to extensive research on white adipose tissue (WAT), which frequently uses the C57BL/6J mouse strain as a model. In many studies, results obtained in one WAT depot are often extrapolated to all WAT. However, functional differences among WAT depots are now becoming apparent. Thus, to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for WAT depot-specific differences under "normal" conditions, four C57BL/6J mouse WAT depots (inguinal, mesenteric, epididymal, and retroperitoneal) were analyzed. Depot proteomic profiles, along with weights, protein contents, adipocyte sizes and oxidative stress were determined. Mesenteric WAT had almost twice the protein content of the other depots analyzed. Mean adipocyte size was highest in epididymal and lowest in mesenteric and inguinal depots. The proteome of inguinal WAT displayed low levels of enzymes involved in ATP generation, glucose and lipid metabolism, and antioxidant proteins. Higher levels of these proteins were observed in mesenteric and epididymal WAT, with variable levels in the retroperitoneal depot. Some of these proteins showed depot-specific correlations with plasma levels of insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. In agreement with the proteomic data, levels of the antioxidant protein heat shock protein β1 (HSPβ1) also were lower in inguinal WAT when analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Also, lipid peroxidation products showed similar trends. Our results are consistent with lower triglyceride turnover and lower oxidative stress in inguinal than mesenteric and epididymal WAT. The observed WAT depot-specific differences provide clues as to the mechanisms leading to these depots' respective diverse functions. PMID:21779095

  6. The Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Treatment on PPAR Mediated Uncoupling Protein (UCP-) 1, 2, and 3 Expression in Visceral White Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily involved in the control of body temperature and energy balance regulation. They are currently proposed as therapeutic targets for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the gene expression regulation of UCP1, -2, and -3 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and MetS rats treated with two doses of a commercial mixture of resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC). We found that UCP2 was the predominantly expressed isoform, UCP3 was present at very low levels, and UCP1 was undetectable. The treatment with RSV + QRC did not modify UCP3 levels; however, it significantly increased UCP2 mRNA in control and MetS rats in association with an increase in oleic and linoleic fatty acids. WAT from MetS rats showed a significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ when compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPAR-α protein levels were increased by the highest dose of RSV + QRC in the control and MetS groups. PPAR-γ expression was only increased in the control group. We conclude that the RSV + QRC treatment leads to overexpression of UCP2, which is associated with an increase in MUFA and PUFA, which might increase PPAR-α expression. PMID:27399675

  7. The Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Treatment on PPAR Mediated Uncoupling Protein (UCP-) 1, 2, and 3 Expression in Visceral White Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily involved in the control of body temperature and energy balance regulation. They are currently proposed as therapeutic targets for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the gene expression regulation of UCP1, -2, and -3 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and MetS rats treated with two doses of a commercial mixture of resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC). We found that UCP2 was the predominantly expressed isoform, UCP3 was present at very low levels, and UCP1 was undetectable. The treatment with RSV + QRC did not modify UCP3 levels; however, it significantly increased UCP2 mRNA in control and MetS rats in association with an increase in oleic and linoleic fatty acids. WAT from MetS rats showed a significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ when compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPAR-α protein levels were increased by the highest dose of RSV + QRC in the control and MetS groups. PPAR-γ expression was only increased in the control group. We conclude that the RSV + QRC treatment leads to overexpression of UCP2, which is associated with an increase in MUFA and PUFA, which might increase PPAR-α expression. PMID:27399675

  8. Free fatty acid G-protein coupled receptor signaling in M1 skewed white adipose tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Warren Antonio; Sadie-Van Gijsen, Hanél; Ferris, William Frank

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with the establishment and maintenance of a low grade, chronically inflamed state in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the body. The WAT macrophage population is a major cellular participant in this inflammatory process that significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease, with the adipose depots of obese individuals, relative to lean counterparts, having an elevated number of macrophages that are skewed towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Alterations in the WAT lipid micro-environment, and specifically the availability of free fatty acids, are believed to contribute towards the obesity-related quantitative and functional changes observed in these cells. This review specifically addresses the involvement of the five G-protein coupled free fatty acid receptors which bind exogenous FFAs and signal in macrophages. Particular focus is placed on the involvement of these receptors in macrophage migration and cytokine production, two important aspects that modulate inflammation. PMID:27173059

  9. Bofutsushosan ameliorates obesity in mice through modulating PGC-1α expression in brown adipose tissues and inhibiting inflammation in white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yan, Yan; Zhao, Zheng; Shi, Mei-Jing; Zhang, Yu-Bin

    2016-06-01

    The inducible co-activator PGC-1α plays a crucial role in adaptive thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Meanwhile, chronic inflammation caused by infiltrated-macrophage in the white adipose tissue (WAT) is a target for the treatment of obesity. Bofutsushosan (BF), a traditional Chinese medicine composed of 17 crude drugs, has been widely used to treat obesity in China, Japan, and other Asia countries. However, the mechanism underlying anti-obesity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that BF oral administration reduced the body weight of obese mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and alleviated the level of biochemical markers (P < 0.05), including blood glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and insulin. Our further results also indicated that oral BF administration increased the expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 in BAT. Moreover, BF also reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These findings suggested that the mechanism of BF against obesity was at least partially through increasing gene expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 for energy consumption in BAT and inhibiting inflammation in WAT. PMID:27473963

  10. Depot-specific effects of treadmill running and rutin on white adipose tissue function in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Lei, Ting; Xin, Lili; Zhou, Lingmei; Cheng, Jinbo; Qin, Liqiang; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ involved in regulating metabolic homeostasis under obese condition. Strategies that could positively affect WAT function would hold promise for fighting against obesity and its complications. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of treadmill exercise training and rutin intervention on adipose tissue function from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and whether fat depot-specific effects existed. In epididymal adipose tissue, high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in reduction in adiponectin mRNA expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ and DsbA-L protein expression, elevation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation ex vivo were blunted from HFD group. The combination of rutin with exercise (HRE) completely restored GRP78 and p-JNK protein expression to normal levels, as well as blunted signaling ex vivo. In inguinal adipose tissue, HFD led to increased adiponectin mRNA expression, PPAR-γ, GRP78, and p-JNK protein expression, and reduction in DsbA-L. HRE is effective for restoring p-JNK, PPAR-γ, and DsbA-L. In conclusion, depot-specific effects may exist in regard to the effects of rutin and exercise on key molecules involved in regulating adipose tissue function (i.e., ER stress markers, PPAR-γ and DsbA-L, adiponectin expression, and secretion, ex vivo catecholamine stimulated lipolysis and insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation) from DIO mice. PMID:27192989

  11. Beneficial Effects of Evogliptin, a Novel Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor, on Adiposity with Increased Ppargc1a in White Adipose Tissue in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Shin, Chang-Yell; Jung, Il-Hoon; Sohn, Yong Sung; Son, Moon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an adipokine known to positively correlate with adiposity, the effects of pharmacological DPP4 inhibition on body composition have not been fully understood. This study was aimed to assess the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on adiposity for the first time in the established obese mice model. The weight loss effects of multiple DPP4 inhibitors were compared after a 4 week treatment in diet-induced obese mice. In addition, a 2 week study was performed to explore and compare the acute effects of evogliptin, a novel DPP4 inhibitor, and exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, on whole body composition, energy consumption, various plasma adipokines and gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). After the 4 week treatment, weight loss and blood glucose reductions were consistently observed with multiple DPP4 inhibitors. Moreover, after 2-week treatment, evogliptin dose-dependently reduced whole body fat mass while increasing the proportion of smaller adipocytes. However, insulin sensitivity or plasma lipid levels were not significantly altered. In addition to increased active GLP-1 levels by plasma DPP4 inhibition, evogliptin also enhanced basal metabolic rate without reduction in caloric intake, in contrast to exenatide; this finding suggested evogliptin's effects may be mediated by pathways other than via GLP-1. Evogliptin treatment also differentially increased Ppargc1a expression, a key metabolic regulator, in WAT, but not in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. The increased expression of the downstream mitochondrial gene, Cox4i1, was also suggestive of the potential metabolic alteration in WAT by DPP4 inhibitors. We are the first to demonstrate that pharmacological DPP4 inhibition by evogliptin directly causes fat loss in established obese mice. In contradistinction to exenatide, the fat-loss effect of DPP4 inhibitor is partly attributed to enhanced energy expenditure along with metabolic changes in WAT

  12. Metabolic activity of brown, "beige," and white adipose tissues in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Caron, Alexandre; Chechi, Kanta; Laplante, Mathieu; Lecomte, Roger; Richard, Denis

    2016-07-01

    Classical brown adipocytes such as those found in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) represent energy-burning cells, which have been postulated to play a pivotal role in energy metabolism. Brown adipocytes can also be found in white adipose tissue (WAT) depots [e.g., inguinal WAT (iWAT)] following adrenergic stimulation, and they have been referred to as "beige" adipocytes. Whether the presence of these adipocytes, which gives iWAT a beige appearance, can confer a white depot with some thermogenic activity remains to be seen. In consequence, we designed the present study to investigate the metabolic activity of iBAT, iWAT, and epididymal white depots in mice. Mice were either 1) kept at thermoneutrality (30°C), 2) kept at 30°C and treated daily for 14 days with an adrenergic agonist [CL-316,243 (CL)], or 3) housed at 10°C for 14 days. Metabolic activity was assessed using positron emission tomography imaging with fluoro-[(18)F]deoxyglucose (glucose uptake), fluoro-[(18)F]thiaheptadecanoic acid (fatty acid uptake), and [(11)C]acetate (oxidative activity). In each group, substrate uptakes and oxidative activity were measured in anesthetized mice in response to acute CL. Our results revealed iBAT as a major site of metabolic activity, which exhibited enhanced glucose and nonesterified fatty acid uptakes and oxidative activity in response to chronic cold and CL. On the other hand, beige adipose tissue failed to exhibit appreciable increase in oxidative activity in response to chronic cold and CL. Altogether, our results suggest that the contribution of beige fat to acute-CL-induced metabolic activity is low compared with that of iBAT, even after sustained adrenergic stimulation. PMID:27143559

  13. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  14. The Combination of Resveratrol and Quercetin Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats by Modifying the Serum Fatty Acid Composition and by Upregulating SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 Expression in White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Peredo-Escárcega, Ana Elena; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Ortega-Ocampo, Sergio; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC) modify energy metabolism and reduce cardiovascular risk factors included in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). These natural compounds upregulate and activate sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. We analyzed the effect of two doses of a commercial combination of RSV and QRC on serum fatty acid composition and their regulation of SIRTs 1–3 and PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue. MetS was induced in Wistar rats by adding 30% sucrose to drinking water for five months. Rats were divided into control and two groups receiving the two different doses of RSV and QRC in drinking water daily for 4 weeks following the 5 months of sucrose treatment. Commercial kits were used to determine serum parameters and the expressions of SIRTs in WAT were analysed by western blot. In MetS rats body mass, central adiposity, insulin, triglycerides, non-HDL-C, leptin, adiponectin, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were increased, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and HDL-C were decreased. SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 were downregulated, while PPAR-γ was increased. RSV + QRC administration improved the serum health parameters modified by MetS and upregulate SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 expression in white abdominal tissue in MetS animals. PMID:26609312

  15. The Molecular Mechanism Underlying Continuous Exercise Training-Induced Adaptive Changes of Lipolysis in White Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Izawa, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Tomonobu; Sakurai, Takuya; Shirato, Ken; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise accelerates the mobilization of free fatty acids from white adipocytes to provide fuel for energy. This happens in several tissues and helps to regulate a whole-body state of metabolism. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) that is found in white adipocytes is known to be augmented via the activation of these lipolytic events, which is referred to as the "lipolytic cascade." Indeed, evidence has shown that the lipolytic responses in white adipocytes are upregulated by continuous exercise training (ET) through the adaptive changes in molecules that constitute the lipolytic cascade. During the past few decades, many lipolysis-related molecules have been identified. Of note, the discovery of a new lipase, known as adipose triglyceride lipase, has redefined the existing concepts of the hormone-sensitive lipase-dependent hydrolysis of TG in white adipocytes. This review outlines the alterations in the lipolytic molecules of white adipocytes that result from ET, which includes the molecular regulation of TG lipases through the lipolytic cascade. PMID:26075089

  16. The Molecular Mechanism Underlying Continuous Exercise Training-Induced Adaptive Changes of Lipolysis in White Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Sakurai, Tomonobu; Sakurai, Takuya; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise accelerates the mobilization of free fatty acids from white adipocytes to provide fuel for energy. This happens in several tissues and helps to regulate a whole-body state of metabolism. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) that is found in white adipocytes is known to be augmented via the activation of these lipolytic events, which is referred to as the “lipolytic cascade.” Indeed, evidence has shown that the lipolytic responses in white adipocytes are upregulated by continuous exercise training (ET) through the adaptive changes in molecules that constitute the lipolytic cascade. During the past few decades, many lipolysis-related molecules have been identified. Of note, the discovery of a new lipase, known as adipose triglyceride lipase, has redefined the existing concepts of the hormone-sensitive lipase-dependent hydrolysis of TG in white adipocytes. This review outlines the alterations in the lipolytic molecules of white adipocytes that result from ET, which includes the molecular regulation of TG lipases through the lipolytic cascade. PMID:26075089

  17. Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Is Regulated in White and Brown Adipose Tissue by Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Misty M.; Manning, H. Charles; Ellacott, Kate L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is an outer-mitochondrial membrane transporter which has many functions including participation in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), production of cellular energy, and is the rate-limiting step in the uptake of cholesterol. TSPO expression is dysregulated during disease pathologies involving changes in tissue energy demands such as cancer, and is up-regulated in activated macrophages during the inflammatory response. Obesity is associated with decreased energy expenditure, mitochondrial dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation which collectively contribute to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome. Therefore, we hypothesized that dysregulation of TSPO in adipose tissue may be a feature of disease pathology in obesity. Radioligand binding studies revealed a significant reduction in TSPO ligand binding sites in mitochondrial extracts from both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mouse models of obesity (diet-induced and genetic) compared to control animals. We also confirmed a reduction in TSPO gene expression in whole tissue extracts from WAT and BAT. Immunohistochemistry in WAT confirmed TSPO expression in adipocytes but also revealed high-levels of TSPO expression in WAT macrophages in obese animals. No changes in TSPO expression were observed in WAT or BAT after a 17 hour fast or 4 hour cold exposure. Treatment of mice with the TSPO ligand PK11195 resulted in regulation of metabolic genes in WAT. Together, these results suggest a potential role for TSPO in mediating adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:24260329

  18. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  19. Age-related and depot-specific changes in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Zhang, Han; Vesel, Clare B; Troike, Katie M; Gosney, Elahu S; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor-null (GHR(-/-)) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long-lived in spite of increased adiposity. However, their adiposity is not uniform, with select white adipose tissue (WAT) depots enlarged. To study WAT depot-specific effects on insulin sensitivity and life span, we analyzed individual WAT depots of 12- and 24-month-old GHR(-) (/-) and wild-type (WT) mice, as well as their plasma levels of selected hormones. Adipocyte sizes and plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased with age in both GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomes of WAT depots were similar among groups, but several proteins involved in endocytosis and/or cytoskeletal organization (Ehd2, S100A10, actin), anticoagulation (S100A10, annexin A5), and age-related conditions (alpha2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin) showed significant differences between genotypes. Because Ehd2 may regulate endocytosis of Glut4, we measured Glut4 levels in the WAT depots of GHR(-) (/-) and WT mice. Inguinal WAT of 12-month-old GHR(-) (/-) mice displayed lower levels of Glut4 than WT. Overall, the protein changes detected in this study offer new insights into possible mechanisms contributing to enhanced insulin sensitivity and extended life span in GHR(-) (/-) mice. PMID:23873966

  20. Enhanced ROS production and oxidative damage in subcutaneous white adipose tissue mitochondria in obese and type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the insulin target tissues has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The study has examined the oxidative stress parameters in the mitochondria of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese and non-obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. An accumulation of protein carbonyls, fluorescent lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde occurs in the adipose tissue mitochondria of obese type 2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese diabetic subjects with the maximum increase noticed in the obese type 2 diabetes patients and the minimum in non-obese type 2 diabetics. The mitochondria from obese type 2 diabetics, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese type 2 diabetics also produce significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro compared to those of controls, and apparently the mitochondrial ROS production rate in each group is proportional to the respective load of oxidative damage markers. Likewise, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase show decreased activities most markedly in obese type 2 diabetes subjects and to a lesser degree in non-obese type 2 diabetes or non-diabetic obese subjects in comparison to control. The results imply that mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced ROS production may contribute to the metabolic abnormality of adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25312902

  1. Age-Related and Depot-Specific Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Growth Hormone Receptor-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor-null (GHR−/−) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long-lived in spite of increased adiposity. However, their adiposity is not uniform, with select white adipose tissue (WAT) depots enlarged. To study WAT depot–specific effects on insulin sensitivity and life span, we analyzed individual WAT depots of 12- and 24-month-old GHR− /− and wild-type (WT) mice, as well as their plasma levels of selected hormones. Adipocyte sizes and plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased with age in both GHR− /− and WT mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomes of WAT depots were similar among groups, but several proteins involved in endocytosis and/or cytoskeletal organization (Ehd2, S100A10, actin), anticoagulation (S100A10, annexin A5), and age-related conditions (alpha2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin) showed significant differences between genotypes. Because Ehd2 may regulate endocytosis of Glut4, we measured Glut4 levels in the WAT depots of GHR− /− and WT mice. Inguinal WAT of 12-month-old GHR− /− mice displayed lower levels of Glut4 than WT. Overall, the protein changes detected in this study offer new insights into possible mechanisms contributing to enhanced insulin sensitivity and extended life span in GHR− /− mice. PMID:23873966

  2. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  3. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. PMID:25150689

  4. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M.; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Spray, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. PMID:25150689

  5. Adipose-specific lipoprotein lipase deficiency more profoundly affects brown than white fat biology.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Hiyama, Yaeko; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; Hu, Yunying; Son, Ni Huiping; O'Byrne, Sheila M; Chang, Chuchun L; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Takahashi, Manabu; Westerterp, Marit; Obunike, Joseph C; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Blaner, William S; Goldberg, Ira J

    2013-05-17

    Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose-specific LpL knock-out (ATLO) mice, and we compared them with whole body LpL knock-out mice rescued with muscle LpL expression (MCK/L0) and wild type (WT) mice. ATLO LpL mRNA and activity were reduced, respectively, 75 and 70% in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT), 90 and 80% in subcutaneous tissue, and 84 and 85% in brown adipose tissue (BAT). ATLO mice had increased plasma TG levels associated with reduced chylomicron TG uptake into BAT and lung. ATLO BAT, but not GAT, had altered TG composition. GAT from MCK/L0 was smaller and contained less polyunsaturated fatty acids in TG, although GAT from ATLO was normal unless LpL was overexpressed in muscle. High fat diet feeding led to less adipose in MCK/L0 mice but TG acyl composition in subcutaneous tissue and BAT reverted to that of WT. Therefore, adipocyte LpL in BAT modulates plasma lipoprotein clearance, and the greater metabolic activity of this depot makes its lipid composition more dependent on LpL-mediated uptake. Loss of adipose LpL reduces fat accumulation only if accompanied by greater LpL activity in muscle. These data support the role of LpL as the "gatekeeper" for tissue lipid distribution. PMID:23542081

  6. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  7. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  8. Regulators of Human White Adipose Browning: Evidence for Sympathetic Control and Sexual Dimorphic Responses to Sprint Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Scalzo, Rebecca L.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Giordano, Gregory R.; Binns, Scott E.; Klochak, Anna L.; Paris, Hunter L. R.; Schweder, Melani M.; Szallar, Steve E.; Wood, Lacey M.; Larson, Dennis G.; Luckasen, Gary J.; Hickey, Matthew S.; Bell, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11). The measurements were performed twice, once with and once without prior/concurrent sympathetic inhibition via transdermal clonidine administration. FGF21 was unaffected by basal sympathetic inhibition (338±113 vs. 295±80 pg/mL; P = 0.43; mean±SE), but was increased during hypoxia mediated sympathetic activation (368±135); this response was abrogated (P = 0.035) with clonidine (269±93). Irisin was unaffected by sympathetic inhibition and/or hypoxia (P>0.21). Study 2: The plasma concentration of irisin and FGF21, and the skeletal muscle protein content of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) was determined in 19 young adults prior to and following three weeks of sprint interval training (SIT). SIT decreased FGF21 (338±78 vs. 251±36; P = 0.046) but did not affect FNDC5 (P = 0.79). Irisin was decreased in males (127±18 vs. 90±23 ng/mL; P = 0.045) and increased in females (139±14 vs. 170±18). Collectively, these data suggest a potential regulatory role of acute sympathetic activation pertaining to the browning of white adipose; further, there appears to be a sexual dimorphic response of irisin to SIT. PMID:24603718

  9. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Juan; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Crespillo, Ana; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena; Pavón, Francisco J.; Cifuentes, Manuel; Nogueiras, Rubén; Ballesteros, Joan; Dieguez, Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT) β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (e)WAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg) and OEA (5 mg/kg) co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2). This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs), and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2) and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16) genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24159189

  10. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Crespillo, Ana; Serrano, Antonia; Baixeras, Elena; Pavón, Francisco J; Cifuentes, Manuel; Nogueiras, Rubén; Ballesteros, Joan; Dieguez, Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT) β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (e)WAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg) and OEA (5 mg/kg) co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2). This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs), and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2) and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16) genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24159189

