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Sample records for abdominally obese men

  1. The Risk of Abdominal Obesity according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported as a cardiometabolic risk factor, the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver is yet to be clarified on abdominal obesity. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the longitudinal relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver on the development of abdominal obesity. The study participants were composed of 11,212 Korean men without abdominal obesity. They were followed up from 2005 to 2010 to be monitored for the development of abdominal obesity according to their degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (normal, mild, and moderate to severe). Cox-proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios for abdominal obesity according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While the average incidence was 15.5%, the incidence of abdominal obesity increased according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver (normal: 11.6%, mild: 25.2%, moderate to severe: 41.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for abdominal obesity independently increased proportionally to the degree of NAFLD (mild [1.07; 0.94-1.23], moderate to severe [1.58; 1.11-2.26], P for trend < 0.001). The risk of abdominal obesity increased proportionally to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This finding guarantees further studies to reveal the incidental relationship of abdominal obesity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26955242

  2. Improvement in insulin sensitivity following a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in viscerally obese men: contribution of abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. Abdominally obese, dyslipidemic men (waist circumference ≥90 cm, triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L) were recruited. The 1-year intervention/evaluation was completed by 104 men. Body weight, composition, and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk profile were measured. After 1 year, insulin sensitivity improved in association with decreases in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adiposity (SAT) as well as with the improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Further analyses were performed according to changes in glucose tolerance status: improvement (group I, n = 39), no change (group N, n = 50), or worsening (group W, n = 15) after 1 year. Groups I and N improved their insulin sensitivity and their CRF, whereas group W did not, while losing less VAT than groups I and N. Multiple regressions showed that reduction in VAT was associated with an improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas reduction in SAT was rather associated with improvement of the insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda. Changes in CRF were not independently associated with changes in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. A 1-year lifestyle intervention improved plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis in viscerally obese men, including those with normal glucose tolerance status at baseline. Changes in SAT and VAT but not in CRF appeared to mediate these improvements

  3. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Azuma, Koichiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Saitoh, Yoshino; Torii, Sayuki; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-01

    Studies from Western countries suggest that smokers tend to display greater abdominal obesity than non-smokers, despite showing lower weight. Whether this holds true in a leaner population requires clarification. Using indices of abdominal obesity including visceral adipose tissue, we examined whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with unfavorable fat distribution among Japanese men. From 2006 to 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional investigation of a community-based sample of Japanese men at 40-64 years old, free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Areas of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated using computed tomography. We divided participants into four groups: never-smokers; and tertiles of pack-years of smoking among ever-smokers. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated adjusted means of obesity indices (VAT, SAT, VAT-SAT ratio [VSR], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) for each group, and mean differences between consecutive groups. We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%). Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (median, 23.5 kg/m(2)). Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = 0.005) and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009-0.073; P = 0.012) after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated. PMID:27413686

  4. The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance. Results: Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ± standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ± 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939–9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821–8.592]) in men aged 25–35 and 35–45 years, respectively. In women aged 25–35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959–6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively. PMID:26097812

  5. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Abdominal Obesity versus Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W.; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities which often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity versus metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) versus metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (standard deviation 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.09 [0.98, 1.20]). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1–2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 [1.80, 2.50], 2.82 [1.92, 4.12] and 5.33 [3.37, 8.41], respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk. PMID:20725064

  7. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  8. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  9. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Männistö, Satu; Borodulin, Katja; Patja, Kristiina; Kinnunen, Taru H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC). Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker). The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46) and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44) had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:27486563

  10. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults. PMID:27330688

  11. The Impact of Abdominal Obesity Status on Cardiovascular Response to the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Alexandra; Dodin, Sylvie; Corneau, Louise; Lemieux, Simone

