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Sample records for abdominal x-ray showed

  1. Entrance surface dose and image quality: comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Ahmad Shariff; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Jamal, Noriah; Spelic, David C; Suleiman, Orhan H

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia.

  2. Routine abdominal X-rays in the emergency department: a thing of the past?

    PubMed

    Artigas Martín, J M; Martí de Gracia, M; Rodríguez Torres, C; Marquina Martínez, D; Parrilla Herranz, P

    2015-01-01

    The large number of abdominal X-ray examinations done in the emergency department is striking considering the scant diagnostic yield of this imaging test in urgent disease. Most of these examinations have normal or nonspecific findings, bringing into question the appropriateness of these examinations. Abdominal X-ray examinations are usually considered a routine procedure or even a "defensive" screening tool, whose real usefulness is unknown. For more than 30 years, the scientific literature has been recommending a reduction in both the number of examinations and the number of projections obtained in each examination to reduce the dose of radiation, unnecessary inconvenience for patients, and costs. Radiologists and clinicians need to know the important limitations of abdominal X-rays in the diagnostic management of acute abdomen and restrict the use of this technique accordingly. This requires the correct clinical selection of patients that can benefit from this examination, which would allow better use of alternative techniques with better diagnostic yield, such as ultrasonography or computed tomography.

  3. Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

  4. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  5. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, John L.; Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E.; Rose, Volker; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  6. Ataxia telangiectasia derived iPS cells show preserved x-ray sensitivity and decreased chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Fukawatase, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Okamura, Kohji; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shuji; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Masuda, Akira; Nasu, Michiyo; Hata, Kenichiro; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Higuchi, Akon; Takubo, Kaiyo; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a neurodegenerative inherited disease with chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. iPS cells lacking ATM (AT-iPS cells) exhibited hypersensitivity to X-ray irradiation, one of the characteristics of the disease. While parental ataxia telangiectasia cells exhibited significant chromosomal abnormalities, AT-iPS cells did not show any chromosomal instability in vitro for at least 80 passages (560 days). Whole exome analysis also showed a comparable nucleotide substitution rate in AT-iPS cells. Taken together, these data show that ATM is involved in protection from irradiation-induced cell death. PMID:24970375

  7. X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) show the presence of Cr{sup +} at the surface and in the bulk of CrF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Mier, J.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Yang, W.-L.; Denlinger, J.

    2015-07-23

    X-Ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of CrF{sub 2} recorded at the chromium L{sub 2,3} are presented. An atomic multiplet crystal field calculation is compared with the experimental data. Experiment and theory are in agreement once the calculation includes three chromium oxidation states, namely Cr{sup +}, Cr{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 3+}. X-Ray absorption allows a direct determination of the surface oxidation, while the RIXS spectra shows the presence of these three oxidation states in the sample bulk. To give a quantitative interpretation of the RIXS data the effect of the incomming and outgoing photon penetration depth and self-absorption must be considered. For the much simpler case of MnF{sub 2}, with only one metal oxidation state, the measured RIXS spectra relative intensities are found to be proportional to the square of the sample attenuation length.

  8. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  9. Validation of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measures of Abdominal Fat by Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Kuper, Hannah; Varma, Ravi D.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jimmy D.; V.Radhakrishna, K.; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indians. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to determine abdominal fat depots, being more accessible and less costly than gold standard measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DXA has not been fully validated for use in South Asians. Here, we determined the accuracy of DXA for measurement of abdominal fat in an Indian population by comparison with MRI. Design 146 males and females (age range 18–74, BMI range 15–46 kg/m2) from Hyderabad, India underwent whole body DXA scans on a Hologic Discovery A scanner, from which fat mass in two abdominal regions was calculated, from the L1 to L4 vertebrae (L1L4) and from the L2 to L4 vertebrae (L2L4). Abdominal MRI scans (axial T1-weighted spin echo images) were taken, from which adipose tissue volumes were calculated for the same regions. Results Intra-class correlation coefficients between DXA and MRI measures of abdominal fat were high (0.98 for both regions). Although at the level of the individual, differences between DXA and MRI could be large (95% of DXA measures were between 0.8 and 1.4 times MRI measures), at the sample level, DXA only slightly overestimated MRI measures of abdominal fat mass (mean difference in L1L4 region: 2% (95% CI:0%, 5%), mean difference in L2L4 region:4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%)). There was evidence of a proportional bias in the association between DXA and MRI (correlation between difference and mean −0.3), with overestimation by DXA greater in individuals with less abdominal fat (mean bias in leaner half of sample was 6% for L1L4 (95%CI: 2, 11%) and 7% for L2L4 (95% CI:3,12%). Conclusions DXA measures of abdominal fat are suitable for use in Indian populations and provide a good indication of abdominal adiposity at the population level. PMID:23272086

  10. Resolution of DNA damage at the single-cell level shows largely different actions of X-rays and bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Affentranger, M I; Burkart, W

    1995-02-01

    Both X-rays and the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) induce DNA strand breaks, predominantly via reactive radicals. To compare the induction of breaks with the two agents in Chinese hamster (CHO-K1) cells, two different alkaline unwinding methods, a 3H tracer-based analysis of large cell populations and an optical adaption allowing measurement of single cells, were applied. Radiation and BLM show qualitatively similar dose responses when the average number of DNA strand breaks is measured in a large cell population. However, the breakage pattern at the single-cell level indicates large discrepancies between the actions of the two agents. Irradiated cells show a uniform distribution of DNA strand breaks over the cell population. Effects of treatment with 30 micrograms x ml-1 BLM for 2 hr vary from practically zero in some cells to high levels of DNA strand breakage in others. Unlike the repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, the repair efficiency of BLM-induced DNA strand breaks, as measured at the single-cell level, varies strongly among cells of the same population. Such heterogeneity at the cellular level potentially reduces BLM's usefulness for tumor therapy because the appearance of BLM-resistant subpopulations may critically impair treatment outcome.

  11. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  12. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with a subphrenic abscess revealed by plain abdominal X-ray films and confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer disease is still the major cause of gastrointestinal perforation despite major improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. While the diagnosis of a perforated ulcer is straightforward in typical cases, its clinical onset may be subtle because of comorbidities and/or concurrent therapies. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic myeloid leukemia on maintenance therapy (100mg/day) with imatinib who was found to have a subphrenic abscess resulting from a perforated duodenal ulcer that had been clinically overlooked. Our patient was febrile (38.5°C) with abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. On the abdominal plain X-ray films, a right subphrenic abscess could be seen. On contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography, a huge air-fluid collection extending from the subphrenic to the subhepatic anterior space was observed. After oral administration of 500cm3 of 3 percent diluted diatrizoate meglumine, an extraluminal leakage of the water-soluble iodinated contrast media could then be appreciated as a result of a perforated duodenal ulcer. During surgery, the abscess was drained and extensive adhesiolysis had to be performed to expose the duodenal bulb where the ulcer was first identified by methylene blue administration and then sutured. Conclusions While subphrenic abscesses are well known complications of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, they have nowadays become rare thanks to advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease. However, when peptic ulcer disease is not clinically suspected, the contribution of imaging may be substantial. PMID:24215711

  13. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  14. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  16. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  17. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  18. Study of the physical properties of a mesogenic mixture showing induced smectic A(d) phase by refractive index, density and x-ray diffraction measurements.

    PubMed

    Roy, P D; Prasad, A; Das, M K

    2009-02-18

    The binary mixture of 4-n-pentyl phenyl 4-n'-hexyloxy benzoate (ME6O.5) and p-cyanophenyl trans-4-pentyl cyclohexane carboxylate (CPPCC) shows the presence of an induced smectic A(d) phase in a certain concentration range 0.03x-ray diffraction measurements are reported here. In general, the change in birefringence is continuous at the smectic A(d) to nematic phase transition for mixtures with x>0.33, whereas there is a discontinuity in these values for mixtures with x<0.33, consistent with the density and transition entropy measurements done on this system. The orientational order parameter, measured from x-ray diffraction studies, are somewhat smaller than those obtained from refractive index measurement in the induced smectic phase for all the mixtures. In the smectic phase, the OOP values initially increases with molar concentration up to x = 0.24 and then decreases showing a broad minima around x = 0.4. The variation of layer thickness in the induced smectic phase with composition has been explained by assuming the formation of homo- and heterodimers. We conclude that the possible packing of molecules in the induced smectic A(d) phase stabilizes the layers but increases the orientational free volume, consistent with the lower orientational order parameter.

  19. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  20. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  1. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  2. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  3. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  4. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  5. X Ray Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some aspects in X-ray topography, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)

  6. Be/X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    The interest in X/ γ-ray Astronomy has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the ability to send X-ray space missions above the Earth’s atmosphere. There are more than half a million X-ray sources detected and over a hundred missions (past and currently operational) devoted to the study of cosmic X/ γ rays. With the improved sensibilities of the currently active missions new detections occur almost on a daily basis. Among these, neutron-star X-ray binaries form an important group because they are among the brightest extra-solar objects in the sky and are characterized by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales ranging from milliseconds to months and years. Their main source of power is the gravitational energy released by matter accreted from a companion star and falling onto the neutron star in a relatively close binary system. Neutron-star X-ray binaries divide into high-mass and low-mass systems according to whether the mass of the donor star is above ˜8 or below ˜2 M⊙, respectively. Massive X-ray binaries divide further into supergiant X-ray binaries and Be/X-ray binaries depending on the evolutionary status of the optical companion. Virtually all Be/X-ray binaries show X-ray pulsations. Therefore, these systems can be used as unique natural laboratories to investigate the properties of matter under extreme conditions of gravity and magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called “Be phenomenon”, such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/ R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass

  7. X-Ray Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  8. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  9. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  11. Ionospheric effects of solar x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, Donald

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric absorption of radio waves caused by solar x-ray bursts is measured directly by Riometers from the Canada Riometer Array. The absorption is found to be proportional to the square root of the flux intensity of the X-ray burst with time delays of 18-20 seconds between the peak X-ray emission and absorption in the ionosphere. A detailed analysis showed that some X-ray flares during 2011-2014 are more effective at producing absorption than others. Solar longitude of X-ray burst for several X-class flares shows no consistent pattern of enhancement in the absorption.

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(III)-alkyl amine complexes showing surface affinity: Single crystal X-ray structure determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbalagan, K.; Maharaja Mahalakshmi, C.; Ganeshraja, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    Structurally integrated cobalt(III) complexes showing interesting surface affinity in the interfacial electron transfer reactions were synthesized by incorporating alkyl amines into the coordination sphere of cis-[Co III(en) 2(RNH 2)Cl]Cl 2; (where RNH 2 = MeNH 2 ( 1), EtNH 2 ( 2), Pr nNH 2 ( 3), Bu nNH 2 ( 4), Bu iNH 2 ( 5), Pen nNH 2 ( 6), Hex nNH 2 ( 7) and BzNH 2 ( 8)) through a modified synthetic route. Such complexes are playing important role as electron acceptors in the interfacial electron transfer reactions taking place between metal complex and nanosized semiconductor particles in energy conversion schemes. The complexes were characterized by spectral, 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques, which indicate the 1,2-diamino ethane site angles are closely similar forming five membered gauche configuration. Single crystal X-ray refinements were made to explore the structures of five complexes ( 2)-( 5) and ( 7). The complexes under study crystallize either in monoclinic or orthorhombic structure and the space consists; ( 2) P2 1/ n, ( 3) P2 12 12 1, ( 4) Pbca, ( 5) P2 1 and (7) P2 1/ n. The Co(III) ion does not have an electronic preference, however, the structures reflect the conformational preference of RNH 2 ligand.

  13. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is a two- ... Exams Dental Cone Beam CT X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety About this Site ...

  14. NIH-funded study shows 20 percent reduction in lung cancer mortality with low-dose CT compared to chest X-ray: | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have found a 20 percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer among current or former heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) versus those screened by chest X-ray. The primary research results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were published online today in the New England Journal of Medicine. |

  15. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  16. Synchrotron-based Infrared and X-ray Imaging Shows Focalized Accumulation of Cu and Zn Co-localized With Beta-amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Telivala, T.; Smith, R.; Lanzirotti, A.; Miklossy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the misfolding and plaque-like accumulation of a naturally occurring peptide in the brain called amyloid beta (Abeta). Recently, this process has been associated with the binding of metal ions such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). It is thought that metal dyshomeostasis is involved in protein misfolding and may lead to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. However, the exact role of the misfolded proteins and metal ions in the degenerative process of AD is not yet clear. In this study, we used synchrotron Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) to image the in situ secondary structure of the amyloid plaques in brain tissue of AD patients. These results were spatially correlated with metal ion accumulation in the same tissue sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe. For both techniques, a spatial resolution of 5-10 microm was achieved. FTIRM results showed that the amyloid plaques have elevated beta-sheet content, as demonstrated by a strong amide I absorbance at 1625cm(-1). Using SXRF microprobe, we find that AD tissue also contains 'hot spots' of accumulated metal ions, specifically Cu and Zn, with a strong spatial correlation between these two ions. The 'hot spots' of accumulated Zn and Cu were co-localized with beta-amyloid plaques. Thus for the first time, a strong spatial correlation has been observed between elevated beta-sheet content in Abeta plaques and accumulated Cu and Zn ions, emphasizing an association of metal ions with amyloid formation in AD.

  17. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Zinc in Airborne Particulate Matter Shows Tire Debris Concentrated in > 0.5 μm Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gill, T. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Cahill, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we speciated Zn in size-resolved fractions of particulate matter (PM) from El Paso, Texas. Spectral patterns indicated that Zn in tire debris is the dominant form of Zn in PM coarser than 0.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. Although concentrated in the > 0.5 μm fraction, a large portion of the tire debris in PM is small enough to penetrate and deposit in the lower respiratory tract. We collected 3 sets of size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) over periods of several days to several weeks in November 2008, and April and May 2009. Local PM compositions typically are dominated by anthropogenic input in November and geologic sources in April, and a mixture in May. The collection site is in the urban core of El Paso, TX, contiguous to the University of Texas at El Paso, 0.6 km from Interstate Highway 10, 0.4 km from State Highway 20, and 1 km from Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The DRUM sampler (Davis Rotating Uniform size-cut Monitor) employs a rotating Lundgren-type impactor, draws 10 l per minute, and deposits PM on plastic strips mounted on rotating drums. The sampler collected and segregated ambient PM into 8 size cuts: 12-5 μm, 5-2.5, 2.5-1.15, 1.15-0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-0.26, and 0.26-0.09. We conducted the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource on beam line 7-3. Spectra of the 24 samples of PM and numerous model compounds were collected at the Zn K absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. The overall spectral patterns from the 3 seasons were similar to one another. But strikingly, each set of 8 XAS spectra displayed an obvious change in the Zn speciation at the 0.56-0.75 μm size cut. We compared the PM spectra to those of our suite of known model compounds and materials. The spectral pattern of the coarser size cuts was quite similar to those of the tires we tested. The Zn in the tires

  19. The optical counterpart to IGR J06074+2205: a Be/X-ray binary showing disc loss and V/R variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Zezas, A.; Gkouvelis, L.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Current X-ray missions are regularly discovering new X/γ-ray sources, so identifying the counterparts of these high-energy sources at other wavelengths is important for determining their nature. In particular, optical observations are crucial in the study of X-ray binary populations in our Galaxy. Aims: The main goal of this work is to determine the properties of the optical counterpart to the INTEGRAL source IGR J06074+2205 and study its long-term optical variability. Although its nature as a high-mass X-ray binary has been suggested, little is known about its physical parameters. Methods: We have been monitoring IGR J06074+2205 since 2006 in the optical band. We present optical photometric BVRI and spectroscopic observations covering the wavelength band 4000-7000 Å. The blue spectra allow us to determine the spectral type and luminosity class of the optical companion and the red spectra, together with the photometric magnitudes, were used to derive the colour excess E(B-V) and estimate the distance. Results: We have carried out the first detailed optical study of the massive component in the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J06074+2205. We find that the optical counterpart to IGR J06074+2205 is a V = 12.3 B0.5Ve star located at a distance of ~4.5 kpc. Monitoring of the Hα line reveals V/R variability and an overall decline in its equivalent width. The Hα line has been seen to revert from an emission to an absorption profile. We attribute this variability to global changes in the structure of the Be star's circumstellar disc that eventually led to the complete loss of the disc. The density perturbation that gives rise to the V/R variability vanishes when the disc becomes too small.

  20. Nova V745 Sco shows fastest rise of super-soft X-ray emission: 3-4 days after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Mukai, K.

    2014-02-01

    Swift started monitoring the recurrent nova V745 Sco on 2014-02-06, 0.16 days after the discovery of the most recent eruption (R. Stubbings, AAVSO Special Notice 380, CBET 3803). Mukai et al. reported the initial Swift observations in ATel #5862, finding that the X-ray emission was hard and highly absorbed, with the absorbing column decreasing with time, resulting in a corresponding increase in count rate.

  1. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  2. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  3. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  4. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very low. Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies in the womb are more sensitive to the risks of x-rays. Tell your health care provider if you think you might be pregnant.

  5. High Mass X-ray Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are interesting objects that provide a wide range of observational probes to the nature of the two stellar components, accretion process, stellar wind and orbital parameters of the systems. Most of the transient HMXBs are found to Be/X-ray binaries (~67%), consisting of a compact object (neutron star) in orbit around the companion Be star. The orbit of the compact object around the Be star is wide and highly eccentric. Be/X-ray binaries are generally quiescent in X-ray emission. The transient X-ray outbursts seen in these objects are known to be due to interaction between the compact object and the circumstellar disk surrounding the Be star. In the recent years, another class of transient HMXBs have been found which have supergiant companions and show shorter X-ray outbursts. X-ray, infrared and optical observations of these HMXBs provide vital information regarding these systems. The timing and broad-band X-ray spectral properties of a few HMXB pulsars, mainly Be/X-ray binary pulsars during regular X-ray outbursts will be discussed.

  6. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  7. Colloid Coalescence with Focused X Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Kim, J. T.; Je, J. H.; Yi, J. M.; Wang, S.; Lee, W.-K.

    2011-07-01

    We show direct evidence that focused x rays enable us to merge polymer colloidal particles at room temperature. This phenomenon is ascribed to the photochemical scission of colloids with x rays, reducing the molecular weight, glass transition temperature, surface tension, and viscosity of colloids. The observation of the neck bridge growth with time shows that the x-ray-induced colloid coalescence is analogous to viscoelastic coalescence. This finding suggests a feasible protocol of photonic nanofabrication by sintering or welding of polymers, without thermal damage, using x-ray photonics.

  8. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  9. Laboratory x ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. L.

    1989-08-01

    One of the most innovative spinoffs of ICF technology and physics was the development of the x ray wavelength laser. The first incontrovertible demonstration of this type of laser came from LLNL in 1984 using the Novette laser to pump a selenium foil target. The power and energy of Novette were then needed to produce a column of plasma of sufficient length to achieve a sufficient gainlength product (approximately 5.5, this corresponds to an amplification of approximately 250X) that could unquestionably illustrate the lasing effect. LLNL ICF expertise was also required to develop time-resolved spectrometers used to view the lasing transitions at approximately 20 nm, a region of the XUV spectrum normally dominated by high backgrounds. The design of the x ray laser amplifier, which required maintaining nonequilibrium level populations in a tailored plasma having the proper conditions for gain and x ray laser beam propagation, was accomplished with modified versions of ICF kinetics and hydrodynamics codes. Since the first demonstration, progress in the development of the x ray laser was rapid. New achievements include production of megawatt power levels at 20 nm, amplified spontaneous emission levels approaching saturation intensity GL of approximately 17 at 20 nm, efficiency (x ray laser energy/pump energy) approximately 10(exp 6), the demonstration of double and triple pass amplification (hinting at the possibility of producing x ray wavelength resonators), the focusing of x ray lasers to pump other types of lasers and the first demonstration of an x ray hologram produced by an x ray laser. The generation of amplification at ever shorter wavelength is possible using various types of inversion schemes. We depict below this progress benchmarked against production of gain in the water window (2.2 to 4.4 nm,), where applications to biological imaging may be facilitated.

  10. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  11. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  12. Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project is to study the hard x-ray emission from x-ray bursters. One target of opportunity observation was made for this investigation during 1997. We obtained 38ks of data on the source 4UI705-44. The project is closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", and "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters."

  13. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will block most of the x-ray particles, and will appear white. Metal and contrast media (special dye used to highlight ...

  14. Pelvis x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  15. Medical X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ... and Exporting Electronic Products Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ...

  16. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  17. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to look for: Fractures or broken bone Cancer that has spread to other areas of the ... 2014:chap 8. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Cancer Metastasis Osteomyelitis X-ray Update Date 5/9/ ...

  18. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  19. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  20. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  1. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  2. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  3. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  4. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  5. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  6. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  8. X-rays Flares and Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray observations of star forming regions show that magnetic reconnection flares are powerful and frequent in pre-main sequence solar-type stars. Well-defined samples in the Orion Nebula Cluster and Taurus clouds exhibit flares with peak X- ray luminosities Lx˜10^29 - 10^32 erg/s, orders of magnitude stronger and more frequent than contemporary solar flares. X-rays are emitted in magnetic loops extending 0.1-10 R * above the stellar surface and thus have a favorable geometry to irradiate the protoplanetary disk. Several lines of evidence - fluorescent iron X-ray emission line, forbidden [NeII] infrared line, and excited molecular bands - support X-ray irradiation of cold material in some young systems. Several astrophysical consequences of X-ray irradiation are outlined. As ionization fractions need only reach 10-12 to induce the magnetorotational instability and associated turbulence, X-rays may be the principal determinant of the extent of the viscous "active zone" and laminar "dead zone" in the layered accretion disk. X-ray irradiation may thus play a major role in planet formation processes: particle settling; meter-size inspiral; protoplanetary migration; and dissipation of the gaseous disk.

  9. White beam x-ray waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarre, A.; Salditt, T.; Panzner, T.; Pietsch, U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2004-07-12

    We report a white beam x-ray waveguide (WG) experiment. A resonant beam coupler x-ray waveguide (RBC) is used simultaneously as a broad bandpass (or multibandpass) monochromator and as a beam compressor. We show that, depending on the geometrical properties of the WG, the exiting beam consists of a defined number of wavelengths which can be shifted by changing the angle of incidence of the white x-ray synchrotron beam. The characteristic far-field pattern is recorded as a function of exit angle and energy. This x-ray optical setup may be used to enhance the intensity of coherent x-ray WG beams since the full energetic acceptance of the WG mode is transmitted.

  10. X-ray beam finder

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  11. X-Ray Crystal Structure of the Ancestral 3-Ketosteroid Receptor-Progesterone-Mifepristone Complex Shows Mifepristone Bound at the Coactivator Binding Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, Jennifer K.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2013-12-12

    Steroid receptors are a subfamily of nuclear receptors found throughout all metazoans. They are highly important in the regulation of development, inflammation, and reproduction and their misregulation has been implicated in hormone insensitivity syndromes and cancer. Steroid binding to SRs drives a conformational change in the ligand binding domain that promotes nuclear localization and subsequent interaction with coregulator proteins to affect gene regulation. SRs are important pharmaceutical targets, yet most SR-targeting drugs have off-target pharmacology leading to unwanted side effects. A better understanding of the structural mechanisms dictating ligand specificity and the evolution of the forces that created the SR-hormone pairs will enable the design of better pharmaceutical ligands. In order to investigate this relationship, we attempted to crystallize the ancestral 3-ketosteroid receptor (ancSR2) with mifepristone, a SR antagonist. Here, we present the x-ray crystal structure of the ancestral 3-keto steroid receptor (ancSR2)-progesterone complex at a resolution of 2.05 Å. This improves upon our previously reported structure of the ancSR2-progesterone complex, permitting unambiguous assignment of the ligand conformation within the binding pocket. Surprisingly, we find mifepristone, fortuitously docked at the protein surface, poised to interfere with coregulator binding. Recent attention has been given to generating pharmaceuticals that block the coregulator binding site in order to obstruct coregulator binding and achieve tissue-specific SR regulation independent of hormone binding. Mifepristone’s interaction with the coactivator cleft of this SR suggests that it may be a useful molecular scaffold for further coactivator binding inhibitor development.

  12. Time-lapse anomalous X-ray diffraction shows how Fe(2+) substrate ions move through ferritin protein nanocages to oxidoreductase sites.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Cecilia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Lalli, Daniela; Rosa, Camilla; Theil, Elizabeth; Turano, Paola; Mangani, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Ferritin superfamily protein cages reversibly synthesize internal biominerals, Fe2O3·H2O. Fe(2+) and O2 (or H2O2) substrates bind at oxidoreductase sites in the cage, initiating biomineral synthesis to concentrate iron and prevent potentially toxic reactions products from Fe(2+)and O2 or H2O2 chemistry. By freezing ferritin crystals of Rana catesbeiana ferritin M (RcMf) at different time intervals after exposure to a ferrous salt, a series of high-resolution anomalous X-ray diffraction data sets were obtained that led to crystal structures that allowed the direct observation of ferrous ions entering, moving along and binding at enzyme sites in the protein cages. The ensemble of crystal structures from both aerobic and anaerobic conditions provides snapshots of the iron substrate bound at different cage locations that vary with time. The observed differential occupation of the two iron sites in the enzyme oxidoreductase centre (with Glu23 and Glu58, and with Glu58, His61 and Glu103 as ligands, respectively) and other iron-binding sites (with Glu53, His54, Glu57, Glu136 and Asp140 as ligands) reflects the approach of the Fe(2+) substrate and its progression before the enzymatic cycle 2Fe(2+) + O2 → Fe(3+)-O-O-Fe(3+) → Fe(3+)-O(H)-Fe(3+) and turnover. The crystal structures also revealed different Fe(2+) coordination compounds bound to the ion channels located at the threefold and fourfold symmetry axes of the cage.

  13. Time-lapse anomalous X-ray diffraction shows how Fe2+ substrate ions move through ferritin protein nanocages to oxidoreductase sites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Cecilia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Lalli, Daniela; Rosa, Camilla; Theil, Elizabeth; Turano, Paola; Mangani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin superfamily protein cages reversibly synthesize internal biominerals, Fe2O3·H2O. Fe2+ and O2 (or H2O2) substrates bind at oxidoreductase sites in the cage, initiating biomineral synthesis to concentrate iron and prevent potentially toxic reactions products from Fe2+and O2 or H2O2 chemistry. By freezing ferritin crystals of Rana catesbeiana ferritin M (RcMf) at different time intervals after exposure to a ferrous salt, a series of high-resolution anomalous X-ray diffraction data sets were obtained that led to crystal structures that allowed the direct observation of ferrous ions entering, moving along and binding at enzyme sites in the protein cages. The ensemble of crystal structures from both aerobic and anaerobic conditions provides snapshots of the iron substrate bound at different cage locations that vary with time. The observed differential occupation of the two iron sites in the enzyme oxidoreductase centre (with Glu23 and Glu58, and with Glu58, His61 and Glu103 as ligands, respectively) and other iron-binding sites (with Glu53, His54, Glu57, Glu136 and Asp140 as ligands) reflects the approach of the Fe2+ substrate and its progression before the enzymatic cycle 2Fe2+ + O2 → Fe3+—O—O—Fe3+ → Fe3+—O(H)—Fe3+ and turnover. The crystal structures also revealed different Fe2+ coordination compounds bound to the ion channels located at the threefold and fourfold symmetry axes of the cage. PMID:25849404

  14. Laser-based X-ray and electron source for X-ray fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle Brozas, F.; Crego, A.; Roso, L.; Peralta Conde, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a modification to conventional X-rays fluorescence using electrons as excitation source and compare it with the traditional X-ray excitation for the study of pigments. For this purpose, we have constructed a laser-based source capable to produce X-rays as well as electrons. Because of the large penetration depth of X-rays, the collected fluorescence signal is a combination of several material layers of the artwork under study. However, electrons are stopped in the first layers, allowing a more superficial analysis. We show that the combination of both excitation sources can provide extremely valuable information about the structure of the artwork.

  15. TU-A-9A-07: X-Ray Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT): 100% Sensitivity to X-Ray Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, L; Ahmad, M; Nikoozadeh, A; Pratx, G; Khuri-Yakub, B; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess whether X-ray acoustic computed tomography (XACT) is more sensitive to X-ray absorption than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. Methods: First, a theoretical model was built to analyze the X-ray absorption sensitivity of XACT imaging and conventional X-ray imaging. Second, an XACT imaging system was developed to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation as well as the sensitivity improvement over transmission x-ray imaging. Ultra-short x-ray pulses (60-nanosecond) were generated from an X-ray source operated at the energy of 150 kVp with a 10-Hz repetition rate. The X-ray pulse was synchronized with the acoustic detection via a x-ray scintillation triggering to acquire the X-ray induced acoustic signal. Results: Theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signal is sensitive only to the X-ray absorption, while completely insensitive to out the X-ray scattering and fluorescence. XACT has reduced background and increased contrast-to-noise ratio, and therefore has increased sensitivity compared to transmission x-ray imaging. For a 50-μm size, gadolinium insertion in tissue exposed to 40 keV X-rays; the sensitivity of XACT imaging is about 28.9 times higher than that of conventional X-ray imaging. Conclusion: X-ray acoustic computer tomography (XACT) as a new imaging modality combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. It is feasible to improve the imaging sensitivity with XACT imaging compared with conventional X-ray imaging. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, it is possible to perform 3-D imaging with a single x-ray pulse with arrays of transducers without any mechanical motion of the imaging system. This single-shot capability offers the potential of reducing radiation dose by a factor of 1000, and imaging 100 times faster when compared to the conventional X-ray CT, and thus revolutionizing x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology. The authors

  16. X-ray transmission microscope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Rosenberger, Franz E.

    1995-01-01

    We are developing a hard x-ray microscope for direct observation of solidification dynamics in metal alloys and metal matrix composites. The Fein-Focus Inc. x-ray source was delivered in September and found to perform better than expected. Confirmed resolution of better than 2 micrometers was obtained and magnifications up to 800X were measured. Nickel beads of 30 micrometer diameter were easily detected through 6mm of aluminum. X-ray metallography was performed on several specimens showing high resolution and clear definition of 3-dimensional structures. Prototype furnace installed and tested.

  17. X-ray lithography masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  18. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  19. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  20. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  1. Resonant X-ray emission with a standing wave excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Collins, Stephen P.; Monaco, Giulio; Moretti Sala, Marco; Krisch, Michael; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems. PMID:26935531

  2. Resonant X-ray emission with a standing wave excitation.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Kari O; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Collins, Stephen P; Monaco, Giulio; Moretti Sala, Marco; Krisch, Michael; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems.

  3. A new x-ray scatter reduction method based on frequency division multiplexing x-ray imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Chang, S.; Lu, J. P.; Zhou, O.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray scatter may significantly degrade imaging performance in x-ray radiography applications, including flatpanel detector-based x-ray imaging, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT (CBCT), primarily due to their large projection field sizes. It results in soft tissue contrast reduction, potentially severe image artifacts, and increased patient dose. Several different approaches have been developed to reject the scatter contributions, including analytical calculation, empirical algorithms, Monte-Carlo simulation, blocker based measurement, and slot scan technique. We recently developed a new x-ray scatter rejection method based on nanotechnology-enabled frequency division multiplexing x-ray (FDMX) imaging technique. The key enabling technology is the carbon nanotube (CNT)-based multi-beam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technology. The proposed FDMX imaging system has a MBFEX source with an array of x-ray tubes. The x-ray radiation from each individual x-ray tube is modulated at a certain given frequency. The collimated x-ray beams passed through the object and were captured by a high speed x-ray detector. A demultiplexing algorithm was applied to reject the scatter radiation from the primary radiation based on their different modulation frequencies. The x-ray images generated by the FDMX imaging technique clearly demonstrated improved imaging quality in terms of lower scatter-to-primary-ratio (SPR) and higher contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). It shows great potential of improving x-ray imaging performance and reducing patient dose.