  11. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  12. Effect of exercise training on the density of endothelial cells in the white adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Hatano, D; Ogasawara, J; Endoh, S; Sakurai, T; Nomura, S; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H; Komabayashi, T; Izawa, T

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effects of a 9-week exercise training (TR) in Wistar male rats, beginning at 4 weeks of age, on the density of endothelial cells (ECs) in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the mRNA expression of angiogenic factors in adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells. The number of ECs and mRNA expressions were assessed by lectin staining and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with control (CR) rats, TR rats gained weight more slowly and had significantly lower final weight of WAT due to the reduction in the size and the number of adipocytes. TR significantly increased the number of ECs per square millimeter and per adipocyte (1.37- and 1.23-fold, respectively) in WAT. This is probably because the number of adipocytes is fewer while the number of ECs is constant in the WAT of TR rats, because the regression line of TR rats for adipocyte number-dependent EC number was shifted toward the left without significant differences in the slopes between groups. TR also induced the upregulation of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-receptor-2 in SVF cells, thereby retaining a constant number of ECs in the WAT. PMID:20807385

  13. Fenofibrate (PPARalpha agonist) induces beige cell formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue from diet-induced male obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Bringhenti, Isabele; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-02-15

    Browning is characterized by the formation of beige/brite fat depots in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). This study aimed to examine whether the chronic activation of PPARalpha by fenofibrate could induce beige cell depots in the sWAT of diet-induced obese mice. High-fat fed animals presented overweight, insulin resistance and displayed adverse sWAT remodeling. Fenofibrate significantly attenuated these parameters. Treated groups demonstrated active UCP-1 beige cell clusters within sWAT, confirmed through higher gene expression of PPARalpha, PPARbeta, PGC1alpha, BMP8B, UCP-1, PRDM16 and irisin in treated groups. PPARalpha activation seems to be pivotal to trigger browning through irisin induction and UCP-1 transcription, indicating that fenofibrate increased the expression of genes typical of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the sWAT, characterizing the formation of beige cells. These findings put forward a possible role of PPARalpha as a promising therapeutic for metabolic diseases via beige cell induction. PMID:25576856

  14. Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue via the sympathetic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism. PMID:26673120

  15. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  16. Emodin protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity via regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2012-06-01

    Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in China for treating a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emodin on the reducing lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed a high-fat diet for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with emodin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day), once daily for eight weeks. Changes in body weight, feeding pattern, serum lipids, coronary artery risk index, and atherogenic index were investigated. Subcutaneous white adipose tissues were isolated for pathology histology and Western blot analyses. Changes of triglyceride accumulation in differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes were also investigated. Emodin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Emodin (80 mg/kg/day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day) in reducing body weight gain and plasma lipid levels as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in epididymal white adipose tissue sizes in high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, upregulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and downregulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the epididymal white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats. Our findings suggest that emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. PMID:22673833

  17. A Role for Phosphodiesterase 3B in Acquisition of Brown Fat Characteristics by White Adipose Tissue in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hockman, Steven; Chung, Youn Wook; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Gavrilova, Oksana; Raghavachari, Nalini; Yang, Yanqin; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Zu Xi; Liu, Shiwei; Degerman, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is linked to various diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The idea of inducing white adipose tissue (WAT) to assume characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT), and thus gearing it to fat burning instead of storage, is receiving serious consideration as potential treatment for obesity and related disorders. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) links insulin- and cAMP-signaling networks in tissues associated with energy metabolism, including WAT. We used C57BL/6 PDE3B knockout (KO) mice to elucidate mechanisms involved in the formation of BAT in epididymal WAT (EWAT) depots. Examination of gene expression profiles in PDE3B KO EWAT revealed increased expression of several genes that block white and promote brown adipogenesis, such as C-terminal binding protein, bone morphogenetic protein 7, and PR domain containing 16, but a clear BAT-like phenotype was not completely induced. However, acute treatment of PDE3B KO mice with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243, markedly increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyzes prostaglandin synthesis and is thought to be important in the formation of BAT in WAT and the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 3, which is linked to BAT recruitment upon cold exposure, causing a clear shift toward fat burning and the induction of BAT in KO EWAT. These data provide insight into the mechanisms of BAT formation in mouse EWAT, suggesting that, in a C57BL/6 background, an increase in cAMP, caused by ablation of PDE3B and administration of CL316243, may promote differentiation of prostaglandin-responsive progenitor cells in the EWAT stromal vascular fraction into functional brown adipocytes. PMID:23766131

  18. Coupling of lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis in brown, beige, and white adipose tissues during chronic β3-adrenergic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mottillo, Emilio P; Balasubramanian, Priya; Lee, Yun-Hee; Weng, Changren; Kershaw, Erin E; Granneman, James G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic activation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) expands the catabolic activity of both brown and white adipose tissue by engaging uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and UCP1-independent processes. The present work examined de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and TG/glycerol dynamics in classic brown, subcutaneous "beige," and classic white adipose tissues during sustained β3-AR activation by CL 316,243 (CL) and also addressed the contribution of TG hydrolysis to these dynamics. CL treatment for 7 days dramatically increased DNL and TG turnover similarly in all adipose depots, despite great differences in UCP1 abundance. Increased lipid turnover was accompanied by the simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in FAS, glycerol metabolism, and FA oxidation. Inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of adipose TG lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for lipolysis, demonstrates that TG hydrolysis is required for CL-induced increases in DNL, TG turnover, and mitochondrial electron transport in all depots. Interestingly, the effect of ATGL deletion on induction of specific genes involved in FA oxidation and synthesis varied among fat depots. Overall, these studies indicate that FAS and FA oxidation are tightly coupled in adipose tissues during chronic adrenergic activation, and this effect critically depends on the activity of adipocyte ATGL. PMID:25193997

  19. Coupling of lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis in brown, beige, and white adipose tissues during chronic β3-adrenergic receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Mottillo, Emilio P.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Lee, Yun-Hee; Weng, Changren; Kershaw, Erin E.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic activation of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) expands the catabolic activity of both brown and white adipose tissue by engaging uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and UCP1-independent processes. The present work examined de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and TG/glycerol dynamics in classic brown, subcutaneous “beige,” and classic white adipose tissues during sustained β3-AR activation by CL 316,243 (CL) and also addressed the contribution of TG hydrolysis to these dynamics. CL treatment for 7 days dramatically increased DNL and TG turnover similarly in all adipose depots, despite great differences in UCP1 abundance. Increased lipid turnover was accompanied by the simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in FAS, glycerol metabolism, and FA oxidation. Inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of adipose TG lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for lipolysis, demonstrates that TG hydrolysis is required for CL-induced increases in DNL, TG turnover, and mitochondrial electron transport in all depots. Interestingly, the effect of ATGL deletion on induction of specific genes involved in FA oxidation and synthesis varied among fat depots. Overall, these studies indicate that FAS and FA oxidation are tightly coupled in adipose tissues during chronic adrenergic activation, and this effect critically depends on the activity of adipocyte ATGL. PMID:25193997

  20. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  1. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  2. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  3. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males’ subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  4. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males' subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  5. Seasonal changes in the expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in female Japanese black bears.

    PubMed

    Shimozuru, Michito; Nagashima, Akiko; Tanaka, Jun; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Bears undergo annual cycles in body mass: rapid fattening in autumn (i.e., hyperphagia), and mass loss in winter (i.e., hibernation). To investigate how Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) adapt to such extreme physiological conditions, we analyzed changes in the mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes in white adipose tissues and skeletal muscle throughout three physiological stages: normal activity (June), hyperphagia (November), and hibernation (March). During hyperphagia, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) in white adipose tissue, although the bears had been maintained with a constant amount of food. In contrast, during the hibernation period, we observed a downregulation of genes involved in glycolysis (e.g., glucose transporter 4) and lipogenesis (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) and an upregulation of genes in fatty acid catabolism (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A) in both tissue types. In white adipose tissues, we observed upregulation of genes involved in glyceroneogenesis, including pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, suggesting that white adipose tissue plays a role in the recycling of circulating free fatty acids via re-esterification. In addition, the downregulation of genes involved in amino acid catabolism (e.g., alanine aminotransferase) and the TCA cycle (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase) indicated a role of skeletal muscle in muscle protein sparing and pyruvate recycling via the Cori cycle. These examples of coordinated transcriptional regulation would contribute to rapid mass gain during the pre-hibernation period and to energy preservation and efficient energy production during the hibernation period. PMID:26880364

  6. Transport of fatty acids and monoacylglycerols in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Scow, R O; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    1991-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (FA) and 2-monoacylglycerols (MG) are produced by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) from plasma triacylglycerols (TG) in capillaries of adipose tissue and transported to adipocytes for TG synthesis. It is widely proposed FA may be transported in cells by FA-binding protein. Mode of transport of MG has received little attention. Our findings in tissues and model membranes indicate that FA (as 1:1 acid-soaps) and MG can be transported in vivo by lateral movement in an interfacial continuum (IFC) of the outer leaflets of plasma and intracellular membranes of capillary endothelium and adipocytes. We postulate that FA and MG enter the IFC in capillaries and flow in the IFC across endothelium and extracellular space to sites in adipocytes where MG are hydrolyzed by MG-lipase (MGL) to FA and glycerol, and FA are esterified in endoplasmic reticulum or transferred to inner mitochondrial membrane for oxidation. FA and MG produced by hormone-sensitive lipase also enter the IFC. These MG flow in the IFC to sites of MGL activity, and the FA flow in the IFC to capillaries for transport to other tissues by albumin, or to mitochondria for heat production. PMID:1959050

  7. Metformin Prevents Fatty Liver and Improves Balance of White/Brown Adipose in an Obesity Mouse Model by Inducing FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jhun, Joo Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Jeong, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae Kyung; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are related to the onset of fatty liver and the balance of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). We hypothesized that metformin, an effective pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes, would inhibit white adipogenesis, fatty liver, and metabolic dysfunction. Metformin was treated daily for 14 weeks in a high-fat dieting C57BL/6J mice. Serum biomarkers were analyzed and protein level was assessed using confocal staining or flow cytometry. The development of lipid drops in the liver cells and white adipocyte was measured using hematoxylin and eosin or Oil Red O stains. Gene expressions were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Metformin treatment decreased the body weight and improved the metabolic profile of obese mice. In obese mice, metformin also induced the expression of BAT-related markers and increased fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 expression in the liver and in white adipocyte. Metformin suppressed white adipocyte differentiation via induction of FGF21. Metformin improves Treg/Th17 balance in CD4+ T cells in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Metformin also improves glucose metabolism and metabolic disorder. Interleukin-17 deficiency also decreases inflammation in mice. Therefore, metformin may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27057099

  8. Metformin Prevents Fatty Liver and Improves Balance of White/Brown Adipose in an Obesity Mouse Model by Inducing FGF21.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jhun, Joo Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Jeong, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae Kyung; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are related to the onset of fatty liver and the balance of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). We hypothesized that metformin, an effective pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes, would inhibit white adipogenesis, fatty liver, and metabolic dysfunction. Metformin was treated daily for 14 weeks in a high-fat dieting C57BL/6J mice. Serum biomarkers were analyzed and protein level was assessed using confocal staining or flow cytometry. The development of lipid drops in the liver cells and white adipocyte was measured using hematoxylin and eosin or Oil Red O stains. Gene expressions were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Metformin treatment decreased the body weight and improved the metabolic profile of obese mice. In obese mice, metformin also induced the expression of BAT-related markers and increased fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 expression in the liver and in white adipocyte. Metformin suppressed white adipocyte differentiation via induction of FGF21. Metformin improves Treg/Th17 balance in CD4+ T cells in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Metformin also improves glucose metabolism and metabolic disorder. Interleukin-17 deficiency also decreases inflammation in mice. Therefore, metformin may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27057099

  9. Salidroside improves glucose homeostasis in obese mice by repressing inflammation in white adipose tissues and improving leptin sensitivity in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meihong; Luo, Lan; Yao, Lili; Wang, Caiping; Jiang, Ketao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Muchen; Shen, Ningmei; Guo, Shaodong; Sun, Cheng; Yang, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside is a functionally versatile natural compound from the perennial flowering plant Rhodiola rosea L. Here, we examined obese mice treated with salidroside at the dosage of 50 mg/kg/day for 48 days. Mice treated with salidroside showed slightly decreased food intake, body weight and hepatic triglyceride content. Importantly, salidroside treatment significantly improved glucose and insulin tolerance. It also increased insulin singling in both liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). In addition, salidroside markedly ameliorated hyperglycemia in treated mice, which is likely due to the suppression of gluconeogenesis by salidroside as the protein levels of a gluconeogenic enzyme G6Pase and a co-activator PGC-1α were all markedly decreased. Further analysis revealed that adipogenesis in eWAT was significantly decreased in salidroside treated mice. The infiltration of macrophages in eWAT and the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also markedly suppressed by salidroside. Furthermore, the leptin signal transduction in hypothalamus was improved by salidroside. Taken together, these euglycemic effects of salidroside may due to repression of adipogenesis and inflammation in eWAT and stimulation of leptin signal transduction in hypothalamus. Thus, salidroside might be used as an effective anti-diabetic agent. PMID:27145908

  10. Transcriptome profiling reveals divergent expression shifts in brown and white adipose tissue from long-lived GHRKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu; Rohde, Kyle; List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kopchick, John J.; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) exhibit improved lifespan and healthspan due to loss of growth hormone signaling. Both the distribution and activity of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) are altered in GHRKO mice, but the contribution of each tissue to age-related phenotypes has remained unclear. We therefore used whole-genome microarrays to evaluate transcriptional differences in BAT and WAT depots between GHRKO and normal littermates at six months of age. Our findings reveal a unique BAT transcriptome as well as distinctive responses of BAT to Ghr ablation. BAT from GHRKO mice exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with mitochondria and metabolism, along with reduced expression of genes expressed by monocyte-derived cells (dendritic cells [DC] and macrophages). Largely the opposite was observed in WAT, with increased expression of DC-expressed genes and reduced expression of genes associated with metabolism, cellular respiration and the mitochondrial inner envelope. These findings demonstrate divergent response patterns of BAT and WAT to loss of GH signaling in GHRKO mice. These patterns suggest both BAT and WAT contribute in different ways to phenotypes in GHRKO mice, with Ghr ablation blunting inflammation in BAT as well as cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT. PMID:26436954

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals divergent expression shifts in brown and white adipose tissue from long-lived GHRKO mice.

    PubMed

    Stout, Michael B; Swindell, William R; Zhi, Xu; Rohde, Kyle; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kopchick, John J; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-09-29

    Mice lacking the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) exhibit improved lifespan and healthspan due to loss of growth hormone signaling. Both the distribution and activity of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) are altered in GHRKO mice, but the contribution of each tissue to age-related phenotypes has remained unclear. We therefore used whole-genome microarrays to evaluate transcriptional differences in BAT and WAT depots between GHRKO and normal littermates at six months of age. Our findings reveal a unique BAT transcriptome as well as distinctive responses of BAT to Ghr ablation. BAT from GHRKO mice exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with mitochondria and metabolism, along with reduced expression of genes expressed by monocyte-derived cells (dendritic cells [DC] and macrophages). Largely the opposite was observed in WAT, with increased expression of DC-expressed genes and reduced expression of genes associated with metabolism, cellular respiration and the mitochondrial inner envelope. These findings demonstrate divergent response patterns of BAT and WAT to loss of GH signaling in GHRKO mice. These patterns suggest both BAT and WAT contribute in different ways to phenotypes in GHRKO mice, with Ghr ablation blunting inflammation in BAT as well as cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT. PMID:26436954

  12. Salidroside improves glucose homeostasis in obese mice by repressing inflammation in white adipose tissues and improving leptin sensitivity in hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meihong; Luo, Lan; Yao, Lili; Wang, Caiping; Jiang, Ketao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Muchen; Shen, Ningmei; Guo, Shaodong; Sun, Cheng; Yang, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside is a functionally versatile natural compound from the perennial flowering plant Rhodiola rosea L. Here, we examined obese mice treated with salidroside at the dosage of 50 mg/kg/day for 48 days. Mice treated with salidroside showed slightly decreased food intake, body weight and hepatic triglyceride content. Importantly, salidroside treatment significantly improved glucose and insulin tolerance. It also increased insulin singling in both liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). In addition, salidroside markedly ameliorated hyperglycemia in treated mice, which is likely due to the suppression of gluconeogenesis by salidroside as the protein levels of a gluconeogenic enzyme G6Pase and a co-activator PGC-1α were all markedly decreased. Further analysis revealed that adipogenesis in eWAT was significantly decreased in salidroside treated mice. The infiltration of macrophages in eWAT and the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also markedly suppressed by salidroside. Furthermore, the leptin signal transduction in hypothalamus was improved by salidroside. Taken together, these euglycemic effects of salidroside may due to repression of adipogenesis and inflammation in eWAT and stimulation of leptin signal transduction in hypothalamus. Thus, salidroside might be used as an effective anti-diabetic agent. PMID:27145908

  13. Characterization of 75:25 poly(l-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) thin films for the endoluminal delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Burks, Chris A; Bundy, Kirk; Fotuhi, Parwis; Alt, Eckhard

    2006-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur in 5-7% of men over the age of 60 and their incidence is rising. Current therapies remove the affected tissue or prevent blood flow through the aneurysm, but do not repair the underlying structural changes of the vascular wall. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) seeded on a biodegradable thin film and delivered endoluminally to the aneurysm site could potentially repair the vessel wall, preventing growth and rupture of the aneurysm. In this study, the mechanical and degradation properties of a novel 75:25 poly(l-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL) thin film, as well as, the effects of different surface structures on stem cell adherence and resistance to shear stress was investigated. It was possible to reproducibly create films of consistent physical properties. These films degraded approximately 50% in 6 month, which would be a sufficient time to allow cells to engraft in the aortic wall. Ethylene oxide treatment significantly increased the stiffness and yield stress of the films, which exhibit >700% elongation. Treatment of the films with NaOH and HCl induced the formation of surface texture on the films; however, this texture did not affect stem cell adherence or resistance to delamination by shear stress when compared to nontreated or fibronectin-coated films. These results indicate that PLCL thin films have a sufficient degradation time and mechanical strength to serve as a scaffold in vivo for ADSCs, and that ADSCs seeded on the thin film can withstand a range of physiologic shear stresses. PMID:16995792

  14. White Adipose Tissue Browning in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Andrew C.; Jakobsson, Lovisa; Larsson, Sara; Holm, Cecilia; Piel, Sarah; Elmér, Eskil; Björkqvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterised not only by progressive cognitive, motor and psychiatric impairments, but also of peripheral pathology. In both human HD and in mouse models of HD there is evidence of increased energy expenditure and weight loss, alongside altered body composition. Unlike white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as brown-like cells within WAT, expresses the mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 enables dissociation of cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Hyperplasia of brown/beige cells in WAT has been suggested to enhance energy expenditure. In this study, we therefore investigated the gene expression profile, histological appearance, response to cold challenge and functional aspects of WAT in the R6/2 HD mouse model and selected WAT gene expression in the full-length Q175 mouse model of HD. WAT from R6/2 mice contained significantly more brown-like adipocyte regions and had a gene profile suggestive of the presence of brown-like adipocytes, such as higher Ucp1 expression. Cold exposure induced Ucp1 expression in R6/2 inguinal WAT to a markedly higher degree as compared to the thermogenic response in WT WAT. Alongside this, gene expression of transcription factors (Zfp516 and Pparα), important inducers of WAT browning, were increased in R6/2 inguinal WAT, and Creb1 was highlighted as a key transcription factor in HD. In addition to increased WAT Ucp1 expression, a trend towards increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to enhanced uncoupling activity was found in inguinal R6/2 WAT. Key gene expressional changes (increased expression of (Zfp516 and Pparα)) were replicated in inguinal WAT obtained from Q175 mice. In summary, for the first time, we here show that HD mouse WAT undergoes a process of browning, resulting in molecular and functional alterations that may

  15. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  16. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Cláudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver. PMID:24027356

  17. Resveratrol attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced macrophage migration to visceral white adipose tissue and insulin resistance in male mice.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Alba; Zhang, Shelley X L; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Peris, Eduard; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David

    2015-02-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), as occurs in sleep apnea, promotes systemic insulin resistance. Resveratrol (Resv) has been reported to ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of Resv on IH-induced metabolic dysfunction, male mice were subjected to IH or room air conditions for 8 weeks and treated with either Resv or vehicle (Veh). Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin were obtained, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index levels were calculated, and insulin sensitivity tests (phosphorylated AKT [also known as protein kinase B]/total AKT) were performed in 2 visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) depots (epididymal [Epi] and mesenteric [Mes]) along with flow cytometry assessments for VWAT macrophages and phenotypes (M1 and M2). IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice showed initial reductions in food intake with later recovery, with resultant lower body weights after 8 weeks but with IH-Resv showing better increases in body weight vs IH-Veh. IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, but only IH-Veh had increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index vs all 3 other groups. Leptin levels were preserved in IH-Veh but were significantly lower in IH-Resv. Reduced VWAT phosphorylated-AKT/AKT responses to insulin emerged in both Mes and Epi in IH-Veh but normalized in IH-Resv. Increases total macrophage counts and in M1 to M2 ratios occurred in IH-Veh Mes and Epi compared all other 3 groups. Thus, Resv ameliorates food intake and weight gain during IH exposures and markedly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance, thereby providing a potentially useful adjunctive therapy for metabolic morbidity in the context of sleep apnea. PMID:25406018