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of abdominal obesity status on the cardiovascular response to a fully controlled 4-week isoenergetic Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Thirty-eight abdominally obese individuals (waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) and thirty-one nonabdominally obese individuals were recruited and studied before and after the MedDiet. All analyses were adjusted for the slight decrease in body weight, which occurred during the MedDiet (mean: 0.9 ± 1.2 kg). A group by time interaction was noted for waist circumference (P = 0.02), abdominally obese subjects showing a significant decrease and nonabdominally obese subjects a nonsignificant increase (resp., −1.1 and +0.3%). The MedDiet resulted in decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, A-1, and A-2, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). For all variables related to glucose/insulin homeostasis, no change was observed except for a decrease in 2 h glucose concentrations (time effect: P = 0.03). No group by time interaction was observed in any of the metabolic variables studied. Results from our study suggest that the adoption of the MedDiet leads to beneficial metabolic effects, irrespective of the abdominal obesity status. PMID:23133745

  12. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity. PMID:25953598

  13. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (≥ 23, ≥ 27 and ≥ 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (≥ 80, ≥ 90 and ≥ 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the

  14. Genes Might Help Shield Some Black Men from Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159144.html Genes Might Help Shield Some Black Men From Obesity But these same factors don't ... risk of being overweight or obese than black men. Now, a new study has identified genetic factors ...

  15. Obesity More Deadly for Men Than Women: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159852.html Obesity More Deadly for Men Than Women: Study Losing ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is nearly three times more deadly for men ...

  16. Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance in People Exposed to Moderate-to-High Levels of Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7–6.4], [3.6; 2.3–5.7], [3.2; 2.1–5.0], [3.0; 2.0–4.5], and [2.9; 1.9–4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9–4.7], [2.0; 1.3–3.1], and [1.9; 1.3–2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53–7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with

  17. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  18. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  19. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  20. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  1. Antagonistic implications of sarcopenia and abdominal obesity on physical performance in COPD.

    PubMed

    van de Bool, Coby; Rutten, Erica P A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-08-01

    Decreased physical performance due to loss of muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) is prevalent in ageing and appears more pronounced in chronic disease. A comprehensive profile of the sarcopenic phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to characterise prevalence, functional implications and predictive value of sarcopenia with or without abdominal obesity in Dutch COPD patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation.505 COPD patients (aged 37-87 years; 57% male) underwent assessment of lung function, body composition and physical functioning, before entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Sarcopenia was assessed by appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) and abdominal obesity by android/gynoid percentage fat mass (A/G%FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.86.5% of patients were sarcopenic and showed lower physical functioning, while coexistent abdominal obesity (78.0%) resulted in higher physical functioning. Implications on endurance were less pronounced in women. The predictive value for physical functioning was higher for the "three-compartment" model (ASMI, bone mineral content and A/G%FM) than the "two-compartment" model (fat-free mass index and fat mass index) or "one-compartment" model (body mass index).In patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation, sarcopenia is highly prevalent in all body mass index categories and associated with impaired strength, and in men also with decreased endurance. Abdominal obesity seems to have protective effects on physical functioning. ASMI is a better predictor for physical functioning than fat-free mass index. PMID:25882802

  2. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O; Andersen, Ulrik B; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Edvinsson, Lars; Skovsted, Gry F

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130/80 mmHg (ObeseHT) and 40 had 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (ObeseNT). As controls, we studied 27 men with BMI between 20.0 and 24.9 kg/m(2) and 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (LeanNT). Serum concentrations of adiponectin and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were determined. In vitro, the direct vasomotor response of adiponectin was tested on subcutaneous resistance arteries from human abdominal adipose tissue. The two obese groups had lower adiponectin concentrations compared with LeanNT (p < 0.01) [median (interquartile range)]: ObeseHT 6.5 (5.1-8.3) mg/L; ObeseNT 6.6 (5.2-7.8) mg/L; and LeanNT 9.4 (6.7-12.4) mg/L, with no significant difference in adiponectin concentrations (or body composition) between ObeseHT and ObeseNT (p = 0.67). In vitro, adiponectin did not have any direct vasodilatory effect and adiponectin did not affect angiotensin II-stimulated vasoconstriction. In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension. PMID:26272341

  3. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  4. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men. PMID:25249452

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of abdominal obesity in Polish rural children.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Janusz, M; Jagielski, P; Głodzik, J; Pałka, T; Cisoń, T; Pilch, W