  4. Globular cluster x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pooley, David

    2010-04-20

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 10(36) ergs(-1)) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 10(33) ergs(-1)) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth--low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)--but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters.

  5. Quasar x-ray spectra revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri, P.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.; Mcdowell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 45 quasars observed by the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein satellite is used to re-examine the relationship between the soft (0.2-3.5 keV) X-ray energy index and radio-loudness. We found the following: (1) the tendency for radio-loud quasars to have systematically flatter X-ray slopes than radio-quiet quasars (RQQ's) is confirmed with the soft X-ray excess having negligible effect; (2) there is a tendency for the flatness of the X-ray slope to correlate with radio core-dominance for radio-loud quasars, suggesting that a component of the X-ray emission is relativistically beamed; (3) for the RQQ's the soft X-ray slopes, with a mean of approximately 1.0, are consistent with the slopes found at higher energies (2-10 keV) although steeper than those observed for Seyfert 1 galaxies (also 2-10 keV) where the reflection model gives a good fit to the data; (4) the correlation of FeII emission line strength with X-ray energy index is confirmed for radio-quiet quasars using a subset of 18 quasars. The radio-loud quasars show no evidence for a correlation. This relation suggests a connection between the ionizing continuum and the line emission from the broad emission line region (BELR) of radio-quiet quasars, but in the opposite sense to that predicted by current photoionization models; and (5) the correlations of X-ray slope with radio core dominance and FeII equivalent width within the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-classes respectively imply that the observed wide range of X-ray spectral slopes is real rather than due to the large measuring uncertainties for individual objects.

  6. Globular cluster x-ray sources

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, David

    2010-01-01

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 1036 ergs-1) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 1033 ergs-1) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth—low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)—but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters. PMID:20404204

  7. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  8. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  9. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  10. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  11. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  12. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Frost, K. J.; Maetzler, C.; Ohki, K.; Saba, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    A set of 22 simple, impulsive solar flares, identified in the OSO-5 hard X-ray data, were analyzed together with coincident microwave and meterwave radio observations. The rise times and fall times of the X-ray bursts are found to be highly correlated and effectively equal, strongly suggesting a flare energizing mechanism that is reversible. The good time resolution available for these observations reveals that the microwave emission is influenced by an additional process, evident in the tendency of the microwave emission to peak later and decay more slowly than the symmetric X-ray bursts. Meterwave emission is observed in coincidence with the 5 events which show the strongest time correlation between the X-ray and microwave burst structure. This meterwave emission is characterized by U-burst radiation, indicating confinement of the flare source.

  13. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the second quarter 1985 development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, 1987 is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

  14. SMM x ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  15. "X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions" and "Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This grant funded work on the analysis of data obtained with the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The goal of the work was to search for hard x-ray transients in star forming regions using the all-sky hard x-ray monitoring capability of BATSE. Our initial work lead to the discovery of a hard x-ray transient, GRO J1849-03. Follow-up observations of this source made with the Wide Field Camera on BeppoSAX showed that the source should be identified with the previously known x-ray pulsar GS 1843-02 which itself is identified with the x-ray source X1845-024 originally discovered with the SAS-3 satellite. Our identification of the source and measurement of the outburst recurrence time, lead to the identification of the source as a Be/X-ray binary with a spin period of 94.8 s and an orbital period of 241 days. The funding was used primarily for partial salary and travel support for John Tomsick, then a graduate student at Columbia University. John Tomsick, now Dr. Tomsick, received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in July 1999, based partially on results obtained under this investigation. He is now a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of California, San Diego.

  16. The superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars in high mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    There exists a special class of X-ray pulsars that exhibit very slow pulsation of P spin > 1000 s in the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We have studied the temporal and spectral properties of these superslow pulsation neutron star binaries in hard X-ray bands with INTEGRAL observations. Long-term monitoring observations find spin period evolution of two sources: spin-down trend for 4U 2206+54 (P spin ~ 5560 s with Ṗ spin ~ 4.9 × 10-7 s s-1) and long-term spin-up trend for 2S 0114+65 (P spin ~ 9600 s with Ṗ spin ~ -1 × 10-6 s s-1) in the last 20 years. A Be X-ray transient, SXP 1062 (P spin ~ 1062 s), also showed a fast spin-down rate of Ṗ spin ~ 3 × 10-6 s s-1 during an outburst. These superslow pulsation neutron stars cannot be produced in the standard X-ray binary evolution model unless the neutron star has a much stronger surface magnetic field (B > 1014 G). The physical origin of the superslow spin period is still unclear. The possible origin and evolution channels of the superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars are discussed. Superslow pulsation X-ray pulsars could be younger X-ray binary systems, still in the fast evolution phase preceding the final equilibrium state. Alternatively, they could be a new class of neutron star system - accreting magnetars.

  17. Soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

  18. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  19. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  20. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  1. Coherence in X-ray physics.

    PubMed

    Lengeler, B

    2001-06-01

    Highly brilliant synchrotron radiation sources have opened up the possibility of using coherent X-rays in spectroscopy and imaging. Coherent X-rays are characterized by a large lateral coherence length. Speckle spectroscopy is extended to hard X-rays, improving the resolution to the nm range. It has become possible to image opaque objects in phase contrast with a sensitivity far superior to imaging in absorption contrast. All the currently available X-ray sources are chaotic sources. Their characterization in terms of coherence functions of the first and second order is introduced. The concept of coherence volume, defined in quantum optics terms, is generalized for scattering experiments. When the illuminated sample volume is smaller than the coherence volume, the individuality of the defect arrangement in a sample shows up as speckle in the scattered intensity. Otherwise, a configurational average washes out the speckle and only diffuse scattering and possibly Bragg reflections will survive. The loss of interference due to the finite detection time, to the finite detector pixel size and to uncontrolled degrees of freedom in the sample is discussed at length. A comparison between X-ray scattering, neutron scattering and mesoscopic electron transport is given. A few examples illustrate the possibilities of coherent X-rays for imaging and intensity correlation spectroscopy.

  2. Assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows TRW technicians preparing the assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) for an official unveiling at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers world-wide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. X-ray astronomy can only be done from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks x-rays from reaching the surface. The Observatory provides images that are 50 times more detailed than previous x-ray missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than 5 tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor and assembled and tested the observatory for NASA. The CXO program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Observatory was launched on July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW)

  3. Assembled Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a TRW technician inspecting the completely assembled Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) in the Thermal Vacuum Chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. The CXO is formerly known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), which was renamed in honor of the late Indian-American Astronomer, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1999. The CXO will help astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes and other exotic celestial objects. X-ray astronomy can only be done from space because Earth's atmosphere blocks x-rays from reaching the surface. The Observatory provides images that are 50 times more detailed than previous x-ray missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than 5 tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor and assembled and tested the observatory for NASA. The CXO program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Observatory was launched on July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission. (Image courtesy of TRW)

  4. X-ray Eyes on Tempel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: X-ray Eyes on Tempel

    This false-color image shows comet Tempel 1 as seen by Chandra X-ray Observatory on June 30, 2005, Universal Time. The comet was bright and condensed. The X-rays observed from comets are caused by an interaction between highly charged oxygen in the solar wind and neutral gases from the comet.

    The observatory detected X-rays with an energy of 0.3 to 1.0 kilo electron Volts. The bulk of the X-rays were between 0.5 and 0.7 kilo electron Volts.

    Chandra will observe the comet for 18 hours during and after the time when NASA's Deep Impact impactor probe collides with Tempel 1 at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3 (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 4). The material ejected from the crater could cause the interaction region, and thus the X-ray emission, to move toward the Sun.

  5. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  6. X-ray microscopy of live biological micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Al-Ani, Ma'an Nassar

    Real-time, compact x-ray microscopy has the potential to benefit many scientific fields, including microbiology, pharmacology, organic chemistry, and physics. Single frame x-ray micro-radiography, produced by a compact, solid-state laser plasma source, allows scientists to use x-ray emission for elemental analysis, and to observe biological specimens in their natural state. In this study, x-ray images of mouse kidney tissue, live bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, and the bacteria's interaction with the antibiotic gentamicin, are examined using x-ray microscopy. For the purposes of comparing between confocal microscopy and x-ray microscopy, we introduced to our work the technique of gold labeling. Indirect immunofluorescence staining and immuno-gold labeling were applied on human lymphocytes and human tumor cells. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) showed the lymphocyte body and nucleus, as did x-ray microscopy. However, the high resolution of x-ray microscopy allows us to differentiate between the gold particles bound to the antibodies and the free gold. A compact, tabletop Nd: glass laser is used in this study to produce x-rays from an Yttrium target. An atomic force microscope is used to scan the x-ray images from the developed photo-resist. The use of compact, tabletop laser plasma sources, in conjunction with x-ray microscopy, is a new technique that has great potential as a flexible, user-friendly scientific research tool.

  7. XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter

  8. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  10. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  11. X-ray omni microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paganin, D; Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Stevenson, A W; Nesterets, Ya I; Wilkins, S W

    2004-06-01

    The science of wave-field phase retrieval and phase measurement is sufficiently mature to permit the routine reconstruction, over a given plane, of the complex wave-function associated with certain coherent forward-propagating scalar wave-fields. This reconstruction gives total knowledge of the information that has been encoded in the complex wave-field by passage through a sample of interest. Such total knowledge is powerful, because it permits the emulation in software of the subsequent action of an infinite variety of coherent imaging systems. Such 'virtual optics', in which software forms a natural extension of the 'hardware optics' in an imaging system, may be useful in contexts such as quantitative atom and X-ray imaging, in which optical elements such as beam-splitters and lenses can be realized in software rather than optical hardware. Here, we develop the requisite theory to describe such hybrid virtual-physical imaging systems, which we term 'omni optics' because of their infinite flexibility. We then give an experimental demonstration of these ideas by showing that a lensless X-ray point projection microscope can, when equipped with the appropriate software, emulate an infinite variety of optical imaging systems including those which yield interferograms, Zernike phase contrast, Schlieren imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging.

  12. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  13. Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich GRBs Observed by Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Cummings, J.; Krimm, H.; Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Barbier, L.; Fenimore, E.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Sato, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and discuss the spectral and temporal characteristics of the prompt emission and X-ray afterglow emission of X-ray flashes (XRFs) detected and observed by Swift between December 2005 and September 2006. We compare these characteristics to a sample of X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRRs) and conventional classical gamma-ray bursts (C-GRBs)observed during the same period. We confirm the correlation between Epeak and fluence noted by others and find further evidence that XRFs and C-GRBs form a continuum. We also confirmed that our known redshift samples are consistent with the correlation between the peak energy (Epeak) and the isotropic radiated energy (Eiso), so called the Epeak-Eiso relation. The spectral properties of X-ray afterglows are similar to those of gamma-ray burst afterglows, but the temporal properties of the two classes are quite different. We found that the light curves of C-GRBs afterglow show a break to steeper indices (shallow-to-steep break) at much earlier times than do XRF afterglows. Moreover, the overall luminosity of X-ray afterglows of XRFs are systematically smaller by a factor of two or more compared with that of C-GRBs. These distinct differences in the X-ray afterglow between XRFs and C-GRBs are key to understanding not only a mysterious shallow-to-steep phase in the X-ray afterglow but also the unique nature of XRFs.

  14. Investigating the X-ray Emission from some of the Oldest Known X-ray Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, Vikram; Holmes, Danika

    2016-04-01

    The core-collapse of a massive star results in a supernova (SN) explosion, and a shock wave that expands outwards. The evolution of the shock wave, and the radius and morphology of the resulting remnant, depends on the density structure of the SN ejecta and surrounding medium. As the SN evolves, it sweeps up more material. The shock velocity, and therefore post-shock temperature (proportional to the square of the shock velocity), will consequently decrease. Thus we would expect a gradual evolution in the X-ray properties of the SN. While theoretical models anticipate this, very few SNe have observations over several decades that allow us to probe the time evolution of the X-ray emission and SN shocks.We have compiled a database of most observed X-ray SNe. In this talk we will summarize the X-ray data on some of the oldest detected X-ray SNe. These observations bridge the gap between old SNe and young supernova remnants, and shed light on the transition of a supernova to a remnant. We will show lightcurves for those which have multiple detections, outline the variation in their X-ray luminosity with time, compare their X-ray emission to that of younger supernovae, and discuss the evolution of the shock parameters as the supernova continues on its journey towards becoming a remnant.

  15. Low-luminosity X-ray sources and the Galactic ridge X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, R.

    2014-07-01

    We make a new determination of the hard-band (2-10 keV) X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of relative low-luminosity Galactic X-ray sources based on a source sample derived from the XMM Slew Survey (XSS). The source population is comprised of coronally-active late-type stars and binaries with hard-band X-ray luminosities in the range 10^{28-32} erg s^{-1} and cataclysmic variables (magnetic and non-magnetic) with X-ray luminosities spanning the range 10^{30-34} erg s^{-1}. We use this new estimate of the XLF, to predict the 2-10 keV X-ray source counts on the Galactic Plane at faint fluxes and show that the result is fully consistent with the available observational constraints. Similarly the predicted surface brightness, both in the full 2-10 keV band and in a restricted 6-10 keV bandpass, due to the integrated emission of faint unresolved Galactic sources, is well matched to the observed intensity of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). We find that the coronally-active sources make the dominant contribution to both the faint Galactic X-ray source counts and the GRXE.

  16. X-ray beam pointer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive, readily assembled pointer aims X-ray machine for welded assembly radiographs. Plumb bob used for vertical alinement and yardstick used to visualize X-ray paths were inconvenient and inaccurate. Pointer cuts alinement time by one-half and eliminates necessity of retakes. For 3,000 weld radiographs, pointer will save 300 worker-hours and significant materials costs.

  17. X-ray based extensometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  18. Polarisation modulation in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam; Maccarone, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to provide a powerful new lever arm for studying accretion onto black holes with the next generation of X-ray telescopes. I will discuss how polarisation can be used to help constrain the physical origin of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray light curves of accreting black holes. QPOs may be signatures of the frame dragging effect: in General Relativity, a spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time, causing vertical precession of nearby orbits. In the truncated disc / precessing inner flow model, the entire inner accretion flow precesses as a solid body causing a modulation in the X-ray flux through solid angle and Doppler effects. This model also predicts the observed polarisation of the X-ray signal to vary quasi-periodically. I will summarise our work to model the polarisation signal from a precessing accretion flow, starting with simple assumptions about the emission mechanism but taking General Relativity fully into account. We find that it should be possible to measure the predicted modulation in polarisation degree for a reasonable region of parameter space with a polarimeter capable of detecting ~60 counts per second from a bright black hole binary. I will also show that sensitivity can be greatly improved by correlating the signal with a high count rate reference band signal.

  19. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  20. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  1. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  2. Industrial X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, Lewis Research Center jointly sponsored a conference with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory focused on high speed imaging. This conference, and early funding by Lewis Research Center, helped to spur work by Silicon Mountain Design, Inc. to break the performance barriers of imaging speed, resolution, and sensitivity through innovative technology. Later, under a Small Business Innovation Research contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the company designed a real-time image enhancing camera that yields superb, high quality images in 1/30th of a second while limiting distortion. The result is a rapidly available, enhanced image showing significantly greater detail compared to image processing executed on digital computers. Current applications include radiographic and pathology-based medicine, industrial imaging, x-ray inspection devices, and automated semiconductor inspection equipment.

  3. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The main results from this investigation were serendipitous. The long observation approved for the study of the hard X-ray emission of X-ray bursters lead, instead, to one of the largest early samples of the behavior of fast quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in an atoll sources. Our analysis of this data set lead to the several important discoveries including the existence of a robust correlation between QPO frequency and the flux of a soft blackbody component of the X-ray spectrum in the atoll source 4U 0614+091.

  4. X-ray Induced Pinhole Closure in Point Projection X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, A B; Landen, O L; Blue, B E; Edwards, J; Bradley, D K

    2006-01-13

    In pinhole-assisted point-projection x-ray radiography (or ''backlighting''), pinholes are placed between the sample of interest and an x-ray source (or ''backlighter'') to effectively limit the source size and hence improve the spatial resolution of the system. Pinholes are generally placed close to such x-ray backlighters to increase the field-of-view, leading to possible vaporization and pinhole closure due to x-ray driven ablation, thereby potentially limiting the usefulness of this method. An experimental study and modeling of time-dependent closure and resolution is presented. The pinhole closure timescale is studied for various pinhole sizes, pinhole to backlighter separations and filtering conditions. In addition the time-dependent resolution is extracted from one-dimensional wire imaging prior to pinhole closure. Cylindrical hydrodynamic modeling of the pinhole closure shows reasonable agreement with data, giving us a predictive capability for pinhole closure in future experiments.

  5. PEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF MK2 SHOW PROMISE FOR INHIBITION OF ABDOMINAL ADHESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Brian C.; Kavalukas, Sandra; Brugnano, Jamie; Barbul, Adrian; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Background Abdominal adhesions are a common side effect of surgical procedures with complications including infertility, chronic pain, and bowel obstruction, which may lead to the need for surgical lyses of the adhesions. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) has been implicated in several diseases involving inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, the development of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that modulates MK2 activity may confer therapeutic benefit after abdominal surgery in general and more specifically after bowel anastomosis. Study Design This study evaluated the function of a CPP inhibitor of MK2 in human mesothelial cells and in a rat bowel anastomosis model. To determine IC50 and basic specificity, kinase inhibition was performed using a radiometric assay. Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) was used to evaluate interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in response to IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation in vitro to validate MK2 kinase inhibition. Following bowel anastomosis (10 rats for each control and treatment at 4 and 10 days), the rats were evaluated for weight loss, normal healing (colonic burst strength and hydroxyproline content at the anastomosis), and number and density of adhesions. Results The IC50 of the MK2 inhibitor peptide (22µM) was similar to that of the nonspecific small molecule Rottlerin (IC50=5µM). The MK2 inhibitor peptide was effective at suppressing IL-1β and TNF-α stimulated IL-6 expression in mesothelial cells. In vivo, the MK2 inhibitor peptide was effective as suppressing both the density and number of adhesions formed as a result of bowel anastomosis. Importantly, the peptide had no negative effect on normal healing. Conclusions In conclusion, the peptide inhibitor of MK2, MMI-0100, has the potential to significantly reduce inflammation through suppression of inflammatory cytokine expression and showed promise as a therapeutic for abdominal adhesions. PMID:21492875

  6. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients’ weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.21) (p < 0.05). It was observed a positive correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.24) (p < 0.05). BMI showed a positive correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p < 0.05). Conclusion SAD correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23856008

  7. X-ray Reverberation with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, Barbara; Dovciak, Michal; Matt, Giorgio; Miniutti, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Reprocessing of the primary X-ray continuum in the accretion disc produces reverberation lags which are powerful tools to map the close environments of accreting black holes. X-ray reverberation lags have been measured in radio quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), giving constraints of a few rg on the distance between the corona and the accretion disc. However, determining the disc-corona geometry requires data of much better quality. The Athena X-ray observatory will make a breakthrough in this field. The large effective area will allow us to obtain high signal-to-noise lag measurements, and to detail the temporal response of the accretion disc to coronal variability. Through simulations of Wide Field Imager (WFI) light curves, we show that time lag measurements will allow us to distinguish among different corona geometries, and to provide independent constraints on the black hole spin.

  8. X-Ray Variability in M87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Daniel E.; Biretta, J. A.; Junor, W.

    2000-01-01

    We present the evidence for X-ray variability from the core and from knot A in the M87 jet based on data from two observations with the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Imager (HRI) and three observations with the ROSAT HRI. The core intensity showed a 16% increase in 17 months ('79-'80); a 12% increase in the 3 years '92 to '95; and a 17% drop in the last half of 1995. The intensity of knot A appears to have decreased by 16% between 92Jun and 95Dec. Although the core variability is consistent with general expectations for AGB nuclei, the changes in knot A provide constraints on the x-ray emission process and geometry. Thus we predict that the x-ray morphology of knot A will differ significantly from the radio and optical structure.

  9. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, T.; Blondin, J.

    2015-12-10

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  10. Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S.; Wehlburg, J.

    1998-10-01

    Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-rays* Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the pachge is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to persomel and property since exTlosive devices may be "booby trapped." We have developed a method to x-ray a paclage using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them iare scattered back towards the source. The backscattenng of x-rays is propordoml to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This 24"' dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Using transmission radiography-to image the contents of an unknown package poses some undesirable risks. The object must have an x-ray film placed on the side opposite the x-ray source; this cannot be done without moving the package if it has been placed firmly against a wall or pillar. Therefore it would be extremely usefid to be able to image the contents of a package from only one side, without ever having to disturb the package itself. where E is the energy of the incoming x-ray. The volume of x-rays absorbed is important because it is, of course, directly correlated to the intensity of x-mys that will be scattered. Most of the x-rays that scatter will do so in a genemlly forward direction; however, a small percentage do scatter in a backward direction. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the various fates of x-rays directed into an object. The package that was examined in this ex~enment was an attache case made of pressed fiberboardwith a vinyl covering. It was

  11. X-Ray photonics: X-rays inspire electron movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The advent of high-energy, short-pulse X-ray sources based on free-electron lasers, laser plasmas and high-harmonic generation is now making it possible to probe the dynamics of electrons within molecules.

  12. My early days in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    I was a cosmic-ray physicist 50 years ago. While working at the Cosmic-Ray Working Group, Leiden, in 1964 we started the observation of the cosmic X-ray background. Since then, I worked in X-ray astronomy at Nagoya University and later at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), first with balloons and rockets and later with satellites. Here I will discuss the space science policy of Japan, and the central role of ISAS. I was engaged in four X-ray astronomy missions till my retirement from ISAS in 1994. With brief descriptions of ISAS X-ray astronomy missions, I intend to show how quick the development of X-ray astronomy and the detector techniques has been, and how rich is the physics of X-ray astronomy.

  13. X-ray induced demagnetization of single-molecule magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiser, Jan; Westerström, Rasmus; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Nolting, Frithjof; Rusponi, Stefano; Brune, Harald; Yang, Shangfeng; Popov, Alexey; Dunsch, Lothar; Greber, Thomas

    2014-07-21

    Low-temperature x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on the endohedral single-molecule magnet DySc{sub 2}N@C{sub 80} at the Dy M{sub 4,5} edges reveal a shrinking of the opening of the observed hysteresis with increasing x-ray flux. Time-dependent measurements show that the exposure of the molecules to x-rays resonant with the Dy M{sub 5} edge accelerates the relaxation of magnetization more than off-resonant x-rays. The results cannot be explained by a homogeneous temperature rise due to x-ray absorption. Moreover, the observed large demagnetization cross sections indicate that the resonant absorption of one x-ray photon induces the demagnetization of many molecules.

  14. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  15. Are There Intrinsically X-Ray Quiet Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Laor, A.; Elvis, Martin; Mathur, S.; Wills, Beverly J.; Iyomoto, N.; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent ROSAT studies have identified a significant population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that are notably faint in soft X-rays relative to their optical fluxes. Are these AGN intrinsically X-ray weak or are they just highly absorbed? Brandt, Laor & Wills have systematically examined the optical and UV spectral properties of a well-defined sample of these soft X-ray weak (SXW) AGN drawn from the Boroson & Green sample of all the Palomar Green AGN 00 with z < 0.5. We present ASCA observations of three of these SXW AGN: PG 1011-040, PG 1535+547 (Mrk 486), and PG 2112+059. In general, our ASCA observations support the intrinsic absorption scenario for explaining soft X-ray weakness; both PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 show significant column densities (NH is approximately 10(exp 22) - 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of absorbing gas. Interestingly, PG 1011-040 shows no spectral evidence for X-ray absorption. The weak X-ray emission may result from very strong absorption of a partially covered source, or this AGN may be intrinsically X-ray weak. PG 2112+059 is a Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO, and we find it to have the highest X-ray flux known of this class. It shows a typical power-law X-ray continuum above 3 keV; this is the first direct evidence that BAL QSOs indeed have normal X-ray continua underlying their intrinsic absorption. Finally, marked variability between the ROSAT and ASCA observations of PG 1535+547 and PG 2112+059 suggests that the soft X-ray weak designation may be transient, and multi-epoch 0.1-10.0 KeV X-ray observations are required to constrain variability of the absorber and continuum.

  16. X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1986-01-01

    There are about 100 bright X-ray sources in the Galaxy that are accretion-driven systems composed of a neutron star and a low mass companion that fills its critical Roche lobe. Many of these systems generate recurring X-ray bursts that are the result of thermonuclear flashes in the neutron star's surface layers, and are accompanied by a somewhat delayed optical burst due to X-ray heating of accretion disk. The Rapid Burster discovered in 1976 exhibits an interval between bursts that is strongly correlated with the energy in the preceding burst. There is no optical identification for this object.

  17. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  18. X-ray irradiated model stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, J.; Różańska, A.

    2000-04-01

    We present equations and details of the computer code for precise calculation of LTE model atmospheres which are illuminated by an external radiation field. Both radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, and coherent Thomson electron scattering have been assumed. Radiation field at each frequency and depth level is computed with the method of variable Eddington factors. The code is fully suitable for the study of mutual illumination effects in close binaries. We have subsequently computed few sets of model stellar atmospheres of Teff = 1.8x 104 K, and log g = 4.0 (B3 V type star), consisting of hydrogen and helium in solar proportion, and iron of number abundance NFe / N_H = 3.7 x 10-5. We assume, that the atmosphere is illuminated by isotropic X-rays of diluted thermal spectral distribution with temperature Trad =108 K. In case of iron-rich models external X-rays cause heating of the uppermost layers up to 4 x 106 K. Such a choice of Teff and Trad differing by 4 orders of magnitude is relevant to the supposed conditions on some rings of the accretion disk in active galactic nuclei (AGN), illuminated by an X-ray source. Our code qualitatively reproduces the structure of an atmosphere and its spectrum for wavelengths ranging from infrared to X-rays. Outgoing spectra clearly exhibit all three components: spectrum of B star, external X-ray blackbody spectrum partly backscattered by the model atmosphere, and radiation from the uppermost layers, heated to very high temperatures. The latter shows He I and He II Lyman opacity jumps, and numerous b-f jumps of highly ionized iron, all of them in emission. We demonstrate that in all atmospheres of our paper the external illumination by X-rays reduces the H I Lyman jump. This is in agreement with observations of AGNs spectra.

  19. The Distant X-ray Universe as seen by the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, G.; ACIS CDF-N Team

    2001-12-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory has completed two 1 Ms exposures to the X-ray sky. These very deep exposures have detected over 700 X-ray sources, most of which appear to be AGN and QSOs. The mean X-ray luminosity of the sources rises rapidly from the local value to a maximum at a redshift of 3 and then appears to fall off. The average volume emissivity of sources also rises rapidly to a redshift of 1 and then drops more rapidly up to the highest redshift detected of 5.18. A comparison of the density of X-ray sources on the sky shows a variation of the order of 40 fields that have been examined, indicating considerable cosmic variance on scales of 100 sq. arc minutes. Power law fits to the spectra of the brighter sources reveals a photon index that decreases with decreasing source intensity. The summed intensity of the observed sources in the 1.0 - 8.0 keV band is greater than 80 "diffuse" X-ray background, with a photon index that agrees with the "diffuse" measurements. This work was suported by NASA grant NAS 8-38252.

  20. The X-Ray Spectral Evolution of Galactic Black Hole X-Ray Binaries toward Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard. M.; Gallo, Elena; Jonker, Peter G.

    2013-08-01

    Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio lx = L 0.5-10 keV/L Edd < 10-5). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard-state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index (Γ) and lx in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, Γ plateaus to an average langΓrang = 2.08 ± 0.07 by the time lx reaches ~10-5. lx ~ 10-5 is thus an observationally motivated upper limit for the beginning of the quiescent spectral state. Our results are discussed in the context of different accretion flow models and across the black hole mass scale.

  1. Hard X-ray Pump, X-ray Probe Spectroscopy of Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loether, Aaron; Decamp, Matt; Walko, Donald

    Recent advancements in intense x-ray pulses have made it possible to perform hard x-ray pump probe spectroscopy. Inspired by optical pump probe, we've built a retroreflector for use with synchrotron based x-rays, using Germanium crystals at Bragg condition in place of mirrors, to control relative timing of x-ray pulses and perform time resolved measurements. Testing of multiple versions of the retroreflector was done both experimentally and via simulation; the comparison allows us to show efficiencies achievable theoretically and realistically. A proof of concept time resolved diffraction experiment on a Germanium 111 crystal was performed utilizing high intensity broadband x-ray pulses and the resulting heating and propagated strains were measured by low intensity monochromatic x-ray pulses. This work was supported from the DOE-EPSCoR Grant No. DE-FG02-11ER46816. Use of the 178 Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, 179 Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Analysis of the Central X-ray Source in DG Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P. Christian; Schmitt, Jürgen H. M. M.

    As a stellar X-ray source DG Tau shows two rather unusual features: A resolved X-ray jet [2] and an X-ray spectrum best described by two thermal components with different absorbing column densities, a so called "two-absorber X-ray (TAX)" morphology [1, 2]. In an effort to understand the properties of the central X-ray source in DG Tau a detailed position analysis was carried out.

  3. Hetero-site-specific X-ray pump-probe spectroscopy for femtosecond intramolecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Picón, A.; Lehmann, C. S.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Marinelli, A.; Osipov, T.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Bucher, M.; et al

    2016-05-23

    New capabilities at X-ray free-electron laser facilities allow the generation of two-colour femtosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility of performing ultrafast studies of X-ray-induced phenomena. Specifically, the experimental realization of hetero-site-specific X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe spectroscopy is of special interest, in which an X-ray pump pulse is absorbed at one site within a molecule and an X-ray probe pulse follows the X-ray-induced dynamics at another site within the same molecule. In this paper, we show experimental evidence of a hetero-site pump-probe signal. By using two-colour 10-fs X-ray pulses, we are able to observe the femtosecond time dependence for the formation of F ionsmore » during the fragmentation of XeF2 molecules following X-ray absorption at the Xe site.« less

  4. Hetero-site-specific X-ray pump-probe spectroscopy for femtosecond intramolecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Picón, A.; Lehmann, C. S.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Marinelli, A.; Osipov, T.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Bucher, M.; Doumy, G.; Erk, B.; Ferguson, K. R.; Gorkhover, T.; Ho, P. J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Krzywinski, J.; Lutman, A. A.; March, A. M.; Moonshiram, D.; Ray, D.; Young, L.; Pratt, S. T.; Southworth, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    New capabilities at X-ray free-electron laser facilities allow the generation of two-colour femtosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility of performing ultrafast studies of X-ray-induced phenomena. Particularly, the experimental realization of hetero-site-specific X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe spectroscopy is of special interest, in which an X-ray pump pulse is absorbed at one site within a molecule and an X-ray probe pulse follows the X-ray-induced dynamics at another site within the same molecule. Here we show experimental evidence of a hetero-site pump-probe signal. By using two-colour 10-fs X-ray pulses, we are able to observe the femtosecond time dependence for the formation of F ions during the fragmentation of XeF2 molecules following X-ray absorption at the Xe site. PMID:27212390

  5. AR 1121 Unleases X-ray Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    Increasingly active sunspot 1121 has unleashed one of the brightest x-ray solar flares in years, an M5.4-class eruption at 15:36 UT on Nov. 6th. This close-up video shows the detail of the flare an...