  18. Biomarkers of browning of white adipose tissue and their regulation during exercise- and diet-induced weight loss12

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Andrea R; Gburcik, Valentina; Raymond, Frederic; Good, Liam; Atherton, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Background: A hypothesis exists whereby an exercise- or dietary-induced negative energy balance reduces human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) mass through the formation of brown-like adipocyte (brite) cells. However, the validity of biomarkers of brite formation has not been robustly evaluated in humans, and clinical data that link brite formation and weight loss are sparse. Objectives: We used rosiglitazone and primary adipocytes to stringently evaluate a set of biomarkers for brite formation and determined whether the expression of biomarker genes in scWAT could explain the change in body composition in response to exercise training combined with calorie restriction in obese and overweight women (n = 79). Design: Gene expression was derived from exon DNA microarrays and preadipocytes from obesity-resistant and -sensitive mice treated with rosiglitazone to generate candidate brite biomarkers from a microarray. These biomarkers were evaluated against data derived from scWAT RNA from obese and overweight women before and after supervised exercise 5 d/wk for 16 wk combined with modest calorie restriction (∼0.84 MJ/d). Results: Forty percent of commonly used brite gene biomarkers exhibited an exon or strain-specific regulation. No biomarkers were positively related to weight loss in human scWAT. Greater weight loss was significantly associated with less uncoupling protein 1 expression (P = 0.006, R2 = 0.09). In a follow-up global analysis, there were 161 genes that covaried with weight loss that were linked to greater CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α activity (z = 2.0, P = 6.6 × 10−7), liver X receptor α/β agonism (z = 2.1, P = 2.8 × 10−7), and inhibition of leptin-like signaling (z = −2.6, P = 3.9 × 10−5). Conclusion: We identify a subset of robust RNA biomarkers for brite formation and show that calorie-restriction–mediated weight loss in women dynamically remodels scWAT to take on a more-white rather than a more-brown adipocyte phenotype

  19. Short-term rapamycin treatment in mice has few effects on the transcriptome of white adipose tissue compared to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Fok, Wilson C; Livi, Carolina; Bokov, Alex; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yidong; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2014-09-01

    Rapamycin, a drug that has been shown to increase lifespan in mice, inhibits the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, a major pathway that regulates cell growth and energy status. It has been hypothesized that rapamycin and dietary restriction (DR) extend lifespan through similar mechanisms/pathways. Using microarray analysis, we compared the transcriptome of white adipose tissue from mice fed rapamycin or DR-diet for 6 months. Multidimensional scaling and heatmap analyses showed that rapamycin had essentially no effect on the transcriptome as compared to DR. For example, only six transcripts were significantly altered by rapamycin while mice fed DR showed a significant change in over 1000 transcripts. Using ingenuity pathway analysis, we found that stearate biosynthesis and circadian rhythm signaling were significantly changed by DR. Our findings showing that DR, but not rapamycin, has an effect on the transcriptome of the adipose tissue, suggesting that these two manipulations increase lifespan through different mechanisms/pathways. PMID:25075714

  20. A soyabean diet does not modify the activity of brown adipose tissue but alters the rate of lipolysis in the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of male rats recovering from early-life malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Adriene Alexandra; Faiad, Jaline Zandonato; Taki, Marina Satie; de Lima Reis, Silvia Regina; de Souza, Letícia Martins Ignácio; Dos Santos, Maísa Pavani; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Kawashita, Nair Honda; de Oliveira, Helena Coutinho Franco; Raposo, Helena Fonseca; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena Gaíva; Martins, Maria Salete Ferreira

    2012-09-28

    Nutritional recovery with a soyabean diet decreases body and fat weights when compared with a casein diet. We investigated whether the reduced adiposity observed in rats recovering from early-life malnutrition with a soyabean diet results from alterations in lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT) and/or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male rats from mothers fed either 17 or 6 % protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on 17 % casein (CC and LC groups), 17 % soyabean (CS and LS groups) or 6 % casein (LL group) diets over 60 d. The rats maintained on a soyabean diet had similar relative food intakes, but lower body and retroperitoneal WAT weights and a reduced lipid content in the retroperitoneal WAT. The insulin levels were lower in the recovered rats and were elevated in those fed a soyabean diet. Serum T3 concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in the BAT were decreased in the recovered rats. The thermogenic capacity of the BAT was not affected by the soyabean diet. The lipogenesis rate in the retroperitoneal WAT was similar in all of the groups except for the LL group, which had exacerbated lipogenesis. The enhancement of the lipolysis rate by isoproterenol was decreased in white adipocytes from the soyabean-recovered rats and was elevated in adipocytes from the soyabean-control rats. Thus, in animals maintained on a soyabean diet, the proportions of fat deposits are determined by the lipolysis rate, which differs depending on the previous nutritional status. PMID:22152781

  1. Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Chris G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9–10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African–Caribbeans. Results Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African–Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African–Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African–Caribbeans and white Europeans. Conclusions UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African–Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically

  2. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL‐Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Claire E.; West, Sheila G.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Bordi, Peter L.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled‐feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie‐matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods and Results In a randomized, 2‐period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled‐feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL‐C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol‐lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non‐HDL‐C (−6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL‐C (−5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL‐C (−1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (−0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (−0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. Conclusions Almonds reduced non‐HDL‐C, LDL‐C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL‐C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high‐carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230. PMID:25559009

  3. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Rene; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. Objectives To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Methods Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or control sleep (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using MeDIP coupled to microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice/group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. Results We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs. 28.8 g; p=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs. 497.0 mg; p=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs. 250.1 mg; p=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs. 87.6 mg/dL; p=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs. 84.1 mg/dL; p=0.003) and HOMA-IR values (8.1 vs. 6.1; p=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs. LG-SC; p< 0.0001, MAT algorithm). A large proportion of the DMR-associated genes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1, etc. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Conclusions Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways associated with metabolic processes and inflammatory response in VWAT. LG-SF-induced epigenetic

  4. Dietary Fucoxanthin Increases Metabolic Rate and Upregulated mRNA Expressions of the PGC-1alpha Network, Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Fusion Genes in White Adipose Tissues of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Ting; Chou, Hong-Nong; Huang, Ching-jang

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for how fucoxanthin (FX) suppressed adipose accumulation is unclear. We aim to investigate the effects of FX on metabolic rate and expressions of genes related to thermogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis and homeostasis. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, four groups of mice were respectively fed a high sucrose (50% sucrose) or a high-fat diet (23% butter + 7% soybean oil) supplemented with or without 0.2% FX. FX significantly increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cell death-inducing DFFA-like effecter a (CIDEA), PPARα, PPARγ, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and deiodinase 2 (Dio2) were significantly upregulated in inguinal WAT (iWAT) and epididymal WAT (eWAT) by FX. Mitochondrial biogenic genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and NRF2, were increased in eWAT by FX. Noticeably, FX upregulated genes of mitochondrial fusion, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mfn2 and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), but not mitochondrial fission, Fission 1, in both iWAT and eWAT. In conclusion, dietary FX enhanced the metabolic rate and lowered adipose mass irrespective of the diet. These were associated with upregulated genes of the PGC-1α network and mitochondrial fusion in eWAT and iWAT. PMID:24534841

  5. Sleep Fragmentation in Mice Induces Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 2-Dependent Mobilization, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Adipocyte Progenitors in Visceral White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley X.; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Abdelkarim, Amal; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) without sleep curtailment induces increased adiposity. However, it remains unclear whether mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation of adipocyte progenitors (APs) occurs in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT), and whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (Nox2) activity plays a role. Methods: Changes in VWAT depot cell size and AP proliferation were assessed in wild-type and Nox2 null male mice exposed to SF and control sleep (SC). To assess mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), Sca-1+ bone marrow progenitors were isolated from GFP+ or RFP+ mice, and injected intravenously to adult male mice (C57BL/6) previously exposed to SF or SC. Results: In comparison with SC, SF was associated with increased weight accrual at 3 w and thereafter, larger subcutaneous and visceral fat depots, and overall adipocyte size at 8 w. Increased global AP numbers in VWAT along with enhanced AP BrDU labeling in vitro and in vivo emerged in SF. Systemic injections of GFP+ BM-MSC resulted in increased AP in VWAT, as well as in enhanced differentiation into adipocytes in SF-exposed mice. No differences occurred between SF and SC in Nox2 null mice for any of these measurements. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) induces obesity in mice and increased proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte progenitors (AP) in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that are mediated by increased Nox2 activity. In addition, enhanced migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from the systemic circulation into VWAT, along with AP differentiation, proliferation, and adipocyte formation occur in SF-exposed wild-type but not in oxidase 2 (Nox2) null mice. Thus, Nox2 may provide a therapeutic target to prevent obesity in the context of sleep disorders. Citation: Khalyfa A, Wang Y, Zhang SX, Qiao Z, Abdelkarim A, Gozal D. Sleep fragmentation in mice induces

  6. ACC2 Is Expressed at High Levels Human White Adipose and Has an Isoform with a Novel N-Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Christopher K.; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Ohwaki, Kenji; Kan, Zhengyan; Kusunoki, Jun; Johnson, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases ACC1 and ACC2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, regulating fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation, and are potential targets for treatment of metabolic syndrome. Expression of ACC1 in rodent lipogenic tissues and ACC2 in rodent oxidative tissues, coupled with the predicted localization of ACC2 to the mitochondrial membrane, have suggested separate functional roles for ACC1 in lipogenesis and ACC2 in fatty acid oxidation. We find, however, that human adipose tissue, unlike rodent adipose, expresses more ACC2 mRNA relative to the oxidative tissues muscle and heart. Human adipose, along with human liver, expresses more ACC2 than ACC1. Using RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and immunoprecipitation we report a novel isoform of ACC2 (ACC2.v2) that is expressed at significant levels in human adipose. The protein generated by this isoform has enzymatic activity, is endogenously expressed in adipose, and lacks the N-terminal sequence. Both ACC2 isoforms are capable of de novo lipogenesis, suggesting that ACC2, in addition to ACC1, may play a role in lipogenesis. The results demonstrate a significant difference in ACC expression between human and rodents, which may introduce difficulties for the use of rodent models for development of ACC inhibitors. PMID:19190759

  7. Label-free profiling of white adipose tissue of rats exhibiting high or low levels of intrinsic exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Bowden-Davies, Kelly; Connolly, Joanne; Burghardt, Paul; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2015-07-01

    Divergent selection has created rat phenotypes of high- and low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that have differences in aerobic capacity and correlated traits such as adiposity. We analyzed visceral adipose tissue of HCR and LCR using label-free high-definition MS (elevated energy) profiling. The running capacity of HCR was ninefold greater than LCR. Proteome profiling encompassed 448 proteins and detected 30 significant (p <0.05; false discovery rate <10%, calculated using q-values) differences. Approximately half of the proteins analyzed were of mitochondrial origin, but there were no significant differences in the abundance of proteins involved in aerobic metabolism. Instead, adipose tissue of LCR rats exhibited greater abundances of proteins associated with adipogenesis (e.g. cathepsin D), ER stress (e.g. 78 kDa glucose response protein), and inflammation (e.g. Ig gamma-2B chain C region). Whereas the abundance antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] was greater in HCR tissue. Putative adipokines were also detected, in particular protein S100-B, was 431% more abundant in LCR adipose tissue. These findings reveal low running capacity is associated with a pathological profile in visceral adipose tissue proteome despite no detectable differences in mitochondrial protein abundance. PMID:25758023

  8. The contrasting roles of PPARδ and PPARγ in regulating the metabolic switch between oxidation and storage of fats in white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) play central roles in regulating metabolism in adipose tissue, as well as being targets for the treatment of insulin resistance. While the role of PPARγ in regulating insulin sensitivity has been well defined, research into PPARδ has been limited until recently due to a scarcity of selective PPARδ agonists. Results The metabolic effects of PPARγ and PPARδ activation have been examined in vivo in white adipose tissue from ob/ob mice and in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry metabolomics to understand the receptors' contrasting roles. These steady state measurements were supplemented with 13C-stable isotope substrate labeling to assess fluxes, in addition to respirometry and transcriptomic microarray analysis. The metabolic effects of the receptors were readily distinguished, with PPARγ activation characterized by increased fat storage, synthesis and elongation, while PPARδ activation caused increased fatty acid β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle rate and oxidation of extracellular branch chain amino acids. Stimulated glycolysis and increased fatty acid desaturation were common pathways for the agonists. Conclusions PPARγ and PPARδ restore insulin sensitivity through varying mechanisms. PPARδ activation increases total oxidative metabolism in white adipose tissue, a tissue not traditionally thought of as oxidative. However, the increased metabolism of branch chain amino acids may provide a mechanism for muscle atrophy, which has been linked to activation of this nuclear receptor. PPARδ has a role as an anti-obesity target and as an anti-diabetic, and hence may target both the cause and consequences of dyslipidemia. PMID:21843327

  9. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Thereby adipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglycerides are stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes and hypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissue fibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction, both in rodent models and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin both reduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibrotic drugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1 antagonists will improve adipose tissue function and thereby ameliorate metabolic diseases. PMID:25987952

  10. Dietary fatty acid composition alters 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vara Prasad, Sakamuri S S; Jeya Kumar, Shanmugam S; Kumar, Putcha Uday; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive glucocorticoids to their active forms in vivo. Adipose-specific overexpression of 11β-HSD1 induces metabolic syndrome in mice, whereas 11β-HSD1 null mice are resistant to it. Dietary trans and saturated fatty acids (TFAs and SFAs) are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) offer protection against this. Here, we report the effects of chronic feeding of different diets containing vanaspati (TFA rich), palm oil (SFA rich) and sunflower oil (PUFA rich) at 10%level on 11β-HSD1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly higher in TFA rich diet-fed rats compared to SFA rich diet-fed rats, which in turn was significantly higher than PUFA rich diet-fed rats. Similar trend was observed in the expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), the main transcription factor required for the expression of 11β-HSD1. We propose that TFAs and SFAs increase local amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue by upregulating 11β-HSD1 by altering C/EBP-α-gene expression. The increased levels of glucocorticoids in adipose tissue may lead to development of obesity and insulin resistance, thereby increasing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. PMID:20932307

  11. Effect of resistance training on muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in postmenopausal women: controlled and randomized clinical trial of efficacy of training volume.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Barcelos, Larissa Corrêa; Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Furlanetto Júnior, Roberto; Martins, Fernanda Maria; Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Orsatti, Fábio Lera

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of resistance training (RT) volume on muscular strength and on indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in post-menopausal women (PW). Thirty-two volunteers were randomly allocated into the following three groups: control (CT, no exercise, n = 11), low-volume RT (LV, three sets/exercise, n = 10), and high-volume RT (HV, six sets/exercise, n = 11). The LV and HV groups performed eight exercises at 70 % of one maximal repetition, three times a week, for 16 weeks. Muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. No differences were found in baseline measures between the groups. The PW showed excess weight and fat percentage (F%), large waist circumference (WC), high waist-hip ratio (WHR), and hypercholesterolemia and borderline values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%). Following the RT, a similar increase in muscle strength and reduction in F% from baseline were found in both trained groups. In HV, a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-c, WC, and WHR was noted. Moreover, the HV showed a lower change (delta%) of interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to CT (HV = 11.2 %, P 25-75 = -7.6-28.4 % vs. CT = 99.55 %, P 25-75 = 18.5-377.0 %, p = 0.049). In LV, a decrease was noted for HbA1c%. There were positive correlations (delta%) between WHR and IL-6 and between IL-6 and TC. These results suggest that while a low-volume RT improves HbA1c%, F%, and muscular strength, a high-volume RT is necessary to improve indicators of abdominal adiposity and lipid metabolism and also prevent IL-6 increases in PW. PMID:26984105

  12. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  13. Differential effects of cobalt and mercury on lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obesity mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige Hanao, Norihide; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Metals and metalloid species are involved in homeostasis in energy systems such as glucose metabolism. Enlarged adipocytes are one of the most important causes of obesity-associated diseases. In this study, we studied the possibility that various metals, namely, CoCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}, NaAsO{sub 2} and MnCl{sub 2} pose risk to or have beneficial effects on white adipose tissue (WAT). Exposure to the four metals resulted in decreases in WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without changes in liver weight, suggesting that the size and function of adipocytes are sensitive to metals. Repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} significantly increased serum leptin, adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and normalized glucose level and adipose cell size in mice fed HFD. In contrast, HgCl{sub 2} treatment significantly decreased serum leptin level with the down-regulation of leptin mRNA expression in WAT and a reduction in adipocyte size. Next, we tried to investigate possible factors that affect adipocyte size. Repeated exposure to HgCl{sub 2} significantly decreased the expression levels of factors upon the regulation of energy such as the PPARα and PPARγ mRNA expression levels in adipocytes, whereas CoCl{sub 2} had little effect on those genes expressions compared with that in the case of the mice fed HFD with a vehicle. In addition, repeated administration of CoCl{sub 2} enhanced AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, skeletal muscle and WAT; HgCl{sub 2} treatment also enhanced AMPK activation in the liver. Thus, both Co and Hg reduced WAT weight and the size of enlarged adipocytes, possibly mediated by AMKP activation in the mice fed HFD. However, inorganic cobalt may have a preventive role in obesity-related diseases through increased leptin, adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas inorganic mercury may accelerate the development of such diseases. These results may lead

  14. Altered White Adipose Tissue Protein Profile in C57BL/6J Mice Displaying Delipidative, Inflammatory, and Browning Characteristics after Bitter Melon Seed Oil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Gou-Chun; Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Wu, Ting-Feng; Chao, Pei-Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO), which is rich in cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linolenic acid, is more potent than soybean oil in attenuating body fat deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive insight into how white adipose tissue (WAT) is affected by BMSO administration and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the anti-adiposity effect of BMSO. Methods and Results A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in the WAT of mice fed diets with or without BMSO for 11 wks. The WAT was also analyzed histologically for morphological changes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (pH 4–7) revealed 32 spots showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in intensity in BMSO-treated mice and 30 of these were shown to code for 23 proteins (15 increased and 8 decreased expression; >2-fold change). Combined with histological evidence of macrophage infiltration and brown adipocyte recruitment, the proteomic and immunoblotting data showed that the WAT in mice subjected to long-term high dose BMSO administration was characterized by reduced caveolae formation, increased ROS insult, tissue remodeling/repair, mitochondria uncoupling, and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton, this last change being putatively related to an increased inflammatory response. Conclusion The anti-adiposity effect of BMSO is associated with WAT delipidation, inflammation, and browning. Some novel proteins participating in these processes were identified. In addition, the BMSO-mediated WAT browning may account for the increased inflammation without causing adverse metabolic effects. PMID:24039822

  15. Weight Loss Upregulates the Small GTPase DIRAS3 in Human White Adipose Progenitor Cells, Which Negatively Regulates Adipogenesis and Activates Autophagy via Akt-mTOR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asim; Mitterberger, Maria C; Lu, Zhen; Mattesich, Monika; Zwierzina, Marit E; Hörl, Susanne; Kaiser, Andreas; Viertler, Hans-Peter; Rostek, Ursula; Meryk, Andreas; Khalid, Sana; Pierer, Gerhard; Bast, Robert C; Zwerschke, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Long-term weight-loss (WL) interventions reduce insulin serum levels, protect from obesity, and postpone age-associated diseases. The impact of long-term WL on adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) is unknown. We identified DIRAS3 and IGF-1 as long-term WL target genes up-regulated in ASCs in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of formerly obese donors (WLDs). We show that DIRAS3 negatively regulates Akt, mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in ASCs undergoing adipogenesis and acts as a negative regulator of this pathway and an activator of autophagy. Studying the IGF-1-DIRAS3 interaction in ASCs of WLDs, we demonstrate that IGF-1, although strongly up-regulated in these cells, hardly activates Akt, while ERK1/2 and S6K1 phosphorylation is activated by IGF-1. Overexpression of DIRAS3 in WLD ASCs completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation also in the presence of IGF-1. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6K1 is lesser reduced under these conditions. In conclusion, our key findings are that DIRAS3 down-regulates Akt-mTOR signaling in ASCs of WLDs. Moreover, DIRAS3 inhibits adipogenesis and activates autophagy in these cells. PMID:27211557

  16. Weight Loss Upregulates the Small GTPase DIRAS3 in Human White Adipose Progenitor Cells, Which Negatively Regulates Adipogenesis and Activates Autophagy via Akt–mTOR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asim; Mitterberger, Maria C.; Lu, Zhen; Mattesich, Monika; Zwierzina, Marit E.; Hörl, Susanne; Kaiser, Andreas; Viertler, Hans-Peter; Rostek, Ursula; Meryk, Andreas; Khalid, Sana; Pierer, Gerhard; Bast, Robert C.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Long-term weight-loss (WL) interventions reduce insulin serum levels, protect from obesity, and postpone age-associated diseases. The impact of long-term WL on adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) is unknown. We identified DIRAS3 and IGF-1 as long-term WL target genes up-regulated in ASCs in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of formerly obese donors (WLDs). We show that DIRAS3 negatively regulates Akt, mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in ASCs undergoing adipogenesis and acts as a negative regulator of this pathway and an activator of autophagy. Studying the IGF-1–DIRAS3 interaction in ASCs of WLDs, we demonstrate that IGF-1, although strongly up-regulated in these cells, hardly activates Akt, while ERK1/2 and S6K1 phosphorylation is activated by IGF-1. Overexpression of DIRAS3 in WLD ASCs completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation also in the presence of IGF-1. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6K1 is lesser reduced under these conditions. In conclusion, our key findings are that DIRAS3 down-regulates Akt–mTOR signaling in ASCs of WLDs. Moreover, DIRAS3 inhibits adipogenesis and activates autophagy in these cells. PMID:27211557