    2015-08-01

    Secular trends of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference indicate greater increase in abdominal obesity compared to general obesity. Determinants of obesity described by BMI are relatively well documented in various populations, unlike abdominal obesity described by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aim of the study was to determine prevalence and abdominal obesity (WHtR) risk factors in a cohort of 3048 rural children aged 7-12 years from southern Poland. Biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were analysed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in rural boys and girls in the sample was 11% and 9% respectively. Obesity in both parents, irregular breakfasts, irregular meals during the day and regularly consumed tea were significant factors of abdominal obesity risks in rural girls. Being the only child, low number of people in a household, obesity in both parents, high energy-dense food index and no exercise significantly increased the risk of abdominal obesity in rural boys. The study demonstrated tendencies similar to other European countries in the prevalence of abdominal obesity among sexes. Lifestyle behaviours should be changed and adapted to each sex since risk factors differ between the sexes and indicate higher eco-sensitivity in boys. PMID:25796137

  6. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early

  7. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  8. Genes Might Help Shield Some Black Men from Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159144.html Genes Might Help Shield Some Black Men From Obesity But these same factors don' ... appear to reduce risk of excess weight for black women To use the sharing features on this ...

  9. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. Participants and methods The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria were diagnosed with CKD. Results Overall, 23% of males and 14% of females met criteria for CKD. Having more numerous complicated metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of CKD for men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71–1.44). Conclusions The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population. PMID:27087606

  10. The Frequency and Risk Factors of Colorectal Adenoma in Health-Check-up Subjects in South Korea: Relationship to Abdominal Obesity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Seong; Moon, Hong Ju; Baek, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Bong Ki; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Hyung Joon; Do, Jae Hyuk; Chang, Sae Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, there is a lack of information about the relationship between obesity and colorectal adenoma. We investigated whether general and abdominal obesity are risk factors for colorectal adenoma. Methods Subjects who received health check-ups, including colonoscopy, from April 2006 to September 2007 in Chung-Ang University Hospital were included (n=1,316). The frequency and characteristics of colorectal adenomas were analyzed according to demographic features, past history, blood tests, body mass index, and components of metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥90 cm in men. Results The sex ratio of the subjects was 1.9:1 (male:female) and their age was 47.7±10.0 years (mean±SD). In univariate analysis, abdominal obesity was significantly associated with the frequency of colorectal adenoma (26.5% "yes" vs 16.9% "no"; p<0.001). The frequency of colorectal adenoma was significantly higher among males, older patients, current smokers, and subjects with fasting hyperglycemia (≥100 mg/dL) or fatty liver (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified that male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.2), old age (age ≥60 years; OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 3.5-12.5), and abdominal obesity (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2) were independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma (p<0.05). The frequency of multiple adenomas (more than two sites) was also significantly higher in subjects with abdominal obesity. However, the effect of abdominal obesity on the development of colorectal adenoma decreased in elderly people. Conclusions Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for colorectal adenoma and its multiplicity, especially in younger people in South Korea. PMID:20479911

  11. Obesity and the Risk for Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Robert D; Reese, Stacey; Bochicchio, Kelly; Mazuski, John E; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after abdominal procedures; however, data characterizing the risk of SSI in obese patients during abdominal procedures are lacking. We hypothesized that obesity is an independent risk factor for SSI across wound classes. We analyzed American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) data for 2011. We calculated body mass index (BMI), classifying patients according to National Institute of Health (NIH) BMI groups. We excluded records in which height/weight was not recorded and patients with BMI less than 18.5. We examined patients undergoing open abdominal procedures, performing univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relative contribution of obesity to SSI. Study criteria were met by 89,148 patients. Obese and morbidly obese patients had significantly greater SSI rates in clean and clean-contaminated cases but not contaminated or dirty/infected cases. Logistic regression confirmed obesity and morbid obesity as being independently associated with the overall SSI development, specifically in clean [Obesity odds ratio (OR) = 1.757, morbid obesity OR = 2.544, P < 0.001] and clean-contaminated (obesity OR = 1.239, morbid obesity OR = 1.287, P < 0.001) cases. Obesity is associated with increased risk of SSI overall, specifically in clean and clean-contaminated abdominal procedures; this is independent of diabetes mellitus. Novel techniques are needed to reduce SSI in this high-risk patient population. PMID:27097626