  6. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  7. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  8. X-ray fiducial foils

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, C.; Serduke, F.; Makowiecki, D.; Jankowski, A.; Wall, M.

    1991-03-13

    An x-ray spectrum from a laser fusion experiment was passed through an Al, Si, Y multilayer foil. The position of the absorption edges of the Al, Si, and Y was used to calibrate the x-ray energy spectrum recorded on photographic film. The foil consisted of 4000 {angstrom} of Al, 6000 {angstrom} of Si and 4000 {angstrom} of Y sputter deposited on a 1.5 {mu}m thick Mylar{reg sign} film. It was necessary to layer the structure in order to achieve the required mechanical strength and dimensional stability. The results include analysis of the x-ray energy spectrum and microstructural characterization of the foil using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone x-ray is used to: diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, ...

  10. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

  11. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  12. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Results A radiologist, a doctor specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images, will look at ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  20. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  1. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  2. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... Why Do I Need X-Rays? Article Chapters Why Do I Need X-Rays? ... of tooth decay. Updated: January 2012 Related Articles: X-Rays The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Sets the ...

  3. X-ray insights into star and planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the fate of massive stellar winds, X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks, and X-ray flare effects on ancient meteorites. Chandra observations of star-forming regions often show dramatic star clusters, powerful magnetic reconnection flares, and parsec-scale diffuse plasma. X-ray selected samples of premain sequence stars significantly advance studies of star cluster formation, the stellar initial mass function, triggered star-formation processes, and protoplanetary disk evolution. Although X-rays themselves may not play a critical role in the physics of star formation, they likely have important effects on protoplanetary disks by heating and ionizing disk gases. PMID:20404197

  4. [The X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Pyroelectric Effect].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi-fan; Fan, Rui-rui; Guo, Dong-ya; Zhang, Chun-lei; Gao, Min; Wang, Jin-zhou; Liu, Ya-qing; Zhou, Da-wei; Wang, Huan-yu

    2016-02-01

    Pyroelectric X-ray generator is implemented, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is accomplished by combining the pyroelectric X-ray generator with a high energy resolution silicon drift detector. Firstly, the parameters of the X-ray generator are decided by analyzing and calculating the influence of the thickness of the pyroelectriccrystal and the thickness of the target on emitted X-ray. Secondly, the emitted X-ray is measured. The energy of emitted X-ray is from 1 to 27 keV, containing the characteristic X-ray of Cu and Ta, and the max counting rate is more than 3 000 per second. The measurement also proves that the detector of the spectrometer has a high energy resolution which the FWMH is 210 eV at 8. 05 keV. Lastly, samples of Fe, Ti, Cr and high-Ti basalt are analyzed using the spectrometer, and the results are agreed with the elements of the samples. It shows that the spectrometer consisting of a pyroelectric X-ray generator and a silicon drift detector is effective for element analysis. Additionally, because each part of the spectrometer has a small volume, it can be easily modified to a portable one which is suitable for non-destructive, on-site and quick element analysis. PMID:27209767

  5. Exceptional X-ray Weak Quasars: Implications for Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, William; Luo, Bin; Hall, Patrick; Wu, Jianfeng; Anderson, Scott; Garmire, Gordon; Gibson, Robert; Just, Dennis; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon; Schneider, Donald; Shemmer, Ohad; Shen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Actively accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are found, nearly universally, to create luminous X-ray emission, and this point underlies the utility of X-ray surveys for finding growing SMBHs throughout the Universe. However, there are exceptions to this rule that provide novel insights, including PHL 1811 analogs and some weak-line quasars. We have been systematically studying such X-ray weak quasars with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, aiming (1) to define their optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions, (2) to measure their basic X-ray spectral properties, and (3) to establish the optical/UV emission-line and continuum properties that most directly trace X-ray weakness. Many of these type 1 quasars show unusually hard X-ray spectra, suggesting that small-scale absorption/reflection has a primary role in causing their X-ray weakness and distinctive emission-line properties. Physical considerations indicate that this small-scale absorber/reflector may be the geometrically thick inner accretion disk expected to form if PHL 1811 analogs and weak-line quasars have unusually high SMBH accretion rates.

  6. X-ray insights into star and planet formation.

    PubMed

    Feigelson, Eric D

    2010-04-20

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the fate of massive stellar winds, X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks, and X-ray flare effects on ancient meteorites. Chandra observations of star-forming regions often show dramatic star clusters, powerful magnetic reconnection flares, and parsec-scale diffuse plasma. X-ray selected samples of premain sequence stars significantly advance studies of star cluster formation, the stellar initial mass function, triggered star-formation processes, and protoplanetary disk evolution. Although X-rays themselves may not play a critical role in the physics of star formation, they likely have important effects on protoplanetary disks by heating and ionizing disk gases.

  7. [The X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Based on Pyroelectric Effect].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi-fan; Fan, Rui-rui; Guo, Dong-ya; Zhang, Chun-lei; Gao, Min; Wang, Jin-zhou; Liu, Ya-qing; Zhou, Da-wei; Wang, Huan-yu

    2016-02-01

    Pyroelectric X-ray generator is implemented, and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is accomplished by combining the pyroelectric X-ray generator with a high energy resolution silicon drift detector. Firstly, the parameters of the X-ray generator are decided by analyzing and calculating the influence of the thickness of the pyroelectriccrystal and the thickness of the target on emitted X-ray. Secondly, the emitted X-ray is measured. The energy of emitted X-ray is from 1 to 27 keV, containing the characteristic X-ray of Cu and Ta, and the max counting rate is more than 3 000 per second. The measurement also proves that the detector of the spectrometer has a high energy resolution which the FWMH is 210 eV at 8. 05 keV. Lastly, samples of Fe, Ti, Cr and high-Ti basalt are analyzed using the spectrometer, and the results are agreed with the elements of the samples. It shows that the spectrometer consisting of a pyroelectric X-ray generator and a silicon drift detector is effective for element analysis. Additionally, because each part of the spectrometer has a small volume, it can be easily modified to a portable one which is suitable for non-destructive, on-site and quick element analysis.

  8. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  9. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  10. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  11. X-ray shout echoing through space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 3991 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in hours. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 2153 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays (Please choose "hi-res" version for animation) XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. This echo forms when the powerful radiation of a gamma-ray burst, coming from far away, crosses a slab of dust in our Galaxy and is scattered by it, like the beam of a lighthouse in clouds. Using the expanding rings to precisely pin-point the location of this dust, astronomers can identify places where new stars and planets are likely to form. On 3 December 2003 ESA's observatory, Integral, detected a burst of gamma rays, lasting about 30 seconds, from the direction of a distant galaxy. Within minutes of the detection, thanks to a sophisticated alert network, many

  12. X-ray microscopy of human malaria

    SciTech Connect

    Magowan, C.; Brown, J.T.; Mohandas, N.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-04-01

    Associations between intracellular organisms and host cells are complex and particularly difficult to examine. X-ray microscopy provides transmission images of subcellular structures in intact cells at resolutions superior to available methodologies. The spatial resolution is 50-60nm with a 1 micron depth of focus, superior to anything achievable with light microscopy. Image contrast is generated by differences in photoelectric absorption by the atoms in different areas (i.e. subcellular structures) throughout the full thickness of the sample. Absorption due to carbon dominates among all the elements in the sample at 2.4 nm x-ray wavelength. Thus images show features or structures, in a way not usually seen by other types of microscopy. The authors used soft x-ray microscopy to investigate structural development of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in normal and genetically abnormal erythrocytes, and in infected erythrocytes treated with compounds that have anti-malarial effects. X-ray microscopy showed newly elaborated structures in the cytosol of unstained, intact erythrocytes, redistribution of mass (carbon) in infected erythrocytes, and aberrant parasite morphology. Better understanding of the process of intracellular parasite maturation and the interactions between the parasite and its host erythrocyte can help define new approaches to the control of this deadly disease.

  13. X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the various classes of Galactic X-ray sources are discussed, with particular emphasis on binary sources containing an accreting compact object, where post-emission scattering in an accretion disk often prevents the initially produced X-radiation from being observed directly. Theoretical interpretations and X-ray observations are considered for the cataclysmic variables, binary systems with a white dwarf as the compact object and which suffer relatively less from Thomson scattering, and the similar phenomenological spectral characteristics of the bulge sources, including soft transients, bursters and steady X-ray sources with thermal spectra, thought to represent an accreting neutron star, are pointed out. The spectral characteristics of X-ray pulsars in accreting binary systems (rather than the Crab pulsar, which is losing rotational kinetic energy with time) are then presented and interpreted in terms of accretion in the polar regions, and mechanisms for the newly discovered X-ray emission from late-type RS CVn stars are considered.

  14. Massively parallel X-ray holography

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, John C.H; Marchesini, Stefano; Boutet, Sebastien; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; Bogan, Michael J.; Bajt, Sasa; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Szöke, Abraham; Cui, Congwu; Shapiro, David A.; Howells, MAlcolm R.; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Lee, Joanna Y.; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, Marvin M.

    2008-08-01

    Advances in the development of free-electron lasers offer the realistic prospect of nanoscale imaging on the timescale of atomic motions. We identify X-ray Fourier-transform holography1,2,3 as a promising but, so far, inefficient scheme to do this. We show that a uniformly redundant array4 placed next to the sample, multiplies the efficiency of X-ray Fourier transform holography by more than three orders of magnitude, approaching that of a perfect lens, and provides holographic images with both amplitude- and phase-contrast information. The experiments reported here demonstrate this concept by imaging a nano-fabricated object at a synchrotron source, and a bacterial cell with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser, where illumination by a single 15-fs pulse was successfully used in producing the holographic image. As X-ray lasers move to shorter wavelengths we expect to obtain higher spatial resolution ultrafast movies of transient states of matter

  15. Active microstructured x-ray optical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michette, Alan G.; Pfauntsch, Slawka J.; Sahraei, Shahin; Shand, Matthew; Morrison, Graeme R.; Hart, David; Vojnovic, Boris; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Dunare, Camelia; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Button, Tim W.; Zhang, Dou; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, Daniel; Wang, Hongchang; Smith, Andy D.

    2009-05-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics consortium is developing novel reflective adaptive/active x-ray optics for small-scale laboratory applications, including studies of radiation-induced damage to biological material. The optics work on the same principle as polycapillaries, using configured arrays of channels etched into thin silicon, such that each x-ray photon reflects at most once off a channel wall. Using two arrays in succession provides two reflections and thus the Abbe sine condition can be approximately satisfied, reducing aberrations. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing one or both arrays using piezo actuation, which can provide further reduction of aberrations as well as controllable focal lengths. Modelling of such arrays for used on an x-ray microprobe, based on a microfocus source with an emitting region approximately 1μm in diameter, shows that a focused flux approximately two orders of magnitude greater than possible with a zone plate of comparable focal length is possible, assuming that the channel wall roughness is less than about 2nm.

  16. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Montenegro, M.; Pradhan, A. K.; Pitzer, R.

    2009-06-01

    Inner shell transitions, such as 1s-2p, in heavy elements can absorb or produce hard X-rays, and hence are widely used in nanoparticles. Bio-medical research for cancer treatment has been using heavy element nanoparticles, embeded in malignant tumor, for efficient absorption of irradiated X-rays and leading emission of hard X-rays and energetic electrons to kill the surrounding cells. Ejection of a 1s electron during ionization of the element by absorption of a X-ray photon initiates the Auger cascades of emission of photons and electrons. We have investigated gold nanoparticles for the optimal energy range, below the K-edge (1s) ionization threshold, that corresponds to resonant absorption of X-rays with large attenuation coefficients, orders of magnitude higher over the background as well as to that at K-edge threshold. We applied these attenuation coefficients in Monte Carlo simulation to study the intensities of emission of photons and electrons by Auger cascades. The numerical experiments were carried out in a phantom of water cube with a thin layer, 0.1mm/g, of gold nanoparticles 10 cm inside from the surface using the well-known code Geant4. We will present results on photon and electron emission spectra from passing monochromatic X-ray beams at 67 keV, which is the resonant energy for resonant K_{α} lines, at 82 keV, the K-shell ionization threshold, and at 2 MeV where the resonant effect is non-existent. Our findings show a high peak in the gold nanoparticle absorption curve indicating complete absorption of radiation within the gold layer. The photon and electron emission spectra show resonant features. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by a Large Interdisciplinary Grant award of the Ohio State University and NASA APRA program (SNN). The computational work was carried out on the Cray X1 and Itanium 4 cluster at the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus Ohio. "Resonant X-ray Irradiation of High-Z Nanoparticles For Cancer Theranostics" (refereed

  17. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  18. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  19. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2010-04-19

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond! And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources

  20. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. PMID:26967404

  1. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  2. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  3. Clocking Femtosecond X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, A L; Fritz, D M; Lee, S H; Bucksbaum, P H; Reis, D A; Mills, D M; Pahl, R; Rudati, J; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Lowney, D P; MacPhee, A G; Weinstein, D; Falcone, R W; Als-Nielsen, J; Blome, C; Ischebeck, R; Schlarb, H; Tschentscher, T; Schneider, J; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Chapman, H N; Lee, R W; Hansen, T N; Synnergren, O; Larsson, J; Techert, S; Sheppard, J; Wark, J S; Bergh, M; Calleman, C; Huldt, G; der Spoel, D v; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J; Bong, E; Emma, P; Krejcik, P; Arthur, J; Brennan, S; Gaffney, K J; Lindenberg, A M; Hastings, J B

    2004-10-08

    The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) produces the brightest ultrafast x-ray pulses in the world, and is the first to employ compressed femtosecond electron bunches for the x-ray source. Both SPPS and future X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL's) will use precise measurements of individual electron bunches to time the arrival of x-ray pulses for time-resolved experiments. At SPPS we use electro-optic sampling (EOS) to perform these measurements. Here we present the first results using this method. An ultrafast laser pulse (135 fs) passes through an electro-optic crystal adjacent to the electron beam. The refractive index of the crystal is distorted by the strong electromagnetic fields of the ultra-relativistic electrons, and this transient birefringence is imprinted on the laser polarization. A polarizer decodes this signal, producing a time-dependent image of the compressed electron bunch. Our measurements yield the relative timing between an ultrafast optical laser and an ultrafast x-ray pulse to within 60 fs, making it possible to use the SPPS to observe atomic-scale ultrafast dynamics initiated by laser-matter interaction.

  4. SZ/X-ray scaling relations using X-ray data and Planck Nominal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, I.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the relation between the Comptonization parameter predicted using X-ray data YC, Xray and the X-ray luminosity LX, both magnitudes derived from ROSAT data, with the Comptonization parameter YC, SZ measured on Planck 2013 foreground cleaned Nominal maps. The 560 clusters of our sample includes clusters with masses M ≥ 1013 M⊙, one order of magnitude smaller than those used by the Planck Collaboration in a similar analysis. It also contains eight times more clusters in the redshift interval z ≤ 0.3. The prediction of the β = 2/3 model convolved with the Planck antenna beam agrees with the anisotropies measured in foreground cleaned Planck Nominal maps within the X-ray emitting region, confirming the results of an earlier analysis. The universal pressure profile overestimates the signal by a 15-21 per cent depending on the angular aperture. We show that the discrepancy is not due to the presence of cool-core systems but it is an indication of a brake in the LX - M relation towards low mass systems. We show that relation of the Comptonization parameter averaged over the region that emits 99 per cent of the X-ray flux and and the X-ray luminosity is consistent with the predictions of the self-similar model. We confirm previous findings that the scaling relations studied here do not evolve with redshift within the range probed by our catalogue.

  5. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  6. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  7. Mystery of Cometary X-Rays Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    On July 14, 2000 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imaged Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) and detected X-rays from oxygen and nitrogen ions. The details of the X-ray emission, as recorded on Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, show that they are produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun with gas in the comet. "This observation solves one mystery. It proves how comets produce X-rays," said Dr. Carey Lisse of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) leader of a team of scientists from STScI, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Max Planck Institute in Germany, Johns Hopkins University, the University of California, Berkeley, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "With an instrument like Chandra, we can now study the chemistry of the solar wind, and observe the X-ray glow from the atmospheres of comets as well as planets such as Venus. It may even be possible to observe other, nearby solar systems." Comets, which resemble "dirty snow balls" a few miles in diameter, were thought to be too cold for such energetic emission, so the detection of X-rays by the ROSAT observatory from comet Hyakutake in 1996 was a surprise. Several explanations were suggested, but the source of cometary X-ray emission remained a puzzle until the Chandra observation of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Chandra's imaging spectrometer revealed a strong X-ray signal from oxygen and nitrogen ions, clinching the case for the production of X-rays due to the exchange of electrons in collisions between nitrogen and oxygen ions in the solar wind and electrically neutral elements (predominantly hydrogen) in the comets atmosphere. The Chandra observation was taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on July 14, 2000 for a total of 2 ½ hours. The comet will be re-observed with Chandra during the weeks of July 29 - Aug 13. Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was discovered in September 1999 by the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project, which is operated by the

  8. Phase Resolved X-ray Spectral Analysis of Soft IPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekon, Yakup

    2016-07-01

    As a subclass of Cataclysmic Variables, Intermediate Polars (IPs) are magnetic systems which mainly show hard X-ray emission. However, there have been an increasing number of systems that also show a soft emission component arising from reprocessed X-rays from the white dwarf limbs. Due to their relatively short periods, they pose as good canditates to perform phase resolved analysis. In this work, X-ray phase resolved spectral analysis of selected IPs with soft X-ray emission components (such as PQ Gem, V2069 Cyg etc.) over the orbital and/or spin periods will be presented. The analyses will help a better understanding of the complex absorption mechanisms and the nature of the soft X-ray emissions in soft IPs.

  9. X-ray tensor tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, A.; Potdevin, G.; Biernath, T.; Eggl, E.; Willer, K.; Lasser, T.; Maisenbacher, J.; Gibmeier, J.; Wanner, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for x-ray computed tomography that yields information about the local micro-morphology and its orientation in each voxel of the reconstructed 3D tomogram. Contrary to conventional x-ray CT, which only reconstructs a single scalar value for each point in the 3D image, our approach provides a full scattering tensor with multiple independent structural parameters in each volume element. In the application example shown in this study, we highlight that our method can visualize sub-pixel fiber orientations in a carbon composite sample, hence demonstrating its value for non-destructive testing applications. Moreover, as the method is based on the use of a conventional x-ray tube, we believe that it will also have a great impact in the wider range of material science investigations and in future medical diagnostics. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

  10. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Stacey Giles briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  11. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Lance Weiss briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  12. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  13. X-Ray and Radio Studies of Black Hole X-Ray Transients During Outburst Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Black hole (BH) and black hole candidate (BHC) transients are X-ray binary systems that typically undergo bright outbursts that last a couple months with recurrence times of years to decades. For this ADP project, we are studying BH/BHC systems during the decaying phases of their outbursts using the Rossi X-ray Taming Explorer (RXTE), the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and multi-wavelength facilities. These systems usually undergo state transitions as they decay, and our observations are designed to catch the state transitions. The specific goals of this proposal include: 1. To determine the evolution of the characteristic frequencies present in the power spectrum (such as quasi-periodic oscillations, QPOs) during state transitions in order to place constraints on the accretion geometry; 2. To contemporaneously measure X-ray spectral and timing properties along with flux measurements in the radio band to determine the relationship between the accretion disk and radio jets; 3. To extend our studies of X-ray properties of BHCs to very low accretion rates using RXTE and Chandra. The work performed under this proposal has been highly successful, allowing the PI to lead, direct, or assist in the preparation of 7 related publications in refereed journals and 6 other conference presentations or reports. These items are listed below, and the abstracts for the refereed publications have also been included. Especially notable results include our detailed measurements of the characteristic frequencies and spectral parameters of BH/BHCs after the transition to the hard state (see All A3, and A5) and at low flux levels (see A4). Our measurements provide one of the strongest lines of evidence to date that the inner edge of the optically thick accretion disk gradually recedes from the black hole at low flux levels. In addition, we have succeeded in obtaining excellent multi-wavelength coverage of a BH system as its compact jet turned on (see Al). Our results show, somewhat

  14. THE CHANDRA CARINA COMPLEX PROJECT: DECIPHERING THE ENIGMA OF CARINA'S DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Gagne, Marc; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Montmerle, Thierry; Naze, Yael; Oey, M. S.; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert; Pittard, Julian M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a 1.42 deg{sup 2} mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14,000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps.

  15. Portable X-Ray Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  16. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight 17.020 was completed. The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen. Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published.

  17. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  18. An imaging photoemission polarimeter for soft X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Novick, Robert; Heckler, A.; Shaw, P.; Fraser, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Results of investigations are reviewed to assess the polarization dependence of photoemission in the optical, UV, and soft X-ray bands, as well as present a design for an imaging photoelectric polarimeter. Data regarding the effect of the dependence in the soft X-ray band are emphasized including the quantity of photons produced by each X-ray. The phase shift encountered in some experiments indicates that a third axis is present; the importance of the phase shift in understanding the vectoral photoeffect is emphasized. Measurements of the pulse height show that this measure is proportional to the number of electrons photoemitted by the incident X-ray. The development of X-ray polarimeters can be significantly improved as a result of the study of polarization sensitivity in the photoelectric effect. The design of a photoelectric polarimeter is presented, and the potential uses for the instrument include measuring the polarization of supernova remnants, AGN, and black hole candidates.

  19. X-ray diffraction microscopy of magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Turner, Joshua J; Huang, Xiaojing; Krupin, Oleg; Seu, Keoki A; Parks, Daniel; Kevan, Stephen; Lima, Enju; Kisslinger, Kim; McNulty, Ian; Gambino, Richard; Mangin, Stephane; Roy, Sujoy; Fischer, Peter

    2011-07-15

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L3 edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  1. Ultrafast isomerization initiated by X-ray core ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea E.; Tenney, Ian; Osipov, Timur; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Alvaro; Berrah, Nora; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Carron, Sebastian; Coffee, Ryan; Devin, Julien; Erk, Benjamin; Ferguson, Ken R.; Field, Robert W.; Foucar, Lutz; Frasinski, Leszek J.; Glownia, James M.; Gühr, Markus; Kamalov, Andrei; Krzywinski, Jacek; Li, Heng; Marangos, Jonathan P.; Martinez, Todd J.; McFarland, Brian K.; Miyabe, Shungo; Murphy, Brendan; Natan, Adi; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Siano, Marco; Simpson, Emma R.; Spector, Limor; Swiggers, Michele; Walke, Daniel; Wang, Song; Weber, Thorsten; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Petrovic, Vladimir S.

    2015-09-01

    Rapid proton migration is a key process in hydrocarbon photochemistry. Charge migration and subsequent proton motion can mitigate radiation damage when heavier atoms absorb X-rays. If rapid enough, this can improve the fidelity of diffract-before-destroy measurements of biomolecular structure at X-ray-free electron lasers. Here we study X-ray-initiated isomerization of acetylene, a model for proton dynamics in hydrocarbons. Our time-resolved measurements capture the transient motion of protons following X-ray ionization of carbon K-shell electrons. We Coulomb-explode the molecule with a second precisely delayed X-ray pulse and then record all the fragment momenta. These snapshots at different delays are combined into a `molecular movie' of the evolving molecule, which shows substantial proton redistribution within the first 12 fs. We conclude that significant proton motion occurs on a timescale comparable to the Auger relaxation that refills the K-shell vacancy.

  2. X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L.B. ); Trebes, J.E.; Balhorn, R.; Mrowka, S.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Brase, J.; Corzett, M.; Koch, J.A.; Lee, C.; London, R.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Stone, G. ); Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.T. ); Gray, J. ); Kern, D. )

    1992-10-09

    The development of high brightness and short pulse width x-ray lasers now offers biologists the possibility of high-resolution imaging of specimens in an aqueous environment without the blurring effects associated with natural motions and chemical erosion. As a step toward developing the capabilities of this type of x-ray microscopy, a tantalum x-ray laser at 44.83 angstrom wavelength was used together with an x-ray zone plate lens to image both unlabeled and selectively gold-labeled dried rat sperm nuclei. The observed images show {approximately}500 angstrom features, illustrate the importance of x-ray microscopy in determining chemical composition, and provide information about the uniformity of sperm chromatin organization and the extent of sperm chromatin hydration.

  3. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    X-rays from a 25-hJ plasma focus apparatus were observed with pinhole cameras. The cameras consist of 0.4 mm diameter pinholes in 2 cm thick lead housing enclosing an X-ray intensifying screen at the image plane. Pictures recorded through thin aluminum foils or plastic sheets for X-ray energies sub gamma smaller than 15 keV show distributed X-ray emissions from the focussed plasma and from the anode surface. However, when thick absorbers are used, radial filamentary structure in the X-ray emission from the anode surface is revealed. Occasionally larger structures are observed in addition to the filaments. Possible mechanisms for the filamentary structure are discussed.

  4. Statistical study of the polar X-ray jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Nobuharu; Shimojo, Masumi; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki

    The X-Ray Telescope(XRT) abroad Hinode had revealed that X-ray jets in the polar region occur at the high frequency. Savcheva et al. (2007) studied 104 X-ray jets occurred around the south pole and reported the parameters of the jets. However, their study included only the X-ray jets that occurred in the coronal hole. In order to reveal the properties of the polar X-ray jets in not only the coronal hole but also the quiet region, we detected 870 polar X-ray jets occurred around the north pole, and investigated the jets statistically. The 470 jets in the 848 events occurred in the coronal hole. The occurrence rate of the jets in the coronal hole and the quiet sun is 5.04×10-12 jets/hr/km2 and 7.66×10-12 jets/hr/km2 , respectively. It shows that the quiet region is more productive of X-ray jets than the coronal hole. We derived five parameters of the polar X-ray jets, and the average of the parameters are 2.91×104 km for the maximum length, 4.42×103 km for the width, and 180 km/sec for the apparent velocity. The lifetime and length scale of the jets in this result is smaller than that in Savcheva et al. (2007). The reason for these differences is that we could detect smaller jets than the previous work because we used not only X-ray intensity images but also the running difference images for detecting the jets. We derived also the frequency distributions of the parameters and found thatthe frequency distributions of the lifetime and the X-ray intensity of the footpoint flare show the power-raw distribution. The power-law index of the lifetime is -4.22±0.36, and it is smaller than the index(-1.2) derived from the jets that occurred near the active regions(Shimojo et al. 1996). The difference indicates that the occurrence rate of the polar X-ray jets with short lifetime is larger than that of the X-ray jets that occurred near active regions.On the other hand, the power-raw index of the X-ray intensity of the footpoint flare is -2.04±0.27. The index is smaller

  5. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-11-10

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging.

  6. Linking jet emission and X-ray properties in the peculiar neutron star X-ray binary Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleri, Paolo; Tudose, Valeriu; Fender, Rob; van der Klis, Michiel; Jonker, Peter G.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the peculiar Z-type neutron star X-ray binary Cir X-1, observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in 2000 October and 2002 December. We identify typical Z-source behaviour in the power density spectra as well as characteristic Z patterns drawn in an X-ray hardness-intensity diagram. Power spectra typical of bright atoll sources have also been identified at orbital phases after the periastron passage, while orbital phases before the periastron passage are characterized by power spectra that are typical neither of Z nor of atoll sources. We investigate the coupling between the X-ray and the radio properties, focusing on three orbital phases when an enhancement of the radio flux density has been detected, to test the link between the inflow (X-ray) and the outflow (radio jet) to/from the compact object. In two out of three cases, we associate the presence of the radio jet to a spectral transition in the X-rays, although the transition does not precede the radio flare, as detected in other Z sources. An analogous behaviour has recently been found in the black hole candidate GX 339-4. In the third case, the radio light curve shows a similar shape to the X-ray light curve. We discuss our results in the context of jet models, considering also black hole candidates.

  7. X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gary D.

    2005-01-01

    This award represents the second phase of an X-ray study of QSOs that are heavily obscured in the optical/near-IR. An earlier survey revealed that these active galactic nuclei (AGN) are also typically strongly absorbed at high photon energies, but the enhanced sensitivity of XMM-Newton provided for the first time the opportunity to measure the spectral indices of individual sources and to test the possibility that obscured AGN are responsible for a substantial portion of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB). The new observations confirm and greatly extend the earlier results. Substantial intervening absorbing material is detected for 3 of the sources, and 2 additional targets show hard power-law continua. In addition, soft X-ray excesses are detected in 3 of sources, indicating the presence of extended regions of ionized gas. This component is-particularly well-defined in the Type 1 source 2MASS2344+1221, allowing analysis and modeling at a level of detail unusual for such distant sources. An important finding that parallels conclusions from optical polarimetry is the lack of dependence of absorption on optical spectral class (Type 1 or 2). The combination of strong polarization and X-ray absorption in sources that show strong, broad emission lines indicates either a very small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle which allows the X-ray source to be covered but the surrounding broad emission-line region to be largely exposed. The observed spectral also indicate that obscured AGN of both Type 1 and 2 contribute significantly to the CXRB at higher X-ray energies.

  8. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOEpatents

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  9. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  10. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  11. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  12. X-rays and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  13. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  14. Optical and X-ray observations of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Brian; Corbet, Robin; Augusteijn, Thomas; Callanan, Paul; Smale, Alan P.

    1993-01-01

    Optical and X-ray observations of EXO-676 in late March 1989 are presented. Our optical observations provide some support for the previously observed correlation between the mean optical brightness and light curve morphology. Unexpectedly, the mean X-ray and optical flux levels during this period do not reflect similar system states. The optical counterpart is found to be in an intermediate to low state, while X-ray data imply a bright (high) state. The changed relationship between optical and X-ray fluxes is evidence showing that EXO 0748-676 has possibly evolved. We fail to find correlated variability in simultaneous X-ray and optical observations. The lack of covariability is attributed to the limited simultaneous coverage of the source and/or significant geometric modulation in the optical light curve.

  15. Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-Ray Therapy with Needle Beam X Rays.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show a new therapeutic approach using 40-120 keV X rays to deliver a radiation dose at the isocenter located many centimeters below the skin surface several hundred times greater than at the skin and how this dose enhancement can be augmented with nanomaterials to create several thousand-fold total dose enhancement effect. This novel approach employs a needle X-ray beam directed at the isocenter centimeters deep in the body while continuously scanning the beam to cover a large solid angle without overlapping at the skin. A Monte Carlo method was developed to simulate an X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter filled with X-ray absorbing and catalytic nanoparticles in a water phantom. An experimental apparatus consisting of a moving plastic phantom irradiated with a stationary 1 mm needle X-ray beam was built to test the theoretical predictions. X-ray films were used to characterize the dose profiles of the scanning X-ray apparatus. Through this work, it was determined that the X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter in a treatment voxel (t-voxel) underneath a 5 cm deep high-density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom was 295 ± 48 times greater than the surface dose. This measured value was in good agreement with the theoretical predicted value of 339-fold. Adding X-ray-absorbing nanoparticles, catalytic nanoparticles or both into the t-voxel can further augment the dose enhancement. For example, we predicted that adding 1 weight percentage (wp) of gold into water could increase the effective dose delivered to the target by onefold. Dose enhancement using 1 mm X-ray beam could reach about 1,600-fold in the t-voxel when 7.5 wp of 88 nm diameter silica-covered gold nanoparticles were added, which we showed in a previously published study can create a dose enhancement of 5.5 ± 0.46-fold without scanning focusing enhancement. Based on the experimental data from that study, mixing 0.02 wp 2.5 nm diameter small tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC

  16. Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-Ray Therapy with Needle Beam X Rays.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show a new therapeutic approach using 40-120 keV X rays to deliver a radiation dose at the isocenter located many centimeters below the skin surface several hundred times greater than at the skin and how this dose enhancement can be augmented with nanomaterials to create several thousand-fold total dose enhancement effect. This novel approach employs a needle X-ray beam directed at the isocenter centimeters deep in the body while continuously scanning the beam to cover a large solid angle without overlapping at the skin. A Monte Carlo method was developed to simulate an X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter filled with X-ray absorbing and catalytic nanoparticles in a water phantom. An experimental apparatus consisting of a moving plastic phantom irradiated with a stationary 1 mm needle X-ray beam was built to test the theoretical predictions. X-ray films were used to characterize the dose profiles of the scanning X-ray apparatus. Through this work, it was determined that the X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter in a treatment voxel (t-voxel) underneath a 5 cm deep high-density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom was 295 ± 48 times greater than the surface dose. This measured value was in good agreement with the theoretical predicted value of 339-fold. Adding X-ray-absorbing nanoparticles, catalytic nanoparticles or both into the t-voxel can further augment the dose enhancement. For example, we predicted that adding 1 weight percentage (wp) of gold into water could increase the effective dose delivered to the target by onefold. Dose enhancement using 1 mm X-ray beam could reach about 1,600-fold in the t-voxel when 7.5 wp of 88 nm diameter silica-covered gold nanoparticles were added, which we showed in a previously published study can create a dose enhancement of 5.5 ± 0.46-fold without scanning focusing enhancement. Based on the experimental data from that study, mixing 0.02 wp 2.5 nm diameter small tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC

  17. Solar System X-rays from Charge Exchange Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Christian, D. J.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Lepri, S. T.