  17. Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue of transgenic mice increases lipase activity but does not enhance in vitro lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Stéphanie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Tiraby, Claire; Mairal, Aline; Langin, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters (CEs). The enzyme is highly expressed in adipose tissues (ATs), where it is thought to play an important role in fat mobilization. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of a physiological increase of HSL expression in vivo. Transgenic mice were produced with a 21 kb human genomic fragment encompassing the exons encoding the adipocyte form of HSL. hHSL mRNA was expressed at 3-fold higher levels than murine HSL mRNA in white adipocytes. Transgene expression was also observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. The human protein was detected in ATs of transgenic (Tg) mice. The hydrolytic activities against triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG) analog, and CE were increased in transgenic mouse AT. However, cAMP-inducible adipocyte lipolysis was lower in transgenic animals. In the B6CBA genetic background, transgenic mice up to 14 weeks of age showed lower body weight and fat mass. The phenotype was not observed in older animals and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the OF1 genetic background, there was no difference in fat mass of mice fed ad libitum. However, transgenic mice became leaner than their wild-type (WT) littermates after a 4 day calorie restriction. The data show that overexpression of HSL, despite increased lipase activity, does not lead to enhanced lipolysis. PMID:12518034

  18. Role of Exchange Protein Directly Activated by Cyclic AMP Isoform 1 in Energy Homeostasis: Regulation of Leptin Expression and Secretion in White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaohua; Robichaux, William G; Mei, Fang C; Kim, Eun Ran; Wang, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Jin, Jianping; Xu, Mingxuan; Chen, Ju; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    Epacs (exchange proteins directly activated by cyclic AMP [cAMP]) act as downstream effectors of cAMP and play important roles in energy balance and glucose homeostasis. While global deletion of Epac1 in mice leads to heightened leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus and partial protection against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, the physiological functions of Epac1 in white adipose tissue (WAT) has not been explored. Here, we report that adipose tissue-specific Epac1 knockout (AEKO) mice are more prone to HFD-induced obesity, with increased food intake, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance. Despite the fact that AEKO mice on HFD display increased body weight, these mice have decreased circulating leptin levels compared to their wild-type littermates. In vivo and in vitro analyses further reveal that suppression of Epac1 in WAT decreases leptin mRNA expression and secretion by inhibiting cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein and AKT phosphorylation, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Epac1 plays an important role in regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis by promoting leptin expression and secretion in WAT. PMID:27381457

  19. Acute induction of uncoupling protein 1 by citrulline in cultured explants of white adipose tissue from lean and high-fat-diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Joffin, Nolwenn; Jaubert, Anne-Marie; Bamba, Jessica; Barouki, Robert; Noirez, Philippe; Forest, Claude

    2015-01-01

    A diet enriched with citrulline (CIT) reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We recently showed that CIT stimulated β-oxidation in rat WAT explants from young (2–4 months) but not old (25 months) rats. Here we show that both in old rats and high-fat-diet-fed young rats, uncoupling protein one (UCP1) mRNA and protein expressions were weaker than those in young control rats. Selectively in WAT from young rats, a 24h CIT treatment up-regulated expressions of UCP1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), PPARγ-coactivator-1-α and mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A whereas it down-regulated PPARγ2 gene expression, whatever the diet. These results suggest that CIT induces a new metabolic status in WAT, with increased β-oxidation and uncoupling of respiratory chain, resulting in energy expenditure that favors fat mass reduction. PMID:26167416

  20. Effects of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) lipids on white adipose tissue weight and blood glucose in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Nana; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Halocynthia roretzi contain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of H. roretzi lipids on white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and high blood glucose levels in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. H. roretzi lipids were fed to the diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice for 5 weeks. In the mice treated with the H. roretzi lipids compared to control mice, WAT weight was reduced, blood glucose levels and leptin mRNA expression in the epididymal WAT were significantly decreased, serum leptin levels also tended to decrease, and serum adiponectin levels tended to increase. These results demonstrate that H. roretzi lipids have beneficial health effects on diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. PMID:21472260

  1. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  2. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women1234

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Khan, Unab I; Thurston, Rebecca; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that the effects of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) on cardiovascular disease risk may depend on accompanying amounts of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Objective: The objective was to examine whether abdominal VAT area modifies the effects of abdominal SAT area on subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in both whites and African Americans. Design: Computed tomographic measures of abdominal SAT and VAT were examined in relation to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiometabolic risk factor levels in 500 African American and white women in midlife. A VAT × SAT interaction term was evaluated. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 51.0 ± 2.9 y, and 37% were African American. Higher amounts of SAT and VAT were associated with higher cIMT, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin and with lower concentrations of HDL cholesterol. However, in African Americans, but not in whites, higher amounts of VAT significantly attenuated associations between higher amounts of SAT and higher insulin concentrations (P for interaction = 0.032) and HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.011) and reversed associations with cIMT (P for interaction = 0.005) and glucose (P for interaction = 0.044). Conclusions: These results suggest that in midlife African American but not white women, adverse associations between abdominal SAT and cardiometabolic risk factors are attenuated and, in the case of subclinical atherosclerosis, are reversed as VAT amounts increase. Given that African American women suffer disproportionately from obesity and cardiovascular disease, further research into the role of this effect modification on obesity-associated vascular disease in African American women is warranted. PMID:21346089

  3. Cessation of physical exercise changes metabolism and modifies the adipocyte cellularity of the periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Sertie, Rogerio A L; Andreotti, Sandra; Proença, André R G; Campana, Amanda B; Lima-Salgado, Thais M; Batista, Miguél L; Seelaender, Marilia C L; Curi, Rui; Oliveira, Ariclecio C; Lima, Fabio B

    2013-08-01

    All of the adaptations acquired through physical training are reversible with inactivity. Although significant reductions in maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) can be observed within 2 to 4 wk of detraining, the consequences of detraining on the physiology of adipose tissue are poorly known. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effects of discontinuing training (physical detraining) on the metabolism and adipocyte cellularity of rat periepididymal (PE) adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats, aged 6 wk, were divided into three groups and studied for 12 wk under the following conditions: 1) trained (T) throughout the period; 2) detrained (D), trained during the first 8 wk and detrained during the remaining 4 wk; and 3) age-matched sedentary (S). Training consisted of treadmill running sessions (1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 50-60% Vo2max). The PE adipocyte size analysis revealed significant differences between the groups. The adipocyte cross-sectional area (in μm(2)) was significantly larger in D than in the T and S groups (3,474 ± 68.8; 1,945.7 ± 45.6; 2,492.4 ± 49.08, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with T, the isolated adipose cells (of the D rats) showed a 48% increase in the ability to perform lipogenesis (both basal and maximally insulin-stimulated) and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. No changes were observed with respect to unstimulated lipolysis. A 15% reduction in the proportion of apoptotic adipocytes was observed in groups T and D compared with group S. The gene expression levels of adiponectin and PPAR-gamma were upregulated by factors of 3 and 2 in D vs. S, respectively. PREF-1 gene expression was 3-fold higher in T vs. S. From these results, we hypothesize that adipogenesis was stimulated in group D and accompanied by significant adipocyte hypertrophy and an increase in the lipogenic capacity of the adipocytes. The occurrence of apoptotic nuclei in PE fat cells was reduced in the D and T rats; these results raise the possibility that the adipose tissue

  4. White adipose tissue re-growth after partial lipectomy in high fat diet induced obese wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Allain Amador; Habitante, Carlos Alexandre; Oyama, Lila Missae; Estadella, Débora; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of partial removal of epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues (partial lipectomy) on the triacylglycerol deposition of high fat diet induced obese rats were analyzed, aiming to challenge the hypothesized body fat regulatory system. Male 28-day-old wistar rats received a diet enriched with peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits during the experimental period. At the 90th day of life, rats were submitted to either lipectomy (L) or sham surgery. After 7 or 30 days, RET, EPI, liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), blood and carcass were obtained and analyzed. Seven days following surgery, liver lipogenesis rate and EPI relative weight were increased in L. After 30 days, L, RET and EPI presented increased lipogenesis, lipolysis and percentage of small area adipocytes. L rats also presented increased liver malic enzyme activity, BAT lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol and corticosterone serum levels. The partial removal of visceral fat pads affected the metabolism of high fat diet obese rats, which leads to excised tissue re-growth and possibly compensatory growth of non-excised depots at a later time. PMID:21140253

  5. Spleen supports a pool of innate-like B cells in white adipose tissue that protects against obesity-associated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Parekh, Vrajesh V; Hsiao, Joseph; Kitamura, Daisuke; Van Kaer, Luc

    2014-10-28

    Lipid accumulation in obesity triggers a low-grade inflammation that results from an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory components of the immune system and acts as the major underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-associated diseases, notably insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Innate-like B cells are a subgroup of B cells that respond to innate signals and modulate inflammatory responses through production of immunomodulatory mediators such as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In this study, we examined innate-like B cells in visceral white adipose tissue (VAT) and the relationship of these cells with their counterparts in the peritoneal cavity and spleen during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice. We show that a considerable number of innate-like B cells bearing a surface phenotype distinct from the recently identified "adipose natural regulatory B cells" populate VAT of lean animals, and that spleen represents a source for the recruitment of these cells in VAT during DIO. However, demand for these cells in the expanding VAT outpaces their recruitment during DIO, and the obese environment in VAT further impairs their function. We further show that removal of splenic precursors of innate-like B cells through splenectomy exacerbates, whereas supplementation of these cells via adoptive transfer ameliorates, DIO-associated insulin resistance. Additional adoptive transfer experiments pointed toward a dominant role of IL-10 in mediating the protective effects of innate-like B cells against DIO-induced insulin resistance. These findings identify spleen-supplied innate-like B cells in VAT as previously unrecognized players and therapeutic targets for obesity-associated diseases. PMID:25313053

  6. CIDE-A gene expression is decreased in white adipose tissue of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disrupted mice and with high-fat feeding of normal mice.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Bruce; Berryman, Darlene E; Clark, Ryan; Li, Aiyun; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2007-08-01

    Growth hormone's (GH) lipolytic activity in white adipose tissue (WAT) results in decreased body fat in giant GH transgenic mice and increased subcutaneous fat in dwarf growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene-disrupted mice (GHR -/-). We therefore hypothesized that GH action would affect expression of CIDE-A (cell-death-inducing DFF45-like effector-A), a protein found in white adipose tissue (WAT) and involved in lipid metabolism. CIDE-A RNA levels were determined in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue isolated from wild-type and GHR -/- mice. The adipose tissue was also analyzed for adipocyte size. We determined that the lack of GH action has depot-specific effects on the levels of CIDE-A RNA and affected adipocyte cell size. CIDE-A expression is significantly reduced in GHR -/- subcutaneous fat compared to wild-type but is not altered in retroperitoneal or epididymal fat. Likewise, adipocytes are significantly enlarged in GHR -/- subcutaneous adipose tissue relative wild-type mice. A high-fat diet also influenced the level of CIDE-A RNA in mouse adipose tissue. The high-fat diet significantly reduced CIDE-A expression in wild-type subcutaneous fat but did not alter CIDE-A expression in subcutaneous fat of GHR -/- mice. The diet also reduced CIDE-A expression in wild-type retroperitoneal fat but the levels of CIDE-A in epididymal fat were unchanged. In contrast, the high-fat diet reduced CIDE-A expression in both retroperitoneal and epididymal fat of GHR -/- mice. These data demonstrate that CIDE-A levels are reduced in two different mouse models of obesity and this reduction may contribute to altered lipid metabolism. PMID:17544797

  7. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter to Measure Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight or Obese Adolescent Children and Its Role as A Marker of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yashoda, H.T.; Boraiah, Ganga; Vishwa, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of sagittal abdominal diameter using a revalidated caliper is simple, inexpensive, non-invasive method. It strongly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as a surrogate marker to predict risk for Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Aim To assess visceral abdominal fat by measuring sagittal abdominal diameter using sliding calipers and to predict insulin resistance in obese or overweight adolescent children. Study design Explorative study for Paediatric age group among over weight and obese children aged 10-18 years in urban population in a Tertiary Care Centre. Materials and Methods Paediatric population satisfying ADA guidelines for diagnosis of prediabetes were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements with SAD were recorded. Blood was collected to investigate for prediabetes and insulin resistance using HOMA-IR. Results Out of 924 subjects who gave assent to participate in study 108 fulfilled ADA criteria. 33 subjects who didn’t come for the follow up were excluded. Out of 75 subjects 12 were detected to have insulin resistance (16%) and 63 were normal (84%). Pearson’s partial correlation of HOMA-IR and OGTT with SAD has demonstrated it to be better correlation with Insulin Resistance (IR) than other anthropometric measurements. Fasting Glucose correlated better with Waist Hip Circumference. Conclusion Insulin Resistance was diagnosed in 16% of the population and these had high levels of insulin resistance. SAD in relation to glucose metabolism, had a better correlation with OGTT followed by HOMA-IR and fasting Insulin. SAD with anthropometric measurements had better correlation all the parameters other than Waist Circumference, which had negative correlation. SAD can be used in evaluation of obese or overweight children for evaluation. PMID:26673888

  8. Quantitative image analysis in adipose tissue using an automated image analysis system: differential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma agonist on white and brown adipose tissue morphology in AKR obese and db/db diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuji; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Mine; Asano, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of adipocytes is widely used to demonstrate the effects of antiobesity drugs or anti-diabetic drugs on adipose tissues. However, adipocyte morphometry has been quantitatively performed by manual object extraction using conventional image analysis systems. The authors have developed an automated quantitative image analysis method for adipose tissues using an innovative object-based quantitative image analysis system (eCognition). Using this system, it has been shown quantitatively that morphological features of adipose tissues of mice treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists differ dramatically depending on the type of PPAR agonist. Marked alteration of morphological characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT) treated with GI259578A, a PPAR-alpha agonist, was observed in AKR/J (AKR) obese mice. Furthermore, there was a 22.8% decrease in the mean size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) compared with vehicle. In diabetic db/db mice, the PPAR-gamma agonist GW347845X decreased the mean size of adipocytes in WAT by 15.4% compared with vehicle. In contrast to changes in WAT, GW347845X increased the mean size of adipocytes in BAT greatly by 96.1% compared with vehicle. These findings suggest that GI259578A may activate fatty acid oxidation in BAT and that GW347845X may cause adipocyte differentiation in WAT and enhancement of lipid storage in BAT. PMID:17539968

  9. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) Genes in White Adipose Tissue of Id1 Protein-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Ling, Flora; Griffin, Timothy M.; He, Ting; Towner, Rheal; Ruan, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that Id1-deficient mice are resistant to a high fat diet- and age-induced obesity, as revealed by reduced weight gain and body fat, increased lipid oxidation, attenuated hepatosteatosis, lower levels of lipid droplets in brown adipose tissue, and smaller white adipocytes after a high fat diet feeding or in aged animals. Id1 deficiency improves glucose tolerance, lowers serum insulin levels, and reduces TNFα gene expression in white adipose tissue. Id1 deficiency also increased expression of Sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure, in the white adipose tissue. This effect was accompanied by the elevation of several genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, such as cytochrome c, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, the phenotype for Id1 deficiency was similar to that of mice expressing an E protein dominant-positive construct, ET2, suggesting that the balance between Id and E proteins plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:25190816

  10. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:27545964

  11. A risk assessment-driven quantitative comparison of gene expression profiles in PBMCs and white adipose tissue of humans and rats after isoflavone supplementation.

    PubMed

    van der Velpen, Vera; van 't Veer, Pieter; Islam, M Ariful; Ter Braak, C J F; van Leeuwen, F X Rolaf; Afman, Lydia A; Hollman, Peter C; Schouten, Evert G; Geelen, Anouk

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative insight into species differences in risk assessment is expected to reduce uncertainty and variability related to extrapolation from animals to humans. This paper explores quantification and comparison of gene expression data between tissues and species from intervention studies with isoflavones. Gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and white adipose tissue (WAT) after 8wk isoflavone interventions in postmenopausal women and ovariectomized F344 rats were used. A multivariate model was applied to quantify gene expression effects, which showed 3-5-fold larger effect sizes in rats compared to humans. For estrogen responsive genes, a 5-fold greater effect size was found in rats than in humans. For these genes, intertissue correlations (r = 0.23 in humans, r = 0.22 in rats) and interspecies correlation in WAT (r = 0.31) were statistically significant. Effect sizes, intertissue and interspecies correlations for some groups of genes within energy metabolism, inflammation and cell cycle processes were significant, but weak. Quantification of gene expression data reveals differences between rats and women in effect magnitude after isoflavone supplementation. For risk assessment, quantification of gene expression data and subsequent calculation of intertissue and interspecies correlations within biological pathways will further strengthen knowledge on comparability between tissues and species. PMID:27424125

  12. Peripartal feeding strategy with different n-6:n-3 ratios in sows: effect on gene expression in backfat white adipose tissue postpartum.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Georgios A; Erkens, Tim; Maes, Dominiek G D; Peelman, Luc J; van Kempen, Theo A T G; Buyse, Johan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of two diets differing in n-6:n-3 ratio and prepartal feeding regime on gene expression of PPARgamma1a/1b, PPARgamma1c/1d, PPARgamma2, PPARgamma coactivator 1A (PPARGC1A), GLUT4, TNFalpha, adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor (LEPR), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in sows' white adipose tissue on the first day of lactation. The relationship between mRNA expression of these genes and circulating insulin, leptin and thyroid hormones was also considered. Diets contained a low (supplemented with fish oil; f group) or a high (supplemented with sunflower oil; s group) n-6:n-3 ratio and were provided from 8 (f8, s8) or 3d (f3, s3) before parturition (onset day 8 or 3). A low n-6:n-3 ratio reduced the 1d postpartum expression of PPARgamma2 and PPARGC1A but only when applied from 3 d before parturition. Circulating leptin was negatively correlated with mRNA expression of adiponectin, LEPR and LPL, whereas thyroxine was positively correlated with levels of PPARGC1A. In conclusion, the effect of dietary treatments, e.g. altering the n-6:n-3 ratio, around parturition on the expression of crucial genes in nutrient metabolism can be modulated by the duration of application before parturition. PMID:18498673

  13. High-fat diet feeding induces a depot-dependent response on the pro-inflammatory state and mitochondrial function of gonadal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Amengual-Cladera, E; Lladó, I; Proenza, A M; Gianotti, M

    2013-02-14

    Obesity has been related to a chronic pro-inflammatory state affecting white adipose tissue (WAT), which has a great impact on carbohydrate, lipid and energy metabolism. In turn, the dysregulation of adipokine secretion derived from the accumulation of excess lipids in adipocytes further contributes to the development of insulin resistance and can be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether sexual dimorphism found in the systemic insulin sensitivity profile is related to sex differences in a high-fat diet (HFD) response of gonadal WAT at mitochondrial function and inflammatory profile levels. Wistar rats (10 weeks old) of both sexes were fed a control pelleted diet (3 % (w/w) fat; n 8 for each sex) or a HFD (24 % (w/w) fat; n 8 for each sex). Serum insulin sensitivity markers, mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and the protein content of insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways were analysed, as well as the levels of the main markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defence and oxidative damage. In the present study, the periovarian depot exhibits a greater expandability capacity, along with a lower hypoxic and pro-inflammatory state, without signs of mitochondrial dysfunction or changes in its dynamics. In contrast, epididymal fat has a much more pronounced pro-inflammatory, hypoxic and insulin-resistant profile accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics, probably associated with HFD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, this explains the worse serum insulin sensitivity profile of male rats. PMID:22717037

  14. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C.; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J. Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:27545964

  15. Effects of cold exposure on cyclic AMP concentration in plasma, liver, and brown and white adipose tissues in cold-acclimated rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habara, Yoshiaki

    1989-06-01

    Effects of acute cold exposure on plasma energy substrates and tissue 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were analyzed in intact rats, to define an involvement of the nucleotide in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and resultant cold acclimation. After an acute cold exposure to -5°C, the plasma glucose level increased gradually in warm-kept control rats (C) while it decreased significantly in cold-acclimated rats (CA). However, it was increased considerably by an extreme cold exposure to -15°C in both C and CA. By contrast, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) increased immediately after cold exposure and the release lasted during the period of exposure especially in C. The cold exposure also increased plasma cAMP concentration but no concomitant increase was found in the liver. In both brown (IBAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues the nucleotide concentration showed a stepwise decrease. The observed correlation between lipolysis and plasma cAMP response after cold exposure suggests an involvement of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system in NST via lipid metabolism, at least, in the early stages of cold acclimation.

  16. Detection of abdominal aortic graft infection: comparison of CT and In-labeled white blood cell scans

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, A.S.; McCarthy, S.M.; Moss, A.A.; Price, D.