  12. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  13. Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n = 44) and without (n = 43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. Results BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.1, P = 0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0 ± 4.5 vs. 52.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.035); WIWDR (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.01); and WTLR (1.25 ± 0.04 vs. 1.05 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in WHSDR (3.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.875). Interestingly, IAF was significantly increased in dogs with heart disease compared with healthy dogs (23.5 ± 1.5% vs. 19.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.039) whereas SQF was similar between two groups (35.5 ± 2.7% vs. 38.6 ± 3.5%, P = 0.496). Of the five morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated

  14. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  15. Abdominal Obesity and Brain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Callisaya, Michele; Blizzard, Leigh; Sharman, James E.; Venn, Alison; Phan, Thanh G.; Beare, Richard; Forbes, Josephine; Blackburn, Nicholas B.; Srikanth, Velandai

    2015-01-01

    Aim Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with gray matter atrophy. Adiposity and physical inactivity are risk factors for T2D and brain atrophy. We studied whether the associations of T2D with total gray matter volume (GMV) and hippocampal volume (HV) are dependent on obesity and physical activity. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), mean steps/day and brain volumes in a community dwelling cohort of people with and without T2D. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined whether WHR, BMI and physical activity mediated or modified the association between T2D, GMV and HV. Results There were 258 participants with (mean age 67±7 years) and 302 without (mean age 72±7 years) T2D. Adjusting for age, sex and intracranial volume, T2D was independently associated with lower total GMV (p = 0.001) and HV (p<0.001), greater WHR (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001), and lower mean steps/day (p = 0.002). After adjusting for covariates, the inclusion of BMI and mean steps/day did not significantly affect the T2D-GMV association, but WHR attenuated it by 32% while remaining independently associated with lower GMV (p<0.01). The T2D-HV association was minimally changed by the addition of BMI, steps/day or WHR in the model. No statistical interactions were observed between T2D and measures of obesity and physical activity in explaining brain volumes. Conclusions Abdominal obesity or its downstream effects may partially mediate the adverse effect of T2D on brain atrophy. This requires confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26560876

  16. PERIOD2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors, and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Corbalán-Tutau, M Dolores; Madrid, Juan A; Baraza, Juan C; Parnell, Laurence D; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PERIOD2 (PER2) and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction program based on the Mediterranean diet. A total of 454 overweight/obese participants (women=380, men=74), aged 20 to 65 years, who attended outpatient clinics specializing in obesity between January and December 2008, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary-intake variables were analyzed. Effectiveness of the program was assessed, and a questionnaire of barriers to weight loss was considered. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed. Results indicate that PER2 polymorphisms rs2304672C>G and rs4663302C>T were associated with abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Participants who withdrew from treatment were significantly more obese and had more barriers to lose weight (P<0.05). They also displayed a lower likelihood of planning eating in advance and experiencing stress with dieting than those who completed treatment. Frequency of rs4663307 minor allele was significantly greater in withdrawers than in those who successfully completed treatment (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs2304672 C>G minor allele carriers had a greater probability of dropping out, displaying extreme snacking, experiencing stress with dieting, eating when bored, and skipping breakfast than noncarriers. PER2 is implicated in attrition in weight-loss treatment and may modulate eating-behavior-related phenotypes. These findings could represent a step toward personalized health care and nutrition based on a combination of genotyping and psycho-behavioral characterization. PMID:20497782

  17. Relationship between overall and abdominal obesity and periodontal disease among young adults.

    PubMed

    Amin, H El-Sayed

    2010-04-01

    To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. The sample comprised 380 adults (170 males and 210 females) aged 20-26 years. There was a significant correlation between both BMI and WC and CAL, GI and CPI in females. In males, a significant correlation was only recorded between WC and GI and CPI. Overall and abdominal obesity in young adult females and abdominal obesity in males were significantly associated with periodontal disease. PMID:20795429

  18. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  19. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  20. Obesity, body image, and unsafe sex in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Chris; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Nordstrom, David L; Bockting, Walter O; Rosser, B R Simon