    2013-04-01

    The discovery of high energy x-ray emission in 1996 from comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) uncovered a new class of x-ray emitting objects. Subsequent detections of the morphology, spectra, and time dependence of the x-rays from more than 20 comets have shown that the very soft (E < 1 keV) emission is due to a charge-exchange interaction between highly charged solar wind minor ions and the comet's extended neutral atmosphere. Many solar system objects are now known to shine in the X-ray, including Venus, Mars, the Moon, the Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, with total power outputs on the MW - GW scale. Like comets, the X-ray emission from the Earth's geo-corona, the Jovian & Saturnian aurorae, and the Martian halo are thought to be driven by charge exchange between highly charged minor (heavy) ions in the solar wind and gaseous neutral species in the bodies' atmosphere. The non-auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, and those from disks of Mars, Venus, and the Moon are produced by scattering of solar X-rays. The first soft X-ray observations of Earth’s aurora by Chandra shows that it is highly variable, and the giant planet aurorae are fascinating puzzles that are just beginning to yield their secrets and may be the only x-ray sources not driven directly by the Sun in the whole system as well as properties of hot exo-solar Jupiters. Observations of local solar system charge exchange processes can also help inform us about x-rays produced at more distant hot ionized gas/cold neutral gas interfaces, like the heliopause, stellar astrospheres, galactic star forming regions, and starburst galaxies.

  18. X-ray Eclipse in DW Ursae Majoris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Hoard, D. W.; Knigge, C.; Homer, L.; Szkody, P.; Still, M.; Long, K. S.; Dhillon, V. S.; Wachter, S.

    2010-03-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observation of DW Ursae Majoris (DW UMa), along with a simultaneous optical observation, obtained with the XMM-Newton EPIC and Optical Monitor (OM) cameras. We extracted the X-ray spectrum and the folded light curves of DW UMa in the energy band 0.2-12 keV. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a two-temperature model giving a predicted flux fX≈3×10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1. This X-ray flux corresponds to a lower limit for the mass transfer rate of \\dot{M} 10-11 M⊙ yr-1. The OM light curve is generally similar in appearance to published optical and UV light curves of DW UMa. The X-ray folded light curves were constructed from the summed, background-subtracted count rates of the three EPIC cameras (MOS1, MOS2, and pn), and cover 2 orbital periods of DW UMa. The X-ray folded light curves show some similar features to the OM light curve, including a possible shallow X-ray eclipse. The confirmed existence of an X-ray eclipse in a SW Sex star like DW UMa could help constrain the various models for these systems, and address lingering questions about the SW Sex stars; for example, does a magnetic white dwarf reside in this kind of close binary systems? Confirmation of the X-ray eclipse is crucial to differentiate these models. Further X-ray observations are therefore necessary to solve the SW Sex stars problem.

  19. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the "virtual" X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  20. THE X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES TOWARD QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena; Jonker, Peter G.

    2013-08-10

    Most transient black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) spend the bulk of their time in a quiescent state, where they accrete matter from their companion star at highly sub-Eddington luminosities (we define quiescence here as a normalized Eddington ratio l{sub x} = L{sub 0.5-10{sub keV}}/L{sub Edd} < 10{sup -5}). Here, we present Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy for three BHXB systems (H 1743-322, MAXI J1659-152, and XTE J1752-223) as they fade into quiescence following an outburst. Multiple X-ray observations were taken within one month of each other, allowing us to track each individual system's X-ray spectral evolution during its decay. We compare these three systems to other BHXB systems. We confirm that quiescent BHXBs have softer X-ray spectra than low-hard-state BHXBs, and that quiescent BHXB spectral properties show no dependence on the binary system's orbital parameters. However, the observed anti-correlation between X-ray photon index ({Gamma}) and l{sub x} in the low-hard state does not continue once a BHXB enters quiescence. Instead, {Gamma} plateaus to an average ({Gamma}) = 2.08 {+-} 0.07 by the time l{sub x} reaches {approx}10{sup -5}. l{sub x} {approx} 10{sup -5} is thus an observationally motivated upper limit for the beginning of the quiescent spectral state. Our results are discussed in the context of different accretion flow models and across the black hole mass scale.

  1. X ray spectra of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Halpern, Jules

    1990-01-01

    X ray spectral parameters of cataclysmic variables observed with the 'Einstein' imaging proportional counter were determined by fitting an optically thin, thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum to the raw data. Most of the sources show temperatures of order a few keV, while a few sources exhibit harder spectra with temperatures in excess of 10 keV. Estimated 0.1 to 3.5 keV luminosities are generally in the range from 10(exp 30) to 10(exp 32) erg/sec. The results are consistent with the x rays originating in a disk/white dwarf boundary layer of non-magnetic systems, or in a hot, post-shock region in the accretion column of DQ Her stars, with a negligible contribution from the corona of the companion. In a few objects column densities were found that are unusually high for interstellar material. It was suggested that the absorption occurs in the system itself.

  2. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  3. The X-ray cluster Abell 744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Gioia, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and optical observations of the cluster of galaxies Abell 744 are presented. The X-ray flux (assuming H(0) = 100 km/s per Mpc) is about 9 x 10 to the 42nd erg/s. The X-ray source is extended, but shows no other structure. Photographic photometry (in Kron-Cousins R), calibrated by deep CCD frames, is presented for all galaxies brighter than 19th magnitude within 0.75 Mpc of the cluster center. The luminosity function is normal, and the isopleths show little evidence of substructure near the cluster center. The cluster has a dominant central galaxy, which is classified as a normal brightest-cluster elliptical on the basis of its luminosity profile. New redshifts were obtained for 26 galaxies in the vicinity of the cluster center; 20 appear to be cluster members. The spatial distribution of redshifts is peculiar; the dispersion within the 150 kpc core radius is much greater than outside. Abell 744 is similar to the nearby cluster Abell 1060.

  4. Comparing neutron and X-ray images from NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. C.; Aragonez, R. J.; Archuleta, T. N.; Atkinson, D. P.; Barrios, M. A.; Batha, S. H.; Bower, D. E.; Bradley, D. K.; Buckles, R. A.; Clark, D. D.; Clark, D. S.; Clark, D. J.; Cradick, J. R.; Danly, C. R.; Day, R. D.; Dzenitis, J. M.; Drury, O. B.; Fatherley, V. E.; Felker, B.; Finch, J. P.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frank, M.; Gallegos, R. A.; Garcia, F. P.; Glenn, S. M.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Hsu, A. H.; Izumi, N.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Jones, O. S.; Kaufman, M. I.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kyrala, G. A.; Le Pape, S.; Liddick, S. N.; Loomis, E. N.; Lutz, S. S.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Malone, R. M.; Mares, D.; Marinak, M. M.; Martinson, D. D.; McKenty, P.; Meezan, N. S.; Merrill, F. E.; Moran, M. J.; Morgan, G. L.; Munson, C.; Munro, D. H.; Murphy, T. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Patel, M. V.; Polk, P. J.; Regan, S.; Roberson, G. P.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Traille, A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Valdez, A. C.; Volegov, P. L.; Wang, T.-S. F.; Weiss, P.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilke, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Directly laser driven and X-radiation driven DT filled capsules differ in the relationship between neutron and X-ray images. Shot N110217, a directly driven DT-filled glass micro-balloon provided the first neutron images at the National Ignition Facility. As seen in implosions on the Omega laser, the neutron image can be enclosed inside time integrated X-ray images. HYDRA simulations show the X-ray image is dominated by emission from the hot glass shell while the neutron image arises from the DT fuel it encloses. In the absence of mix or jetting, X-ray images of a cryogenically layered THD fuel capsule should be dominated by emission from the hydrogen rather than the cooler plastic shell that is separated from the hot core by cold DT fuel. This cool, dense DT, invisible in X-ray emission, shows itself by scattering hot core neutrons. Germanium X-ray emission spectra and Ross pair filtered X-ray energy resolved images suggest that germanium doped plastic emits in the torus shaped hot spot, probably reducing the neutron yield.

  5. Attenuation of supersoft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Gilfanov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested the possibility of significantly obscuring supersoft X-ray sources in relatively modest amounts of local matter lost from the binaries themselves. If correct, then this would have explained the paucity of observed supersoft X-ray sources and would have significance for the search for single-degenerate Type Ia supernova progenitors. We point out that earlier studies of circumbinary obscuration ignored photoionizations of the gas by the emission from the supersoft X-ray source. We revisit the problem using a full, self-consistent calculation of the ionization state of the circumbinary material photoionized by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obscuration of supersoft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does not entirely rule out the possibility of circumstellar material obscuring supersoft X-ray sources, it makes it unlikely that this effect alone can account for the majority of the missing supersoft X-ray sources. We discuss the observational appearance of hypothetical obscured nuclear-burning white dwarfs and show that they have signatures making them distinct from photoionized nebulae around supersoft X-ray sources imbedded in the low-density interstellar medium.

  6. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers. (LSP)

  7. Large thin adaptive x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Thompson, Samantha; Brooks, David; Yao, Jun; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the progress made in a proof of concept study and recent results of a research program into large active x-ray mirrors that is part of the UK Smart X-ray Optics project. The ultimate aim is to apply the techniques of active/adaptive optics to the next generation of nested shell astronomical X-ray space telescopes. A variety of deformable mirror technologies are currently available, the most promising of which for active X-ray mirrors are probably unimorph and bimorph piezoelectric mirrors. In this type of mirror one or more sheets of piezoelectric material are bonded to or coated with a passive reflective layer. On the back or between the piezoceramic layer/layers are series of electrodes. Application of an electric field causes the piezoelectric material to undergo local deformation thus changing the mirror shape. Starting in 2005 a proof of concept active mirror research program has been undertaken. This work included modelling and development of actively controlled thin shell mirrors. Finite element models of piezo-electric actuated mirrors have been developed and verified against experimental test systems. This has included the modelling and test of piezo-electric hexagonal unimorph segments. Various actuator types and low shrinkage conductive bonding methods have been investigated and laboratory tests of the use of piezo-electric actuators to adjust the form of an XMM-Newton space telescope engineering model mirror shell have been conducted and show that movement of the optics at the required level is achievable. Promising technological approaches have been identified including moulded piezo-ceramics and piezo-electrics fibre bundles.

  8. X-ray microimaging by diffractive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2001-07-31

    The report summarizes the development of soft x-ray microscopes at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-1A beamline. We have developed a soft x-ray microscopy beamline (X-1A) at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This beamline has been upgraded recently to provide two endstations dedicated to microscopy experiments. One endstation hosts a brand new copy of the redesigned room temperature scanning x-ray microscope (STXM), and the other end station hosts a cryo STXM and the original redesigned room temperature microscope, which has been commissioned and has started operation. Cryo STXM and the new microscope use the same new software package, running under the LINUX operating system. The new microscope is showing improved image resolution and extends spectromicroscopy to the nitrogen, oxygen and iron edges. These microscopes are used by us, and by users of the facility, to image hydrated specimens at 50 nm or better spatial resolution and with 0.1-0.5 eV energy resolution. This allows us to carry out chemical state mapping in biological, materials science, and environmental and colloidal science specimens. In the cryo microscope, we are able to do chemical state mapping and tomography of frozen hydrated specimens, and this is of special importance for radiation-sensitive biological specimens. for spectromicroscopic analysis, and methods for obtaining real-space images from the soft x-ray diffraction patterns of non-crystalline specimens. The user program provides opportunities for collaborators and other groups to exploit the techniques available and to develop them further. We have also developed new techniques such as an automated method for acquiring ''stacks'' of images.

  9. X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, P.L.; LeBrun, T.; Deslattes, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray resonant Raman scattering presents great promise as a high-resolution spectroscopic probe of the electronic structure of matter. Unlike other methods, the technique avoids the loss of energy resolution resulting from the lifetime broadening of short-lived core-excited states. In addition, measurements of polarization and angular anisotropies yield information on the symmetries of electronic states of atoms and molecules. We studied the L{sub 3} edge of xenon, where the lifetime broadening is a major feature of the spectra recorded previously. X-ray fluorescence spectra were taken of both the L{alpha}{sub l,2} and L{beta}{sub 2,15} peaks over a range of energies from 10 eV below the edge to 40 eV above. These spectra show the evolution of resonant Raman scattering into characteristic fluorescence as the photon energy is scanned across the edge, and confirm several features of these spectra such as asymmetries in resonant peak shapes due to the onset of the ionization continuum. These results constitute the most comprehensive study of X-ray resonant Raman scattering to date, and were submitted for publication. Studies of other cases are under way, and new instruments that would match the unique characteristics of the APS - and thus render a new range of experiments possible - are under consideration.

  10. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  11. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  12. Hard X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past hard X-ray and lower energy satellite instruments are reviewed and it is shown that observation above 20 keV and up to hundreds of keV can provide much valuable information on the astrophysics of cosmic sources. To calculate possible sensitivities of future arrays, the efficiencies of a one-atmosphere inch gas counter (the HEAO-1 A-2 xenon filled HED3) and a 3 mm phoswich scintillator (the HEAO-1 A-4 Na1 LED1) were compared. Above 15 keV, the scintillator was more efficient. In a similar comparison, the sensitivity of germanium detectors did not differ much from that of the scintillators, except at high energies where the sensitivity would remain flat and not rise with loss of efficiency. Questions to be addressed concerning the physics of active galaxies and the diffuse radiation background, black holes, radio pulsars, X-ray pulsars, and galactic clusters are examined.

  13. Cryogenic X-ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    E Lima; L Wiegart; P Pernot; M Howells; J Timmins; F Zontone; A Madsen

    2011-12-31

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

  14. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; Owocki, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  15. X-ray to infrared continua of optically selected quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    1986-01-01

    X-ray-to-IR continuum data for nine optically selected (PG) quasars show a form which can be simply described in terms of two components - a power law of slope about 1 joining smoothly the 1-10-micron IR with the 0.1-10-keV X-ray points and (superimposed on this) a 'big bump' of optical-UV emission. The 'big bump' can be interpreted as thermal emission from an accretion disk. In a unique case where this 'big bump' extends to soft X-rays, the accretion disk parameters can be constrained interestingly.

  16. X-ray scanning of overhead aurorae from rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcus, J. R.; Goldberg, R. A.; Gesell, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two Nike Tomahawk rocket payloads were launched into energetic auroral events in September, 1976 to investigate the structure of these events, as well as their effects on the atmosphere. X-ray scintillation detectors with energy discrimination in four ranges were used to measure the deposition of bremsstrahlung produced X-rays within the stratosphere and mesosphere. Iterative computer techniques were used to reconstruct X-ray source maps at 100 km, taking atmospheric absorption effects into account. Payload 18.178 was launched on September 21st into an aurora having two distinct azimuthal regions of optical brightness. The X-ray scanner detected the same features, and overlays of the X-ray source maps on all-sky photographs showed spatial coincidence of the X-ray with optical features at the lower energies (below 40 keV). Payload 18.179 was launched September 23rd into an aurora with a more diffuse character. The optical structure did not coincide as well with the measured X-ray structure. There was also an indication of a two-component spectrum for each event, with the hard component originating in the more diffuse, optically faint regions.

  17. Recent X-Ray Laser Experiments on the COMET Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R; Barbee, T W; Shlyaptsev, V N; Filevich, J; Rocca, J J; Marconi, M C; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A

    2001-09-22

    The development of the transient collisional excitation x-ray laser scheme using tabletop laser systems with multiple pulse capability has progressed rapidly in the last three years. The high small-signal gain and strong x-ray output have been demonstrated for laser drive energies of typically less than 10 J. We report recent x-ray laser experiments on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) tabletop facility using this technique. In particular, the saturated output from the Ni-like Pd ion 4d - 4p x-ray laser at 146.8 {angstrom} has been well characterized and has potential towards a useable x-ray source in a number of applications. One important application of a short wavelength x-ray laser beam with picosecond pulse duration is the study of a high density laser-produced plasma. We report the implementation of a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer using diffraction grating optics as beam splitters designed for the Ni-like Pd laser and show results from probing a 600 ps heated plasma. In addition, gas puff targets are investigated as an x-ray laser gain medium and we report results of strong lasing on the n = 3 - 3 transitions of Ne-like Ar.

  18. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution.

  19. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  20. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  1. Recurrent X-ray behaviour of the Z-source Cygnus X-2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuulkers, E.; van der Klis, M.

    1996-02-01

    The authors analyzed the X-ray spectral variations of the low-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-2 on time scales longer than one day using EXOSAT data. They find evidence for the occurrence of three different types of behaviour which as their basic distinction have different X-ray brightness levels. Previously reported data from other X-ray satellites also show this behaviour.

  2. Magnetic Untwisting in Most Solar X-Ray Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Falconer, David; Robe, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    From 54 X-ray jets observed in the polar coronal holes by Hinode's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during coverage in movies from Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) taken in its He II 304 Å band at a cadence of 12 s, we have established a basic characteristic of solar X-ray jets: untwisting motion in the spire. In this presentation, we show the progression of few of these X-ray jets in XRT images and track their untwisting in AIA He II images. From their structure displayed in their XRT movies, 19 jets were evidently standard jets made by interchange reconnection of the magnetic-arcade base with ambient open field, 32 were evidently blowout jets made by blowout eruption of the base arcade, and 3 were of ambiguous form. As was anticipated from the >10,000 km span of the base arcade in most polar X-ray jets and from the disparity of standard jets and blowout jets in their magnetic production, few of the standard X-ray jets (3 of 19) but nearly all of the blowout X-ray jets (29 of 32) carried enough cool (T is approximately 105 K) plasma to be seen in their He II movies. In the 32 X-ray jets that showed a cool component, the He II movies show 10-100 km/s untwisting motions about the axis of the spire in all 3 standard jets and in 26 of the 29 blowout jets. Evidently, the open magnetic field in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and probably in most standard X-ray jets carries transient twist. This twist apparently relaxes by propagating out along the open field as a torsional wave. High-resolution spectrograms and Dopplergrams have shown that most Type-II spicules have torsional motions of 10-30 km/s. Our observation of similar torsional motion in X-ray jets strengthens the case for Type-II spicules being made in the same way as X-ray jets, by blowout eruption of a twisted magnetic arcade in the spicule base and/or by interchange reconnection of the twisted base arcade with the ambient open field. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division

  3. Magnetic Untwisting in Most Solar X-Ray Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D.; Robe, D. M.

    2013-07-01

    From 54 X-ray jets observed in the polar coronal holes by Hinode’s X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during coverage in movies from Solar Dynamic Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) taken in its He II 304 Å band at a cadence of 12 s, we have established a basic characteristic of solar X-ray jets: untwisting motion in the spire. In this presentation, we show the progression of few of these X-ray jets in XRT images and track their untwisting in AIA He II images. From their structure displayed in their XRT movies, 19 jets were evidently standard jets made by interchange reconnection of the magnetic-arcade base with ambient open field, 32 were evidently blowout jets made by blowout eruption of the base arcade, and 3 were of ambiguous form. As was anticipated from the >10,000 km span of the base arcade in most polar X-ray jets and from the disparity of standard jets and blowout jets in their magnetic production, few of the standard X-ray jets (3 of 19) but nearly all of the blowout X-ray jets (29 of 32) carried enough cool (T ~ 10^5 K) plasma to be seen in their He II movies. In the 32 X-ray jets that showed a cool component, the He II movies show 10-100 km/s untwisting motions about the axis of the spire in all 3 standard jets and in 26 of the 29 blowout jets. Evidently, the open magnetic field in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and probably in most standard X-ray jets carries transient twist. This twist apparently relaxes by propagating out along the open field as a torsional wave. High-resolution spectrograms and Dopplergrams have shown that most Type-II spicules have torsional motions of 10-30 km/s. Our observation of similar torsional motion in X-ray jets (1) strengthens the case for Type-II spicules being made in the same way as X-ray jets, by blowout eruption of a twisted magnetic arcade in the spicule base and/or by interchange reconnection of the twisted base arcade with the ambient open field, and hence (2) strengthens the case made by Moore et al (2011

  4. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  5. 75 FR 41894 - Carestream Health, Inc. Medical X-Ray Division Windsor, CO; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carestream Health, Inc. Medical X-Ray Division Windsor, CO; Amended... 11, 2008, applicable to workers of Carestream Health, Inc., X-Ray/Mammography Film Division, Windsor.... The workers are engaged in the production of medical x-ray film. New information shows that...

  6. Infrared studies of galactic center x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Curtis

    -type supergiant at an distance of 3.7 kpc; and an O star at the Galactic Center distance. I also identified 3 foreground X-ray source counterparts within a distance of 1 kpc which do not show obvious emission features in their spectra. However, on the basis of the low surface density of unreddened sources along the line-of-sight to the Galactic Center and our previous statistical analysis (DeWitt et al., 2010), these can be securely identified as the true counterparts to their coincident X-ray point sources. Lastly, I used the results of my matching simulations to infer the presence of 7+/-2 true counterparts within a set of late type giants that I observed without detectable emission features. I conclude from this work that the probable excess in red giant X-ray counterparts without emission lines needs to be confirmed both with larger samples of spectroscopically surveyed counterparts and more advanced statistical simulations of the match authenticity. Also, the nature of the compact object in two of my counterpart discoveries, the Be HMXB and the symbiotic binary, can be strongly constrained with X-ray spectral fitting. Lastly, I conclude that spectroscopic surveys for new X-ray source counterparts in the GC may be able to increase their efficiency by specifically targeting photometric variables and very close astrometric matches of IR/X-ray sources.

  7. Novel X-ray Communication Based XNAV Augmentation Method Using X-ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Song, Shibin; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Bai, Yuanjie

    2015-01-01

    The further development of X-ray pulsar-based NAVigation (XNAV) is hindered by its lack of accuracy, so accuracy improvement has become a critical issue for XNAV. In this paper, an XNAV augmentation method which utilizes both pulsar observation and X-ray ranging observation for navigation filtering is proposed to deal with this issue. As a newly emerged concept, X-ray communication (XCOM) shows great potential in space exploration. X-ray ranging, derived from XCOM, could achieve high accuracy in range measurement, which could provide accurate information for XNAV. For the proposed method, the measurement models of pulsar observation and range measurement observation are established, and a Kalman filtering algorithm based on the observations and orbit dynamics is proposed to estimate the position and velocity of a spacecraft. A performance comparison of the proposed method with the traditional pulsar observation method is conducted by numerical experiments. Besides, the parameters that influence the performance of the proposed method, such as the pulsar observation time, the SNR of the ranging signal, etc., are analyzed and evaluated by numerical experiments. PMID:26404295

  8. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of x-ray induced dynamics in Xe clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, M.; Ferguson, K.; Gorkhover, T.; Carron, S.; Cryan, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Bacellar, C.; Chatterley, A.; Ziemkiewicz, M.; Bernando, C.; Gomez, L.; Jones, C.; Kwok, J.; Tanyag, R. M. P.; Mueller, M.; Rupp, D.; Möller, T.; Gessner, O.; Vilesov, A.; Bostedt, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles irradiated by intense x-ray pulses from the LCLS free-electron laser are immediately transformed into a highly excited nanoplasma. Within the first few femtoseconds of the x-ray pulse the particles are ionized and on longer time scales they disintegrate due to Coulomb forces. We performed an x-ray pump / x-ray probe experiment to investigate how the nanoplasma creation and disintegration changes the particle's diffraction response. As samples we used pristine Xe clusters as well as Xe clusters embedded in He droplets. The data show that for pristine clusters the higher diffraction orders diminish first and vanish completely as the nanoplasma expansion progresses. This effect is less prominent in the embedded clusters. We compare our results to previous studies on optically pumped clusters (T. Gorkhover et al., Nat. Photonics, 2016). This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using special X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Ladisich, W.; Rieder, R.; Streli, C.

    1993-02-01

    The parameter variations of exciting radiation, like spectral distribution, intensity, brilliance, polarization and the phenomenon of X-ray total reflection, leads to improved lower limits of detection (LLD) in XRF. Observations and results from experiments performed with different X-ray tubes such as fine focus Cu and Mo anodes, a specially designed Au anode operated with 100 kV and high power rotating anodes are reported. Results from measurements with monochromatic X-rays tuned with a multilayer structure as well as the use of polarized X-rays from the synchrotron will be shown. All developed measuring devices will be described in terms of their recent design features showing the possible geometric arrangements denned by the beam-reflector-detector position. The extrapolated detection limits for the K-shell excitation of rare earth elements are in the region of 0.3 ng, for medium Z elements in the pg range and for optimized conditions, with a rotating Cu anode, 170 fg for Mn are achieved corresponding to the pg g -1 (ppt) concentration level.

  10. Novel X-ray Communication Based XNAV Augmentation Method Using X-ray Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shibin; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Bai, Yuanjie

    2015-01-01

    The further development of X-ray pulsar-based NAVigation (XNAV) is hindered by its lack of accuracy, so accuracy improvement has become a critical issue for XNAV. In this paper, an XNAV augmentation method which utilizes both pulsar observation and X-ray ranging observation for navigation filtering is proposed to deal with this issue. As a newly emerged concept, X-ray communication (XCOM) shows great potential in space exploration. X-ray ranging, derived from XCOM, could achieve high accuracy in range measurement, which could provide accurate information for XNAV. For the proposed method, the measurement models of pulsar observation and range measurement observation are established, and a Kalman filtering algorithm based on the observations and orbit dynamics is proposed to estimate the position and velocity of a spacecraft. A performance comparison of the proposed method with the traditional pulsar observation method is conducted by numerical experiments. Besides, the parameters that influence the performance of the proposed method, such as the pulsar observation time, the SNR of the ranging signal, etc., are analyzed and evaluated by numerical experiments. PMID:26404295

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) being removed from the test structure in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  12. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) being removed from the test structure in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  13. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  14. Producing X-rays at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  15. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  16. The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J

    2007-01-25

    Back in the early 1980's the X-ray laser program required a new level of understanding and measurements of the atomic physics of highly charged ions. The electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) was developed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the effort to understand and measure the cross sections and wavelengths of highly charged ions. In this paper we will discuss some of the early history of EBIT and how it was used to help in the development of X-ray lasers. EBIT's capability was unique and we will show some of the experimental results obtained over the years that were done related to X-ray lasers. As X-ray lasers have now become a table-top tool we will show some new areas of research that involve understanding the index of refraction in partially ionized plasmas and suggest new areas where EBIT may be able to contribute.

  17. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  18. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  19. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  20. A disc corona-jet model for the radio/X-ray correlation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2015-04-01

    The observed tight radio/X-ray correlation in the low spectral state of some black hole X-ray binaries implies the strong coupling of the accretion and jet. The correlation of L_R ∝ L_X^{˜ 0.5-0.7} was well explained by the coupling of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and a jet. Recently, however, a growing number of sources show more complicated radio/X-ray correlations, e.g. L_R ∝ L_X^{˜ 1.4} for LX/LEdd ≳ 10-3, which is suggested to be explained by the coupling of a radiatively efficient accretion flow and a jet. In this work, we interpret the deviation from the initial radio/X-ray correlation for LX/LEdd ≳ 10-3 with a detailed disc corona-jet model. In this model, the disc and corona are radiatively and dynamically coupled. Assuming a fraction of the matter in the accretion flow, η ≡ dot{M}_jet/dot{M}, is ejected to form the jet, we can calculate the emergent spectrum of the disc corona-jet system. We calculate LR and LX at different dot{M}, adjusting η to fit the observed radio/X-ray correlation of the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 for LX/LEdd > 10-3. It is found that always the X-ray emission is dominated by the disc corona and the radio emission is dominated by the jet. We noted that the value of η for the deviated radio/X-ray correlation for LX/LEdd > 10-3 is systematically less than that of the case for LX/LEdd < 10-3, which is consistent with the general idea that the jet is often relatively suppressed at the high-luminosity phase in black hole X-ray binaries.

  1. A Comparative View of X-rays from the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ron; Gladstone, Randy; Cravens, Tom; Waite, Hunter; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated X-ray observatories, viz., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary X-ray astronomy is advancing at a faster pace. Several new solar system objects are now know to shine in X-rays at energies generally below 2 keV. Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, all three magnetized planets, have been observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. At Jupiter, both auroral and non-auroral disk X-ray emissions have been observed. The first soft X-ray observation of Earth's aurora by Chandra shows that it is highly variable. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence of X-ray aurora has been seen. Several comets have been observed in X-rays by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Cometary X-rays are produced due to change exchange of solar wind ions with cold cometary neutrals. Soft X-rays have also been observed from Venus, Mars, Moon, Io, Europa, Io plasma torus, and heliosphere. The non-auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, and those from sunlit disk of Mars, Venus, and Moon are produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. The spectral characteristics of X-ray emission from comets, heliosphere, darkside of Moon, and Martian halo are quite similar, but they appear to be quite different from those of Jovian auroral X-rays. The X- ray aurora on Earth is generated by electron bremsstrahlung and on Jupiter by precipitation of highly-ionized energetic heavy ions. In this paper we will present a comparative overview of X-ray emission from different solar system objects and make an attempt to synthesize a coherent picture.

  2. Recoil splitting of x-ray-induced optical fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, S.; Aagren, H.; Gel'mukhanov, F.; Sun, Y.-P.; Levin, S.

    2010-03-15

    We show that the anisotropy of the recoil velocity distribution of x-ray-ionized atoms or molecules leads to observable splittings in subsequent optical fluorescence or absorption when the polarization vector of the x rays is parallel to the momentum of the fluorescent photons. The order of the magnitude of the recoil-induced splitting is about 10 {mu}eV, which can be observed using Fourier or laser-absorption spectroscopic techniques.

  3. Enhanced betatron X-rays from axially modulated plasma wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Kaganovich, D.; Gordon, D.

    2015-06-01

    In the cavitation regime of plasma-based accelerators, a population of high-energy electrons trailing the driver can undergo betatron motion. The motion results in X-ray emission, but the brilliance and photon energy are limited by the electrons' initial transverse coordinate. To overcome this, we exploit parametrically unstable betatron motion in a cavitated, axially modulated plasma. Theory and simulations are presented showing that the unstable oscillations increase both the total X-ray energy and average photon energy.