    1985-02-01

    Aortic graft infections are a rare but potentially lethal complication of aortic graft surgery. The diagnosis and assessment of the extent of a graft infection is difficult on clinical grounds. A prospective study compared CT and indium-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scans in the diagnosis of aortic graft infection. Five patients with aortic graft infection and three patients without aortic graft infection were studied by both methods. CT correctly detected the retroperitoneal extension of the infection in three patients with groin infection; In-WBC scans diagnosed the extension only in one patient. Both CT and In-WBC were positive in two patients with aortic graft infection but no groin infection. Both studies were negative in the three patients without evidence of aortic graft infection. The study suggests that CT is more sensitive than In-WBC in evaluating the extent of aortic graft infection and should be the imaging method of choice.

  17. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  18. Involvement of miR-539-5p in the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis induced by resveratrol in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Ana; Miranda, Jonatan; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Eseberri, Itziar; Garcia-Lacarte, Marcos; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Aguirre, Leixuri; Portillo, María P

    2016-03-01

    The epigenetic mechanisms of action of resveratrol as an anti-obesity molecule have not been fully addressed so far. The aim of the present study was to assess changes produced by resveratrol in the microRNA (miRNA) profile in white adipose tissue (WAT) and to relate these changes to those induced in the expression of genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed (6 weeks) an obesogenic diet: a control group and a group treated with resveratrol (30 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). A miRNA microarray was carried out in perirenal adipose tissue. The overexpression of miR-539-5p and miR-1224-5p was performed in 3T3-L1 cells. Protein expression was analysed by western-blot and gene expression by qRT-PCR. Associations between variables were assessed by Pearson's correlations. The microarray showed that 3 miRNAs were decreased and 13 were increased after resveratrol treatment. Among those miRNAs increased, miR-129, miR-328-5p and miR-539-5p showed predicted target genes relevant for triacylglycerol metabolism in WAT (pparγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, hsl: hormone sensitive lipase and sp1: SP1 transcription factor) in the miRWalk database. Moreover, the literature shows that miR-1224, another miRNA up-regulated by resveratrol, can also regulate sp1. Among the three targets, only SP1 showed a reduction in protein expression. Correlation and overexpression studies revealed that the decrease in SP1 protein expression was only associated with the increase of miR-539-5p. In addition, significant reductions in SREBP1 protein expression and fasn gene expression were found in resveratrol-treated rats. In conclusion, the up-regulation of miR-539-5p is involved in the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis induced by resveratrol in WAT. PMID:26952965

  19. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  20. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  1. Cell autonomous lipin 1 function is essential for development and maintenance of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Nadra, Karim; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Mul, Joram D; Han, Gil-Soo; Grès, Sandra; Pende, Mario; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Cuppen, Edwin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Carman, George M; Desvergne, Béatrice; Chrast, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Through analysis of mice with spatially and temporally restricted inactivation of Lpin1, we characterized its cell autonomous function in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipocyte development and maintenance. We observed that the lipin 1 inactivation in adipocytes of aP2(Cre/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice resulted in lipodystrophy and the presence of adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets. We further showed that time-specific loss of lipin 1 in mature adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice led to their replacement by newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes, thus establishing a role for lipin 1 in mature adipocyte maintenance. Importantly, we observed that the presence of newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice protected these animals against WAT inflammation and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Loss of lipin 1 also affected BAT development and function, as revealed by histological changes, defects in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PGC-1α, and UCP1, and functionally by altered cold sensitivity. Finally, our data indicate that phosphatidic acid, which accumulates in WAT of animals lacking lipin 1 function, specifically inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes. Together, these observations firmly demonstrate a cell autonomous role of lipin 1 in WAT and BAT biology and indicate its potential as a therapeutical target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23028044

  2. Resveratrol attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in epididymal white adipose tissue: implications for its involvement in improving steroidogenesis in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zheng-mei; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yuan-hua; Wang, Sheng-hua; Huang, Dao-qi

    2015-04-01

    Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation has been shown to play an important role in the development of obesity-related complications. Epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) can influence testicular function through its endocrine function. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of resveratrol on the epididymal WAT inflammatory response and on testicular steroidogenesis in obese individuals. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-calorie and high-cholesterol diet (HCD group) or HCD supplemented with resveratrol (HCD+Res group) for 18 weeks. As we previously showed that resveratrol protects against Leydig cell steroidogenesis in HCD-induced obese mice, this study assessed macrophage infiltration in fat depots by measuring crown-like structure (CLS) density. Histological analysis showed that adipocyte size was significantly smaller and CLSs were less numerous in the HCD+Res group than the HCD group (P < 0.01). Additionally, resveratrol supplementation decreased Nfkb1 expression (P < 0.01) and increased the IκB-α protein abundance (P < 0.01) in epididymal WAT. Consistent with this alteration in NF-κB signaling, the expression of two classic proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (Tnfa) and IL-1β (Il1b), were significantly decreased in the HCD+Res group compared with the HCD group (P < 0.01). Significant differences were also found in the expression of sirtuin1 (Sirt1) (P < 0.01) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) (P < 0.01) between the HCD and HCD+Res groups. Our data suggest that resveratrol can attenuate obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in epididymal WAT, which partly accounts for its beneficial effects in testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:25820748

  3. Turn down genes for WAT? Activation of anti-apoptosis pathways protects white adipose tissue in metabolically depressed thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samantha M; Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-05-01

    During hibernation, the metabolic rate of thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) can drop to <5 % of normal resting rate at 37 °C, core body temperature can decrease to as low as 1-5 °C, and heart rate can fall from 350-400 to 5-10 bpm. Energy saved by hibernating allows squirrels to survive the winter when food is scarce, and living off lipid reserves in white adipose tissue (WAT) is crucial. While hibernating, some energy must be used to cope with conditions that would normally be damaging for mammals (e.g., low core body temperatures, ischemia) and could induce cell death via apoptosis. Cell survival is largely dependent on the relative amounts and activities of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. The present study analyzed how anti-apoptotic proteins respond to protect WAT cells during hibernation. Relative levels of several anti-apoptotic proteins were quantified in WAT via immunoblotting over six time points of the torpor-arousal cycle. These included anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-l, as well as caspase inhibitors x-IAP and c-IAP. Changes in the relative protein levels and/or phosphorylation levels were also observed for various regulators of apoptosis (p-JAKs, p-STATs, SOCS, and PIAS). Mcl-1 and x-IAP protein levels increased whereas Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and c-IAP protein/phosphorylation levels decreased signifying important roles for certain Bcl-2 family members in cell survival over the torpor-arousal cycle. Importantly, the relative phosphorylation of selected STAT proteins increased, suggesting a mechanism for Bcl-2 family activation. These results suggest that an increase in WAT cytoprotective mechanisms supports survival efforts during hibernation. PMID:27032768

  4. Evidences of basal lactate production in the main white adipose tissue sites of rats. Effects of sex and a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Sabater, David; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Female and male adult Wistar rats were fed standard chow or a simplified cafeteria diet for one month. Then, the rats were killed and the white adipose tissue (WAT) in four sites: perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and subcutaneous (inguinal) were sampled and frozen. The complete WAT weight in each site was measured. Gene expression analysis of key lipid and glucose metabolism enzymes were analyzed, as well as tissue and plasma lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate gradients between WAT and plasma were estimated. The influence of sex and diet (and indirectly WAT mass) on lactate levels and their relationships with lactate dehydrogenase activity and gene expressions were also measured. A main conclusion is the high production of lactate by WAT, practically irrespective of site, diet or sex. Lactate production is a direct correlate of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the tissue. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activity is again directly correlated with the expression of the genes Ldha and Ldhb for this enzyme. In sum, the ability to produce lactate by WAT is not directly dependent of WAT metabolic state. We postulate that, in WAT, a main function of the lactate dehydrogenase path may be that of converting excess available glucose to 3C fragments, as a way to limit tissue self-utilization as substrate, to help control glycaemia and/or providing short chain substrates for use as energy source elsewhere. More information must be gathered before a conclusive role of WAT in the control of glycaemia, and the full existence of a renewed glucose-lactate-fatty acid cycle is definitely established. PMID:25741703

  5. Evidences of Basal Lactate Production in the Main White Adipose Tissue Sites of Rats. Effects of Sex and a Cafeteria Diet

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Sabater, David; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Female and male adult Wistar rats were fed standard chow or a simplified cafeteria diet for one month. Then, the rats were killed and the white adipose tissue (WAT) in four sites: perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and subcutaneous (inguinal) were sampled and frozen. The complete WAT weight in each site was measured. Gene expression analysis of key lipid and glucose metabolism enzymes were analyzed, as well as tissue and plasma lactate and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate gradients between WAT and plasma were estimated. The influence of sex and diet (and indirectly WAT mass) on lactate levels and their relationships with lactate dehydrogenase activity and gene expressions were also measured. A main conclusion is the high production of lactate by WAT, practically irrespective of site, diet or sex. Lactate production is a direct correlate of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the tissue. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activity is again directly correlated with the expression of the genes Ldha and Ldhb for this enzyme. In sum, the ability to produce lactate by WAT is not directly dependent of WAT metabolic state. We postulate that, in WAT, a main function of the lactate dehydrogenase path may be that of converting excess available glucose to 3C fragments, as a way to limit tissue self-utilization as substrate, to help control glycaemia and/or providing short chain substrates for use as energy source elsewhere. More information must be gathered before a conclusive role of WAT in the control of glycaemia, and the full existence of a renewed glucose-lactate-fatty acid cycle is definitely established. PMID:25741703

  6. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: A cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Premanath, M.; Basavanagowdappa, H.; Mahesh, M.; Babu, M. Suresh; Devananda, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN) in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group (P = 0.014). IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group (P = 0.028, P = 0.003). TNF-α was high in obese males (NS), IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS), hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS). AN was high in females of both groups (P = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful. PMID:26904474

  7. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  8. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Kevin M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  9. The adipose organ: morphological perspectives of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Cinti, S

    2001-08-01

    Anatomically, an organ is defined as a series of tissues which jointly perform one or more interconnected functions. The adipose organ qualifies for this definition as it is made up of two tissue types, the white and brown adipose tissues, which collaborate in partitioning the energy contained in lipids between thermogenesis and the other metabolic functions. In rats and mice the adipose organ consists of several subcutaneous and visceral depots. Some areas of these depots are brown and correspond to brown adipose tissue, while many are white and correspond to white adipose tissue. The number of brown adipocytes found in white areas varies with age, strain of animal and environmental conditions. Brown and white adipocyte precursors are morphologically dissimilar. Together with a rich vascular supply, brown areas receive abundant noradrenergic parenchymal innervation. The gross anatomy and histology of the organ vary considerably in different physiological (cold acclimation, warm acclimation, fasting) and pathological conditions such as obesity; many important genes, such as leptin and uncoupling protein-1, are also expressed very differently in the two cell types. These basic mechanisms should be taken into account when addressing the physiopathology of obesity and its treatment. PMID:11681806

  10. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  11. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  12. The Infrapatellar Adipose Body: A Histotopographic Study.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Sarasin, Gloria; Petrelli, Lucia; Guidolin, Diego; Rossato, Marco; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Natali, Arturo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) can be regarded as a peculiar form of fibro-adipose tissue localized close to the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. The aims of the present study were to analyze the microscopic anatomy of the IFP through histological and ultrastructural methods, comparing it with that of the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and of the knee. Ten specimens of IFP were sampled from bodies of the Donation Program of the University of Padua without a history of osteoarthritis. The IFP consisted of white adipose tissue, of lobular type, with lobules delimited by thin connective septa. The IFP lobule areas were smaller (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thicker (p > 0.05) than those of subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen, whereas the IFP lobule areas were larger (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thinner than those of the subcutaneous tissue of the knee (p < 0.05). The IFP adipocytes present a mean area of 3,708 ± 976 µm2 with a large intercellular space, whereas the mean area of the abdominal tissues was greater (6,082 ± 628 µm2; p < 0.05). At scanning electron microscopy the IFP adipocytes were covered by thick fibrillary sheaths, creating a basket around the adipocytes. The structural characteristics of the IFP (lobular aspect of the adipose tissue, thickness of the septa with scarce elastic fibers) could act as a plastic portion aimed at the absorption of pressure variation during knee articular activity. The extensive distribution of nerves suggests a possible role of the IFP as a mechanoreceptor, corresponding to a tridimensional connective mesh working in the proprioceptive regulation of the activity of the knee joint. PMID:26796341

  13. The adipose organ at a glance.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Saverio

    2012-09-01

    The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ - a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ's plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that 'browning' of the adipose organ curbs these disorders. PMID:22915020

  14. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation caused increase in TRAF-6 and reduced AdipoR1 in white adipose tissue, but not in muscle of 21 days old offspring rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although lipids transfer through placenta is very limited, modification in dietary fatty acids can lead to implications in fetal and postnatal development. Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake during gestation and lactation have been reported to promote dyslipidemia and increase in pro- inflammatory adipokines in offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the alterations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and dyslipidemia observed previously in 21-d-old offspring of rats fed a diet containing hydrogenated vegetable fat during gestation and lactation were related to alterations in TLR-4, TRAF-6 and adipo-R1 receptor in white adipose tissue and muscle. On the first day of gestation, rats were randomly divided into two groups: (C) received a control diet, and (T) received a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in trans fatty acids. The diets were maintained throughout gestation and lactation. Each mother was given eight male pups. On the 21st day of life the offspring were killed. Blood, soleus and extensor digital longus (EDL) muscles, and retroperitoneal (RET) white adipose tissue were collected. Results 21-d-old of T rats had higher serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and insulin. The Adipo R1 protein expression was lower in RET and higher in EDL of T group than C. TLR-4 protein content in all studied tissues were similar between groups, the same was verified in TRAF-6 protein expression in soleus and EDL. However, TRAF-6 protein expression in RET was higher in T than C. Conclusion These results demonstrated that maternal ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in TFAs during gestation and lactation decrease in Adipo R1 protein expression and increase in TRAF-6 protein expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, but not in skeletal muscle, which could contributed for hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed in their 21-d-old offspring. PMID:21266050

  15. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  16. Artepillin C, a Typical Brazilian Propolis-Derived Component, Induces Brown-Like Adipocyte Formation in C3H10T1/2 Cells, Primary Inguinal White Adipose Tissue-Derived Adipocytes, and Mice.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Sho; Aoyama, Hiroki; Kamiya, Misa; Higuchi, Jun; Kato, Aiko; Soga, Minoru; Kawai, Taeko; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant expression of UCP1 and PRDM16 proteins in iWAT of mice, and was independent of the β3-adrenergic signaling pathway via the sympathetic nervous system. These findings may provide insight into browning of white adipocytes including the molecular mechanism mediated by dietary factors and demonstrate that ArtC has a novel biological function with regard to increasing energy expenditure by browning of white adipocytes. PMID:27598888

  17. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity measurements in adults: Influence of measurement site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography can be used to examine the visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) components of abdominal adiposity, but it is unresolved whether single-slice or multi-slice protocols are needed. Nine computed tomograp...

  18. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  19. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. PMID:23834768

  20. Persistence of the effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in rat white and brown adipose tissue during the preparation and subsequent incubation of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Denton, R M; McCormack, J G; Marshall, S E

    1984-01-15

    Increases in the amount of the active non-phosphorylated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal adipose tissue, as a result of incubation with insulin, persist not only during the preparation of mitochondria but also during subsequent incubation of coupled mitochondria in the presence of respiratory substrates. No effect on insulin was found if the hormone was added directly to mitochondria in the presence or absence of added plasma membranes. Concentrations of several possible regulators of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD+, acetyl-CoA, CoA and potassium) were measured in rat epididymal-adipose-tissue mitochondria incubated under conditions where differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity persist as a result of insulin action. No alterations were found, and it is suggested that inhibition of the kinase is not the principal means by which insulin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. The intramitochondrial concentration of magnesium was also unaffected. Differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in interscapular brown adipose tissue associated with manipulation of plasma insulin concentrations of cold-adapted rats were also shown to persist during the preparation and subsequent incubation of mitochondria in the presence or absence of GDP. It is pointed out that the persistence of the effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase in incubated mitochondria will facilitate the recognition of the mechanism of this action of the hormone. Evidence that the short-term action of insulin involves an increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity rather than inhibition of that of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase is discussed. PMID:6320807

  1. Familial Abdominal and Intestinal Lipomatosis Presenting with Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Yildirim, Nezahat; Alatas, Ozkan; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Although lipomas are encapsulated benign tumors, systemic lipomatosis defines infiltrative nonencapsulated tumors resembling normal adipose tissue. Abdominal lipomatosis and intestinal lipomatosis are different clinicopathological entities with similar clinical symptoms. We describe here a case presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from eroded submucosal lipoma at duodenum secondary to intestinal lipomatosis and abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:26146574

  2. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  3. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  4. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  5. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  6. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  7. Visceral adiposity and its anatomical distribution as predictors of the metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W; Reed, Derek; Rogers, Nikki; Sun, Shumei S; Lee, Miryoung; Choh, Audrey C; Couch, William; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, W Cameron; Siervogel, Roger M; Towne, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the recognition that central obesity plays a critical role in chronic disease, few large-scale imaging studies have documented human variation in abdominal adipose tissue patterning. Objective We aimed to compare the associations between abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and visceral abdominal tissue (VAT), which were measured at different locations across the abdomen, and the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study included 713 non-Hispanic whites aged 18–86 y, in whom VAT and ASAT were assessed by using multiple-image magnetic resonance imaging. The anatomical position of the magnetic resonance image containing the maximum VAT area for each subject was used as a measure of VAT patterning. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relation of VAT, ASAT, and VAT patterning to cardiometabolic risk. Results VAT mass was a stronger predictor of the MS than was ASAT mass, but ASAT mass (and other measures of subcutaneous adiposity) had signification interactions with VAT mass, whereby elevated ASAT reduced the probability of MS among men with high VAT (P = 0.0008). There was variation across image locations in the association of VAT area with the MS in men, and magnetic resonance images located 4–8 cm above L4–L5 provided the strongest correlations between VAT area and cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects whose maximum VAT area was higher in the abdomen had higher LDL-cholesterol concentrations (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.0001), independent of age and adiposity. Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm the effects of VAT patterning on cardiometabolic risk. PMID:18996861

  8. Metabolism of 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (pyridalyl) in rats after repeated oral administration and a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Haruyuki; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively. PMID:20164113

  9. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E; Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipose tissue serves as the major energy storage form in higher eukaryotes. Obesity, resulting from excess white adipose tissue, has increased dramatically in recent years resulting in a serious public health problem. Understanding of adipocyte-specific TAG synthesis and hydrolysis is critical to the development of strategies to treat and prevent obesity and its closely associated diseases, for example, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review, we present an overview of the major enzymes in TAG synthesis and lipolysis, including the recent discovery of a novel adipocyte TAG hydrolase. PMID:19194515

  10. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control chicks, while the expression of mRNA encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma was not affected. In addition, both mRNA expression (P<0.05) and enzymatic activity (P<0.05) of fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. PMID:25513727

  11. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  12. Effects of Vitamin A Status on Expression of Ucp1 and Brown/Beige Adipocyte-Related Genes in White Adipose Tissues of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    KANAMORI, Yohei; YAMADA, Tomoya; ASANO, Hiroki; KIDA, Ryosuke; QIAO, Yuhang; ABD ELDAIM, Mabrouk A.; TOMONAGA, Shozo; MATSUI, Tohru; FUNABA, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported the presence of brown/beige adipocytes in the white fat depots of mature cattle. The present study examined the effects of dietary vitamin A on the expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the white fat depots of fattening cattle. No significant differences were observed in the expression of Ucp1 between vitamin A-deficient cattle and control cattle. However, the expression of the other brown/beige adipocyte-related genes was slightly higher in the mesenteric fat depots of vitamin A-deficient cattle. The present results suggest that a vitamin A deficiency does not markedly affect the expression of Ucp1 in white fat depots, but imply that it may stimulate the emergence of beige adipocytes in the mesenteric fat depots of fattening cattle. PMID:24859730

  13. Effects of vitamin a status on expression of ucp1 and brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in white adipose tissues of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Yohei; Yamada, Tomoya; Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Qiao, Yuhang; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Tomonaga, Shozo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported the presence of brown/beige adipocytes in the white fat depots of mature cattle. The present study examined the effects of dietary vitamin A on the expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the white fat depots of fattening cattle. No significant differences were observed in the expression of Ucp1 between vitamin A-deficient cattle and control cattle. However, the expression of the other brown/beige adipocyte-related genes was slightly higher in the mesenteric fat depots of vitamin A-deficient cattle. The present results suggest that a vitamin A deficiency does not markedly affect the expression of Ucp1 in white fat depots, but imply that it may stimulate the emergence of beige adipocytes in the mesenteric fat depots of fattening cattle. PMID:24859730