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the relationship among body weight, body image, and HIV/AIDS sexual risk behaviors. We examined this issue in a midwestern U.S. metropolitan area community sample of 316 men who have sex with men, a group at relatively high risk for HIV/AIDS. All data were self-reported by questionnaire using standard items to assess current body image, height and weight, and HIV/AIDS sexual risk behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to estimate cross-sectional associations. Forty-nine (15%) of the 316 men were classified as obese, and 56 (18%) had unsafe sex in the past three months. Normal weight or overweight men were 3.6 times more likely than obese men to have had unsafe sex, after adjusting for differences in body image and age. Men with better body image were 1.4 times more likely than men with lower body image to have had anal sex, after adjusting for differences in body weight and age. Non-obese men were no more or less likely than were obese men to have engaged in anal sex or in any sex in the past three months. This is the first study showing a positive relationship between below-obese body weight and unsafe sex and between better body image and anal sex in men who have sex with men. Future research should investigate these novel findings, perhaps using other study designs and data collection tools with less measurement error. Advances in knowledge about HIV/AIDS risk factors, including body weight and body image, could potentially contribute to more effective approaches to reducing this risk. PMID:17031588

  1. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns. PMID:19786392

  2. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  3. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  4. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  5. Abdominal obesity and hypertension: a double burden to the heart.

    PubMed

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Zyczkowska, Beata; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Visceral adipose tissue has an important part in water retention, the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, which may influence central and systemic hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between AO and the hemodynamic profile of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The clinical evaluation of 144 hypertensives included the following: (1) echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSS) and diastolic function (E/A-phase ratio of mitral flow early (E) and late (A) and E/e'-ratio of early mitral flow and mitral septal annulus early diastolic velocity (e')); (2) the applanation tonometry including the central pulse pressure (CPP) and augmentation index (AI); and (3) the impedance cardiography, acceleration index (ACI), velocity index (VI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and total artery compliance (TAC). Obese hypertensives in comparison with non-obese ones were characterized with the following values: (1) lower echocardiographic (GLSS: -17.2±2.5% vs. -19.0±2.8%, P=0.0002) and impedance indices of left ventricular performance (VI: 44.8±12.4 vs. 51.6±14.2 × 1000*Ω* s(-1), P=0.006; ACI: 66.7±27.8 vs. 79.1±31.2 100*Ω* s(-)(2), P=0.003) and (2) worse diastolic function (e': 9.08±2.69 vs. 10.39±2.34 cm*s(-1), P=0.003; E/e': 7.54±1.81 vs. 6.74±1.40, P=0.007; E/A: 1.02±0.34 vs. 1.15±0.33, P=0.008). No relevant differences for gender, age, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEF, SVRI, TAC, CPP and AI were identified. AH and AO have overlapping effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics. At the early asymptomatic stage, this overlap is exhibited in the impaired cardiac function. PMID:26791010

  6. Lactate release from the subcutaneous tissue in lean and obese men.

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, P A; Larsson, A; Smith, U; Lönnroth, P

    1994-01-01

    Lactate concentration in the subcutaneous interstitial fluid and adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF, ml/100 g.min) were simultaneously measured with the microdialysis technique combined with 133Xe clearance in the abdominal and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue in nine lean and nine obese men. The studies were performed both in the postabsorptive state and 2 h after an oral glucose load and the results compared to the lactate levels in arterialized venous plasma. After an overnight's fast, arterial lactate was 738 +/- 49 and 894 +/- 69 microM (mean +/- SE) (P < 0.05) in the lean and obese subjects, respectively. The interstitial lactate levels were significantly higher than blood lactate in both subject groups without any regional differences. Abdominal and femoral ATBF was 3.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.4 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.4 ml/100 g.min (P < 0.05) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. Mean apparent lactate release from the abdominal vs. femoral adipose tissue in the fasting state was 10.5 +/- 3.1 vs. 8.6 +/- 2.3 and 6.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 8.5 +/- 2.3 mumol/kg.min (NS) in lean and obese subjects, respectively. Both plasma and interstitial lactate levels increased significantly after an oral glucose load in both subject groups. However, apparent lactate release increased significantly only in the lean group. It is concluded that subcutaneous adipose tissue is a significant source of whole-body lactate release in the postabsorptive state and that this is further enhanced in obese subjects due to their large adipose mass. PMID:8282793