  4. Enhanced betatron X-rays from axially modulated plasma wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Palastro, J. P.; Kaganovich, D.; Gordon, D.

    2015-06-15

    In the cavitation regime of plasma-based accelerators, a population of high-energy electrons trailing the driver can undergo betatron motion. The motion results in X-ray emission, but the brilliance and photon energy are limited by the electrons' initial transverse coordinate. To overcome this, we exploit parametrically unstable betatron motion in a cavitated, axially modulated plasma. Theory and simulations are presented showing that the unstable oscillations increase both the total X-ray energy and average photon energy.

  5. X-ray nanocrystallography of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bozovic, Natasha; Bozovic, Ivan; Misewich, James

    2008-12-01

    By numerical simulations, we show that with the next-generation synchrotron sources one should be able to record within minutes an X-ray diffraction pattern of a single nanotube and from it decipher its detailed atomic structure. In calculated diffractograms we can even discern signatures of presence of a single adatom and locate its position. New synchrotrons will allow the existing method of electron nanocrystallography to be undertaken using X-ray beams, thus facilitating in situ environmental studies. PMID:19367933

  6. X-ray phase Identification of Chocolate is Possible

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie,S.; Mazzanti, G.; Idziak, S.

    2005-01-01

    When examining chocolate samples by means of X-ray diffraction, it has become common practice for any sugar to be removed through repeated rinsing in cold water. While necessary in some cases, we show that it is possible to determine the phase of certain dark chocolate samples without sugar removal, through examination of distinctive X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to lattice spacings of 3.98 and 3.70 Angstroms.

  7. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

  8. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  9. A Highly Sensitive X-ray Imaging Modality for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Detection in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities. PMID:25559398

  10. An extended superhot solar flare X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Ohki, K. I.; Tsuneta, S.

    1985-01-01

    A superhot hard X-ray source in a solar flare occulted by the solar limb was identified. Its hard X-ray image was found to show great horizontal extent but little vertical extent. An H alpha brightening at the same limb position about an hour later suggests a multi-component loop prominence system, so that it appears that a superhot source can evolve in the same manner as a normal solar soft X-ray source. The assignment of plausiable values to physical parameters in the source suggests (from the simplest form of classical thermal-conduction theory) that either new physics will be required to suppress conduction, or else that gradual energy release well after the impulsive phase of the flare must occur. In this respect too, the superhot source appears to resemble ordinary soft X-ray sources, except of course that its temperature is higher.

  11. Echo Tomography of Reprocessing Sites in X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph; Haswell, Carole

    1998-01-01

    We discovered correlated rapid variability between the optical/UV and X-ray emission for the first time in a soft X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40. Hubble Space Telescope light curves show features similar to those seen by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, but with a mean delay of up to 10 - 20 s. We interpret the correlation as the result of reprocessing of X-rays into optical and UV emission, with a delay owing to finite light travel time; this assumption enables us to perform echo mapping of the system. The time-delay distribution has a mean of 14.6 +/-1.4 s and a dispersion of 10.5+/-1.9 s at binary phase 0.4. This establishes that the reprocessing region is the accretion disk around the compact star, rather than the mass-donating secondary. These results have been published.

  12. An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1992-01-01

    An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies observed with the Einstein Observatory imaging instruments (IPC and HRI) are presented. The catalog comprises 493 galaxies, including targets of pointed observations, and RSA or RC2 galaxies serendipitously included in Einstein fields. A total of 450 of these galaxies were imaged well within the instrumental fields, resulting in 238 detections and 2123 sigma upper limits. The other galaxies were either at the edge of the visible field of view or confused with other X-ray sources. For these a rough measure of their X-ray emission is also given. The atlas shows X-ray contour maps of detected galaxies superposed on optical photographs and gives azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of galaxies detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. An extended superhot solar flare X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Ohki, K. I.; Tsuneta, S.

    1985-08-01

    A superhot hard X-ray source in a solar flare occulted by the solar limb was identified. Its hard X-ray image was found to show great horizontal extent but little vertical extent. An H alpha brightening at the same limb position about an hour later suggests a multi-component loop prominence system, so that it appears that a superhot source can evolve in the same manner as a normal solar soft X-ray source. The assignment of plausiable values to physical parameters in the source suggests (from the simplest form of classical thermal-conduction theory) that either new physics will be required to suppress conduction, or else that gradual energy release well after the impulsive phase of the flare must occur. In this respect too, the superhot source appears to resemble ordinary soft X-ray sources, except of course that its temperature is higher.

  14. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-04-07

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 {mu}m methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations.

  15. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set. Work was begun on a second generation proportional counter response model. The first flight of the sounding rocket will have a collimator to study the diffuse background.

  16. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  17. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  18. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  19. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  20. X-ray imaging for palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, P

    2004-05-01

    Few may be aware that X-ray imaging is used in palaeontology and has been used since as early as 1896. The X-raying, preparation and exposure of Hunsrück slate fossils are described. Hospital X-ray machines are used by the author in his work. An X-ray is vital to provide evidence that preparation of a slate is worthwhile as well as to facilitate preparation even if there is little external sign of what lies within. The beauty of the X-ray exposure is an added bonus.

  1. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  2. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  3. Effect of x-rays on chromosome 21 nondisjunction

    SciTech Connect

    Strigini, P.; Pierluigi, M.; Forni, G.L.; Sansone, R.; Carobbi, S.; Grasso, M.; Dagna Bricarelli, F. )

    1990-01-01

    In a series of 156 females and 149 males with a Down syndrome (DS) child, a case-control study was performed to evaluate the effect of abdominal-pelvic exposure to diagnostic x-rays prior to conception on nondisjunction (ND). Cytogenetic analysis using QFQ banding allowed unequivocal identification of ND parents as cases. Partners of ND parents were treated as control group. Odds ratio for the association of x-rays exposure and ND occurrence (stratified for sex and age) was 1.85 (borderline to significance: with a 95% confidence interval 1-3.44). Such an association appeared highly significant in older fathers and borderline to significant in younger mothers, when age groups were analyzed separately. By comparing mean parental ages at birth of the propositus, the prevalence of exposure to x-rays appeared moderately associated with aging in control parents of both sexes. Furthermore, the mean age of unexposed ND parents of paternally derived SD cases was the same as the referent population's, suggesting that age is not a risk factor for ND in the male, except for being associated with increasing exposure risk. Conversely, risk attributable to x-rays exposure in the female appears to be progressively diluted with increasing age, by strongly age-dependent high risk, presumably due to biologic factors that are not affected by environmental exposure.

  4. Extended range X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

  5. Evolution of X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossj, B.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of X-ray astronomy up to the launching of the Einstein observatory is presented. The evaluation proceeded through the following major steps: (1) discovery of an extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-1, orders of magnitude stronger than astronomers believed might exist; (2) identification of a strong X-ray source with the Crab Nebula; (3) identification of Sco X-1 with a faint, peculiar optical object; (4) demonstration that X-ray stars are binary systems, each consisting of a collapsed object accreting matter from an ordinary star; (5) discovery of X-ray bursts; (6) discovery of exceedingly strong X-ray emission from active galaxies, quasars and clusters of galaxies; (7) demonstration that the principal X-ray source is a hot gas filling the space between galaxies.

  6. On stellar X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Stellar X-ray astronomy represents an entirely new astronomical discipline which has emerged during the past five years. It lies at the crossroads of solar physics, stellar physics, and general astrophysics. The present review is concerned with the main physical problems which arise in connection with a study of the stellar X-ray data. A central issue is the extent to which the extrapolation from solar physics is justified and the definition (if possible) of the limits to such extrapolation. The observational properties of X-ray emission from stars are considered along with the solar analogy and the modeling of X-ray emission from late-type stars, the modeling of X-ray emission from early-type stars, the physics of stellar X-ray emission, stellar X-ray emission in the more general astrophysical context, and future prospects.

  7. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  8. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-01

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ˜320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly "soft," i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  9. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the

  10. X-ray deconvolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship pn with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  11. X-ray deconvolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship [Formula: see text] with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  12. First Detection of Phase-dependent Colliding Wind X-ray Emission outside the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Yael; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2007-01-01

    After having reported the detection of X-rays emitted by the peculiar system HD 5980, we assess here the origin of this high-energy emission from additional X-ray observations obtained with XMM-Newton. This research provides the first detection of apparently periodic X-ray emission from hot gas produced by the collision of winds in an evolved massive binary outside the Milky Way. It also provides the first X-ray monitoring of a Luminous Blue Variable only years after its eruption and shows that the source of the X-rays is not associated with the ejecta.

  13. An X-ray orbit of HD 150136 unveils its physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyder, Jean-Christophe; Pollock, A. M. T.

    2014-09-01

    The nearest O3-type star known belongs to HD 150136, a triple system. The variability exhibited by its X-ray light curve could be due to shocks created by the collision between the stellar winds. In order to definitively identify the origin of the X-ray variability, our team recently secured the first X-ray observation of HD 150136 over an entire orbital period (2.7 days). We will present the first results of our X-ray study of HD 150136, and we will show how X-ray observations help unveil some physical properties in this system.

  14. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  15. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components relatedto x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  16. ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN ARP 147

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Steinhorn, B.; Levine, A.; Pooley, D. E-mail: aml@space.mit.ed

    2010-10-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory was used to image the collisional ring galaxy Arp 147 for 42 ks. We detect nine X-ray sources with luminosities in the range of (1.4-7) x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} (assuming that the sources emit isotropically) in or near the blue knots of star formation associated with the ring. A source with an X-ray luminosity of 1.4 x 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} is detected in the nuclear region of the intruder galaxy. X-ray sources associated with a foreground star and a background quasar are used to improve the registration of the X-ray image with respect to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) high-resolution optical images. The intruder galaxy, which apparently contained little gas before the collision, shows no X-ray sources other than the one in the nuclear bulge which may be a poorly fed supermassive black hole. These observations confirm the conventional wisdom that collisions of gas-rich galaxies trigger large rates of star formation which, in turn, generate substantial numbers of X-ray sources, some of which have luminosities above the Eddington limit for accreting stellar-mass black holes (i.e., ultraluminous X-ray sources, 'ULXs'). We also utilize archival Spitzer and Galex data to help constrain the current star formation rate in Arp 147 to {approx}7 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. All of these results, coupled with binary evolution models for ULXs, allow us to tentatively conclude that the most intense star formation may have ended some 15 Myr in the past.

  17. Scanning X-Ray Nanodiffraction on Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Marius; Bernhardt, Marten; Blum, Christoph; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Salditt, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We have performed scanning x-ray nanobeam diffraction experiments on single cells of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells have been investigated in 1), freeze-dried, 2), frozen-hydrated (vitrified), and 3), initially alive states. The spatially resolved small-angle x-ray scattering signal shows characteristic streaklike patterns in reciprocal space, which we attribute to fiber bundles of the actomyosin network. From the intensity distributions, an anisotropy parameter can be derived that indicates pronounced local variations within the cell. In addition to nanobeam small-angle x-ray scattering, we have evaluated the x-ray differential phase contrast in view of the projected electron density. Different experimental aspects of the x-ray experiment, sample preparation, and data analysis are discussed. Finally, the x-ray results are correlated with optical microscopy (differential phase contrast and confocal microscopy of mutant strains with fluorescently labeled actin and myosin II), which have been carried out in live and fixed states, including optical microscopy under cryogenic conditions. PMID:25468345

  18. An X-ray luminosity analysis for FRIs and FRIIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunling; Fan, Junhui

    2009-09-01

    Radio galaxies are divided into two groups according to their luminosities at 178 MHz, namely Fanaroff-Riley type Is (FRIs) and Fanaroff-Riley type IIs (FRIIs) with FRIs showing lower radio luminosities than FRIIs. In this paper, the X-ray data are compiled for 183 radio galaxies (61 FRIs and 122 FRIIs), from the available literature, for the analysis of the X-ray properties. The 1 keV X-ray luminosities are calculated and discussed for the two groups, and an averaged X-ray luminosity of log L {X/1 keV} = 41.30±2.51 erg·s-1·keV-1 is found for FRIs, which is lower than that for FRIIs, log L {X/1 keV} = 43.39±3.06 erg·s-1·keV-1. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test indicates that the probability for the X-ray luminosity distributions of the two groups to be from the same parent distribution is 1.44×10-10. We also discuss the origin and the mechanism of the X-ray emission for FRIs and FRIIs.

  19. Magnetic circular dichroism in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.

    2015-12-01

    An overview of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy in the hard X-ray range is presented. A short historical overview shows how this technique has evolved from the early days of X-ray physics to become a workhorse technique in the modern magnetism research As with all X-ray spectroscopies, XMCD has the advantage of being element specific. Interpretation of the spectra based on magneto-optical sum rules can provide unique information about spin and orbital moment carried by absorbing atom in both amplitude and direction, can infer magnetic interactions from element selective magnetization curves, can allow separation of magnetic and non-magnetic components in heterogeneous systems. The review details the technology currently available for XMCD measurements in the hard X-ray range referring to the ESRF beamline ID12 as an example. The strengths of hard X-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique are illustrated with a wide variety of representative examples, such as actinide based ferromagnets, paramagnetism in metals, pure metallic nanoparticles, exchange spring magnets, half metallic ferromagnets, magnetism at interfaces, and dilute magnetic semiconductors. In this way, we aim to encourage researchers from various scientific communities to consider XMCD as a tool to understanding the electronic and magnetic properties of their samples.

  20. X-ray Illuminated Ionized Skin of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, S.

    Recently (Nayakshin, Kazanas & Kallman 2000), it was confirmed that the X-ray illuminated upper layer of accretion disk is unstable to the thermal ionization instability, and that most of the previous models of X-ray reflection and iron Kα line emission missed this instability. Not only the detailed predictions of these models, but even the intuition that one gained from the theoretical literature in the last 10 years is often misleading. We discuss how we can deduce the geometry of the primary X-ray source(s) by studying X-ray illuminated accretion disks. In particular, we show that the spectra and iron lines from disks that are illuminated by a single source above the black hole will usually contain highly ionized features that are rarely seen in real spectra. A full corona above a standard like disk will yield a neutral-like reflection component and iron Kα lines and is also incompatible with observations. On the other hand, if the X-ray sources are magnetic flares, then the X-ray flux illuminating the disk surface near to them is very much higher than the disk flux, leading to cold-like reflection and lines with an apparently smaller normalization. Therefore, we claim that the former model is strongly favored by the existing data.

  1. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the mirrors of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being assembled in the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  2. Spectral and imaging characterization of tabletop x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Osterheld, A; Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Nilsen, J; Skobelev, I Yu; Magunov, A I; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-12-01

    We have performed L-shell spectroscopy and one-dimensional (1-D) imaging of a line focus plasma from a laser-heated Fe polished slab using the tabletop COMET laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These plasmas are used to generate a Ne-like Fe transient gain x-ray laser that is recorded simultaneously. A spherically-curved crystal spectrometer gives high resolution x-ray spectra of the n = 3-2 and n = 4-2 resonance lines with 1-D spatial resolution along the line focus. Spectra are presented for different laser pulse conditions. In addition, a variety of x-ray imaging techniques are described. We discuss imaging results from a double-slit x-ray camera with a spherically-curved crystal spectrometer. We show a high resolution Fe K-{alpha} spectrum from the x-ray laser target that indicates the presence of hot electrons in the x-ray laser plasma.

  3. Magnification error of digital x rays on the computer screen.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, S; Prakash, D; Prakash, R

    2014-12-01

    Templating x-rays of total hip and knee replacements pre-operatively are important to plan surgery. This is usually done using acetate templates of the prosthesis on hard copies of the x-ray. With the change in practice, to use digital x-rays on computer screens instead of hard copies, it is important to assess if acetate templates can be used for digital x-rays on the computer screen. This is a retrospective x-ray study of 19 hip replacements and 30 knee replacements to assess their magnification using the Patient Archiving Computerised System (PACS) software. This study was done to assess the accuracy of magnification, using acetate templates over a computer screen. In total hip replacement, the outer cup diameter was also measured using the digital measurement scale. The mean magnification was 0.59 for the acetabular cup and the femoral stem in total hip replacement and 0.48 for the femoral and tibial implant in total knee replacement. The mean difference in cup diameter comparing to the real size was an excess of 10.21 mm. The study showed over-magnified hip and knee x-rays thus suggesting that acetate templates and measurement scales on PACS was not reliable.

  4. Phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and spectral energy distribution of the X-ray soft polar RS Caeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, I.; Reinsch, K.; Schwope, A. D.; Schwarz, R.; Walter, F. M.; Burwitz, V.

    2014-02-01

    Context. RS Cae is the third target in our series of XMM-Newton observations of soft X-ray-dominated polars. Aims: Our observational campaign aims to better understand and describe the multiwavelength data, the physical properties of the system components, and the short- and long-term behavior of the component fluxes in RS Cae. Methods: We employ stellar atmosphere, stratified accretion-column, and widely used X-ray spectral models. We fit the XMM-Newton spectra, model the multiband light curves, and opt for a mostly consistent description of the spectral energy distribution. Results: Our XMM-Newton data of RS Cae are clearly dominated by soft X-ray emission. The X-ray light curves are shaped by emission from the main accretion region, which is visible over the whole orbital cycle, interrupted only by a stream eclipse. The optical light curves are formed by cyclotron and stream emission. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectra comprise a black-body-like and a plasma component at mean temperatures of 36 eV and 7 keV. The spectral fits give evidence of a partially absorbing and a reflection component. Multitemperature models, covering a broader temperature range in the X-ray emitting accretion regions, reproduce the spectra appropriately well. Including archival data, we describe the spectral energy distribution with a combination of models based on a consistent set of parameters and derive a lower limit estimate of the distance d ≳ 750 pc. Conclusions: The high bolometric soft-to-hard flux ratios and short-term variability of the (X-ray) light curves are characteristic of inhomogeneous accretion. RS Cae clearly belongs in the group of polars that show a very strong soft X-ray flux compared to their hard X-ray flux. The different black-body fluxes and similar hard X-ray and optical fluxes during the XMM-Newton and ROSAT observations show that soft and hard X-ray emission are not directly correlated. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with

  5. Discovery of Spatial and Spectral Structure in the X-Ray Emission from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Hester, J. Jeff; Tennant, Allyn F.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Marshall, Herman L.; Karovska, Margarita; Nichols, Joy S.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and pulsar during orbital calibration. Zeroth-order images with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) readout by the Advanced Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy array (ACIS-S) show a striking richness of X-ray structure at a resolution comparable to that of the best ground-based visible-light observations. The HETG-ACIS-S images reveal, for the first time, an X-ray inner ring within the X-ray torus, the suggestion of a hollow-tube structure for the torus, and X-ray knots along the inner ring and (perhaps) along the inward extension of the X-ray jet. Although complicated by instrumental effects and the brightness of the Crab Nebula, the spectrometric analysis shows systematic variations of the X-ray spectrum throughout the nebula.

  6. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  7. Design and implementation of an x-ray reflectometer system for testing x-ray optics coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgew, Danielle N.; Broadway, David; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an X-ray reflectometer (XRR) system for the characterization of various soft and hard X-ray optic coatings being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The XRR system generates X-ray radiation with a highoutput Rigaku rotating anode source (RAS), operational at a voltage range of 5 - 35 kV, a current range of 10-150 mA. A series of precision slits, adjustable down to approximately 25 micrometers, positioned in the beam path limit the extent of the x-ray beam and control the resolution of the XRR measurement while a goniometer consisting of two precision rotary stages controls the angular position of the coating sample and X-ray detector with respect to the beam. With the high count rate capability of the RAS, a very-high-speed silicon drift detector, the Amptek Fast Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), is implemented to achieve good count rate efficiency and improve reflectivity measurements of coatings at larger graze angles. The coating sample can be adjusted using a series of linear and tipping stages to perfectly align the center of the sample with the center of the incident X-ray beam. These stages in conjunction with the goniometer components are integrated through original control software resulting in full automation of the XRR system. We will show some initial XRR measurements of both single and multilayer coatings made with this system. These results and future measurements are used to characterize potential X-ray optic coatings culminating in the production of highly reflective coatings operational at a large range of X-ray energies.

  8. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    DOE PAGES

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-20

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experimentmore » at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Lastly, direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.« less

  9. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Brejnholt, Nicolai F; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experiment at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.

  10. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  11. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Jeanette

    2012-07-01

    The first black hole was observed almost 50 years ago, ˜ 1 year after Sco X-1 (although its nature was not confirmed for ˜ 11 years). Observations of black holes have been ongoing since then, falling in to two distinct categories; stellar-mass (sMBHs; 3 - 80 M_{⊙}) and super-massive black holes (10^6 - 10^9 M_⊙). The missing link between these two types, intermediate mass black holes, has been the target of many searches due to their cosmological implications. Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) have been proposed to harbor such objects, but recent observational evidence has strongly suggested that the majority contain sMBHs. However, a handful of the brightest ULXs are so luminous that they defy this explanation. Here we will discuss the nature of both standard ULXs and this new bright subgroup of this population.

  12. X-Pinch And Its Applications In X-ray Radiograph

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Liu Rui; Zhao Tong; Zeng Naigong; Zhao Yongchao; Du Yanqiang

    2009-07-07

    An X-pinch device and the related diagnostics of x-ray emission from X-pinch were briefly described. The time-resolved x-ray measurements with photoconducting diodes show that the x-ray pulse usually consists of two subnanosecond peaks with a time interval of about 0.5 ns. Being consistent with these two peaks of the x-ray pulse, two point x-ray sources of size ranging from 100 mum to 5 mum and depending on cut-off x-ray photon energy were usually observed on the pinhole pictures. The x-pinch was used as x-ray source for backlighting of the electrical explosion of single wire and the evolution of X-pinch, and for phase-contrast imaging of soft biological objects such as a small shrimp and a mosquito.

  13. The X-ray Variability of Eta Car, 1996-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Gull, T.; Owocki, S.; Pittard, J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray photometry in the 2-10 keY band of the the supermassive binary star Eta Car has been measured with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from 1996-2010. The ingress to X-ray minimum is consistent with a period of 2024 days. The 2009 X-ray minimum began on January 162009 and showed an unexpectedly abrupt recovery starting after 12 Feb 2009. The X-ray colors become harder about half-way through all three minima and continue until flux recovery. The behavior of the fluxes and X-ray colors for the most recent X-ray minimum, along with Chandra high resolution grating spectra at key phases suggests a significant change in the inner wind of Eta Car, a possible indicator that the star is entering a new unstable phase of mass loss.

  14. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  15. X-ray microanalysis in dermatology

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.

    1982-01-01

    The current trends in X-ray microanalysis as applied to dermatology are described by reviewing papers which have made a significant contribution to the field. Under separate headings, the analysis of hair, nail and epidermis is reviewed with an emphasis on quantitative results. Our recent work on green hair has revealed a higher than normal copper content derived from copper-containing tap and pool water. In nail the sulfur content was shown to be evenly distributed throughout the nail plate and the calcium content to be too low to influence on the ''hardness'' of the nail. Our study of nails from cystic fibrosis patients showed that the Na, K, and C1 content increased, which is diagnostic for the disease, and that the Ca content could be used to monitor the preparation of nail samples for analysis. With the aid of X-ray microanalysis it has been possible for the first time to study the electrolyte composition of the different strata of epidermis by using freeze-fixed and freeze-dried cryosections. Only the basal stratum maintains a normal Na/K quotient and all cell layers above that one appear to have dysfunctional cell membranes, i.e. inadequate pumping of Na out of the cells. A subsequent study of the effects on normal epidermis by DNCB showed that after 6 hours post-treatment, abnormal Na, K and P levels appeared which differed from those seen in post-mortem changes of normal epidermis.

  16. High-resolution X-ray Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, V.V.; Platonov, Yu.; Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D.H.

    2004-05-12

    Two new approaches are taken in multilayer fabrication to help bridge the gap in bandwidth between traditional multilayers (1 to 2%) and perfect crystals (0.01%). The first approach is based on creating many layers of low-contrast Al2O3/ B4C materials. The second approach is based on using multilayer structures with a small d-spacing using traditional W/B4C and Mo/B4C materials. With 8 keV x-rays on the Chess A2 beamline, we measured a bandwidth of 0.27% with a reflectivity of 40% and a Darwin width of 17 arc seconds from a 26 A d-spacing multilayer with 800 bi-layers of Al2O3/B4C using the low-contrast approach. On the other hand, the short period approach with a W/B4C multilayer and a 14.8 A d-spacing showed a resolution of 0.5 % and a reflectivity of 58.5%. Two more Mo/B4C samples with d-spacings of 15 A and 20 A showed energy resolutions of 0.25% and 0.52% with corresponding reflectivities of 39% and 66%. Thus we observe that both methods can produce useful x-ray optical components.

  17. Long bone X-ray image stitching using Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Benhimane, Selim; Euler, Ekkehard; Graumann, Rainer; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    X-ray images are widely used during surgery for long bone fracture fixation. Mobile C-arms provide X-ray images which are used to determine the quality of trauma reduction, i.e. the extremity length and mechanical axis of long bones. Standard X-ray images have a narrow field of view and can not visualize the entire long bone on a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate panoramic X-ray images in real time by using the previously introduced Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm. This advanced mobile C-arm system acquires registered X-ray and optical images by construction, which facilitates the generation of panoramic X-ray images based on first stitching the optical images and then embedding the X-ray images. We additionally introduce a method to reduce the parallax effect that leads to the blurring and measurement error on panoramic X-ray images. Visual marker tracking is employed to automatically stitch the sequence of video images and to rectify images. Our proposed method is suitable for intra-operative usage generating panoramic X-ray images, which enable metric measurements, with less radiation and without requirement of fronto-parallel setup and overlapping X-ray images. The results show that the panoramic X-ray images generated by our method are accurate enough (errors less than 1%) for metric measurements and suitable for many clinical applications in trauma reduction.

  18. Uhuru observations of 4U 1608-52 - The 'steady' X-ray source associated with the X-ray burst source in Norma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.; Chaisson, L. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Matilsky, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented for the X-ray source 4U 1608-52, summarizing its light curve, location, and spectral parameters. Evidence is presented showing that this source is the 'steady' X-ray counterpart of the X-ray burst source in Norma. The spectrum of the 'steady' source is compared with the spectrum observed during two bursts, and it is noted that there is substantially more low-energy absorption during the bursts. The 'steady' source spectral data are used to examine the optical data, and it is concluded that if the X-ray spectrum is thermal, then a globular-cluster counterpart probably would have been detected (whereas none has been). Further X-ray and optical observations are suggested for this source, since an optical identification may be central in determining whether all X-ray bursts have a common origin and if this origin requires a globular-cluster environment.

  19. Observational Aspects of Hard X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    retrieving polarization information from few of such spectroscopic instruments like RHESSI, INTEGRAL-IBIS, INTEGRAL-SPI. Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) onboard Astrosat, India's first astronomical mission, is one of such instruments which is expected to provide sensitive polarization measurements for bright X-ray sources. CZTI consists of 64 CZT detector modules, each of which is 5 mm thick and 4 cm × 4 cm in size. Each CZT module is subdivided into 256 pixels with pixel pitch of 2.5 mm. Due to its pixelation nature and significant Compton scattering efficiency at energies beyond 100 keV, CZTI can work as a sensitive Compton polarimeter in hard X-rays. Detailed Geant-4 simulations and polarization experiments with the flight configuration of CZTI show that CZTI will have significant polarization measurement capability for bright sources in hard X-rays. CZTI is primarily a spectroscopic instrument with coded mask imaging. To properly utilize the spectroscopic capabilities of CZT detectors, it is important to generate accurate response matrix for CZTI, which in turn requires precise modelling of the CZT lines shapes for monoenergetic X-ray interaction. CZT detectors show an extended lower energy tail of an otherwise Gaussian line shape due to low mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers. On the other hand, interpixel charge sharing may also contribute to the lower energy tail making the line shape more complicated. We have developed a model to predict the line shapes from CZTI modules taking into account the mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers and charge sharing fractions. The model predicts the line shape quite well and can be used to generate pixel-wise response matrix for CZTI.

  20. X-rays for medical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  1. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  2. Handbook of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith; Smith, Randall; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ellis, Richard; Huchra, John; Kahn, Steve; Rieke, George; Stetson, Peter B.

    2011-11-01

    Practical guide to X-ray astronomy for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers. Presenting X-ray optics, basic detector physics and data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of X-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The appendices provide reference material often required during data analysis. The handbook web page contains figures and tables: http://xrayastronomyhandbook.com/

  3. Topological X-Rays and MRIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Let K be a compact subset of the interior of the unit disk D in the plane and suppose one can't see through the boundary of D and identify K. However, assume that one can take "topological X-rays" of D which measure the "density" of K along the lines of the X-rays. By taking these X-rays from all directions, a "topological MRI" is generated for…

  4. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  5. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  6. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  7. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  8. X-Ray Emission from "Uranium" Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The project aims to secure XMM observations of two targets with extremely low abundances of the majority of heavy elements (e.g., log[Fe/H] $\\sim$-4), but that show absorption lines of uranium. The presence of an r-process element such as uranium requires a binary star system in which the companion underwent a supernova explosion. A binary star system raises the distinct possibility of the existence of a compact object, most likely a neutron star, in the binary, assuming it survived the supernova blast. The presence of a compact object then suggests X-ray emission if sufficient matter accretes to the compact object. The observations were completed less than one year ago following a series of reobservations to correct for significant flaring that occurred during the original observations. The ROSAT all-sky survey was used to report on the initial assessment of X-ray emission from these objects; only upper limits were reported. These upper limits were used to justify the XMM observing time, but with the expectation that upper limits would merely be pushed lower. The data analysis hinges critically on the quality and degree of precision with which the background is handled. During the past year, I have spent some time learning the ins and outs of XMM data analysis. In the coming year, I can apply that learning to the analysis of the 'uranium' stars.

  9. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities. PMID:26811449

  10. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities.

  11. Characterization of New Hard X-ray Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, F.; deMartino, D.; Falanga, M.; Mukai, K.; Matt, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Masetti, N.; Mouchet, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We aim at characterizing a sample of nine new hard X-ray selected Cataclysmic Variable (CVs), to unambiguously identify them as magnetic systems of the Intermediate Polar (IP) type. Methods. We performed detailed timing and spectral analysis by using X-ray, and simultaneous UV and optical data collected by XMM-Newton, complemented with hard X-ray data provided by INTEGRAL and Swift. The pulse arrival time were used to estimate the orbital periods. The broad band X-ray spectra were fitted using composite models consisting of different absorbing columns and emission components. Results. Strong X-ray pulses at the White Dwarf (WD) spin period are detected and found to decrease with energy. Most sources are spin-dominated systems in the X-rays, though four are beat dominated at optical wavelengths. We estimated the orbital period in all system (except for IGR J16500-3307), providing the first estimate for IGRJ08390-4833, IGRJ18308-1232, and IGR J18173-2509. All X-ray spectra are multi-temperature. V2069 Cyg and RX J0636+3535 poses a soft X-ray optically thick component at kT approx. 80 eV. An intense K (sub alpha) Fe line at 6.4 keV is detected in all sources. An absorption edge at 0.76 keV from OVII is detected in IGR J08390-4833. The WD masses and lower limits to the accretion rates are also estimated. Conclusions. We found all sources to be IPs. IGR J08390-4833, V2069 Cyg, and IGR J16500-3307 are pure disc accretors, while IGR J18308-1232, IGR J1509-6649, IGR J17195-4100, and RX J0636+3535 display a disc-overflow accretion mode. All sources show a temperature gradient in the post-shock regions and a highly absorbed emission from material located in the pre-shock flow which is also responsible for the X-ray pulsations. Reflection at the WD surface is likely the origin of the fluorescent iron line. There is an increasing evidence for the presence of a warm absorber in IPs, a feature that needs future exploration. The addition of two systems to the subgroup of

  12. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Wenxiang E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Xi, Yan E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Wang, Ge E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  13. Integration of X-ray and MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhifei

    significantly improved after shim magnets are deployed. Our work effectively minimized interferences between the x-ray and MR systems. Clinical procedures performed with our system show great promise for enhanced diagnosis and improved guidance of therapy.