  14. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  15. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  16. GQ-16, a TZD-Derived Partial PPARγ Agonist, Induces the Expression of Thermogenesis-Related Genes in Brown Fat and Visceral White Fat and Decreases Visceral Adiposity in Obese and Hyperglycemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Michella S.; de Lima, Caroline L.; Royer, Carine; Silva, Janaina B.; Oliveira, Fernanda C. B.; Christ, Camila G.; Pereira, Sidney A.; Bao, Sonia N.; Lima, Maria C. A.; Pitta, Marina G. R.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Amato, Angélica A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Beige adipocytes comprise a unique thermogenic cell type in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of rodents and humans, and play a critical role in energy homeostasis. In this scenario, recruitment of beige cells has been an important focus of interest for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat obesity. PPARγ activation by full agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs) drives the appearance of beige cells, a process so-called browning of WAT. However, this does not translate into increased energy expenditure, and TZDs are associated with weight gain. Partial PPARγ agonists, on the other hand, do not induce weight gain, but have not been shown to drive WAT browning. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of GQ-16 on BAT and on browning of WAT in obese mice. Methods Male Swiss mice with obesity and hyperglycemia induced by high fat diet were treated with vehicle, rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/d) or the TZD-derived partial PPARγ agonist GQ-16 (40 mg/kg/d) for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lipid profile were measured. WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots were excised for determination of adiposity, relative expression of Ucp-1, Cidea, Prdm16, Cd40 and Tmem26 by RT-qPCR, histological analysis, and UCP-1 protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry. Liver samples were also removed for histological analysis and determination of hepatic triglyceride content. Results GQ-16 treatment reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain in mice despite increasing energy intake. This was accompanied by reduced epididymal fat mass, reduced liver triglyceride content, morphological signs of increased BAT activity, increased expression of thermogenesis-related genes in interscapular BAT and epididymal WAT, and increased UCP-1 protein expression in interscapular BAT and in epididymal and inguinal WAT. Conclusion This study suggests for the first time that a partial PPARγ agonist may

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  18. 1-Benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles improve the transcriptional functions of estrogen-related receptor γ and promote the browning of white adipose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shilin; Mao, Liufeng; Ding, Ping; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Yang; Yu, Lei; Liu, Yingxue; Nie, Tao; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Liu, Jinsong; Smaill, Jeff; Ren, Xiaomei; Wu, Donghai; Ding, Ke

    2015-07-01

    The estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a potential molecular target for the development of small molecules to stimulate the adipose browning process, which may represent a novel attractive strategy to treat obesity related disorders. The receptor possesses a very small ligand binding cavity and therefore identification of small molecule ERRγ modulators is a considerable challenge. We have successfully designed and synthesized a series of 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles and demonstrated that they improve the transcriptional functions of ERRγ, potently elevating both the mRNA levels and the protein levels of ERRγ downstream targets. One of the most promising compounds, 4-(1-(4-iso-propylbenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)benzene-1,2-diol (2e) was further shown to directly bind with the ERRγ ligand binding domain (ERRγ-LBD) in an isothermal calorimetric (ITC) assay and to thermally stabilize ERRγ-LBD protein by increasing its melting temperature (Tm) as demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2e potently stimulates the adipocyte browning process and induces mitochondrial biogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the considerable therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of obesity and related disorders. PMID:25910584

  19. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) genes in white adipose tissue of Id1 protein-deficient mice: implications in the protection against diet and age-induced glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Ling, Flora; Griffin, Timothy M; He, Ting; Towner, Rheal; Ruan, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-10-17

    Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that Id1-deficient mice are resistant to a high fat diet- and age-induced obesity, as revealed by reduced weight gain and body fat, increased lipid oxidation, attenuated hepatosteatosis, lower levels of lipid droplets in brown adipose tissue, and smaller white adipocytes after a high fat diet feeding or in aged animals. Id1 deficiency improves glucose tolerance, lowers serum insulin levels, and reduces TNFα gene expression in white adipose tissue. Id1 deficiency also increased expression of Sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure, in the white adipose tissue. This effect was accompanied by the elevation of several genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, such as cytochrome c, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, the phenotype for Id1 deficiency was similar to that of mice expressing an E protein dominant-positive construct, ET2, suggesting that the balance between Id and E proteins plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:25190816

  20. White adipose tissue urea cycle activity is not affected by one-month treatment with a hyperlipidic diet in female rats.

    PubMed

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Under high-energy diets, amino acid N is difficult to dispose of, as a consequence of the availability of alternative substrates. We found, recently, that WAT contains a complete functional urea cycle, we analyzed the possible overall changes in the WAT urea cycle (and other-related amino acid metabolism gene expressions) in rats subjected to a cafeteria diet. Adult female Wistar rats were fed control or simplified cafeteria diets. Samples of WAT sites: mesenteric, periovaric, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous, were used for the estimation of all urea cycle enzyme activities and gene expressions. Other key amino acid metabolism gene expressions, and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured. Subcutaneous WAT showed a differentiated amino acid metabolism profile, since its cumulative (whole site) activity for most enzymes was higher than the activities of the other sites studied. After one month of eating an energy-rich cafeteria diet, and in spite of doubling the size of WAT, the transforming capacity of most amino acid metabolism enzymes remained practically unchanged in the tissue. This was not only due to limited changes in the overall enzyme activity, but also a consequence of a relative decrease in the expression of the corresponding genes. Overall, the results of this study support the consideration of WAT as an organ, disperse but under uniform control. The metabolic peculiarities between its different sites, and their ability to adapt to different energy availability conditions only add to the variable nature of adipose tissue. We have presented additional evidence of the significant role of WAT in amino acid metabolism. PMID:26901686

  1. Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in high-fat junk food (HFJF) and chow-fed rats with dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions (DMNL rats).

    PubMed

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1991-05-15

    Male weanling rats received dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus lesions (DMNL) or sham operations and were fed for 173 postoperative days a high-fat diet and given a 32% sucrose solution as drinking fluid. This was supplemented with chocolate chip cookies, potato chips and marshmallows. Other DMNL and sham-operated controls were fed lab chow instead of the above high-fat junk food diet (HFJF) and given tap water instead of 32% sucrose solution. All animals were killed on postoperative day 174. Caloric intake per 100 g body weight was similar in all groups; however, the HFJF fed control and DMNL rats had significantly elevated carcass fat. Since HFJF-DMNL rats were not nearly as obese as the HFJF control animals, it appears that the DMNL offered some protection against the HFJF-diet-produced obesity. When their smaller body size is considered. DMN lesions had no effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass in chow-fed or HFJF fed rats, whereas BAT size was significantly enlarged in HFJF-fed control animals. This suggests but does not prove that HFJF-fed controls, but not DMNL rats, may be using dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) to attenuate their obesity. We hypothesize that the HFJF-fed DMNL may not be enhancing DIT as reflected in normal BAT size, because they had not attained a degree of fatness to activate this system, or the DMN lesions impaired its activation. Both HFJF-fed groups showed reduced linear growth compared to their counterparts. The reason for stunting is uncertain, but may be related to their low plasma insulin concentrations. PMID:1867761

  2. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  3. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine. PMID:27077225

  4. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  5. Truncal and abdominal fat as determinants of high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tresaco, Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Bueno, Gloria; González-Gross, Marcela; Wärnberg, Julia; Gutiérrez, Angel; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel J; Bueno, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    We examined whether abdominal and truncal adiposity, assessed with simple anthropometric indices, determines serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels independently of total adiposity amount in adolescents. A total of 547 Spanish adolescents (284 males and 263 females) aged 13-18.5 years were included in this study. Measures of truncal adiposity included subscapular to triceps ratio, and trunk-to-total skinfolds ratio (TTS%). Waist circumference was used as a surrogate of abdominal adiposity, and BMI was used as a measure of total adiposity. The results of the regression models indicated that levels of triglycerides were positively associated with waist circumference and TTS% after controlling for age and Tanner stage in both sexes. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for waist circumference in females. HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively associated with waist circumference in both sexes, and with subscapular to triceps ratio and TTS% in males, after controlling for age and Tanner stage. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for subscapular to triceps ratio and for TTS% in males. The results of this study suggest that in male adolescents, truncal adiposity is negatively associated with levels of HDL-cholesterol, whereas in females, abdominal adiposity is positively associated with levels of triglycerides independently of total adiposity. These findings highlight the deleterious effect of both truncal and abdominal fat depots on the lipid profile already from the first decades of life. PMID:19180070

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  7. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  8. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Marcelo A.; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y.; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K.; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and “whitening” of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte–like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy. PMID:24983316

  9. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  10. Probiotics Modulate Intestinal Expression of Nuclear Receptor and Provide Counter-Regulatory Signals to Inflammation-Driven Adipose Tissue Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Distrutti, Eleonora; Renga, Barbara; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; Palladino, Giuseppe; Donini, Annibale; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Background Adipocytes from mesenteric white adipose tissue amplify the inflammatory response and participate in inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in Crohn's disease by releasing proinflammatory mediators. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and -γ, pregnane x receptor (PXR), farnesoid x receptor (FXR) and liver x-receptor (LXR) are ligand-activated nuclear receptor that provide counter-regulatory signals to dysregulated immunity and modulates adipose tissue. Aims To investigate the expression and function of nuclear receptors in intestinal and adipose tissues in a rodent model of colitis and mesenteric fat from Crohn's patients and to investigate their modulation by probiotics. Methods Colitis was induced by TNBS administration. Mice were administered vehicle or VSL#3, daily for 10 days. Abdominal fat explants obtained at surgery from five Crohn's disease patients and five patients with colon cancer were cultured with VSL#3 medium. Results Probiotic administration attenuated development of signs and symptoms of colitis, reduced colonic expression of TNFα, IL-6 and IFNγ and reserved colonic downregulation of PPARγ, PXR and FXR caused by TNBS. Mesenteric fat depots isolated from TNBS-treated animals had increased expression of inflammatory mediators along with PPARγ, FXR, leptin and adiponectin. These changes were prevented by VSL#3. Creeping fat and mesenteric adipose tissue from Crohn's patients showed a differential expression of PPARγ and FXR with both tissue expressing high levels of leptin. Exposure of these tissues to VSL#3 medium abrogates leptin release. Conclusions Mesenteric adipose tissue from rodent colitis and Crohn's disease is metabolically active and shows inflammation-driven regulation of PPARγ, FXR and leptin. Probiotics correct the inflammation-driven metabolic dysfunction. PMID:21829567

  11. Surgical injury induces local and distant adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Alban; Tao, Ming; Bartelt, Alexander; Ding, Kui; Lynch, Lydia; Hine, Christopher; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Kristal, Bruce S; Mitchell, James R; Ozaki, C Keith

    2016-01-01

    The adipose organ, which comprises brown, white and beige adipocytes, possesses remarkable plasticity in response to feeding and cold exposure. The development of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process called browning, represents a promising route to treat metabolic disorders. While surgical procedures constantly traumatize adipose tissue, its impact on adipocyte phenotype remains to be established. Herein, we studied the effect of trauma on adipocyte phenotype one day after sham, incision control, or surgical injury to the left inguinal adipose compartment. Caloric restriction was used to control for surgery-associated body temperature changes and weight loss. We characterized the trauma-induced cellular and molecular changes in subcutaneous, visceral, interscapular, and perivascular adipose tissue using histology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and flow cytometry analysis. After one day, surgical trauma stimulated adipose tissue browning at the site of injury and, importantly, in the contralateral inguinal depot. Browning was not present after incision only, and was largely independent of surgery-associated body temperature and weight loss. Adipose trauma rapidly recruited monocytes to the injured site and promoted alternatively activated macrophages. Conversely, PDGF receptor-positive beige progenitors were reduced. In this study, we identify adipose trauma as an unexpected driver of selected local and remote adipose tissue browning, holding important implications for the biologic response to surgical injury. PMID:27386152

  12. Assessing the effect of a high-fat diet on rodents' adipose tissue using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Gobbell, Cassidy; Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-lipid diet on elasticity of adipose tissue. We employed dual Raman/Brillouin microspectroscopy to analyze brown and white adipose tissues obtained from adult rats. The rats were divided into two groups, one of which received a high-fat feed, while the other served as a control. We hypothesized that the changes in the elasticity of adipose tissues between the two groups can be successfully assessed using Brillouin spectroscopy. We found that the brown adipose tissue possessed a lesser Brillouin shift than the white adipose within each group and that the elastic modulus of both adipose tissues increases in the high-fat diet group. The Raman spectra provided supplementary chemical information and indicated an increase in the lipid-to-protein ratio in the brown adipose, but not in the white adipose.

  13. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC. PMID:25929703

  14. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism. PMID:24172196

  15. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T.; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998), detailed understanding of the mechanisms of BAT activation and WAT accumulation could produce therapeutic strategies for combatting metabolic pathologies. As morphological changes accompany alterations in adipose function, imaging of adipose tissue is one of the most important tools for understanding how adipose tissue mass fluctuates in response to various physiological contexts. Therefore, this chapter details several methods of processing and imaging adipose tissue, including brightfield colorimetric imaging of paraffin sectioned adipose tissue with a detailed protocol for automated adipocyte size analysis; fluorescent imaging of paraffin and frozen sectioned adipose tissue; and confocal fluorescent microscopy of whole mounted adipose tissue. We have also provided many example images showing results produced using each protocol, as well as commentary on the strengths and limitations of each approach. PMID:24480341

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle. PMID:24278771

  17. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  18. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  19. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  20. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  1. Relationship of Adipocyte Size with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Ved Prakash; Seenu, V.; Sharma, M. C.; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Nandita; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions. Objectives We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians. Methodology Eighty (40 males and 40 females) non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2–3 level (computed tomography) and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP). During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination. Results Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF), total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR), the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity. Conclusion Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity. PMID:25251402

  2. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  3. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  4. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  7. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  8. Adipose Tissue Residing Progenitors (Adipocyte Lineage Progenitors and Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSC)

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of brown, white and beige adipocytes have been a subject of intense scientific interest in recent years due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States and around the world. This interest has led to the identification and characterization of specific tissue resident progenitor cells that give rise to each adipocyte population in vivo. However, much still remains to be discovered about each progenitor population in terms of their “niche” within each tissue and how they are regulated at the cellular and molecular level during healthy and diseased states. While our knowledge of brown, white and beige adipose tissue is rapidly increasing, little is still known about marrow adipose tissue and its progenitor despite recent studies demonstrating possible roles for marrow adipose tissue in regulating the hematopoietic space and systemic metabolism at large. This chapter focuses on our current knowledge of brown, white, beige and marrow adipose tissue with a specific focus on the formation of each tissue from tissue resident progenitor cells. PMID:26526875

  9. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. PMID:26263851

  10. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  11. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  12. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  13. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  14. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910604

  15. Effects of developmental and adult androgens on male abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Matthew H; Lipson, Susan F; Ellison, Peter T

    2003-01-01

    We present results from 42 gay men who completed a survey including self-measurement of waist circumference, height, and weight, in addition to providing saliva samples for the assay of testosterone, and a photocopy of the right hand for the measure of second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D), proposed as a means of approximating androgenic effects during development. The analyses were conducted as a test of the recent hypothesis, proposed by Abbott et al. ([2002] J Endocrinol 174:1-5), that high prenatal androgen exposure causes greater deposition of fat on the abdomen relative to other depots. We found support for this hypothesis in men, albeit in a limited sample and with self-reported and self-collected data. PMID:12953178

  16. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases. PMID:19582986

  17. Role of adipose tissue in haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, D R; de Groot, Ph G; Visseren, F L J

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases could partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue induces thrombocyte activation by the production of adipose tissue-derived hormones, often called adipokines, of which some such as leptin and adiponectin have been shown to directly interfere with platelet function. Increased adipose tissue mass induces IR and systemic low-grade inflammation, also affecting platelet function. It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue directly impairs fibrinolysis by the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and possibly thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. Adipose tissue may contribute to enhanced coagulation by direct tissue factor production, but hypercoagulability is likely to be primarily caused by affecting hepatic synthesis of the coagulation factors fibrinogen, factor VII, factor VIII and tissue factor, by releasing free fatty acids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6) into the portal circulation and by inducing hepatic IR. Adipose tissue dysfunction could thus play a causal role in the prothrombotic state observed in obesity, by directly and indirectly affecting haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:19460118

  18. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  19. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men.

    PubMed

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara; Simonsen, Lene; Nowak, Jacek; Rooyackers, Olav; Kaijser, Lennart; Jansson, Eva

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than in men (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). All postexercise measurements showed sex-independent positive arterio-subcutaneous abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentration differences (a-v(abd)), indicating a net uptake of NH(3) from blood to adipose tissue. However, the fractional extraction (a-v(abd)/a) of NH(3) was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). The glutamine-to-glutamate ratio in adipose tissue was increased after the second and third bout of sprint exercise (2.2 +/- 0.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.8, respectively) compared with the value at rest (1.2 +/- 0.6), suggesting a reaction of the extracted NH(3) with glutamate resulting in its conversion to glutamine. Adipose tissue may thus play an important physiological role in eliminating plasma NH(3) and thereby reducing the risk of NH(3) intoxication after high-intensity exercise. PMID:16282425

  20. Adipose tissue remodeling in a novel domestic porcine model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Aditya S.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and characterize a novel domestic porcine model of obesity. Design and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were fed normal (lean, n=7) or high-fat/high-fructose diet (obese, n=7) for 16 weeks. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after 8, 12 and 16 weeks of diet, and pericardial adipose tissue after 16 weeks, for assessments of adipocyte size, fibrosis, and inflammation. Adipose tissue volume and cardiac function were studied with multi-detector computed-tomography, and oxygenation with magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma lipids profiles, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation were evaluated. Results Compared with lean, obese pigs had elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. Both abdominal and pericardial fat volume increased after 16 weeks of obese. In abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipocyte size and both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression progressively increased. Macrophage infiltration showed in both abdominal and pericardial adipose tissues. Circulating TNF-α increased in obese only at 16 weeks. Compared with Lean, obese pigs had similar global cardiac function, but myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were significantly impaired. Conclusion A high-fat/high-fructose diet induces in domestic pigs many characteristics of metabolic syndrome, which is useful to investigate the effects of the obesity. PMID:25627626

  1. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  3. Targeting adipose tissue in the treatment of obesity-associated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kusminski, Christine M; Bickel, Perry E; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-09-01

    Adipose tissue regulates numerous physiological processes, and its dysfunction in obese humans is associated with disrupted metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although several US-approved treatments for obesity and T2DM exist, these are limited by adverse effects and a lack of effective long-term glucose control. In this Review, we provide an overview of the role of adipose tissue in metabolic homeostasis and assess emerging novel therapeutic strategies targeting adipose tissue, including adipokine-based strategies, promotion of white adipose tissue beiging as well as reduction of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27256476

  4. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  5. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  6. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  7. Numerous Genes in Loci Associated With Body Fat Distribution Are Linked to Adipose Function.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Rydén, Mikael; Brodin, David; Grallert, Harald; Strawbridge, Rona J; Arner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Central fat accumulation is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with body fat distribution. The objectives of the current study are to examine whether genes in genetic loci linked to fat distribution can be linked to fat cell size and number (morphology) and/or adipose tissue function. We show, in a cohort of 114 women, that almost half of the 96 genes in these loci are indeed associated with abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue parameters. Thus, adipose mRNA expression of the genes is strongly related to adipose morphology, catecholamine-induced lipid mobilization (lipolysis), or insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis in adipocytes (lipogenesis). In conclusion, the genetic influence on body fat distribution could be mediated via several specific alterations in adipose tissue morphology and function, which in turn may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26798124

  8. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  9. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  10. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  11. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Trimming the Fat.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Burr, Aaron A; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-06-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and the development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of the potential impact of MAT on health and disease. PMID:27094502

  12. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Methods: Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Results: Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values <0.001). After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. In gene-specific analyses, adiposity phenotypes were associated with adipose tissue DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Conclusion: Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. PMID:25541553

  13. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  14. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    Background The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the AT between muscles and within the boundary of the muscle fascia. Design Analyses were conducted on 227 women [AA (n = 79): body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), 29.0 ± 5.5; age, 45.7 ± 16.9 y; Asian (n = 38): BMI, 21.7 ± 2.9; age, 47.2 ± 19.9 y; whites (n = 110): BMI, 24.9 ± 5.4; age, 43.7 ± 16.2 y]) and 111 men [AA (n = 39): BMI, 25.6 ± 3.2; age, 45.5 ± 18.8 y; Asian (n = 13): BMI, 24.9 ± 2.5; age, 45.6 ± 25.0 y; white (n = 59): BMI, 25.8 ± 3.8; age 44.5 ± 16.3 y]. Results IMAT depots were not significantly different in size between race groups at low levels of adiposity; however, with increasing adiposity, AAs had a significantly greater increment in the proportion of total AT (TAT) than did the whites and Asians (58, 46, and 44 g IMAT/kg TAT, respectively; P = 0.001). VAT depots were not significantly different in size at low levels of adiposity but, with increasing adiposity, VAT accumulation was greater than IMAT accumulation in the Asians and whites; no significant differences were observed in AAs. Conclusion Race differences in AT distribution extend to IMAT, a depot that may influence race-ethnicity differences in dysglycemia. PMID:15817870

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  19. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  1. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin

  2. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  3. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity. PMID:23885012

  4. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  5. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buras, Eric D.; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C. Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr−/− mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsr−/− mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:26837433

  6. Developmental, hormonal, and nutritional regulation of expression of porcine adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (pATGL) gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a newly identified lipase. We report for the first time the porcine ATGL sequence and characterize ATGL gene and protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Adult pig tissue expresses ATGL at high levels in the white adipose and muscle tissue relative to other te...