  7. IGF-binding protein 1 and abdominal obesity in the development of type 2 diabetes in women

    PubMed Central

    Lewitt, Moira S; Hilding, Agneta; Brismar, Kerstin; Efendic, Suad; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Hall, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) are associated with metabolic syndrome and predict diabetes development in men. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IGFBP1 in women who later develop diabetes, in relation to abdominal obesity, and to compare these levels with those of men. Methods IGFBP1 levels were determined at baseline and after 8 years in a case–control, prospective study of Swedish women aged 35–56 years. Individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) who developed abnormal glucose regulation (n=240) were pair matched to controls for age and family history of diabetes and also compared to men of the same age (n=355). Results Low fasting IGFBP1 and increased waist measurement predicted development of diabetes in women (n=60; odds ratio (OR) 70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8–661, lowest tertile and OR 27, 95% CI 5–141, highest tertile). In women developing diabetes, baseline IGFBP1 levels were lower than expected for fasting insulin values, were associated with impaired suppression after OGTT and increased during 8 years despite an increase in fasting insulin. All individuals in the highest tertile for waist and with ≤40% suppression of IGFBP1 developed diabetes within 8 years. Circulating IGFBP1 concentrations were higher in women compared to men. Women and men who developed diabetes had a similar degree of abdominal obesity, corrected for height. Conclusions We conclude that low IGFBP1 and elevated waist measurement predict diabetes development and that IGFBP1 production is suppressed by a novel factor(s) in women developing diabetes. Increasing levels of IGFBP1 during the emergence of diabetes in men and women suggest the emergence of hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:20508082

  8. Impact of a mass media campaign linking abdominal obesity and cancer: a natural exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morley, Belinda; Wakefield, Melanie; Dunlop, Sally; Hill, David

    2009-12-01

    A mass media campaign aired in the Australian state of Victoria aimed to increase awareness and encourage identification of the abdominal circumference for men and women that placed them at increased risk of cancer. The evaluation assessed the extent to which ad exposure was associated with improvement in awareness, intentions and behaviours with respect to weight and cancer. Respondents were overweight or obese adults aged 30-69 years and exposure to the advertisement occurred via commercial television programmes in a natural setting. Questionnaire assessment occurred before, immediately after and 2 weeks following exposure to the advertising, and a comparison group who did not recall the ad completed the same interviews. For the main analyses, the exposure group was those who recalled the advertisement at post-exposure and follow-up (n = 101). Those who did not recall it at either stage comprised the unexposed group (n = 81). The campaign achieved its primary objective of increased awareness of the link between obesity and cancer and the specific waist sizes indicative of risk, as well as increased behavioural intentions with respect to weight and cancer. However, it did not have an effect on self-awareness of weight status, perceived personal risk of cancer or weight loss behaviour. PMID:19570919

  9. Clomiphene Citrate Effectively Increases Testosterone in Obese, Young, Hypogonadal Men

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level <350 ng/dl were given 25 mg CC on alternate days. Out of 18 patients found to have low T, 11 were analyzed. Baseline serum T, LH, FSH, weight and BMI were compared at baseline and after 3 months of CC treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (p<0.0001) after 3 months of CC treatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed. PMID:26844009

  10. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with Cardiovascular Disease and its Risk Factors in Elderly and very Elderly Community-dwelling Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huimin; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Liang; Chen, Xiaoli; lan, Qin; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zhang, Yuzhen; Liu, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is usually considered to predispose to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but milder degrees of obesity or overweight may be protective in some elderly populations. We examined the relationships between general and abdominal obesity indices with ASCVD and its risk factors in elderly (aged ≥65 years) Shanghai community residents Among the 3950 participants, 21.5% had ASCVD, 56.2% had body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, 50.1% had high waist circumference (WC) and 77.1% had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.50. WHtR increased with age in both men and women whereas WC increased with age only in women and BMI decreased with age only in men. The optimal WHtR cut-off value to predict the risk of ASCVD determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis was WHtR ≥0.53 with a prevalence of 55.8%. Having abdominal obesity was significantly associated with prevalent ASCVD with WHtR ≥0.53 having a higher value for the odds ratio than high WC, whereas high BMI was not associated. All three indices predicted high glucose, triglycerides and hsCRP levels but only the WHtR ≥0.53 showed a significant association with physical activity. Abdominal obesity indices, but not BMI, predicted prevalent ASCVD and its risk factors in this elderly Chinese population. PMID:26882876