  14. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  15. Separating Peaks in X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David; Taylor, Clayborne; Wade, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Deconvolution algorithm assists in analysis of x-ray spectra from scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe analyzers, x-ray fluorescence spectrometers, and like. New algorithm automatically deconvolves x-ray spectrum, identifies locations of spectral peaks, and selects chemical elements most likely producing peaks. Technique based on similarities between zero- and second-order terms of Taylor-series expansions of Gaussian distribution and of damped sinusoid. Principal advantage of algorithm: no requirement to adjust weighting factors or other parameters when analyzing general x-ray spectra.

  16. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  17. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Girogio; Kaspi, Vicky; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful - yet inexpensive - dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --- particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsiz:e the important physical and astrophysical questions such as mission would address.

  18. X-rays from the youngest stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray properties of classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent results from the ROSAT satellite and prospects for ASCA. The interpretation of the high level of T Tauri X-rays as enhanced solar-type magnetic activity is discussed and criticized. The census of X-ray emitters is significantly increasing estimates of galactic star formation efficiency, and X-ray emission may be important for self-regulation of star formation. ASCA images will detect star formation regions out to several kiloparsecs and will study the magnetically heated plasma around T Tauri stars. However, images will often suffer from crowding effects.

  19. [X-ray diagnosis of histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, A G; Dmitrieva, L I; Khikkel', Kh G; Stepanian, I E

    1988-01-01

    The results of a dynamic x-ray study of 27 patients suffering from histiocytosis X with lung involvement were analyzed; the study was supplemented by CT in 4 cases. X-ray semiotics of the disease was investigated with relation to its stage. X-ray symptom complexes were defined: interstitial, interstitial-granulomatous, and focal (tumorous). The authors have emphasized the fact that the small focal-cystic and pneumothoracic x-ray variants of the disease, described in literature, are not nosological entities but reflect only its stage and complications.

  20. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  1. Characterizing Planck SZ detected clusters with X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovisari, L.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Kraft, R.; Randall, S.; Santos, F.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters are a powerful tool to constrain cosmological parameters. An accurate knowledge of the scaling relations between X-ray observables and cluster mass is a crucial step because it will enable us to compare the theoretical predictions with the real data and with the cosmological models. A complete sample is required for any meaningful study of the scaling properties, otherwise potentially important biases (e.g. Malmquist bias, cool-core and merger fractions) cannot be corrected. The Planck mission provided a nearly complete mass-limited sample of clusters of galaxies. From XMM-Newton and/or Chandra observations of the 165 Planck ESZ clusters at z <0.35, we derived the total mass, gas mass, X-ray luminosity, temperature, and morphology of each cluster. We will show how the cluster properties and morphologies differ for X-ray and SZ selected samples. In particular we will show that the Planck sample has a smaller fraction of cool-core clusters than X-ray selected samples. We will show the derived X-ray scaling relations for the Planck SZ selected sample. Finally, we will show the preliminary results of the cluster mass function.

  2. Thermoluminescent dosimeters for low dose X-ray measurements.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S Del Sol; García-Salcedo, R; Sánchez-Guzmán, D; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G; Gaona, E; de León-Alfaro, M A; Rivera-Montalvo, T

    2016-01-01

    The response of TLD-100, CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P for a range of X-ray low dose was measured. For calibration, the TLDs were arranged at the center of the X-ray field. The dose output of the X-ray machine was determined using an ACCU-Gold. All dosimeters were exposed at the available air kerma values of 14.69 mGy within a field 10×10 cm(2) at 80 cm of SSD. Results of LiF:Mg,Cu,P X-ray irradiated showed 4.8 times higher sensitivity than TLD-100. Meanwhile, TL response of CaSO4:Dy exposed at the same dose was 5.6 time higher than TLD-100. Experimental results show for low dose X-ray measurements a better linearity for LiF:Mg,Cu,P compared with that of TLD-100. CaSO4:Dy showed a linearity from 0.1 to 60 mGy.

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimeters for low dose X-ray measurements.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S Del Sol; García-Salcedo, R; Sánchez-Guzmán, D; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G; Gaona, E; de León-Alfaro, M A; Rivera-Montalvo, T

    2016-01-01

    The response of TLD-100, CaSO4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P for a range of X-ray low dose was measured. For calibration, the TLDs were arranged at the center of the X-ray field. The dose output of the X-ray machine was determined using an ACCU-Gold. All dosimeters were exposed at the available air kerma values of 14.69 mGy within a field 10×10 cm(2) at 80 cm of SSD. Results of LiF:Mg,Cu,P X-ray irradiated showed 4.8 times higher sensitivity than TLD-100. Meanwhile, TL response of CaSO4:Dy exposed at the same dose was 5.6 time higher than TLD-100. Experimental results show for low dose X-ray measurements a better linearity for LiF:Mg,Cu,P compared with that of TLD-100. CaSO4:Dy showed a linearity from 0.1 to 60 mGy. PMID:26609683

  4. X-Ray Imaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 1O(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionally less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. At the same time, there will be substantial potential for collisions between the space platforms and space debris. The current NASA catalogue contains over 4500 objects floating in space which are not considered payloads. This debris can have significant effects on collision with orbiting spacecraft. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are being performed to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. In particular the study of debris clouds produced by hypervelocity impact on the various surfaces anticipated on the Space Station is very important at this point in time. The need to assess the threat of such debris clouds on space structures is an on-going activity. The Space Debris Impact facility in Building 4612 provides a test facility to monitor the types of damage produced with hypervelocity impact. These facilities are used to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Flash radiography or x-ray imaging has traditionally provided such information and as such has been an important tool for recording damage in situ with the event. The proper

  5. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  6. BL-Lacs in X-Ray Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Urry, C. Megan; Aharonian, Felix; Pian, Elena; Sambruna, Rita; Coppi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a multifrequency campaign for the TeV blazar Markarian 421 in 1998 April. The campaign started from a pronounced high-amplitude flare recorded by BeppoSAX and Whipple; the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation started three days later. In the X-ray data, we detected multiple flares, occurring on timescales of about one day. ASCA data clearly reveal spectral variability. The comparison of the data from ASCA, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer indicates that the variability amplitudes in the low-energy synchrotron component are larger at higher photon energies. In TeV and gamma-rays, large intraday variations-which were correlated with the X-ray flux-were observed when results from three Cerenkov telescopes were combined. The rms variability of TeV and gamma-rays was similar to that observed in hard X-rays, above ten keV. The X-ray light curve reveals flares that are almost symmetric for most cases, implying that the dominant timescale is the light crossing time through the emitting region. The structure function analysis based on the continuous X-ray light curve of seven days indicates that the characteristic timescale is approx. 0.5 days. The analysis of ASCA light curves in various energy bands appears to show both soft (positive) and hard (negative) lags. These may not be real, as systematic effects could also produce these lags, which are all much smaller than an orbit. If the lags of both signs are real, these imply that the particle acceleration and X-ray cooling timescales are similar.

  7. Stellar X-ray Emission From Magnetically Funneled Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Hans

    be observed in cycle 9), a magnetic A0p star with an exceptionally soft X-ray spectrum. We have an established and working code to simulate high-resolution X-ray spectra emitted by shocks. This code was originally developed for accretion shocks on CTTS. We will fit a grid of models from this code to the observed spectra to deduce the shock properties, such as infall velocity, mass accretion rate and elemental composition. Specifically, we will 1) test for the existence of wind shocks in IQ Aur and, if confirmed, measure density, velocity, mass flow and distance to the stellar surface, 2) calculate the accretion density and rate on DN Tau (all previously modeled CTTS have higher masses, so a comparison shows how the accretion shock X-ray emission and thus the feedback on the disk depends on the stellar mass) and 3) analyze the X-ray properties of MN Lup, which has been Doppler-imaged in the past, to design a simultaneous X-ray/Doppler imaging campaign to pinpoint the accretion spots on the stellar surface. Through an analysis of X-ray data, this research characterizes the (high-energy) environment of planet formation and the interaction of different components in stellar systems (magnetic fields and plasma flows), which are two aspects of NASA's strategic goals.

  8. ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal

    2012-10-20

    We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

  9. Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to characterize the hard x-ray emission of these objects over long time intervals. The project was closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", NASA project, and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project, and shares publications in common with both of these. These efforts have lead to results directly from the BATSE data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with BATSE. The following papers have used BATSE data or data obtained with BATSE TOO triggers.

  10. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-05-16

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed.

  11. Accurate Modeling of X-ray Extinction by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John; Draine, B. T.

    2016-02-01

    Interstellar abundance determinations from fits to X-ray absorption edges often rely on the incorrect assumption that scattering is insignificant and can be ignored. We show instead that scattering contributes significantly to the attenuation of X-rays for realistic dust grain size distributions and substantially modifies the spectrum near absorption edges of elements present in grains. The dust attenuation modules used in major X-ray spectral fitting programs do not take this into account. We show that the consequences of neglecting scattering on the determination of interstellar elemental abundances are modest; however, scattering (along with uncertainties in the grain size distribution) must be taken into account when near-edge extinction fine structure is used to infer dust mineralogy. We advertise the benefits and accuracy of anomalous diffraction theory for both X-ray halo analysis and near edge absorption studies. We present an open source Fortran suite, General Geometry Anomalous Diffraction Theory (GGADT), that calculates X-ray absorption, scattering, and differential scattering cross sections for grains of arbitrary geometry and composition.

  12. Centaurus X-3. [early x-ray binary star spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Cowley, A. P.; Crampton, D.; Van Paradus, J.; White, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Krzeminski's star at dispersions 25-60 A/mm are described. The primary is an evolved star of type O6-O8(f) with peculiarities, some of which are attributable to X-ray heating. Broad emission lines at 4640A (N III), 4686 A(He II) and H-alpha show self-absorption and do not originate entirely from the region near the X-ray star. The primary is not highly luminous (bolometric magnitude about -9) and does not show signs of an abnormally strong stellar wind. The X-ray source was 'on' at the time of optical observations. Orbital parameters are presented for the primary, which yield masses of 17 + or - 2 and 1.0 + or - 3 solar masses for the stars. The optical star is undermassive for its luminosity, as are other OB-star X-ray primaries. The rotation is probably synchronized with the orbital motion. The distance to Cen X-3 is estimated to be 10 + or - 1 kpc. Basic data for 12 early-type X-ray primaries are discussed briefly

  13. Probing magnetar magnetosphere through X-ray polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverna, R.; Muleri, F.; Turolla, R.; Soffitta, P.; Fabiani, S.; Nobili, L.

    2014-02-01

    The study of magnetars is of particular relevance since these objects are the only laboratories where the physics in ultra-strong magnetic fields can be directly tested. Until now, spectroscopic and timing measurements at X-ray energies in soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) have been the main source of information about the physical properties of a magnetar and of its magnetosphere. Spectral fitting in the ˜0.5-10 keV range allowed us to validate the `twisted magnetosphere' model, probing the structure of the external field and estimating the density and velocity of the magnetospheric currents. Spectroscopy alone, however, may fail in disambiguating the two key parameters governing magnetospheric scattering (the charge velocity and the twist angle) and is quite insensitive to the source geometry. X-ray polarimetry, on the other hand, can provide a quantum leap in the field by adding two extra observables, the linear polarization degree and the polarization angle. Using the bright AXP 1RXS J170849.0-400910 as a template, we show that phase-resolved polarimetric measurements can unambiguously determine the model parameters, even with a small X-ray polarimetry mission carrying modern photoelectric detectors and existing X-ray optics. We also show that polarimetric measurements can pinpoint vacuum polarization effects and thus provide indirect evidence for ultra-strong magnetic fields.

  14. Deep diode arrays for X-ray detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemel, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    Temperature gradient zone melting process was used to form p-n junctions in bulk of high purity silicon wafers. These diodes were patterned to form arrays for X-ray spectrometers. The whole fabrication processes for these X-ray detectors are reviewed in detail. The p-n junctions were evaluated by (1) the dark diode I-V measurements, (2) the diode C sub I - V measurements, and (3) the MOS C-V measurements. The results showed that these junctions were linearly graded in charge distribution with low reverse bias leakage current flowing through them (few nA at -10 volts). The X-ray detection experiments showed that an FWHM of 500 eV was obtained from these diodes with a small bias of just -5 volts (for X-ray source Fe55). A theoretical model was proposed to explain the extra peaks found in the energy spectra and a very interesting point - cross talk effect was pointed out. This might be a solution to the problem of making really high resolution X-ray spectrometers.

  15. SN X-ray Progenitor?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Identifying stars that explode, right before they explode, is a tricky proposition since the end of starlife comes swiftly: in thermonuclear deflagrations, in nuclear exhaustion, or maybe in a rapid swirling merger of two dead stellar cores. On the right in the image above is an image of the galaxy NGC 1404 taken by the UV/optical Telescope (UVOT) on the Swift observatory. The circle surrounds SN 2007on, a supernova of Type Ia produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary system. These types of supernovae are important since they are believed to be 'standard candles', events which have the same intrinsic brightness which can serve as an important yardstick to measure cosmic distances. On the left is an image of the same galaxy taken by the Chandra X-ray observatory four years before the supernova. Conspicuous in the SN source circle is a bright source in the Chandra image, believed to be emission from a compact object+normal star companion: a similar system to the supposed precursor of SN 2007on. If true this would be the first time a Type Ia supernova precursor has ever been seen. But astronomers are still debating whether the Chandra source really is the precursor or not; it seems there's a slight but significant difference in the location of the Chandra source and the supernova. Stay tuned for more developments.

  16. SMM X-ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.; Haisch, Bernhard M. (Compiler); Lemen, James R. (Compiler); Acton, L. W.; Bawa, H. S.; Claflin, E. S.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Kemp, D. L.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The range of observing and analysis programs accomplished with the X-Ray Polychromator (XRP) instruments during the decline of solar cycle 21 and the rise of the solar cycle 22 is summarized. Section 2 describes XRP operations and current status. This is meant as a guide on how the instrument is used to obtain data and what its capabilities are for potential users. The science section contains a series of representative abstracts from recently published papers on major XRP science topics. It is not meant to be a complete list but illustrates the type of science that can come from the analysis of the XRP data. There then follows a series of appendixes that summarize the major data bases that are available. Appendix A is a complete bibliography of papers and presentations produced using XRP data. Appendix B lists all the spectroscopic data accumulated by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS). Appendix C is a compilation of the XRP flare catalogue for events equivalent to a GOES C-level flare or greater. It lists the start, peak and end times as well as the peak Ca XIX flux.

  17. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  18. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    The technique of high-power laser-induced plasma acceleration can be used to generate a variety of diverse effects including the emission of X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons and radio-frequency radiation. A compact variable source of this nature could support a wide range of potential applications including single-sided through-barrier imaging, cargo and vehicle screening, infrastructure inspection, oncology and structural failure analysis. This paper presents a verified particle physics simulation which replicates recent results from experiments conducted at the Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, UK. The RAL experiment demonstrated the generation of backscattered X-rays from test objects via the bremsstrahlung of an incident electron beam, the electron beam itself being produced by Laser Wakefield Acceleration. A key initial objective of the computer simulation was to inform the experimental planning phase on the predicted magnitude of the backscattered X-rays likely from the test objects. This objective was achieved and the computer simulation was used to show the viability of the proposed concept (Laser-induced X-ray `RADAR'). At the more advanced stages of the experimental planning phase, the simulation was used to gain critical knowledge of where it would be technically feasible to locate key diagnostic equipment within the experiment. The experiment successfully demonstrated the concept of X-ray `RADAR' imaging, achieved by using the accurate timing information of the backscattered X-rays relative to the ultra-short laser pulse used to generate the electron beam. By using fast response X-ray detectors it was possible to derive range information for the test objects being scanned. An X-ray radar `image' (equivalent to a RADAR B-scan slice) was produced by combining individual X-ray temporal profiles collected at different points along a horizontal distance line scan. The same image formation process was used to generate

  19. The X-ray emission of the γ Cassiopeiae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Motch, C.

    2016-09-01

    Long considered as the "odd man out" among X-ray emitting Be stars, γ Cas (B0.5e IV) is now recognized as the prototype of a class of stars that emit hard thermal X-rays. Our classification differs from the historical use of the term " γ Cas stars" defined from optical properties alone. The luminosity output of this class contributes significantly to the hard X-ray production of massive stars in the Galaxy. The γ Cas stars have light curves showing variability on a few broadly-defined timescales and spectra indicative of an optically thin plasma consisting of one or more hot thermal components. By now 9-13 Galactic ≈ B0-1.5e main sequence stars are judged to be members or candidate members of the γ Cas class. Conservative criteria for this designation are for a ≈ B0-1.5e III-V star to have an X-ray luminosity of 1032-1033 ergs s-1, a hot thermal spectrum containing the short wavelength Lyα Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines and the fluorescence FeK feature all in emission. If thermality cannot be demonstrated, for example from either the presence of these Lyα lines or curvature of the hard continuum of the spectrum of an X-ray active Be star, we call them γ Cas candidates. We discuss the history of the discovery of the complicated characteristics of the variability in the optical, UV, and X-ray domains, leading to suggestions for the physical cause of the production of hard X-rays. These include scenarios in which matter from the Be star accretes onto a degenerate secondary star and interactions between magnetic fields on the Be star and its decretion disk. The greatest aid to the choice of the causal mechanism is the temporal correlations of X-ray light curves and spectra with diagnostics in the optical and UV wavebands. We show why the magnetic star-disk interaction scenario is the most tenable explanation for the creation of hard X-rays on these stars.

  20. The Secret X-ray Lives of Cepheids: Presenting the First Unambiguous X-ray Detections of Classical Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E.; Evans, N.; DePasquale, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chromospheric and transition region emissions have been found in certain Classical Cepheids by previous IUE studies and through our own much more recent FUSE study. However, X-ray emission has long been considered nonexistent in these cool supergiants. Here we report on the surprising discovery of X-ray emissions in three bright, nearby Classical Cepheids recently observed with the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites - representing the first true detections of this class of variable star at X-ray wavelengths. Polaris (V = +1.98; F7 Ib-II; P = 3.97-d; d 130-pc), β Dor (V = +3.77; F6 Ia; P = 9.84-d; d 318-pc) and δ Cep (V = +4.07; F5 Iab; P = 5.37-d; d 273-pc) are currently the only three Cepheids to have been observed with modern X-ray satellites. However, only Polaris and β Dor have been observed with the FUSE satellite, and β Dor (which has multiple spectra) displays variability in the FUV emission strengths which appears to be correlated to its pulsation period. Unexpectedly, our early analyses of the X-ray data show that these Cepheids, despite their differences in spectral type and pulsation properties, all have log Lx values of 28.8-29 and similarly soft energy distributions. The initial results of our recent X-ray studies are presented along with our FUSE results to bring the high energy activity into better focus. Further FUV/X-ray observations have been proposed with HST/XMM to unambiguously determine the origin and nature of the observed high energy emissions from the targets, possibly arising from warm winds, shocks, or pulsationally induced magnetic activity. We gratefully acknowledge support for this project from NASA grants Chandra-GO6-7011A, 06-FUSE8-099 & XMM-AO7-55241 and NSF grant AST05-07542.

  1. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

    2008-10-31

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 μm square pixels, and 15 μm thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE≈10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  2. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  3. X-ray determination of parts alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

  4. X-Ray Determination of Weld Misalinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple technique uses ordinary X-ray equipment. Weld line between hemispheres of hidden spherical pressure vessel examined for misalinement between hemispheres. Central X-ray tangent to pressure vessel at weld line. Technique not limited to spheres. Also used to check alinement between insulated sections of pipelines or chemical-reaction vessels without removing insulation or interrupting flow or process.

  5. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  6. X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holography.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas

    2013-09-01

    An X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holographic scheme is proposed. Theoretically it is shown that the reconstruction of the object image by visible light is possible. The spatial and temporal coherence requirements of the incident X-ray beam are considered. As an example, the hologram recording as well as the reconstruction by visible light of an absolutely absorbing wire are discussed.

  7. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  8. X-Ray Emissions from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Crary, F. J.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Lewis, W. S.; Jahn, J.-M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    X-ray emissions from Jupiter have been observed for over 20 years. Jovian x-ray emissions are associated with high-latitude aurora and with solar fluorescence and/or an energetic particle source at low-latitudes as identified by past Einstein and ROSAT observations. Enhanced auroral x-rays were also observed to be associated with the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The high-latitude x-ray emissions are best explained by energetic sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation from the Jovian magnetosphere, a suggestion that has been confirmed by recent Chandra ACIS observations. Exciting new information about Jovian x-ray emissions has been made possible with Chandra's High Resolution Camera. We report here for the first time the detection of a forty minute oscillation associated with the Jovian x-ray aurora. With the help of ultraviolet auroral observations from Hubble Space Telescope, we pinpoint the auroral mapping of the x-rays and provide new information on the x-ray source mechanism.

  9. Course Manual for X-Ray Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Radiological Health.

    This publication is the third of three sequential course manuals for instructors in x-ray science and engineering. This course manual has been tested by introducing it into the Oregon State University curriculum. The publication is prepared for the purpose of improving the qualifications of x-ray users and to reduce the ionizing radiation exposure…

  10. VETA-1 x ray detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, W. A.; Flanagan, Kathy A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Goddard, R. G.; Kellogg, Edwin M.; Norton, T. J.; Ouellette, J. P.; Roy, A. G.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The alignment and X-ray imaging performance of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Verification Engineering Test Article-I (VETA-I) was measured by the VETA-I X-Ray Detection System (VXDS). The VXDS was based on the X-ray detection system utilized in the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) program, upgraded to meet the more stringent requirements of the VETA-I test program. The VXDS includes two types of X-ray detectors: (1) a High Resolution Imager (HRI) which provides X-ray imaging capabilities, and (2) sealed and flow proportional counters which, in conjunction with apertures of various types and precision translation stages, provide the most accurate measurement of VETA-I performance. Herein we give an overview of the VXDS hardware including X-ray detectors, translation stages, apertures, proportional counters and flow counter gas supply system and associated electronics. We also describe the installation of the VXDS into the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We discuss in detail the design and performance of those elements of the VXDS which have not been discussed elsewhere; translation systems, flow counter gas supply system, apertures and thermal monitoring system.

  11. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2004-05-12

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

  12. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  13. X-Ray Detection Visits the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Luis; Farinha, Ana; Pinto, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Film has been used to detect x-rays since the early days of their discovery by Rontgen. Although nowadays superseded by other techniques, film still provides a cheap means of x-ray detection, making it attractive in high-school or undergraduate university courses. If some sort of quantitative result is required, the film's optical absorbance or…

  14. The future in X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, Günther

    2015-08-01

    I will chair this "Way Forward" discusson about the future in X-ray Surveys at the Focus Meeting #6Cosmological X-ray Surveys: probing the Hot and Energetic Cosmos. Participants will be R. Gilli,G. Pratt, G. Fabbiano, X. Barcons, T. Ohashi, F. Harrison.

  15. X-rays from intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, Jan

    I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.

  16. The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. Observing the Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced X ray Astronophysics Facility (AXAF) program is presented. Beginning with a brief introduction to X ray astrophysics, the AXAF observatory is described including the onboard instrumentation and system capabilities. Possible X ray sources suitable for AXAF observation are identified and defined.

  17. X-ray emission from hybrid-chromosphere stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Drake, Stephen A.; Van Steenberg, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The observations of hybrid stars made by the Exosat X-ray satellite are considered, and emphasis is placed on the hybrid star alpha TrA. Attention is focused on the determination of the column density of IS hydrogen toward the stars in order to interpret X-ray observations of stellar coronal emission. The coronal properties of alpha TrA are discussed as well as implications of the general coronal properties of hybrid stars. An analysis of the X-ray data, in conjunction with transition region properties of the star, shows that the X-ray emitting plasma is likely to have a temperature of at least 10 to the 6th K. The X-ray luminosity of the star is calculated to be about 5 x 10 to the 29th ergs/s over the 1-300 A spectral region and 7 x 10 to the 28th ergs/s in the 0.2-4 keV energy range for N(H) = 5 x 10 to the 19th /sq cm and a temperature of 10 to the 6th K.

  18. Fast Ionized X-ray Absorbers in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of X-ray ionization of MHD accretion-disk wind models in an effort to explain the highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) identified as X-ray absorbers recently detected in various sub-classes of Seyfert AGNs. Our primary focus is to show that magnetically-driven outflows are physically plausible candidates to account for the AGN X-ray spectroscopic observations. We calculate its X-ray ionization and the ensuing X-ray absorption line spectra in comparison with an XXM-Newton/EPIC spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert AGN, PG 1211+143. We find, through identifying the detected features with Fe Kα transitions, that the absorber has a characteristic ionization parameter of log(xi[erg cm/s]) = 5-6 and a hydrogen-equivalent column density on the order of 1e23 cm-2, outflowing at a sub-relativistic velocity of v/c = 0.1-0.2. The best-fit model favors its radial location at R = 200 Rs (Rs is the Schwarzschild radius), with a disk inner truncation radius at Rt = 30Rs. The overall K-shell feature in data is suggested to be dominated by Fe XXV with very little contribution from Fe XXVI and weakly-ionized iron, which is in a good agreement with a series of earlier analysis of the UFOs in various AGNs including PG 1211+143.

  19. Constraining MHD Disk-Winds with X-ray Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, F.; Shrader, C. R.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2014-01-01

    From the state-of-the-art spectroscopic observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the robust features of absorption lines (e.g. most notably by H/He-like ions), called warm absorbers (WAs), have been often detected in soft X-rays (< 2 keV). While the identified WAs are often mildly blueshifted to yield line-of-sight velocities up to ~100-3,000 km/sec in typical X-ray-bright Seyfert 1 AGNs, a fraction of Seyfert galaxies such as PG 1211+143 exhibits even faster absorbers (v/ 0.1-0.2) called ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) whose physical condition is much more extreme compared with the WAs. Motivated by these recent X-ray data we show that the magnetically- driven accretion-disk wind model is a plausible scenario to explain the characteristic property of these X-ray absorbers. As a preliminary case study we demonstrate that the wind model parameters (e.g. viewing angle and wind density) can be constrained by data from PG 1211+143 at a statistically significant level with chi-squared spectral analysis. Our wind models can thus be implemented into the standard analysis package, XSPEC, as a table spectrum model for general analysis of X-ray absorbers.

  20. X-ray emission from hybrid-chromosphere stars

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Drake, S.A.; Van steenberg, M.E. NIST, Boulder, CO ST Systems Corp., Lanham, MD NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1991-06-01

    The observations of hybrid stars made by the Exosat X-ray satellite are considered, and emphasis is placed on the hybrid star alpha TrA. Attention is focused on the determination of the column density of IS hydrogen toward the stars in order to interpret X-ray observations of stellar coronal emission. The coronal properties of alpha TrA are discussed as well as implications of the general coronal properties of hybrid stars. An analysis of the X-ray data, in conjunction with transition region properties of the star, shows that the X-ray emitting plasma is likely to have a temperature of at least 10 to the 6th K. The X-ray luminosity of the star is calculated to be about 5 {times} 10 to the 29th ergs/s over the 1-300 A spectral region and 7 {times} 10 to the 28th ergs/s in the 0.2-4 keV energy range for N(H) = 5 {times} 10 to the 19th /sq cm and a temperature of 10 to the 6th K. 41 refs.

  1. Next generation x-ray all-sky monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Peele, A. G.; Nugent, K. A.

    1997-01-10

    We set forth a conceptual design for x-ray all-sky monitor based on lobster-eye wide-field telescopes. This instrument, suitable for a small satellite, would monitor the flux of objects as faint as 2x10{sup -15} W/m{sup 2} (0.5-2.4 keV) on a daily basis with a signal-to-noise of 5. Sources would be located to 1-2 arc-minutes. Detailed simulations show that crosstalk from the cruciform lobster images would not significantly compromise performance. At this sensitivity limit, we could monitor not just x-ray binaries but fainter classes of x-ray sources. Hundreds of active galactic nuclei, coronal sources, and cataclysmic variables could be tracked on a daily basis. Large numbers of fast transients should be visible, including gamma-ray bursts and the soft x-ray breakout of nearby type II supernovae. Long-term x-ray measurements will advance our understanding of the geometries and perhaps masses of AGN, and coronal energy sources in stars.

  2. X-Ray States of Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as "redbacks," constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L X), between (6-9) × 1032 erg s-1 (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 1033 erg s-1 (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L X in the pulsar state (>1032 erg s-1).

  3. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown.

  4. The X-Ray Globular Cluster Population in NGC 1399

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on X-ray sources detected in the Chandra images of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1399 and identified with globular clusters (GCs). The 8'x 8' Chandra image shows that a large fraction of the 2-10 keV X-ray emission is resolved into point sources, with a luminosity threshold of 5 x 10 (exp 37) ergs s-1. These sources are most likely Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs). More than 70% of the X-ray sources, in a region imaged by Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are located within GCs. Many of these sources have super-Eddington luminosity (for an accreting neutron star) and their average luminosity is higher than the remaining sources. This association suggests that, in giant elliptical galaxies, luminous X-ray binaries preferentially form in GCs. The spectral properties of the GC and non-GC sources are in most cases similar to those of LMXBs in our galaxy. Two of the brightest sources, one of which is in GC, have a much softer spectra as seen in the high state black hole. The "apparent" super-Eddington luminosity in many cases may be due to multiple LMXB systems within individual GC, but with some of the most extreme luminous systems containing massive black holes.

  5. X-ray-based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, H. A.; Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of X-rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard X-rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The X-rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary X-ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of X-rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  6. X ray based displacement measurement for hostile environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canistraro, Howard A.; Jordon, Eric H.; Pease, Douglas M.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    1992-01-01

    A new method on noncontacting, high temperature extensometry based on the focus and scanning of x rays is currently under development and shows great promise of overcoming limitations associated with available techniques. The chief advantage is the ability to make undisturbed measurements through stratified or flowing gases, smoke, and flame. The system is based on the ability to focus and scan low energy, hard x rays such as those emanating from copper or molybdenum sources. The x rays are focused into a narrow and intense line image which can be scanned onto targets that fluoresce secondary x ray radiation. The final goal of the system is the ability to conduct macroscopic strain measurements in hostile environments by utilizing two or more fluorescing targets. Current work is limited to displacement measurement of a single target with a resolution of 1.25 micro-m and a target temperature of 1200 C, directly through an open flame. The main advantage of the technique lies in the penetrating nature of x rays which are not affected by the presence of refracting gas layers, smoke, flame, or intense thermal radiation, all of which could render conventional extensometry methods inoperative or greatly compromise their performance.