  7. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    PubMed

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source. PMID:24361924

  8. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  9. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  10. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia - before severe fat loss - in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34-42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

  11. Selective fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus mongolicus) during food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Asikainen, Juha; Nieminen, Petteri

    2009-01-01

    Avian response to fasting has been examined intensively in penguins (Aptenodytes spp.) adapted to long-term food deprivation but less in species experiencing shorter fasts. Thus, the selectivity in (i) incorporating different fatty acids (FA) from diet into total lipids of white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver and (ii) mobilizing FA from these tissues was examined in pheasants Phasianus colchicus mongolicus fed or fasted for 4 d. Dietary FA were selectively incorporated into intra-abdominal and subcutaneous WAT having a similar composition. The WAT lipids contained higher proportions of saturated and monounsaturated FA and less polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than the dietary profile. However, the isomers of 20:1 and 22:1 were incorporated inefficiently into the WAT lipids. The essential C18 PUFA precursors having smaller percentages in the pheasant tissues than in the diet were likely converted into longer-chain derivatives probably utilized to a great extent for structural lipids of muscles and organs. During food deprivation, the pheasants preferentially utilized 16:1n-7, 18:3n-3, 18:1n-9, and 16:0 but preserved long-chain saturated and unsaturated FA. Mobilization was more efficient for shorter-chain FA and increased with Delta9-desaturation. The hepatic FA profile was resistant to the 4-d period of food deprivation. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of FA into WAT and their mobilization from lipid stores are selective not only in mammals but also in birds. PMID:19656072

  12. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  13. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Brett R; Stewart, Thomas A; Hale, Melina E

    2016-03-16

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a 'precaudal flow sensor'. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  14. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  15. Ascariasis as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Gerly Edson; Teves, Pedro Montes; Monge, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in developing countries. It may cause chronic abdominal pain, tenderness and bloating. Our aim is to report a case of acute episodic abdominal pain and pancreatitis associated with ascariasis. We report a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute abdominal pain, having had several previous similar events before one of them was diagnosed as acute idiopathic pancreatitis. On admission, her physical exam was normal. Laboratory results showed hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white blood cell count 11 900 cells/mm(3), eosinophils 420 cells/mm(3), serum amylase 84 IU/mL, lipase 22 IU/mL and normal liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound and a plain abdominal X-ray were also normal. An upper endoscopy showed round white worms in the duodenum and the stomach, some of them with bile in their intestines. The intestinal parasites were diagnosed as Ascaris lumbricoides, and the patient was started on albendazole, with full recovery within a week. We believe that ascariasis should be considered in patients with recurrent abdominal pain and idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:20447214

  16. The effect of abdominal fat parameters on percutaneous nephrolithotomy success

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cimen, Sertac; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Oztekin, Ozgur; Can, Ertan; Suelozgen, Tufan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity has been suggested to lower the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, the relationship between abdominal fat parameters, such as visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and PCNL success remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal fat parameters on PCNL success. Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent PCNL were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who had no residual stones or residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter while group 2 included patients with residual stone fragments ≥3 mm. PCNL procedure was defined as successful if all stones were eliminated or if there were residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed postoperatively. Preoperative NCCT was used to determine abdominal fat parameters. Results: Group 1 consisted of 117 (78.0%) patients while group 2 included 33 (22.0%) patients. On univariate analysis, stone number, stone surface area (SSA), visceral fat area (VFA), abdominal circumference on computerized tomography (ACCT), and duration of procedure were found to be predictive factors affecting PCNL success. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ACCT and SSA were independent prognostic factors for PCNL success. Conclusions: PCNL success was not affected by VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and body mass index (BMI) in our series. However, ACCT and SSA had negative associations with PCNL success. We conclude that both ACCT and SSA can be used as tools for predicting PCNL outcomes. PMID:27330587

  17. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  18. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  19. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  1. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  2. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  3. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  4. Independent stem cell lineages regulate adipose organogenesis and adipose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuwei; Berry, Daniel C.; Tang, Wei; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-mural cell fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments, Developmental and Adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both Developmental and Adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct micro-anatomical, functional, morphogenetic and molecular profiles. Further, the two compartments derive from different lineages, while adult adipose progenitors fate map from an SMA+ mural lineage, Developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the Adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the Developmental cells, and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity. PMID:25437556

  5. The Adipose Tissue Microenvironment Regulates Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Elise; Wing, Allison; Holtrup, Brandon; Sebo, Zachary; Kaplan, Jennifer L; Saavedra-Peña, Rocio; Church, Christopher D; Colman, Laura; Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2016-07-12

    The sexually dimorphic distribution of adipose tissue influences the development of obesity-associated pathologies. The accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that occurs in males is detrimental to metabolic health, while accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SWAT) seen in females may be protective. Here, we show that adipocyte hyperplasia contributes directly to the differential fat distribution between the sexes. In male mice, high-fat diet (HFD) induces adipogenesis specifically in VWAT, while in females HFD induces adipogenesis in both VWAT and SWAT in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We also show that the activation of adipocyte precursors (APs), which drives adipocyte hyperplasia in obesity, is regulated by the adipose depot microenvironment and not by cell-intrinsic mechanisms. These findings indicate that APs are plastic cells, which respond to both local and systemic signals that influence their differentiation potential independent of depot origin. Therefore, depot-specific AP niches coordinate adipose tissue growth and distribution. PMID:27320063

  6. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  7. Wide housing space and chronic exercise enhance physical fitness and adipose tissue morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro Paulo Menezes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Torsoni, Adriana Souza; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The current cages commonly used in animal experiments can prevent rats from engaging in most forms of natural locomotion behaviors. These animals tend to exhibit sedentary habits. Here, we show that a combination of wide housing space and training exercise helps to reduce white adipose mass and to increase brown adipose mass. Thus, this combination is a useful strategy for truly enhancing the physical fitness of captive rats commonly used in exercise-related interventional studies and to maximize their welfare. PMID:25906078

  8. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  9. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  10. Perivascular Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maille, Nicole; Clas, Darren; Osol, George

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes to vasoregulation. The role of this adipose tissue bed in pregnancy has not been examined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PVAT in pregnant rats decreases resistance artery tone. Mesenteric arteries from nonpregnant (NP) and late pregnant (LP) rats were exposed to phenylephrine (PHE) or KCl in the presence (+) versus absence (−) of PVAT. The LP PVAT(+) vessels showed a 44% decrease in sensitivity to PHE in the presence of PVAT. There was no attenuation of the contractile response to KCl when PVAT was present. The LP arteries perfused with LP or NP PVAT underwent vasodilation; unexpectedly, NP vessels in the presence of PVAT from LP rats sustained a 48% vasoconstriction. The PVAT attenuates vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves hyperpolarization. The vasoconstriction observed when nonpregnant vessels were exposed to pregnant PVAT suggests pregnant vessels adapt to the vasoconstricting influence of pregnant PVAT. PMID:25527422

  11. Arteriovenous differences across human adipose and forearm tissues after overnight fast.

    PubMed

    Coppack, S W; Frayn, K N; Humphreys, S M; Whyte, P L; Hockaday, T D

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of arteriovenous differences across subcutaneous abdominal tissue (mainly adipose) and deep forearm tissue (mainly muscle) were made on 25 occasions in normal subjects after an overnight fast. Adipose tissue was shown to be strongly lipolytic (releasing nonesterified fatty acids and glycerol), to clear circulating triacylglycerol, glucose, ketone bodies and acetate, and to produce lactate. Uptake of circulating carbohydrate and ketones was sufficient to account for only 51% of the adipose tissue oxygen consumption, implying that adipose tissue utilizes fuel(s) stored within it. The mean fractional re-esterification rate of fatty acids in adipose tissue was 13% to 19%. Arteriovenous differences were converted to fluxes of carbon atoms to compare the movements of different fuels. (Amino acids were not included in these calculations.) Adipose tissue after an overnight fast was a net exporter of carbon, whereas in resting muscle the uptake of carbon atoms from circulating carbohydrate and lipid fuels approximately balanced the CO2 production. Fatty acids were the main form in which carbon left adipose tissue, and the main source of carbon atoms entering the resting forearm. PMID:2109165

  12. Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor-dependent Dendritic Cells Restrain Lean Adipose Tissue Expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamir, Nathalie; Liu, Ning-Chun; Irwin, Angela; Becker, Lev; Peng, YuFeng; Ronsein, Graziella E; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Duffield, Jeremy S; Heinecke, Jay W

    2015-06-01

    The physiological roles of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in lean white adipose tissue homeostasis have received little attention. Because DCs are generated from bone marrow progenitors in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), we used GM-CSF-deficient (Csf2(-/-)) mice fed a low fat diet to test the hypothesis that adipose tissue DCs regulate the development of adipose tissue. At 4 weeks of age, Csf2(-/-) mice had 75% fewer CD45(+)Cd11b(+)Cd11c(+)MHCII(+) F4/80(-) DCs in white adipose tissue than did wild-type controls. Furthermore, the Csf2(-/-) mice showed a 30% increase in whole body adiposity, which persisted to adulthood. Adipocytes from Csf2(-/-) mice were 50% larger by volume and contained higher levels of adipogenesis gene transcripts, indicating enhanced adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, adipogenesis/adipocyte lipid accumulation was inhibited when preadipocytes were co-cultured with CD45(+)Cd11b(+)Cd11c(+)MHCII(+)F4/80(-) DCs. Medium conditioned by DCs, but not by macrophages, also inhibited adipocyte lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that matrix metalloproteinase 12 and fibronectin 1 were greatly enriched in the medium conditioned by DCs compared with that conditioned by macrophages. Silencing fibronectin or genetic deletion of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in DCs partially reversed the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation. Our observations indicate that DCs residing in adipose tissue play a critical role in suppressing normal adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25931125

  13. Botulinum toxin injections to reduce adiposity: possibility, or fat chance?

    PubMed

    Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond C S

    2006-01-01

    Obese individuals often suffer from negative self-image. Many, even those with a normal body mass index, resort to pharmacotherapy (lipase inhibitors or appetite suppressants), mesotherapy and surgery (gastric volume reduction, liposuction or apronectomy) in a bid to remove excess adipose tissue. These treatments are associated with inherent morbidity and even mortality, and hence should not be undertaken lightly. The observation that denervation of adipose tissue results in lipoatrophy leads us to postulate that chemodenervation using botulinum toxin may achieve the same result, i.e. fat loss, and we explore the methods by which selective fat loss may be achieved. We concede that removal of subcutaneous fat does not, however, reduce the risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, as visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is not reduced by the removal of subcutaneous fat. PMID:16716533

  14. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  15. Fibrosis and Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is increasingly appreciated as a major player in adipose tissue dysfunction. In rapidly expanding adipose tissue, pervasive hypoxia leads to an induction of HIF1α that in turn leads to a potent pro-fibrotic transcriptional program. The pathophysiological impact of adipose tissue fibrosis is likely to play an equally important role on systemic metabolic alterations as fibrotic conditions play in the liver, heart and kidney. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the genesis, modulation and systemic impact of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in adipose tissue of both rodents and humans and the ensuing impact on metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23954640

  16. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  17. High-Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity, Adipose Inflammation, Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulinemia in Outbred CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population. PMID:25768847

  18. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  19. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  20. Covariation of Change in Bioavailable Testosterone and Adiposity in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether menopause-related changes in reproductive hormones are associated with change in adiposity and whether these relationships are independent of important covariates. Design and Methods Annual assessments of adiposity measures [CT-assessed visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), and DXA-assessed total body fat (TBF)] over 4 years from an ancillary study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were paired with reproductive hormones collected by SWAN. Included were 243 women (44% African American, 56% Caucasian), who were eligible participants in a population-based cohort with a 72% participation rate. Results VAT increased by 3.8% annually, and SAT increased by 1.8% per year. Change in bioavailable testosterone was significantly positively associated with changes both inVAT and in SAT but was not related to change in total body fat. The associations were independent of age, race, physical activity, smoking, baseline TBF, baseline bioavailable testosterone, and change in TBF. Change in estradiol were unrelated to changes in any adiposity measure. Conclusion Bioavailable testosterone may play an important role in menopause-related redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in the central abdominal region. PMID:25557490

  1. BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE FUNCTION IN SHORT-CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Skilling, Helen; Coen, Paul M.; Fairfull, Liane; Ferrell, Robert E.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Vockley, Jerry; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a highly specialized organ that uses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation to fuel nonshivering thermogenesis. In mice, mutations in the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of fatty acid oxidation genes are associated with sensitivity to cold. Brown adipose tissue function has not previously been characterized in these knockout strains. Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficient mice were found to have increased brown adipose tissue mass as well as modest cardiac hypertrophy. Uncoupling protein-1 was reduced by 70% in brown adipose tissue and this was not due to a change in mitochondrial number, nor was it due to decreased signal transduction through protein kinase A which is known to be a major regulator of uncoupling protein-1 expression. PKA activity and in vitro lipolysis were normal in brown adipose tissue, although in white adipose tissue a modest increase in basal lipolysis was seen in SCAD−/ − mice. Finally, an in vivo norepinephrine challenge of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis revealed normal heat production in SCAD−/− mice. These results suggest that reduced brown adipose tissue function is not the major factor causing cold sensitivity in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout strains. We speculate that other mechanisms such as shivering capacity, cardiac function, and reduced hepatic glycogen stores are involved. PMID:20727852

  2. Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibroids Patient Instructions Getting out of bed after surgery Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Update Date 1/16/2015 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. ...

  3. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low-fiber foods, such as white rice, bananas, applesauce, mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese, and ... toast. Eat foods that are high in potassium (bananas, potatoes, and apricots) when you have diarrhea. Eat ...

  4. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. PMID:26867029

  5. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  6. Xenotransplantation of human fetal adipose tissue: a model of in vivo adipose tissue expansion and adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Briana; Francois-Vaughan, Heather; Onikoyi, Omobola; Kostadinov, Stefan; De Paepe, Monique E.; Gruppuso, Philip A.; Sanders, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and beyond may have its origins during fetal or early postnatal life. At present, there are no suitable in vivo experimental models to study factors that modulate or perturb human fetal white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, remodeling, development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, or epigenetics. We have developed such a model. It involves the xenotransplantation of midgestation human WAT into the renal subcapsular space of immunocompromised SCID-beige mice. After an initial latency period of approximately 2 weeks, the tissue begins expanding. The xenografts are healthy and show robust expansion and angiogenesis for at least 2 months following transplantation. Data and cell size and gene expression are consistent with active angiogenesis. The xenografts maintain the expression of genes associated with differentiated adipocyte function. In contrast to the fetal tissue, adult human WAT does not engraft. The long-term viability and phenotypic maintenance of fetal adipose tissue following xenotransplantation may be a function of its autonomous high rates of adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Through the manipulation of the host mice, this model system offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms by which nutrients and other environmental factors affect human adipose tissue development and biology. PMID:25193996

  7. Xenotransplantation of human fetal adipose tissue: a model of in vivo adipose tissue expansion and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Briana; Francois-Vaughan, Heather; Onikoyi, Omobola; Kostadinov, Stefan; De Paepe, Monique E; Gruppuso, Philip A; Sanders, Jennifer A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity during childhood and beyond may have its origins during fetal or early postnatal life. At present, there are no suitable in vivo experimental models to study factors that modulate or perturb human fetal white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion, remodeling, development, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, or epigenetics. We have developed such a model. It involves the xenotransplantation of midgestation human WAT into the renal subcapsular space of immunocompromised SCID-beige mice. After an initial latency period of approximately 2 weeks, the tissue begins expanding. The xenografts are healthy and show robust expansion and angiogenesis for at least 2 months following transplantation. Data and cell size and gene expression are consistent with active angiogenesis. The xenografts maintain the expression of genes associated with differentiated adipocyte function. In contrast to the fetal tissue, adult human WAT does not engraft. The long-term viability and phenotypic maintenance of fetal adipose tissue following xenotransplantation may be a function of its autonomous high rates of adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Through the manipulation of the host mice, this model system offers the opportunity to study the mechanisms by which nutrients and other environmental factors affect human adipose tissue development and biology. PMID:25193996

  8. Adiposity and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wells, Kathryn M; Austin, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The drastic changes in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to play a significant role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. The pattern of storage and distribution of different types of adipose tissue may impact metabolic health variables similar to carbohydrate, lipid and bone metabolism. The use of magnetic resonance imaging provides insights on the interplay among different regional adipose tissue compartments and their role in developing chronic diseases. Regional adipose tissue can be either distributed centrally or peripherally into subcutaneous and ectopic sites. The primary ectopic adipose tissue sites are visceral, intramuscular and bone marrow. Dysfunction in the central nervous system following SCI impacts the pattern of distribution of adiposity especially between tetraplegia and paraplegia. The current editorial is focused primarily on introducing different types of adipose tissue and establishing scientific basis to develop appropriate dietary, rehabilitation or pharmaceutical interventions to manage the negative consequences of increasing adiposity after SCI. We have also summarized the clinical implications and future recommendations relevant to study adiposity after SCI. PMID:26396933

  9. Ontogenesis of muscle and adipose tissues and their interactions in ruminants and other species.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Chilliard, Y; Picard, B

    2010-07-01

    The lean-to-fat ratio, that is, the relative masses of muscle and adipose tissue, is a criterion for the yield and quality of bovine carcasses and meat. This review describes the interactions between muscle and adipose tissue (AT) that may regulate the dynamic balance between the number and size of muscle v. adipose cells. Muscle and adipose tissue in cattle grow by an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia), mainly during foetal life. The total number of muscle fibres is set by the end of the second trimester of gestation. By contrast, the number of adipocytes is never set. Number of adipocytes increases mainly before birth until 1 year of age, depending on the anatomical location of the adipose tissue. Hyperplasia concerns brown pre-adipocytes during foetal life and white pre-adipocytes from a few weeks after birth. A decrease in the number of secondary myofibres and an increase in adiposity in lambs born from mothers severely underfed during early pregnancy suggest a balance in the commitment of a common progenitor into the myogenic or adipogenic lineages, or a reciprocal regulation of the commitment of two distinct progenitors. The developmental origin of white adipocytes is a subject of debate. Molecular and histological data suggested a possible transdifferentiation of brown into white adipocytes, but this hypothesis has now been challenged by the characterization of distinct precursor cells for brown and white adipocytes in mice. Increased nutrient storage in fully differentiated muscle fibres and adipocytes, resulting in cell enlargement (hypertrophy), is thought to be the main mechanism, whereby muscle and fat masses increase in growing cattle. Competition or prioritization between adipose and muscle cells for the uptake and metabolism of nutrients is suggested, besides the successive waves of growth of muscle v. adipose tissue, by the inhibited or delayed adipose tissue growth in bovine genotypes exhibiting strong muscular development. This

  10. Energy metabolism and biochemical features of adipose tissues in ICR mice after long-term calorie-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Mizonova, O V; Elsukova, E I; Medvedev, L N

    2013-10-01

    Long-term calorie-restricted diet (8 weeks, 60% of control food intake) was followed by an increase in thermogenic activity of interscapular brown fat. The relative amount of DNA and protein and the rate of oxygen consumption increased and tissue-specific marker of brown fat (uncoupling protein UCP1) appeared in significantly reduced deep-pink abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:24288756

  11. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  12. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Denise E.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Olson, Kristine C.; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H.; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Thomas, Anthony P.; Oort, Pieter J.; Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G.; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35–50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals. PMID:23512805

  13. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in visceral (0.95 +/- 0.05 and 1.15 +/- 0.06 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) compared with subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mitochondrial respiration. Substrate control ratios were higher and uncoupling control ratio lower (P < 0.05) in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:20421291

  14. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with body adiposity in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Rodrigo; de Campos, Wagner; Bacil, Eliane Denise Araújo; Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Hardt, Jennifer Morozini; da Silva, Priscila Marques

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) and high body fat percentage (high BF%) in adolescents from the city of Curitiba-PR. Methods: The sample consisted of 1,732 adolescents, aged 11 to 19 years, of both genders. The triceps and calf skinfolds were measured for the calculation of BF%, as well as the waist circumference. A questionnaire was completed by adolescents with the following type of residence, socioeconomic status, time spent watching TV on weekdays and weekends, and daily energy expenditure. Logistic regression was used to measure the association of sociodemographic and behavioral variables with abdominal obesity and high BF%. Results: Female were more likely to have high BF% (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 2.32-3.33), but were less likely to have abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44-0.78). Older individuals (1619 have high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.83). The older age groups (13-15 years and 16-19 years) had an inverse association with abdominal obesity. Regarding daily energy expenditure, the less active individuals were more likely to present high BF% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) and obesity (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09-1.80). Conclusions: Interventions to increase physical activity levels in young people should be designed in order to combat excess body fat should designed to combat excess adiposity. PMID:25479856

  15. Adiposity, Obesity, and Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G.; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08–0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05–0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index–linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  16. Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue is more saturated than superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lundbom, J; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Taskinen, M-R