  11. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  12. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Amber W.; Cappadona, Stacy R.; Panton, Lynn B.; Allman, Brittany R.; Contreras, Robert J.; Hickner, Robert C.; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. PMID:27472361

  13. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Amber W; Cappadona, Stacy R; Panton, Lynn B; Allman, Brittany R; Contreras, Robert J; Hickner, Robert C; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. PMID:27472361

  14. Open Versus Robotic Radical Prostatectomy in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Ellimoottil, Chandy; Roghmann, Florian; Blackwell, Robert; Kadlec, Adam; Greco, Kristin; Quek, Marcus L.; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Gupta, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been shown to reduce blood loss, peri-operative complications and length of stay when compared to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). We sought to determine whether the reported benefits of RARP over ORP translate to obese patients. Patients and Methods We utilized the 2009–2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify all obese men with prostate cancer who underwent ORP and RARP. Our primary outcome was the presence of a peri-operative adverse event (i.e. blood transfusion, complication, prolonged length of stay). We fit multivariable logistic regression models to examine whether RARP in obese patients was independently associated with decreased odds of all three outcomes. Results We identified 9,108 obese patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. On multivariable analysis, the use of RARP in the obese population was not independently associated with decreased odds of developing a peri-operative complication (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.58–1.13, p = 0.209). RARP was, however, associated with decreased odds of blood transfusion (OR = 0.17, CI: 0.10–0.30, p < 0.001) and prolonged length of stay (OR = 0.28, CI: 0.20–0.40, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that in obese patients, the use of RARP may reduce length of stay and blood transfusions compared to ORP. Both approaches, however, are associated with similar odds of developing a complication. PMID:26889136

  15. Neighborhood Preference, Walkability and Walking in Overweight/Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Carlson, Jordan A.; O’Mara, Stephanie; Sallis, James F.; Patrick, Kevin; Frank, Lawrence D.; Godbole, Suneeta V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether self-selection moderated the effects of walkability on walking in overweight and obese men. Methods 240 overweight and obese men completed measures on importance of walkability when choosing a neighborhood (selection) and preference for walkable features in general (preference). IPAQ measured walking. A walkbility index was derived from geographic information systems (GIS). Results Walkability was associated with walking for transportation (p = .027) and neighborhood selection was associated with walking for transportation (p = .002) and total walking (p = .001). Preference was associated with leisure walking (p = .045) and preference moderated the relationship between walkability and total walking (p = .059). Conclusion Walkability and self-selection are both important to walking behavior. PMID:23026109

  16. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  17. [Impact of abdominoplasty on quality of life in patients, suffering anterior abdominal wall deformity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Koval's'ka, I O; Roshchyna, L O; Fedoruk, V I; Burov, E Iu; Fedoruk, P V

    2011-12-01

    The modern tendencies of surgery development include not only the operative procedures improvement but guaranteeing also a maximally high level achievement in the patients quality of life in the early, as well as during remote, postoperative period. The quality of life analysis was done in 132 patients, operated on for the anterior abdominal wall defects, obesity and other surgical diseases, using special questionnaire SF-36. The patients have aged 23-65 years old, in all of them the excessive body mass or obesity of abdominal type was noted. PMID:22432186

  18. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  19. The relationship between job enrichment and abdominal obesity: a longitudinal field study of apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fried, Yitzhak; Laurence, Gregory A; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in modern society. However, there is a paucity of research about how job context affects obesity. To enhance our knowledge we used a large, heterogeneous sample of apparently healthy employees (n = 1,949) across two time periods with an average of close to 3.5 years between measures. We tested a hypothesized curvilinear effect of job enrichment on changes in two stress related indicators of abdominal obesity over time: waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Job enrichment consisted of the job dimensions of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback, and in our analysis we controlled for demographics and health related behaviors, including weekly sports activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and weekly alcohol consumption. The results supported the hypothesized U-shaped relationship between job enrichment and changes in both indicators of abdominal obesity over time, such that the level of abdominal obesity was reduced when job enrichment was moderate and was increased when job enrichment was either high or low. As expected, no such association was observed for the general obesity measure of body mass index (BMI). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. PMID:24001329