  7. Ultraviolet Channeling Dynamics in Gaseous Media for X -- Ray Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkindale, John Charters

    The development of a coherent high brightness / short duration X -- ray source has been of considerable interest to the scientific community as well as various industries since the invention of the technology. Possible applications include X -- ray lithography, biological micro-imaging and the probing of molecular and atomic dynamics. One such source under investigation involves the interaction of a high pulsed power KrF UV laser with a noble gas target (krypton or xenon), producing a photon energy from 1 -- 5 keV. Amplification in this regime requires materials with very special properties found in spatially organized hollow atom clusters. One of the driving forces behind X -- ray production is the UV laser. Theoretical analysis shows that above a critical laser power, the formation of a stable plasma channel in the gaseous medium will occur which can act as a guide for the X-ray pulse and co-propagating UV beam. These plasma channels are visualized with a triple pinhole camera, axial and transverse von Hamos spectrometers and a Thomson scattering setup. In order to understand observed channel morphologies, full characterization of the drive laser was achieved using a Transient Grating -- Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (TG-FROG) technique which gives a full temporal representation of the electric field and associated phase of the ultrashort pulse. Insights gleaned from the TG -- FROG data as well as analysis of photodiode diagnostics placed along the UV laser amplification chain provide explanations for the plasma channel morphology and X -- ray output.

  8. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  9. Handbook Of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, R. K.; Siemiginowska, A.; Edgar, R. J.; Grant, C. E.; Kuntz, K. D.; Schwartz, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    This poster advertises a book to be published in September 2011 by Cambridge University Press. Written for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers who want to start working in this field, this book is a practical guide to x-ray astronomy. The handbook begins with x-ray optics, basic detector physics and CCDs, before focussing on data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of x-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The book describes the main hardware used in x-ray astronomy, emphasizing the implications for data analysis. The concepts behind common x-ray astronomy data analysis software are explained. The appendices present reference material often required during data analysis.

  10. X-ray diffraction: instrumentation and applications.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Udriştioiu, Elena Gabriela; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. It provides information on structures, phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters, such as average grain size, crystallinity, strain, and crystal defects. X-ray diffraction peaks are produced by constructive interference of a monochromatic beam of X-rays scattered at specific angles from each set of lattice planes in a sample. The peak intensities are determined by the distribution of atoms within the lattice. Consequently, the X-ray diffraction pattern is the fingerprint of periodic atomic arrangements in a given material. This review summarizes the scientific trends associated with the rapid development of the technique of X-ray diffraction over the past five years pertaining to the fields of pharmaceuticals, forensic science, geological applications, microelectronics, and glass manufacturing, as well as in corrosion analysis.

  11. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  12. X-rays from hot subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, Sandro; La Palombara, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to the high sensitivity of the instruments on board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, it has become possible to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs. The small but growing sample of hot subdwarfs detected in X-rays includes binary systems, in which the X-rays result from wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star), as well as isolated sdO stars in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low mass stars provide information which can be useful also for our understanding of the winds of more luminous and massive early-type stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems.

  13. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  14. Recent X-ray Variability of eta Carinae: the Quick Road to Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. Francis; Hamaguchi, K.; Pittard, J. M.; Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P.; Parkin, E. R.; Okazaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report continued monitoring of the superluminous binary system eta Car by the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-ray Timing Observatory (RXTE) through the 2009 X-ray minimum. The RXTE campaign shows that the minimum began on 2009 January 16, consistent with the phasings of the two previous minima, and overall, the temporal behavior of the X-ray emission was similar to that observed by RXTE in the previous two cycles. However, important differences did occur. The 2-10 keV X-ray flux and X-ray hardness decreased in the 2.5-year interval leading up to the 2009 minimum compared to the previous cycle. Most intriguingly, the 2009 X-ray minimum was about one month shorter than either of the previous two minima. During the egress from the 2009 minimum the X-ray hardness increased markedly as it had during egress from the previous two minima, although the maximum X-ray hardness achieved was less than the maximum observed after the two previous recoveries. We suggest that the cycle-to-cycle variations, especially the unexpectedly early recovery from the 2009 X-ray minimum, might have been the result of a decline in eta Car's wind momentum flux produced by a drop in eta Car's mass loss rate or wind terminal velocity (or some combination), though if so the change in wind momentum flux required to match the X-ray variation is surprisingly large.

  15. Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

    2011-09-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

  16. Detection of x ray sources in PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deponte, J.; Primini, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of detecting discrete sources in x-ray images has much in common with the problem of automatic source detection at other wavelengths. In all cases, one searches for positive brightness enhancements exceeding a certain threshold, which appear consistent with what one expects for a point source, in the presence of a (possibly) spatially variable background. Multidimensional point spread functions (e.g., dependent on detector position and photon energy) are also common. At the same time, the problem in x-ray astronomy has some unique aspects. For example, for typical x-ray exposures in current or recent observatories, the number of available pixels far exceeds the number of actual x-ray events, so Poisson, rather than Gaussian statistics apply. Further, extended cosmic x-ray sources are common, and one often desires to detect point sources in the vicinity or even within bright, diffuse x-ray emission. Finally, support structures in x-ray detectors often cast sharp shadows in x-ray images making it necessary to detect sources in a region of rapidly varying exposure. We have developed a source detection package within the IRAF/PROS environment which attempts to deal with some of the problems of x-ray source detection. We have patterned our package after the successful Einstein Observatory x-ray source detection programs. However, we have attempted to improve the flexibility and accessibility of the functions and to provide a graphical front-end for the user. Our philosophy has been to use standard IRAF tasks whenever possible for image manipulation and to separate general functions from mission-specific ones. We will report on the current status of the package and discuss future developments, including simulation tasks, to allow the user to assess detection efficiency and source significance, tasks to determine source intensity, and alternative detection algorithms.

  17. X-ray Polarization from High Mass Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Timothy

    show that atomic processes dominate the HMXB X-ray spectrum at low energies, more and at higher energies close to eclipse in systems where the X-ray ionization is moderate or low. Resonance line scattering can produce polarization; other atomic processes are polarization neutral or produce unpolarized radiation. These processes are coupled to the dynamical properties of the wind, and its ionization, so models must incorporate these effects. In this sense HMXB winds resemble the warm absorbers which are seen in the Chandra and XMM-Newton spectra of many active galaxies (AGN) . The goal of the proposed research is to develop a comprehensive theory for the X-ray polarization properties of HMXBs. These will take into account the properties of the stellar wind and accretion flow: its dynamics, ionization and heating under the combined influence of the early-type companion star and the accreting compact object. Also, the non-LTE opacity properties of the wind, and the transfer of X-ray photons from the compact object through the wind. The polarization imprinted by electron scattering and resonance scattering in lines will be calculated including the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections dictated by quantum mechanics. We will model the wind hydrodynamics in three-dimensions, since scattering depends on the density distribution and velocity fields. We will take the intrinsic polarization of the compact object as given by, for example, existing models for magnetic accretion in the case of accreting pulsars, and with the confidence that this can be disentangled in real data using timing and energy dependence. Our work will provide us with a tool which can also be applied to predictions of polarization in wider classes of sources.

  18. (Bayesian) Inference for X-ray Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Fourier techniques have been incredibly successful in describing variability of X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The detection and characterization of both broadband noise components and quasi-periodic oscillations as well as their behavior in the context of spectral changes during XRB outbursts has become an important tool for studying the physical processes of accretion and ejection in these systems. In this talk, I will review state-of-the-art techniques for characterizing variability in compact objects and show how these methods help us understand the causes of the observed variability and how we may use it to probe fundamental physics. Despite numerous successes, however, it has also become clear that many scientific questions cannot be answered with traditional timing methods alone. I will therefore also present recent advances, some in the time domain like CARMA, to modeling variability with generative models and discuss where these methods might lead us in the future.

  19. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

  20. Comparison of Single Event Transients Generated by Short Pulsed X-Rays, Lasers and Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoza, David; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Tockstein, Michael A.; Brewe, Dale L.; Wells, Nathan P.; Koga, Rokutaro; Gaab, K. M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Moss, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the transients generated by pulsed x-rays, heavy ions, and different laser wavelengths in a Si p-i-n photodiode. We compare the charge collected by all of the excitation methods to determine the equivalent LET for pulsed x-rays relative to heavy ions. Our comparisons show that pulsed x-rays from synchrotron sources can generate a large range of equivalent LET and generate transients similar to those excited by laser pulses and heavy ion strikes. We also look at how the pulse width of the transients changes for the different excitation methods. We show that the charge collected with pulsed x-rays is greater than expected as the x-ray photon energy increases. Combined with their capability of focusing to small spot sizes and of penetrating metallization, pulsed x-rays are a promising new tool for high resolution screening of SEE susceptibility

  1. Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.

    2009-09-13

    We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray topography and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang topography revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray topography shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.

  2. X-Rays and Infrared Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirhakos, S. D.; Steiner, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la busqueda de nucleos activos galacticos (NAG) oscurecidos, seleccionamos una tnuestra de galaxias ernisoras de rayos S infrarrojos, Ia mayoria de las cuales son vistas de perf ii. La 6ptica de la regi6n nuclear de las galaxias seleccionadas revelan que el 76% de ellas muestran lineas de emisi5n La clasificaci6n de los es- pectros de acuerdo a los anchos y a la intensidad de cocientes de lineas muestran que existen 34 NAG, 34 objetos de tipo de transici6n y 34 galaxias de la regi6n con nucleos de tipo regi6n H II. Entre los NAG, 3 son del tipo Seyfert I y las otras son del tipo 2. Sugerimos que los objetos identificados como NAG de llneas angostas son objetos tipo Seyfert I oscurecidos ABSTRACT. Looking for obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN), we selected a sample of infrarediX-rays emitting galaxies, mos"t of which are seen as edge-on. Optical spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the selected galaxies revealed that 76 % of them show emission l 'nes. Classification of the spectra according to the widths and line intensity ratios shows that there are 34 AGN, 34 transition type objects and 43 nuclear HIl-like region galaxies. Among the AGN, three are Seyfert type 1 and the others are type 2 objects. We suggest that the objects identified as narrow line AGN are obscured Seyfert 1. o'L : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - X-RAY S-GENERAL

  3. X-ray observations of black widow pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, P. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Camilo, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kerr, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2014-03-10

    We describe the first X-ray observations of five short orbital period (P{sub B} < 1 day), γ-ray emitting, binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Four of these—PSRs J0023+0923, J1124–3653, J1810+1744, and J2256–1024—are 'black-widow' pulsars, with degenerate companions of mass <<0.1 M {sub ☉}, three of which exhibit radio eclipses. The fifth source, PSR J2215+5135, is an eclipsing 'redback' with a near Roche-lobe filling ∼0.2 solar mass non-degenerate companion. Data were taken using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and covered a full binary orbit for each pulsar. Two pulsars, PSRs J2215+5135 and J2256–1024, show significant orbital variability while PSR J1124–3653 shows marginal orbital variability. The lightcurves for these three pulsars have X-ray flux minima coinciding with the phases of the radio eclipses. This phenomenon is consistent with an intrabinary shock emission interpretation for the X-rays. The other two pulsars, PSRs J0023+0923 and J1810+1744, are fainter and do not demonstrate variability at a level we can detect in these data. All five spectra are fit with three separate models: a power-law model, a blackbody model, and a combined model with both power-law and blackbody components. The preferred spectral fits yield power-law indices that range from 1.3 to 3.2 and blackbody temperatures in the hundreds of eV. The spectrum for PSR J2215+5135 shows a significant hard X-ray component, with a large number of counts above 2 keV, which is additional evidence for the presence of intrabinary shock emission. This is similar to what has been detected in the low-mass X-ray binary to MSP transition object PSR J1023+0038.

  4. Towards practical soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, A P; Morin, C; Heng, Y M; Cornelius, R M; Brash, J L

    2002-01-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is being developed as a new tool to study the surface chemical morphology and biointeractions of candidate biomaterials with emphasis on blood compatible polymers. STXM is a synchrotron based technique which provides quantitative chemical mapping at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Chemical speciation is provided by the near edge X-ray absorption spectral (NEXAFS) signal. We show that STXM can detect proteins on soft X-ray transparent polymer thin films with monolayer sensitivity. Of great significance is the fact that measurements can be made in situ, i.e. in the presence of an overlayer of the protein solution. The strengths, limitations and future potential of STXM for studies of biomaterials are discussed.

  5. X-RAY TRANSIENTS: HYPER- OR HYPO-LUMINOUS?

    SciTech Connect

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Dubus, Guillaume; King, Andrew R. E-mail: lasota@iap.fr

    2015-03-01

    The disk instability picture gives a plausible explanation for the behavior of soft X-ray transient systems if self-irradiation of the disk is included. We show that there is a simple relation between the peak luminosity (at the start of an outburst) and the decay timescale. We use this relation to place constraints on systems assumed to undergo disk instabilities. The observable X-ray populations of elliptical galaxies must largely consist of long-lived transients, as deduced on different grounds by Piro and Bildsten (2002). The strongly varying X-ray source HLX-1 in the galaxy ESO 243-49 can be modeled as disk instability of a highly super-Eddington stellar-mass binary similar to SS 433. A fit to the disk instability picture is not possible with an intermediate-mass black hole model for HLX-1. Other recently identified super-Eddington ULXs might be subject to disk instability.

  6. Probing Transient Electron Dynamics Using Ultrafast X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucksbaum, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Linear x-ray absorption in atoms or molecules creates highly excited multi-electron quantum systems, which relax rapidly by fluorescence or Auger emission. These relaxation rates are usually less than a few femtoseconds in duration, and so they can reveal transient elecronic states in molecules as they undergo photo-induced transformations. I will show recent results from femtosecond x-ray experiments that display this phenomenon. There are efforts underway to push the temporal resolving power of ultrafast x-ray pulses into the attosecond regime, using stronger fields to initiate nonlinear absorption processes such as transient stimulated electronic Raman scattering. I will discuss current progress and future prospects for research in this area. This research is supported through Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Lab by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science Program.

  7. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an extraordinary first image from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, tracing the aftermath of a gigantic stellar explosion in such sturning detail that scientists can see evidence of what may be a neutron star or black hole near the center. The red, green, and blue regions in this image of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A show where the intensity of low, medium, and high energy X-rays, respectively, is greatest. The red material on the left outer edge is enriched in iron, whereas the bright greenish white region on the low left is enriched in silicon and sulfur. In the blue region on the right edge, low and medium energy X-rays have been filtered out by a cloud of dust and gas in the remnant . The image was made with the CXO's Advanced Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Photo credit: NASA/CXC/SAO/Rutgers/J.Hughes

  8. X-rays from the episodic dust maker WR 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhekov, Svetozar A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observation of the episodic dust maker WR 137. Global spectral fits show that its X-ray spectrum is well matched by a two-temperature optically-thin plasma emission (kT1 ˜ 0.4 keV and kT2 ˜ 2.2 keV). If we adopt the colliding stellar wind (CSW) picture for this wide WR+O binary, the theoretical CSW spectra match well the shape of the observed X-ray spectrum of WR 137 but they overestimate the observed flux (emission measure) by about two orders of magnitude. To reconcile the model predictions with observations, the mass-loss of WR 137 must be reduced considerably (by about an order of magnitude) with respect to its currently accepted value. In all the spectral fits, the derived X-ray absorption is consistent with the optical extinction to WR 137.

  9. Very faint X-ray binaries with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2016-06-01

    A population of very faint X-ray binaries has been discovered in the last years thanks to the improvement in sensitivity and resolution of the new generations of X-ray missions. These systems show anomalously low luminosities, below 10^{36} ergs/sec, challenging our understanding of accretion physics and binary evolution models, and thereby opening new windows for both observational and theoretical work on accretion onto compact objects. XMM-Newton is playing a crucial role in the study of this dim family of objects thanks to its incomparable spectral capabilities at low luminosities. I will review the state-of-the-art of the field and present our XMM results in both black hole and neutron star objects. Finally, I will discuss the possibilities that the new generation of X-ray telescopes offer for this research line.

  10. Imaging cochlear soft tissue displacement with coherent x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Christoph; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-10-01

    At present, imaging of cochlear mechanics at mid-cochlear turns has not been accomplished. Although challenging, this appears possible with partially coherent hard x-rays. The present study shows results from stroboscopic x-ray imaging of a test object at audio frequencies. The vibration amplitudes were quantified. In a different set of experiments, an intact and calcified gerbil temporal bone was used to determine displacements of the reticular lamina, tectorial membrane, and Reissner’s membrane with the Lucas and Kanade video flow algorithm. The experiments validated high frequency x-ray imaging and imaging in a calcified cochlea. The present work is key for future imaging of cochlear micromechanics at a high spatial resolution.

  11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  12. Coherent grating x-ray diffraction (CGXD) and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Q.

    1996-09-01

    We show that an x-ray interference phenomenon, coherent grating x-ray diffraction (CGXD), can be used to study lateral nanostructure arrays on crystal surfaces and interfaces. Compared to Fraunhofer grating diffraction of visible light, x-ray grating diffraction contains information not only about geometric profiles of the surface but also about the internal crystalline structures and lattice strain distributions in the grating features. The grating diffraction pattern can also be measured in a white-beam Laue method using highly collimated polychromatic synchrotron radiation, which provides a parallel data collection scheme and may be useful in {ital in} {ital situ} studies on evolution of nanostructure arrays. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. X-ray induced dimerization of cinnamic acid: Time-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering study

    PubMed Central

    Inkinen, Juho; Niskanen, Johannes; Talka, Tuomas; Sahle, Christoph J.; Müller, Harald; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Hashemi, Javad; Akbari, Ali; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2015-01-01

    A classic example of solid-state topochemical reactions is the ultraviolet-light induced photodimerization of α-trans-cinnamic acid (CA). Here, we report the first observation of an X-ray-induced dimerization of CA and monitor it in situ using nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (NRIXS). The time-evolution of the carbon core-electron excitation spectra shows the effects of two X-ray induced reactions: dimerization on a short time-scale and disintegration on a long time-scale. We used spectrum simulations of CA and its dimerization product, α-truxillic acid (TA), to gain insight into the dimerization effects. From the time-resolved spectra, we extracted component spectra and time-dependent weights corresponding to CA and TA. The results suggest that the X-ray induced dimerization proceeds homogeneously in contrast to the dimerization induced by ultraviolet light. We also utilized the ability of NRIXS for direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast to image the spatial progress of the reactions in the sample crystal. Our work paves the way for other time-resolved studies on chemical reactions using inelastic X-ray scattering. PMID:26568420

  14. X-ray induced dimerization of cinnamic acid: Time-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkinen, Juho; Niskanen, Johannes; Talka, Tuomas; Sahle, Christoph J.; Müller, Harald; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Hashemi, Javad; Akbari, Ali; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2015-11-01

    A classic example of solid-state topochemical reactions is the ultraviolet-light induced photodimerization of α-trans-cinnamic acid (CA). Here, we report the first observation of an X-ray-induced dimerization of CA and monitor it in situ using nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (NRIXS). The time-evolution of the carbon core-electron excitation spectra shows the effects of two X-ray induced reactions: dimerization on a short time-scale and disintegration on a long time-scale. We used spectrum simulations of CA and its dimerization product, α-truxillic acid (TA), to gain insight into the dimerization effects. From the time-resolved spectra, we extracted component spectra and time-dependent weights corresponding to CA and TA. The results suggest that the X-ray induced dimerization proceeds homogeneously in contrast to the dimerization induced by ultraviolet light. We also utilized the ability of NRIXS for direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast to image the spatial progress of the reactions in the sample crystal. Our work paves the way for other time-resolved studies on chemical reactions using inelastic X-ray scattering.

  15. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  16. X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.; Dessart, L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Gehrels, N.; Petre, R.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Chevalier, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Koss, M.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kelley, M. T.; Weiler, K. W.; Holland, S. T.; Pian, E.; Roming, P. W. A.; Pooley, D.; Nomoto, K.; Greiner, J.; Campana, S.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SW shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift observatory. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 sigmalevel of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the (0.2-10 keV band) X-ray luminosity of L(sub 0.2-10) = (1.8 plus or minus 0.4) x l0(exp 39 ergs s(exp -1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM), deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M is approximately 2x10(exp -6) solar mass yr(exp -1) (v(sub w)/10 km s(exp -l) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is one of the lowest ever recorded for a core-collapse SN and consistent with the non-detection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline Lx, varies as t(exp -n) with index n = 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak and since Type IIP SNe have an extended 'plateau' phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (approximately 10-100), inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that Inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission. The fast evolution of the optical/ultraviolet (1900-5500A) spectral energy distribution and the spectral changes observed with Swift reveal the onset of metal line-blanketing and

  17. Recent X-ray Variability of Eta Car Approaching The X-ray Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.; Swank, J. H.; Ishibashi, K.; Gull, T.; Humphreys, R.; Damineli, A.; Walborn, N.; Hillier, D. J.; Davidson, K.; White, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss recent X-ray spectral variability of the supermassive star Eta Car in the interval since the last X-ray eclipse in 1998. We concentrate on the interval just prior to the next X-ray eclipse which is expected to occur in June 2003. We compare the X-ray behavior during the 2001-2003 cycle with the previous cycle (1996-1998) and note similarities and differences in the temporal X-ray behavior. We also compare a recent X-ray observation of Eta Car obtained with the Chandra high energy transmission grating in October 2002 with an earlier observation from Nov 2002, and interpret these results in terms of the proposed colliding wind binary model for the star. In addition we discuss planned observations for the upcoming X-ray eclipse.

  18. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: Chest x-ray screening examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Five chest x-ray referral criteria statements have been developed and unanimously endorsed by a panel of physicians convened as part of a major voluntary cooperative effort between FDA's National Center for Devices and Radiological Health (NCDRH) and the medical professional community. The referral criteria statements include recommendations concerning the following applications of chest x-ray screening: mandated routine chest x-ray screening examinations, routine prenatal chest x-ray examinations, routine hospital admission chest x-ray examinations, chest x-ray examinations for tuberculosis detection and control, and routine chest x-ray examinations for occupational medicine. The complete text of the five referral criterial statements plus a brief discussion of the rationale for the development of each statement is presented.

  19. Observation of living cells by x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hazime; Majima, Toshikazu; Yamada, Mitsuo; Kanayama, Toshihiko; Yano, M.; Kondo, H.

    1991-12-01

    We studied laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source for x-ray microscopy. Using water- window x rays, contact x-ray images of living sea urchin sperm were taken by a 500 picosecond x-ray pulse. The resist relief was examined by atomic force microscope and informations characteristic of x-ray microscopy were obtained. The finest feature noticed in the x-ray image was 0.1 micrometers .

  20. A 0535+26: an X-ray/Optical Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Coe, M. J.; Steele, I.; Caballero, I.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Suso, J.; McBride, V. A.; Rodríguez, J.

    2011-09-01

    We compiled X-ray and Optical observations of the accreting X-ray binary sytem A 0535+26 since its discovery in 1975, that will allow us to shed light on the unpredictible behavior of this binary system. We present the data in terms of the Be-disc interaction with the neutron star companion. In addition, we show recent results from the continous monitoring of this source by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), on board the Fermi observatory, since its launch in 2008 June 11.

  1. Detecting X-rays with an optical imaging chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    1992-01-01

    The light emitted by electron avalanches in a parallel plate chamber can be used to image the tracks of photoelectrons liberated by the interaction of an incident X-ray with the gas filling the chamber. The different morphologies of photoelectron tracks and minimum ionizing tracks can be used for charged particle rejection. The initial direction (before scattering) of the liberated photoelectron also contains information about the polarization of the incident radiation. We have built a small test chamber with which we have imaged photoelectron tracks using an intensified CCD camera. Our results show that optical imaging could be used in a hard X-ray imaging polarimeter useful for astronomy.

  2. Optical imaging chamber for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    The light emitted by electron avalanches in a parallel plate chamber can be used to image the tracks of photoelectrons liberated by the interaction of an incident X-ray with the gas filling the chamber. The differing morphologies of photoelectron tracks and high-energy charged particle tracks can be used for background rejection. The initial direction (before scattering) of the liberated photoelectron also contains information about the polarization of the incident radiation. We have built a small test chamber with which we have imaged photoelectron tracks using an intensified CCD camera. Our results show that optical imaging could be used in a hard X-ray imaging polarimeter useful for astronomy.

  3. The Be X-ray Binary Outburst Zoo II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehnel, M.; Kretschmar, P.; Nespoli, E.; Okazaki, A. T.; Schoenherr, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Falkner, S.; Brand, T.; Anders, F.; Schwarm, F.-W.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Fuerst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.

    2015-03-01

    We have continued our recently started systematic study of Be X-ray binary (BeXRB) outbursts. Specifically, we are developing a catalogue of outbursts including their basic properties based on nearly all available X-ray all-sky-monitors. These properties are derived by fitting asymmetric Gaussians to the outburst lightcurves. This model describes most of the outbursts covered by our preliminary catalogue well; only 13% of all datasets show more complex outburst shapes. Analyzing the basic properties, we reveal a strong correlation between the outburst length and the reached peak flux. As an example, we discuss possible models describing the observed correlation in EXO 2030+375.

  4. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on celestite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Yu, Shu-Cheng; Huang, Eugene; Lee, Pei-Lun

    2010-10-01

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of celestite (SrSO 4) were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. Variation in the Raman vibrational frequency and change of lattice parameters with pressure indicate that a transformation occurs in celestite. This transformation caused an adjustment in the Sr-O polyhedra that affected the stretching-force constant of SO 4. Moreover, compressibilities along the crystallographic axes decreased in the order a to c to b. From the compression data, the bulk modulus of the celestite was 87 GPa. Both X-ray and Raman data show that the transition in celestite is reversible.

  5. High energy transmission annular beam X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Dicken, Anthony; Shevchuk, Alex; Rogers, Keith; Godber, Simon; Evans, Paul

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate material phase retrieval by linearly translating extended polycrystalline samples along the symmetry axis of an annular beam of high-energy X-rays. A series of pseudo-monochromatic diffraction images are recorded from the dark region encompassed by the beam. We measure Bragg maxima from different annular gauge volumes in the form of bright spots in the X-ray diffraction intensity. We present the experiment data from three materials with different crystallographic structural properties i.e. near ideal, large grain size and preferred orientation. This technique shows great promise for analytical inspection tasks requiring highly penetrating radiation such as security screening, medicine and non-destructive testing.

  6. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2012-10-15

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  7. Opportunities for X-ray Science in Future Computing Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Ian

    2011-02-09

    The world of computing continues to evolve rapidly. In just the past 10 years, we have seen the emergence of petascale supercomputing, cloud computing that provides on-demand computing and storage with considerable economies of scale, software-as-a-service methods that permit outsourcing of complex processes, and grid computing that enables federation of resources across institutional boundaries. These trends show no sign of slowing down. The next 10 years will surely see exascale, new cloud offerings, and other terabit networks. This talk reviews various of these developments and discusses their potential implications for x-ray science and x-ray facilities.

  8. X-ray pushing of a mechanical microswing.

    PubMed

    Siria, A; Rodrigues, M S; Dhez, O; Schwartz, W; Torricelli, G; Ledenmat, S; Rochat, N; Auvert, G; Bikondoa, O; Metzger, T H; Wermeille, D; Felici, R; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2008-11-01

    We report here for the first time the combination of x-ray synchrotron light and a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). We show how it is possible to modulate in real time a MEMS mass distribution to induce a nanometric and tunable mechanical oscillation. The quantitative experimental demonstration we present here uses periodic thermal dilatation of a Ge microcrystal attached to a Si microlever, induced by controlled absorption of an intensity modulated x-ray microbeam. The mechanism proposed can be envisaged either for the detection of small heat flux or for the actuation of a mechanical system.

  9. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER.

    PubMed

    Varshney, S K; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M G; Jakhar, S

    2012-10-01

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  10. Halo suppression in full-field x-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Mokso, Rajmund; Stampanoni, Marco; David, Christian

    2014-03-15

    Visible light Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) microscopy is a well established method for imaging weakly absorbing samples. The method is also used with hard x-ray photon energies for structural evaluation of material science and biological applications. However, the method suffers from artifacts that are inherent for the Zernike image formation. In this Letter, we investigate their origin and experimentally show how to suppress them in x-ray full-field ZPC microscopy based on diffractive x-ray optics.

  11. Various clinical application of phase contrast X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Je, Jungho

    2008-02-01

    In biomedical application study using phase contrast X-ray, both sample thickness or density and absorption difference are very important factors in aspects of contrast enhancement. We present experimental evidence that synchrotron hard X-ray are suitable for radiological imaging of biological samples down to the cellular level. We investigated the potential of refractive index radiology using un-monochromatized synchrotron hard X-rays for the imaging of cell and tissue in various diseases. Material had been adopted various medical field, such as apoE knockout mouse in cardiologic field, specimen from renal and prostatic carcinoma patient in urology, basal cell epithelioma in dermatology, brain tissue from autosy sample of pakinson's disease, artificially induced artilrtis tissue from rabbits and extracted tooth from patients of crack tooth syndrome. Formalin and paraffin fixed tissue blocks were cut in 3 mm thickness for the X-ray radiographic imaging. From adjacent areas, 4 μm thickness sections were also prepared for hematoxylin-eosin staining. Radiographic images of dissected tissues were obtained using the hard X-rays from the 7B2 beamline of the Pohang Light Source (PLS). The technique used for the study was the phase contrast images were compared with the optical microscopic images of corresponding histological slides. Radiographic images of various diseased tissues showed clear histological details of organelles in normal tissues. Most of cancerous lesions were well differentiated from adjacent normal tissues and detailed histological features of each tumor were clearly identified. Also normal microstructures were identifiable by the phase contrast imaging. Tissue in cancer or other disease showed clearly different findings from those of surrounding normal tissue. For the first time we successfully demonstrated that synchrotron hard X-rays can be used for radiological imaging of relatively thick tissue samples with great histological details.

  12. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  13. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  14. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  15. X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, L.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Cerna, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Jakubek, J.; Marsikova, V.; Sieger, L.; Tichy, V.

    2014-09-01

    This work addresses the issue of X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications. The proposed wide-field optical system has not been used in space yet. The proposed novel approach is based on the use of 1D "Lobster eye" optics in combination with Timepix X-ray detector in the energy range 3 - 40 keV. The proposed project includes theoretical study and a functional sample of the Timepix X-ray detector with multifoil wide-field X-ray "Lobster eye" optics. Using optics to focus X-rays on a detector is the only solution in cases the intensity of impinging X-ray radiation is below the sensitivity of the detector, e.g. while monitoring astrophysical objects in space, or phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere. The optical system could be used in a student rocket experiment at University of Colorado. Ideal opportunity is to extend the CubeSat of Pennsylvania State University with the hard X-ray telescope demonstrator consisting of an optical module and Timepix detector.

  16. GEMS X-ray Polarimeter Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Strohmayer, Tod; Kallman, Tim; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Swank, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small explorer (GEMS) is an X-ray polarization telescope selected as a NASA small explorer satellite mission. The X-ray Polarimeter on GEMS uses a Time Projection Chamber gas proportional counter to measure the polarization of astrophysical X-rays in the 2-10 keV band by sensing the direction of the track of the primary photoelectron excited by the incident X-ray. We have simulated the expected sensitivity of the polarimeter to polarized X-rays. We use the simulation package Penelope to model the physics of the interaction of the initial photoelectron with the detector gas and to determine the distribution of charge deposited in the detector volume. We then model the charge diffusion in the detector,and produce simulated track images. Within the track reconstruction algorithm we apply cuts on the track shape and focus on the initial photoelectron direction in order to maximize the overall sensitivity of the instrument, using this technique we have predicted instrument modulation factors nu(sub 100) for 100% polarized X-rays ranging from 10% to over 60% across the 2-10 keV X-ray band. We also discuss the simulation program used to develop and model some of the algorithms used for triggering, and energy measurement of events in the polarimeter.