    2013-04-01

    Upper body abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can be divided into deep SAT (DSAT) and superficial SAT (SSAT) depots. Studies on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) composition have made no distinction between these two depots. The aim of this study is to determine whether DSAT and SSAT differ in FA composition. We studied the FA composition of DSAT and SSAT in 17 male and 13 female volunteers using non-invasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate between DSAT and SSAT. Adipose tissue spectra were analysed for lipid unsaturation, or double bond (DB) content, and polyunsaturation (PU), according to previously validated methods. The DSAT depot was more saturated than the SSAT depot, in both men (0.833 ± 0.012 vs 0.846 ± 0.009 DB, P<0.002) and women (0.826 ± 0.018 vs 0.850 ± 0.018 DB, P<0.002). In contrast, PU did not differ between DSAT and SSAT in either men (0.449 ± 0.043 vs 0.461 ± 0.044 PU, P=0.125) or women (0.411 ± 0.070 vs 0.442 ± 0.062 PU, P=0.234) and displayed a close correlation between the depots (R=0.908, P<0.001, n=30). The higher saturation in DSAT compared with SSAT can be attributed to a higher ratio of saturated to monounsaturated FAs. These results should be taken into account when determining the FA composition of SAT. PMID:22641063

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of the mechanisms involved in increased adiposity in zebrafish triggered by the environmental contaminant tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Ouadah-Boussouf, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    One proposed contributing factor to the rise in overweight and obesity is exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an organotin, induces adipogenesis in cell culture models and may increases adipose mass in vivo in vertebrate model organisms. It has been hypothesized that TBT acts via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of TBT exposure on in vivo adipose tissue metabolism remain unexplored. Semitransparent zebrafish larvae, with their well-developed white adipose tissue, offer a unique opportunity for studying the effects of toxicant chemicals and pharmaceuticals on adipocyte biology and whole-organism adiposity in a vertebrate model. Within hours, zebrafish larvae, treated at environmentally-relevant nanomolar concentrations of TBT, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity linked to adipocyte hypertrophy. Under the experimental conditions used, we also demonstrated that zebrafish larvae adipose tissue proved to be highly responsive to selected human nuclear receptor agonists and antagonists. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and RXR/liver X receptor heterodimers were suggested to be in vivo effectors of the obesogenic effect of TBT on zebrafish white adipose tissue. RXR/PPARγ heterodimers may be recruited to modulate adiposity in zebrafish but were not a necessary requirement for the short term in vivo TBT obesogenic effect. Together, the present results suggest that TBT may induce the promotion of triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes via RXR-dependent pathways without necessary using PPAR isoforms. PMID:26812627

  18. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  19. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  20. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  1. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  2. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  3. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  4. Salsalate Treatment Improves Glycemia Without Altering Adipose Tissue in Non-Diabetic Obese Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Tanya L.; Sattler, Fred R; Richey, Joyce M.; Allayee, Hooman; Mittelman, Steven D.; Sheng, Xia; Tucci, Jonathan; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Grant, Edward G.; Goran, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Salsalate treatment has well-known effects on improving glycemia and the objective of this study was to examine whether the mechanism of this effect is related to changes in adipose tissue. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled trial in obese Hispanics (18-35 years). The intervention consisted of 4 g/day of salsalate (n=11) versus placebo (n=13) for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included glycemia, adiposity, ectopic fat, and adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation. Results In those receiving salsalate, plasma fasting glucose decreased by 3.4% (P<0.01), free fatty acids decreased by 42.5% (P=0.06) and adiponectin increased by 27.7% (P<0.01). Salsalate increased insulin AUC by 38% (P=0.01) and HOMA-B by 47.2% (P<0.01) while estimates of insulin sensitivity/resistance were unaffected. These metabolic improvements occurred without changes in total, abdominal, visceral, or liver fat. Plasma markers of inflammation/immune activation were unchanged following salsalate. Salsalate had no effects on adipose tissue including adipocyte size, presence of crown-like structures, or gene expression of adipokines, immune cell markers, or cytokines downstream of NF-κB with the exception of downregulation of IL-1β (P<0.01). Conclusions Our findings suggest that metabolic improvements in response to salsalate occurred without alterations in adiposity, ectopic fat, or adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation. PMID:25644856

  5. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  6. A metabolomic study of adipose tissue in mice with a disruption of the circadian system

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C.; Briggs, W.; Paschos, G. K.; FitzGerald, G. A.; Griffin, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue functions in terms of energy homeostasis as a rheostat for blood triglyceride, regulating its concentration, in response to external stimuli. In addition it acts as a barometer to inform the central nervous system of energy levels which can vary dramatically between meals and according to energy demand. Here a metabolomic approach, combining both Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, was used to analyse both white and brown adipose tissue in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of Arntl (also known as Bmal1), a gene encoding a core molecular clock component. The results are consistent with a peripheral circadian clock playing a central role in metabolic regulation of both brown and white adipose tissue in rodents and show that Arntl induced global changes in both tissues which were distinct for the two types. In particular, anterior subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ASWAT) tissue was effected by a reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) changes were associated with a reduction in chain length. In addition the aqueous fraction of metabolites in BAT were profoundly affected by Arntl disruption, consistent with the dynamic role of this tissue in maintaining body temperature across the day/night cycle and an upregulation in fatty acid oxidation and citric acid cycle activity to generate heat during the day when rats are inactive (increases in 3-hydroxybutyrate and glutamate), and increased synthesis and storage of lipids during the night when rats feed more (increased concentrations of glycerol, choline and glycerophosphocholine). PMID:25907923

  7. Matrix-Assisted Transplantation of Functional Beige Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Kevin M; Jha, Amit K; Kraiczy, Judith; Yesian, Alexandra; Karateev, Grigory; Sinisi, Riccardo; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Healy, Kevin E; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Novel, clinically relevant, approaches to shift energy balance are urgently needed to combat metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. One promising approach has been the expansion of brown adipose tissues that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and thus can uncouple mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. While expansion of UCP1-expressing adipose depots may be achieved in rodents via genetic and pharmacological manipulations or the transplantation of brown fat depots, these methods are difficult to use for human clinical intervention. We present a novel cell scaffold technology optimized to establish functional brown fat-like depots in vivo. We adapted the biophysical properties of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels to support the differentiation of white adipose tissue-derived multipotent stem cells (ADMSCs) into lipid-accumulating, UCP1-expressing beige adipose tissue. Subcutaneous implantation of ADMSCs within optimized hydrogels resulted in the establishment of distinct UCP1-expressing implants that successfully attracted host vasculature and persisted for several weeks. Importantly, implant recipients demonstrated elevated core body temperature during cold challenges, enhanced respiration rates, improved glucose homeostasis, and reduced weight gain, demonstrating the therapeutic merit of this highly translatable approach. This novel approach is the first truly clinically translatable system to unlock the therapeutic potential of brown fat-like tissue expansion. PMID:26293504

  8. Perivascular adipose tissue in vascular function and disease: a review of current research and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicholas K.; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Jifeng; Zeng, Rong; Wu, Jiarui; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Chang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), long assumed to be nothing more than vessel-supporting connective tissue, is now understood to be an important, active component of the vasculature, with integral roles in vascular health and disease. PVAT is an adipose tissue with similarities to both brown and white adipose tissue, although recent evidence suggests that PVAT develops from its own precursors. Like other adipose tissue depots, PVAT secretes numerous biologically active substances that can act in both autocrine and paracrine fashion. PVAT has also proven to be involved in vascular inflammation. While PVAT can support inflammation during atherosclerosis via macrophage accumulation, emerging evidence suggests that PVAT also has anti-atherosclerotic properties related to its abilities to induce non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolize fatty acids. We here discuss the accumulated knowledge of PVAT biology, and related research on models of hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:24833795

  9. The contribution of IL-6 to beta 3 adrenergic receptor mediated adipose tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Buzelle, Samyra L; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Peppler, Willem T; Castellani, Laura; Wright, David C

    2015-02-01

    The chronic activation of beta 3 adrenergic receptors results in marked alterations in adipose tissue morphology and metabolism, including increases in mitochondrial content and the expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Acute treatment with CL 316,243, a beta 3 adrenergic agonist, induces the expression of interleukin 6. Interestingly, IL-6 has been shown to induce mitochondrial genes in cultured adipocytes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the role of interleukin 6 in mediating the in vivo effects of CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue. Circulating IL-6, and markers of IL-6 signaling in white adipose tissue were increased 4 h following a single injection of CL 316,243 in C57BL6/J mice. Once daily injections of CL 316,243 for 5 days increased the protein content of a number of mitochondrial proteins including CORE1, Cytochrome C, PDH, MCAD, and Citrate Synthase to a similar extent in adipose tissue from WT and IL-6(-/-) mice. Conversely, CL 316,243-induced increases in COXIV and phosphorylated AMPK were attenuated in IL-6(-/-) mice. Likewise, the slight, but significant, CL 316,243-induced increases in ATGL, PEPCK, and PPARγ, were reduced or absent in adipose tissue IL-6(-/-) mice. The attenuated response to CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue in IL-6(-/-) mice was associated with reductions in whole-body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in the light phase. Our findings suggest that IL-6 plays a limited role in CL 316,243-mediated adipose tissue remodeling. PMID:25713332

  10. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  11. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominalPa in inCh ildre n What is functional abdominal pain, and why does it happen? Most otherwise-healthy ... stomachaches for two months or more have functional abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that ...

  12. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during early-to-mid gestation in the sheep enhances pericardial adiposity in the near-term fetus.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shalini; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Manipulation of the maternal diet at defined stages of gestation influences long-term health by inducing changes in fetal adipose tissue development, characterised as possessing brown and white adipocytes. We determined whether suboptimal maternal nutrition in early-to-mid gestation, followed by ad libitum feeding until term, increases adiposity in the pericardial depot of the sheep fetus. Pericardial adipose tissue was sampled from near-term (140 days) fetuses delivered to mothers fed either 100% (C) or 60% (i.e. nutrient restricted (NR)) of their total metabolisable requirements from 28 to 80 days gestation and then fed ad libitum. Adipose tissue mass, uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and gene expression of brown and white adipogenic genes was measured. Total visceral and pericardial adiposity was increased in offspring born to NR mothers. The abundance of UCP1 was increased, together with those genes involved in brown (e.g. BMP7 and C/EBPβ) and white (e.g. BMP4 and C/EBPα) adipogenesis, whereas insulin receptor gene expression was downregulated. In conclusion, suboptimal maternal nutrition between early-to-mid gestation followed by ad libitum feeding enhances pericardial adiposity near to term. A combination of raised UCP1 and adipose tissue mass could improve survival following cold exposure at birth. In the longer term, this enhanced adipogenic potential could predispose to greater pericardial adiposity. PMID:24952585

  13. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504150

  14. Contributions of adipose tissue architectural and tensile properties toward defining healthy and unhealthy obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) architecture and function, and proper ECM remodeling is critical to support WAT malleability to accomodate changes in energy storage needs. Obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy places a strain on the EC...

  15. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Sean M.; Carter, Cynthia M.; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26–62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages. PMID:25945096

  16. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  17. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transplantation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Attenuates Metabolic Dysregulation While Removal Exacerbates It.

    PubMed

    Foster, M T; Softic, S; Caldwell, J; Kohli, R; de Kloet, A D; Seeley, R J

    2013-08-01

    Adipose tissue distribution is an important determinant of obesity-related comorbidities. It is well established that central obesity (visceral adipose tissue accumulation) is a risk factor for many adverse health consequences such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type-2-diabetes. We hypothesize that the metabolic dysregulation that occurs following high fat diet-induced increases in adiposity are due to alterations in visceral adipose tissue function which influence lipid flux to the liver via the portal vein. This metabolic pathology is not exclusively due to increases in visceral adipose tissue mass but also driven by intrinsic characteristics of this particular depot. In Experiment 1, high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese control (abdominal incision, but no fat manipulation) or autologous (excision and subsequent relocation of adipose tissue) subcutaneous tissue transplantation to the visceral cavity. In Experiment 2 mice received control surgery, subcutaneous fat removal or hetero-transplantation (tissue from obese donor) to the visceral cavity. Body composition analysis and glucose tolerance tests were performed 4 weeks post-surgery. Adipose mass and portal adipokines, cytokines, lipids and insulin were measured from samples collected at 5 weeks post-surgery. Auto- and hetero- transplantation in obese mice improved glucose tolerance, decreased systemic insulin concentration and reduced portal lipids and hepatic triglycerides compared with HFD controls. Hetero-transplantation of subcutaneous adipose tissue to the visceral cavity in obese mice restored hepatic insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin and leptin concentrations to chow control levels. Fat removal, however, as an independent procedure exacerbated obesity-induced increases in leptin and insulin concentrations. Overall subcutaneous adipose tissue protects against aspects of metabolic dysregulation in obese mice. Transplantation-induced improvements do not occur via enhanced storage of lipid in

  18. Reduced alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes as a modulator of fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels in men.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Couillard, C; Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the postprandial lipemia of two groups of men displaying similar age, body weight, and regional fat distribution, but characterized by either low (n = 11) or high (n = 15) alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes. In addition to fat cell lipolysis, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) as well as postheparin plasma LPL activities were measured in the fasting state. Fasting AT-LPL and PH-LPL activities were similar in both groups. Maximal adipose cell lipolysis induced by isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) as well as the beta-adrenergic sensitivity did not differ between both groups of men. The selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK-14304 promoted a similar antilipolytic response in subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes from both groups. However, the alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity, defined as the dose of UK-14304 that produced half-maximal inhibition of lipolysis (IC(50)), was significantly different between groups (P < 0.0001). Men with low versus high subcutaneous abdominal fat cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher fasting TG levels. In the whole group, a positive relationship was observed between log-transformed IC(50) UK-14304 values of subcutaneous adipocytes and fasting TG levels (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), suggesting that a low abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity is associated with high TG levels. After the consumption of a high-fat meal, subjects with low subcutaneous abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher TG levels in total, medium, and small triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions at 0- to 6-h time points than men with high adipocyte alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity (P values ranging from 0.01 to 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the fasting TG concentration was the only variable retained as a significant predictor of the area under the curve of TG levels in total TRL fractions (73% of variance) among independent variables

  19. Regulation of G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) expression in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Alexander; May, Marcus; Janke, Juergen; Kielstein, Heike; Wunder, Ruth; Flade-Kuthe, Ricarda; Kuthe, Andreas; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    The G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) protein attenuated adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) activity and decreased lipolysis in rodent and human adipocytes. We hypothesized that G0S2 mRNA expression in human adipose tissue is influenced by depot, adipocyte size, body weight and caloric intake. Adipose tissue samples were obtained during abdominal surgery and by needle biopsy before and 3 h after an extended glucose load in lean subjects. G0S2 mRNA was 7× higher expressed in mature human adipocytes compared to the stromavascular fraction. Cell size inversely correlated with G0S2 mRNA expression in both, subcutaneous and omental adipose depots. G0S2 mRNA expression was 75% higher in subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue. Obesity was associated with lower G0S2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Acute glucose ingestion after an overnight fast did not significantly increase G0S2 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, differences in G0S2 expression may explain depot-specific and obesity-associated differences in lipolysis on the molecular level. PMID:26707160

  20. Adipose tissue is a regulated source of interleukin-10.

    PubMed

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Pernin, Agnès; Alizadeh, Navid; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-03-21

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and we have recently shown that this tissue is a major source of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). We now aimed at identifying additional adipose-derived cytokines, which might serve as regulators of IL-1Ra. We demonstrate here for the first time that the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 is secreted by human WAT explants and that it is up-regulated by LPS and TNF-alpha in vitro, as well as in obesity in humans (2- and 6-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral WAT, respectively) and rodents (4-fold increase). PMID:15749027

  1. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  2. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Ballentine, Gwynne; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhang, Dongwei; Nguyen, Thuy Anne; Erb, Heidi; Prentki, Raphael; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Tobin, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie; Brown, J Mark; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-03-29

    Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26997277

  3. Myostatin Attenuation In Vivo Reduces Adiposity, but Activates Adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Naisi; Yang, Qiyuan; Walker, Ryan G; Thompson, Thomas B; Du, Min; Rodgers, Buel D

    2016-01-01

    A potentially novel approach for treating obesity includes attenuating myostatin as this increases muscle mass and decreases fat mass. Notwithstanding, conflicting studies report that myostatin stimulates or inhibits adipogenesis and it is unknown whether reduced adiposity with myostatin attenuation results from changes in fat deposition or adipogenesis. We therefore quantified changes in the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor cell pool in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) using label-retaining wild-type and mstn(-/-) (Jekyll) mice. Muscle mass was larger in Jekyll mice, WAT and BAT mass was smaller and label induction was equal in all tissues from both wild-type and Jekyll mice. The number of label-retaining cells, however, dissipated quicker in WAT and BAT of Jekyll mice and was only 25% and 17%, respectively, of wild-type cell counts 1 month after induction. Adipose cell density was significantly higher in Jekyll mice and increased over time concomitant with label-retaining cell disappearance, which is consistent with enhanced expansion and differentiation of the stem, transit amplifying and progenitor pool. Stromal vascular cells from Jekyll WAT and BAT differentiated into mature adipocytes at a faster rate than wild-type cells and although Jekyll WAT cells also proliferated quicker in vitro, those from BAT did not. Differentiation marker expression in vitro, however, suggests that mstn(-/-) BAT preadipocytes are far more sensitive to the suppressive effects of myostatin. These results suggest that myostatin attenuation stimulates adipogenesis in vivo and that the reduced adiposity in mstn(-/-) animals results from nutrient partitioning away from fat and in support of muscle. PMID:26580671

  4. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  5. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam Mina; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A.; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C.; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms promoting energy expenditure may be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated-in-mitosis-of-68kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly-reduced adiposity. Here we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We firstly found in Sam68-KO mice a significantly-reduced body weight with the difference explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake, but rather associated with enhanced physical activity. When fed high-fat diet, Sam68-KO mice gained much lesser body weight and fat mass as compared to wild-type (WT) littermates and displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. The brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal and epididymal depots are smaller and their adipocytes less hypertrophy in Sam68-KO mice than in WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68-KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty-acid-oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68-KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16 and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, suggesting that loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all fat depots of Sam68-KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers were upregulated and M1 markers downregulated. Thus Sam68 plays a crucial role in the control of thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  6. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  7. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  8. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  9. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  10. Epidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Graeme; Moutschen, Michel; Martínez, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raffi, François; Behrens, Georg; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice. PMID:20216906

  11. Micromanaging abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  12. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  13. Transdifferentiation properties of adipocytes in the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Saverio

    2009-11-01

    Mammals have two types of adipocytes, white and brown, but their anatomy and physiology is different. White adipocytes store lipids, and brown adipocytes burn them to produce heat. Previous descriptions implied their localization in distinct sites, but we demonstrated that they are mixed in many depots, raising the concept of adipose organ. We explain the reason for their cohabitation with the hypothesis of reversible physiological transdifferentiation; they are able to convert one into each other. If needed, the brown component of the organ could increase at the expense of the white component and vice versa. This plasticity is important because the brown phenotype of the organ associates with resistance to obesity and related disorders. Another example of physiological transdifferetiation of adipocytes is offered by the mammary gland; the pregnancy hormonal stimuli seems to trigger a reversible transdifferentiation of adipocytes into milk-secreting epithelial glands. The obese adipose organ is infiltrated by macrophages inducing chronic inflamation that is widely considered as a causative factor for insulin resistance. We showed that the vast majority of macrophages infiltrating the obese organ are arranged around dead adipocytes, forming characteristic crown-like structures. We recently found that visceral fat is more infiltrated than the subcutaneous fat despite a smaller size of visceral adipocytes. This suggests a different susceptibility of visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes to death, raising the concept of smaller critical death size that could be important to explain the key role of visceral fat for the metabolic disorders associated with obesity. PMID:19458063

  14. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  15. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  16. Overeating styles and adiposity among multiethnic youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overea...

  17. Markers of oxidative stress in adipose tissue during Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Machado, Fabiana S.; Weiss, Louis M.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease. Cardiac and adipose tissues are among the early targets of infection and are sites of persistent infection. In the heart and adipose tissue, T. cruzi infection results in an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the heart, infection is associated with an increase in the markers of oxidative stress. To date, markers of oxidative stress have not been evaluated in adipose tissue in this infection. Brown and white adipose tissues were obtained from CD-1 mice infected with the Brazil strain of T. cruzi for 15, 30, and 130 days post infection. Protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation assays were performed on these samples. There was an upregulation of these markers of oxidative stress at all time-points in both white and brown adipose tissue. Determinants of anti-oxidative stress were downregulated at similar time-points. This increase in oxidative stress during T. cruzi infection most likely has a deleterious effect on host metabolism and on the heart. PMID:24948102

  18. Adipose tissue plasticity: how fat depots respond differently to pathophysiological cues.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Vanessa; Carobbio, Stefania; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) has key metabolic and endocrine functions and plays a role in regulating energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. WAT is characterised by its capacity to adapt and expand in response to surplus energy through processes of adipocyte hypertrophy and/or recruitment and proliferation of precursor cells in combination with vascular and extracellular matrix remodelling. However, in the context of sustained obesity, WAT undergoes fibro-inflammation, which compromises its functionality, contributing to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Conversely, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of WAT represent potential therapeutic approaches, since dysfunctional white adipocyte-induced lipid overspill can be halted by BAT/browning-mediated oxidative anti-lipotoxic effects. Better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms regulating adipocyte size, number and depot-dependent expansion has become a focus of interest over recent decades. Here, we summarise the mechanisms contributing to adipose tissue (AT) plasticity and function including characteristics and cellular complexity of the various adipose depots and we discuss recent insights into AT origins, identification of adipose precursors, pathophysiological regulation of adipogenesis and its relation to WAT/BAT expandability in obesity and its associated comorbidities. PMID:27039901

  19. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...