  17. Modeling X-ray emission around galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-04-10

    Extended X-ray emission can be studied by spatial surface brightness measurements or by spectral analysis, but the two methods can disagree at low intensity levels. Here we present an improved method for spatial analysis that can be extended to include spectral information simultaneously. We construct a model for the entire image in a given energy band and generate a likelihood function to compare the model to the data. A critical goal is disentangling vignetted and unvignetted backgrounds through their different spatial distributions. Employing either maximum likelihood or Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we can derive probability distributions for the source and background parameters together, or we can fit and subtract the background, leaving the description of the source non-parametric. We calibrate this method against a variety of simulated images, and apply it to Chandra observations of the hot gaseous halo around the elliptical galaxy NGC 720. We follow the emission below a tenth of the background and infer a hot gas mass within 35 kpc of 4-5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with some indication that the profile continues to at least 50 kpc and that it steepens. We derive stronger constraints on the surface brightness profile than previous studies that employed the spectral method, and we show that the density profiles inferred from these studies are in conflict with the observed surface brightness profile. Contrary to a previous claim, we find that the X-ray halo does not contain the full complement of missing baryons within the virial radius.

  18. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  19. A glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube based on carbon nanotube emitter for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Seung Jun; Jeong, Jaeik; Ahn, Jeung Sun; Park, Hunkuk; Kwak, Junghwan; Noh, Eunkyong; Paik, Sanghyun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Ryu, Jehwang

    2016-04-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a carbon nanotube based a glass-sealed field emission x-ray tube without vacuum pump. The x-ray tube consists of four electrodes with anode, focuser, gate, and cathode electrode. The shape of cathode is rectangular for isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The obtained x-ray images show clearly micrometer scale.

  20. A flying spot x-ray system for Compton backscatter imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, M.D.; McInerney, J.J.; Copenhaver, G.L. ); Lamser, D.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A Compton x-ray backscatter imaging (CBI) system using a single detector and a mechanically rastered flying spot'' x-ray beam has been designed, built, and tested. While retaining the essential noninvasive imaging capability of previous multiple detector CBI devices, this single detector system incorporates several advances over earlier CBI devices: more efficient detection of scattered x-rays, reduced x-ray exposure, and a simplified scan protocol more suitable for use with humans. This new CBI system also has specific design features to permit automating data acquisition from multiple two-dimensional image planes for integration into a 3-D dynamic surface image. A simulated multislice scan study of a human thorax phantom provided x-ray dosimetry data verifying a very low x-ray dose delivered by this imaging device. Validation experiments with mechanical models show that surface displacement of typical heart beam frequencies can be measured to the nearest 0.1 mm (SD).

  1. THE HARD X-RAY BEHAVIOR OF AQL X-1 DURING TYPE-I BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Peng; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Ji, Long; Li, Jian; Wang, Jian-Min; Torres, Diego F.; Kretschmar, Peter E-mail: szhang@ihep.ac.cn

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery of an anti-correlation between the soft and hard X-ray light curves of the X-ray binary Aql X-1 when bursting. This behavior may indicate that the corona is cooled by the soft X-ray shower fed by the type-I X-ray bursts, and that this process happens within a few seconds. Stacking the Aql X-1 light curves of type-I bursts, we find a shortage in the 40-50 keV band, delayed by 4.5 ± 1.4 s with respect to the soft X-rays. The photospheric radius expansion bursts are different in that neither a shortage nor an excess shows up in the hard X-ray light curve.

  2. Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, J; Scherz, A

    2015-09-01

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here, we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the resonant absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a resonant superradiantlike effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers. PMID:26382702

  3. Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöhr, J.; Scherz, A.

    2015-09-01

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here, we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the resonant absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a resonant superradiantlike effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  4. Large area x-ray collimator-the zone plate approach.

    PubMed

    Menz, Benedikt; Braig, Christoph; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Predehl, Peter

    2015-09-10

    One question of particular interest in the measurement of x-ray imaging optics for space telescopes concerns the characteristics of the point spread function (PSF) in orbit and the focal length for an infinite source distance. In order to measure such a PSF, a parallel x-ray beam with a diameter of several centimeters to meters is required. For this purpose a large area transmission x-ray zone plate (ZP) for collimating x-ray beams has been designed, built, and tested. Furthermore we present a setup to determine large-scale aberrations of the collimated beam. From x-ray measurements we obtain an upper limit for the angular resolution of ±0.2 arc sec and a first-order diffraction efficiency of ≈13%. These results show that it is possible to use a ZP as a collimator for the PANTER x-ray test facility. PMID:26368954

  5. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE NEXT GEMINGA, PSR J1836+5925

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L. C. C.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y.; Li, K. T.; Takata, J.; Hu, C. P.; Chou, Y.; Yen, D. C. C.

    2014-09-20

    We report recent XMM-Newton investigations of PSR J1836+5925, the ''next Geminga'', which determined an X-ray pulsation of ∼173.3 ms. Its X-ray periodicity is consistent with the γ-ray ephemeris at the same epoch. The X-ray folded light curve has a sinusoidal structure that is different from the double-peaked γ-ray pulse profile. We have also analyzed the X-ray phase-averaged spectra which shows that the X-ray emission from PSR J1836+5925 is thermal dominant. This suggests that the X-ray pulsation mainly originates from the modulated hot spot on the stellar surface.

  6. The X-Ray Properties of the Dwarf Nova V893 Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, K.; Zietsman, E.; Still, M.

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted littleattention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an RXTE all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here we report on the first ever pointed X-ray observation of this object using Suzaku. We confirm V893 Sco to be an X-ray bright dwarf nova, although the flux we measure is 30 than the XSS flux. We then consider the reliability of the X-ray luminosity function of dwarf novae inferred from the XSS. Finally, we analyze the X-ray light curve of V893 Sco and show that it has a partial X-ray eclipse.

  7. x-ray irradiation analysis based on wavelet transform in tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, K; Ghoranneviss, M; Elahi, A Salar; Saviz, S

    2014-01-01

    Hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons is an important issue in tokamaks. Suggesting methods to reduce the Runaway electrons and therefore the emitted hard x-ray is important for tokamak plasma operation. In this manuscript, we have investigated the effects of external fields on hard x-ray intensity and Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) activity. In other words, we have presented the effects of positive biased limiter and Resonant Helical Field (RHF) on the MHD fluctuations and hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons. MHD activity and hard x-ray intensity were analyzed using Wavelet transform in the presence of external fields and without them. The results show that the MHD activity and therefore the hard x-ray intensity can be controlled by the external electric and magnetic fields.

  8. Research on reducing radiation exposure for clinical applications of X-ray attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Cheol; Han, Man-Seok; So, Woon-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at identifing areas with low radiation exposure where workers could be taken in the examination room in case that they had to hold the patients by estimating the attenuation of primary radiation and measuring the spatial distribution of scattered radiation. The laboratory equipment included on the X-ray generator, a phantom (human phantom), and a dosimeter. The experiment measured the performance of the examination system (dose reproducibility), the dose of primary radiation (X-rays), and the dose of scattered radiation (secondary radiation). Both the primary and the scattered radiation were attenuated by a factor of tube in vacuum experimental tests of the inverse square law. In this study, the attenuation was 2 ˜ 2.246 for primary radiation and 2 ˜ 2.105 for secondary radiation. Natural attenuation occurred as the X-rays passed through air, and an attenuation equation was established in this study. The equation for primary radiation (1st dose) was y = A1* exp(- x/t1)+ y0. The high-intensity contour of the direction for the cathode was wider than that of the direction for the anode, showing a wide range on the rear side of the cathode and on the rear side of the anode. We tried to find the positions where the workers' radiation exposure could be reduced. When the medical radiation workers have to hold the patient for an abdominal examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the left side of the patient. For a lumbar-spine lateral examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and behind the patient, and for a femur AP (anterior-posterior) examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the right side of the patient.

  9. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  10. Imaging Cellular Architecture with X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Larabell, Carolyn A.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray imaging of biological samples is progressing rapidly. In this paper we review the progress to date in high resolution imaging of cellular architecture. In particular we survey the progress in soft X-ray tomography and argue that the field is coming of age and that important biological insights are starting to emerge. We then review the new ideas based on coherent diffraction. These methods are at a much earlier stage of development but, as they eliminate the need for X-ray optics, have the capacity to provide substantially better spatial resolution than zone plate based methods. PMID:20869868

  11. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  12. X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Schidlovsky, G.; Smith, J.V.; Spanne, P.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The system for x-ray microscopy now being developed at the X-26 beam line of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described here. Examples of the use of x-ray microscopy for trace element geochemistry, biology and medicine, and materials investigations are given to emphasize the scientific applications of the technique. Future directions for the improvement and further development of the X-26 microscope and of the x-ray microscopy field in general are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  13. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-07-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11/sup 0/ to 38/sup 0/ and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/..delta..E > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given.

  14. X-ray phase-contrast methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lider, V. V. Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    This review is devoted to a comparative description of the methods for forming X-ray phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing (phase) objects. These include the crystal interferometer method, the Talbot interferometer method, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging, and the in-line method. The potential of their practical application in various fields of science and technology is discussed. The publications on the development and optimization of X-ray phase-contrast methods and the experimental study of phase objects are analyzed.

  15. Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, L. W.; Williams, G. J.; Quiney, H. M.; Vine, D. J.; Dilanian, R. A.; Flewett, S.; Nugent, K. A.; Peele, A. G.; Balaur, E.; McNulty, I.

    2009-12-01

    The measured spatial coherence characteristics of the illumination used in a diffractive imaging experiment are incorporated in an algorithm that reconstructs the complex transmission function of an object from experimental x-ray diffraction data using 1.4 keV x rays. Conventional coherent diffractive imaging, which assumes full spatial coherence, is a limiting case of our approach. Even in cases in which the deviation from full spatial coherence is small, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the quality of wave field reconstructions. Our formulation is applicable to x-ray and electron diffraction imaging techniques provided that the spatial coherence properties of the illumination are known or can be measured.

  16. New opportunities in X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, A. G.; Quiney, H. M.; Dhal, B. B.; Mancuso, A. P.; Arhatari, B.; Nugent, K. A.

    2006-11-01

    We discuss standard X-ray-imaging techniques. Phase-imaging methods and a new class of nano-focus and nano-resolution laboratory systems offer new opportunities in true laboratory-based X-ray microtomography with a host of possible applications that have mainly been demonstrated only at synchrotron sources. Notwithstanding these advances, the diffraction limit for X-ray-imaging methods is a long way off. We preview the link between high-resolution 'standard' imaging schemes and the new field of coherent diffractive imaging.

  17. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  18. X-ray Interferometer Using Prism Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-05-12

    Two-beam X-ray interferometer using refractive optics has been developed. A prism made of acrylic resin is used as the beam deflector for hard X-ray wavefront dividing interferometer. This configuration is the same as that of the Fresnel's bi-prism interferometer or the Leith-Upatnieks type two-beam holography in visible light region. Therefore, quantitative analysis of the degree of transversal coherence can be performed by measuring the visibility of interference fringes. It is also possible to realize two-beam holographic imaging in hard X-ray regions.

  19. A Synthesis Of Cosmic X-ray And Infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yong; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a synthesis model of cosmic IR and X-ray background, with the goal to derive a complete census of cosmic evolution of star formation (SF) and black-hole (BH) growth by complementing advantages of X-ray and IR surveys to each other. By assuming that individual galaxies are experiencing both SF and BH accretion, our model decomposes the total IR LF into SF and BH components while taking into account the luminosity-dependent SED and its dispersion of the SF component, and the extinction-dependent SED of the BH component. The best-fit parameters are derived by fitting to the number counts and redshift distributions at X-ray including both hard and soft bands, and mid-IR to submm bands including IRAS, Spitzer, Herschel, SCUBA, Aztec and MAMBO. Based on the fit result, our models provide a series of predictions on galaxy evolution and black-hole growth. For evolution of infrared galaxies, the model predicts that the total infrared luminosity function is best described through evolution in both luminosity and density. For evolution of AGN populations, the model predicts that the evolution of X-ray LF also shows luminosity and density dependent, that the type-1/type-2 AGN fraction is a function of both luminosity and redshift, and that the Compton-thick AGN number density evolves strongly with redshift, contributing about 20% to the total cosmic BH growth. For BH growth in IR galaxies, the model predicts that the majority of BH growth at z>1 occurs in infrared luminous galaxies and the AGN fraction as a function of IR survey is a strong function of the survey depth, ranging from >50% at bright end to below 10% at faint end. We also evaluates various AGN selection techniques at X-ray and IR wavelengths and offer predictions for future missions at X-ray and IR.

  20. Galactic Starburst NGC 3603 from X-Rays to Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Corcoran, M. F.; Stevens, I. R.; Skalkowski, G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Muecke, A.; Ptak, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brenneman, L.; Mushotzky, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3603 is the most massive and luminous visible starburst region in the Galaxy. We present the first Chandra/ACIS-I X-ray image and spectra of this dense, exotic object, accompanied by deep cm-wavelength ATCA radio image at similar or less than 1 inch spatial resolution, and HST/ground-based optical data. At the S/N greater than 3 level, Chandra detects several hundred X-ray point sources (compared to the 3 distinct sources seen by ROSAT). At least 40 of these sources are definitely associated with optically identified cluster O and WR type members, but most are not. A diffuse X-ray component is also seen out to approximately 2 feet (4 pc) form the center, probably arising mainly from the large number of merging/colliding hot stellar winds and/or numerous faint cluster sources. The point-source X-ray fluxes generally increase with increasing bolometric brightnesses of the member O/WR stars, but with very large scatter. Some exceptionally bright stellar X-ray sources may be colliding wind binaries. The radio image shows (1) two resolved sources, one definitely non-thermal, in the cluster core near where the X-ray/optically brightest stars with the strongest stellar winds are located, (2) emission from all three known proplyd-like objects (with thermal and non-thermal components, and (3) many thermal sources in the peripheral regions of triggered star-formation. Overall, NGC 3603 appears to be a somewhat younger and hotter, scaled-down version of typical starbursts found in other galaxies.

  1. Silver coins analyses by X-ray fluorescence methods.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Italiano, A; Cutroneo, M; Gentile, C; Torrisi, A

    2013-01-01

    The investigation on the differences occurring in the manufacture of silver coins allows to get information on their elemental composition and represents a powerful support to the methodology to identify the producing technologies, workshops being also instrumental to distinguish between original and counterfeit ones. Aim of the present work is to study recent and old silver coins through non-destructive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The XRF was applied to extend the analysis to the deepest layers of the coins; for surface layers an X-ray tube or an electron beam were employed to induce the atom fluorescence to obtain information on the surface elemental composition. Moreover, a detailed study has been performed to evaluate the influence of the surface curvature on the measurement, by deducing a proper corrective factor to keep into account in the data analysis. The elemental atomic composition was measured for each coin, mainly by means of the X-ray tube excitation for the bulk and the electron Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) microbeam probe for the surface patina analysis. Ionization was induced by an X-ray tube using an Ag anode for the bulk and by an electron microprobe for the surface composition. X-ray detection was performed by using a semiconductor Si device cooled by a Peltier system. The Ag L-lines X-ray yield is affected by coin surface morphology and geometry. The comparison between coin spectra and standard samples, shows that the Ag quantitative analysis is influenced by error of the atomic concentration lower that 10%. PMID:24004868

  2. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-Ray Point Sources in Nearby Galaxies. II. X-Ray Luminosity Functions and Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the recently completed Chandra/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular (α ˜ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (˜1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (˜0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (˜0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (˜0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D 25 and 2D 25, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 1040 erg s-1, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M ⊙ black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  3. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron buncha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kato, Ryukou; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons' energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  5. A Fourier optics approach to the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction--perfect crystals.

    PubMed

    Mana, Giovanni; Montanari, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    A new formalism is presented concerning the dynamics of X-rays in crystals. It is based on Takagi's equations and Fourier optics; it also offers an alternative to the usual Ewald-von Laue approach. The article does not give new results but shows a new way to formulate the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. In addition, it proposes a novel description of X-ray propagation based on the analogy between the dynamics of X-rays in crystals and that of two-level quantum systems.

  6. X-ray Induced Effects on Photocurrents in Amorphous Se Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakawa, Koichi; Fukami, Kenji; Kishi, Hiroki; Belev, George; Kasap, Safa

    2007-03-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) is one of the X-ray photoconductors that is available for use in recently developed direct conversion flat panel X-ray image detectors for medical imaging. To obtain a better understanding of trapping and recombination effects in a-Se, we have studied light and X-ray induced photocurrents in a-Se films. The residual photocurrent, after X-ray exposure, decreases in sandwich cells whereas it increases in coplanar cells. These effects are recovered over a time scale of hours. We show that the results can be interpreted by using valence alternation pair (VAP) type charged defects.

  7. The Search for Type 1 X-ray Bursts with Fermi/GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenke, Peter; Linares, M.; Connaughton, V.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; WIlson-Hodge, C. A.; Van Der Horst, A.; Fermi GBM X-ray Burst Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the first results of the Fermi-GBM all-sky search for X-ray bursts. The very large field of view and X-ray response of the Fermi-GBM make it a unique instrument to study rare, bright and short-lived X-ray bursts. We are performing a systematic search that exploits such capabilities. We present results on long/intermediate type I X-ray bursts, an unusual kind of thermonuclear bursts from accreting neutron stars, and show how Fermi-GBM is giving, for the first time, robust measurements of their recurrence time.

  8. Azimuthal anisotropy of the scattered radiation in grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Gangadhar Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Ghosh, Haranath

    2015-06-24

    The Compton and elastic scattering radiations are the major contributor to the spectral background of an x-ray fluorescence spectrum, which eventually limits the element detection sensitivities of the technique to µg/g (ppm) range. In the present work, we provide a detail mathematical descriptions and show that how polarization properties of the synchrotron radiation influence the spectral background in the x-ray fluorescence technique. We demonstrate our theoretical understandings through experimental observations using total x-ray fluorescence measurements on standard reference materials. Interestingly, the azimuthal anisotropy of the scattered radiation is shown to have a vital role on the significance of the x-ray fluorescence detection sensitivities.

  9. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  10. Time-resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on photo-induced phase transitions using a tabletop soft-x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Moré, R.; Norpoth, J.; Techert, S.; Jooss, C.; Mann, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    We present a table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer for the wavelength range λ = 1-5 nm based on a stable laser-driven x-ray source, making use of a gas-puff target. With this setup, optical light-pump/soft-x-ray probe near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments with a temporal resolution of about 230 ps are feasible. Pump-probe NEXAFS measurements were carried out in the "water-window" region (2.28 nm-4.36 nm) on the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, investigating diminutive changes of the oxygen K edge that derive from an optically induced phase transition. The results show the practicability of the table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer on demanding investigations so far exclusively conducted at synchrotron radiation sources.

  11. Phase-space reconstruction of focused x-ray fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Chanh Q.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Dhal, Bipin B.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Cai, Zhonghou; Paterson, David

    2006-01-01

    The phase-space tomography is used to reconstruct x-ray beams focused using a compound refractive lens, showing that it is possible to decouple the effect of aberrations in the optical system from the field and therefore measure both them and the original field. The complex coherence function is recovered and found to be consistent with expectations.

  12. Phase-space reconstruction of focused x-ray fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chanh Q.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Dhal, Bipin B.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Cai, Zhonghou; Paterson, David

    2006-07-01

    We apply the method of phase-space tomography to reconstruct x-ray beams focused using a compound refractive lens. We show that it is possible to decouple the effect of aberrations in the optical system from the field and hence measure both them and the original field. We recover the complex coherence function and find that it is consistent with expectations.

  13. Interlaced X-ray diffraction computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakeros, Antonios; Jacques, Simon D. M.; Di Michiel, Marco; Senecal, Pierre; Middelkoop, Vesna; Cernik, Robert J.; Beale, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction computed tomography data-collection strategy that allows, post experiment, a choice between temporal and spatial resolution is reported. This strategy enables time-resolved studies on comparatively short timescales, or alternatively allows for improved spatial resolution if the system under study, or components within it, appear to be unchanging. The application of the method for studying an Mn–Na–W/SiO2 fixed-bed reactor in situ is demonstrated. Additionally, the opportunities to improve the data-collection strategy further, enabling post-collection tuning between statistical, temporal and spatial resolutions, are discussed. In principle, the interlaced scanning approach can also be applied to other pencil-beam tomographic techniques, like X-ray fluorescence computed tomography, X-ray absorption fine structure computed tomography, pair distribution function computed tomography and tomographic scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. PMID:27047305

  14. X-ray transmission microscope development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Rosenberger, Franz E.

    1995-08-01

    This report covers the third 6 month period, from February 28, 1995 to August 31, 1995, under this contract. The main efforts during this period were the construction of the X-ray furnace, evaluation and selection of the CCD technology for the X-ray camera, solidification experiments with Al alloys and Al-zirconia composites in the prototype furnace, evaluation of specimens for the particle pushing flight experiment - PEPSI, measurements of emitted spectra from X-ray source, testing of the high resolution X-ray test targets, and the establishment of criteria for and selection of peripheral equipment. In addition to these tasks, two presentations were prepared in this period; one for the AIAA Microgravity Symposium and another for the Gordon Conference on Gravitational Effects in Pyisico-Chemical Systems.

  15. Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Wenhui; Li, Renkai; Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Shi, Jiaru; Du, Qiang; Yu, Peicheng; Chen, Huaibi; Du, Taibin; Cheng, Cheng; Lin, Yuzheng

    2009-09-01

    We proposed the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source as an ultra-fast, high flux source for advanced X-ray imaging studies and applications. A linac system, which consists of an S-band photocathode RF gun, a SLAC type 3 m traveling wave tube and two X-band structures, generates ultra-short, high brightness electron pulses to scatter with tera-watt femto-second laser pulses. A compact low energy electron storage ring is also designed to dramatically enhance the average X-ray flux. In this paper, we present the simulation studies and optimized parameters of the electron and X-ray pulses. The construction and commissioning status of TTX is also reported.

  16. X-ray crystallographic studies of metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Volbeda, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins require metals for their physiological function. In combination with spectroscopic characterizations, X-ray crystallography is a very powerful method to correlate the function of protein-bound metal sites with their structure. Due to their special X-ray scattering properties, specific metals may be located in metalloprotein structures and eventually used for phasing the diffracted X-rays by the method of Multi-wavelength Anomalous Dispersion (MAD). How this is done is the principle subject of this chapter. Attention is also given to the crystallographic characterization of different oxidation states of redox active metals and to the complication of structural changes that may be induced by X-ray irradiation of protein crystals.

  17. Spectra of cosmic x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.S.; Mccray, R.

    1982-02-01

    X-ray measurements provide the most direct probes of astrophysical environments with temperatures exceeding one million K. Progress in experimental research utilizing dispersive techniques (e.g., Bragg and grating spectroscopy) is considerably slower than that in areas utilizing photometric techniques, because of the relative inefficiency of the former for the weak X-ray signals from celestial sources. As a result, the term spectroscopy as applied to X-ray astronomy has traditionally satisfied a much less restrictive definition (in terms of resolving power) than it has in other wavebands. Until quite recently, resolving powers of order unity were perfectly respectable, and still provide (in most cases) the most useful spectroscopic data. In the broadest sense, X-ray photometric measurements are spectroscopic, insofar as they represent samples of the overall electromagnetic continua of celestial objects.

  18. Rosat and the X-ray universe

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, J.K.

    1990-08-01

    A major new satellite (Rosat) promises to provide astronomers with a map of perhaps 100,000 beacons in the X-ray sky, fresh images of high-energy objects approaching the resolution of visible-light photographs, and a first-ever survey of the sky at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths. The German and British governments along with NASA are participating in this program. The grazing incidence technique previously used by Einstein and other missions is used to bring the X-rays to a focus and thus to create images. The X-ray telescope is equipped with three instruments, though only one can occupy the focus at any given time. Two are redundant detectors called position-sensitive proportional counters. The whole-sky survey will yield a complete X-ray image of the celestial sphere with 1/2-arc-minute detail of sources large and small, not just crude scans by wide-angle sensors.

  19. X-ray microbeam for speech research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Murray A.; Robl, Phillip E.

    A steerable X-ray beam system is being built for use in speech research. A beam of 150 keV to 600 keV electrons will be steered by a computer and the resulting X-rays will be selected by a pinhole to give a beam with a width of 0.6 mm. The X-ray beam will be used to follow about 8 gold pellets on tongue and throat surfaces at sampling frequencies of about 125 frames/s. The pattern recognition system and X-ray energies have been chosen to allow the tracking of pellets behind some teeth fillings of mercury amalgam and gold caps.

  20. X-ray holography in-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Ulmer, Anatoli; Ferguson, Ken; Bucher, Max; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max; Daurer, Benedikt; Nettelblad, Carl; Bielecki, Johan; Faigel, Guila; Hasse, Dirk; Morgan, Andrew; Mühlig, Kerstin; Seibert, Marvin; Chapman, Henry; Hajdu, Janos; Maia, Filipe; Moeller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    The advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, delivering ultra intense femtosecond X-ray flashes, opens the door for structure determination of single nanoparticles and biosamples with single shots. The first X-ray diffraction imaging experiments at LCLS delivered promising results on samples in the gas phase. However, the reconstruction of non-periodic structures is still challenging due to the loss of phase information. Meanwhile, X-ray holographic approaches allow for recording the phase directly into the diffraction image. In my talk, I will present the first successful proof-of-principle experiment for ``in-flight''-holography with free viruses. Our experiments pave the way for unique studies on levitating nanospecimen that are of central interest in several scientific communities including atmosphere research, chemistry, material sciences, and studies on matter under extreme conditions.

  1. Low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, J. E.; Rappaport, S. A.

    A review is given of current understanding of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are luminous X-ray sources composed of a late-type optical companion (mass less than about 1 solar mass) and a neutron star (or possibly a black hole). Thirty-two LMXBs have been identified with optical counterparts in the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (Brad and McClintock, 1983). It is unlikely that there are more than about 100 active LMXBs in the Galaxy, compared with about 200,000 cataclysmic variables. Topics covered in the review are: typical X-ray and optical properties; orbital periods; the nature of the compact source; accretion disks; formation; mass transfer mechanisms; and globular clusters and bright bulge X-ray sources.

  2. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  3. Resonant X-Ray Scattering and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.

    This chapter outlines some of the basic ideas behind nonresonant and resonant X-ray scattering, using classical or semiclassical pictures wherever possible; specifically, we highlight symmetry arguments governing the observation of X-ray optical effects, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonant "forbidden" diffraction. Without dwelling on the microscopic physics that underlies resonant scattering, we outline some key steps required for calculating its rotation and polarization dependence, based on Cartesian and spherical tensor frameworks. Several examples of resonant scattering, involving electronic anisotropy and magnetism, are given as illustrations. Our goal is not to develop or defend theoretical concepts in X-ray scattering, but to bring together existing ideas in a pragmatic and utilitarian manner.

  4. Experimental X-Ray Ghost Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Cantelli, Valentina; Paganin, David M

    2016-09-01

    We report an experimental proof of principle for ghost imaging in the hard-x-ray energy range. We use a synchrotron x-ray beam that is split using a thin crystal in Laue diffraction geometry. With an ultrafast imaging camera, we are able to image x rays generated by isolated electron bunches. At this time scale, the shot noise of the synchrotron emission process is measurable as speckles, leading to speckle correlation between the two beams. The integrated transmitted intensity from a sample located in the first beam is correlated with the spatially resolved intensity measured in the second, empty, beam to retrieve the shadow of the sample. The demonstration of ghost imaging with hard x rays may open the way to protocols to reduce radiation damage in medical imaging and in nondestructive structural characterization using free electron lasers. PMID:27661687

  5. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top ...

  6. Astrophysics: Unexpected X-ray flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Two sources of highly energetic flares have been discovered in archival X-ray data of 70 nearby galaxies. These flares have an undetermined origin and might represent previously unknown astrophysical phenomena. See Letter p.356

  7. X-ray transmission microscope development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Rosenberger, Franz E.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the third 6 month period, from February 28, 1995 to August 31, 1995, under this contract. The main efforts during this period were the construction of the X-ray furnace, evaluation and selection of the CCD technology for the X-ray camera, solidification experiments with Al alloys and Al-zirconia composites in the prototype furnace, evaluation of specimens for the particle pushing flight experiment - PEPSI, measurements of emitted spectra from X-ray source, testing of the high resolution X-ray test targets, and the establishment of criteria for and selection of peripheral equipment. In addition to these tasks, two presentations were prepared in this period; one for the AIAA Microgravity Symposium and another for the Gordon Conference on Gravitational Effects in Pyisico-Chemical Systems.

  8. Capillary Optics generate stronger X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA scientist, in the Space Sciences lab at Marshall, works with capillary optics that generate more intense X-rays than conventional sources. This capability is useful in studying the structure of important proteins.

  9. VETA-I x ray test analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Chartas, G.; Freeman, M. D.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Podgorski, W. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Zhao, P.

    1992-01-01

    This interim report presents some definitive results from our analysis of the VETA-I x-ray testing data. It also provides a description of the hardware and software used in the conduct of the VETA-I x-ray test program performed at the MSFC x-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). These test results also serve to supply data and information to include in the TRW final report required by DPD 692, DR XC04. To provide an authoritative compendium of results, we have taken nine papers as published in the SPIE Symposium, 'Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography' and have reproduced them as the content of this report.

  10. Laboratory Data for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Gu, M.-F.; Kahn, S. M.; Lepson, J. K.; Savin, D. W.; Utter, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory facilities have made great strides in producing large sets of reliable data for X-ray astronomy, which include ionization and recombination cross sections needed for charge balance calculations as well as the atomic data needed for interpreting X-ray line formation. We discuss data from the new generation sources and pay special attention to the LLNL electron beam ion trap experiment, which is unique in its ability to provide direct laboratory access to spectral data under precisely controlled conditions that simulate those found in many astrophysical plasmas. Examples of spectral data obtained in the 1-160 A wavelength range are given illustrating the type of laboratory X-ray data produced in support of such missions as Chandra, X-Ray Multi-Mirror telescope (XMM), Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE).

  11. X-ray imaging: Status and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, R.W.; Martz, H.E.; Hernandez, J.M.; Haskins, J.J.; Day, R.A.; Brase, J.M.; Cross, B.; Wherry, D.

    1987-08-01

    There is a veritable renaissance occurring in x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging by radiography has been a highly developed technology in medicine and industry for many years. However, high resolution imaging has not generally been practical because sources have been relatively dim and diffuse, optical elements have been nonexistent for most applications, and detectors have been slow and of low resolution. Materials analysis needs have therefore gone unmet. Rapid progress is now taking place because we are able to exploit developments in microelectronics and related material fabrication techniques, and because of the availability of intense x-ray sources. This report describes the methods and uses of x-ray imaging along with a discussion of technology advances in these areas.

  12. X-ray source for mammography

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  13. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... a radiologist (a doctor who's specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images). The radiologist will ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... by a radiologist (a doctor specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images). The radiologist will ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  17. Experimental X-Ray Ghost Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Rack, Alexander; Scheel, Mario; Cantelli, Valentina; Paganin, David M.

    2016-09-01

    We report an experimental proof of principle for ghost imaging in the hard-x-ray energy range. We use a synchrotron x-ray beam that is split using a thin crystal in Laue diffraction geometry. With an ultrafast imaging camera, we are able to image x rays generated by isolated electron bunches. At this time scale, the shot noise of the synchrotron emission process is measurable as speckles, leading to speckle correlation between the two beams. The integrated transmitted intensity from a sample located in the first beam is correlated with the spatially resolved intensity measured in the second, empty, beam to retrieve the shadow of the sample. The demonstration of ghost imaging with hard x rays may open the way to protocols to reduce radiation damage in medical imaging and in nondestructive structural characterization using free electron lasers.

  18. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  19. X-ray source for mammography

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  20. High resolution solar X-ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.