  20. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  1. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = −0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  2. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico. PMID:23822701

  3. Validation of Candidate Causal Genes for Abdominal Obesity Which Affect Shared Metabolic Pathways and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Deignan, Joshua L.; Qi, Hongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Qian, Su; Zhong, Judy; Torosyan, Gevork; Majid, Sana; Falkard, Brie; Kleinhanz, Robert R.; Karlsson, Jenny; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Mumick, Sheena; Wang, Kai; Xie, Tao; Coon, Michael; Zhang, Chunsheng; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Farber, Charles R.; Wang, Susanna S.; Van Nas, Atila; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Zhang, Bin; MacNeil, Douglas J.; Lamb, John R.; Dipple, Katrina M.; Reitman, Marc L.; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lum, Pek Y.; Schadt, Eric E.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2010-01-01

    A major task in dissecting the genetics of complex traits is to identify causal genes for disease phenotypes. We previously developed a method to infer causal relationships among genes through the integration of DNA variation, gene transcription, and phenotypic information. Here we validated our method through the characterization of transgenic and knockout mouse models of candidate genes that were predicted to be causal for abdominal obesity. Perturbation of eight out of the nine genes, with Gas7, Me1 and Gpx3 being novel, resulted in significant changes in obesity related traits. Liver expression signatures revealed alterations in common metabolic pathways and networks contributing to abdominal obesity and overlapped with a macrophage-enriched metabolic network module that is highly associated with metabolic traits in mice and humans. Integration of gene expression in the design and analysis of traditional F2 intercross studies allows high confidence prediction of causal genes and identification of involved pathways and networks. PMID:19270708

  4. Carotid Intima-media thickness in childhood and adolescent obesity relations to abdominal obesity, high triglyceride level and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Zhang, Jian Ping; Luo, Cai Xia; Yu, Xiao Mei; Lv, Lan Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate risk factors which impact on common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). Methods: A total of 86 obese children and adolescents and 22 healthy children and adolescents with normal weight were enrolled. Moreover, 23 of 86 obese children and adolescents were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, biochemical data and the IMT of the common carotid artery were measured in all subjects. Results: Obese and obese with MetS subjects demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) thicker intima media (0.69mm, 0.66mm) as compared to the control group (0.38mm), but there was no significant difference of IMT between obese and MetS group. IMT was correlated to body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and fatty liver. Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, triglyceride and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were independent determinants of mean IMT level. Conclusion: Obesity especially abdominal obesity, high TG and insulin resistance may be the main risk predictors of increased IMT. PMID:20827427

  5. High-Dose Resveratrol Supplementation in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Morten M.; Vestergaard, Poul F.; Clasen, Berthil F.; Radko, Yulia; Christensen, Lars P.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Pedersen, Steen B.; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia constitute risk factors for morbidity and premature mortality. Based on animal and in vitro studies, resveratrol reverts these risk factors via stimulation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), but data in human subjects are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the metabolic effects of high-dose resveratrol in obese human subjects. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group design, 24 obese but otherwise healthy men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of resveratrol or placebo treatment. Extensive metabolic examinations including assessment of glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) were performed before and after the treatment. Insulin sensitivity, the primary outcome measure, deteriorated insignificantly in both groups. Endogenous glucose production and the turnover and oxidation rates of glucose remained unchanged. Resveratrol supplementation also had no effect on blood pressure; resting energy expenditure; oxidation rates of lipid; ectopic or visceral fat content; or inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers. The lack of effect disagrees with persuasive data obtained from rodent models and raises doubt about the justification of resveratrol as a human nutritional supplement in metabolic disorders. PMID:23193181

  6. Revisiting obesity and condom use in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Seal, David W

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of both eating disorders and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is relatively high among men who have sex with men (MSM). Yet, only one study has explored the influence of body mass index (BMI) on sexual risk-taking behaviors in this population. The objective of this study was to reexamine the practice of anal intercourse among overweight and obese MSM and to assess the consistency with which condoms were used. MSM who had placed same-sex sexual advertisements were asked to complete a brief online survey. A total of 576 MSM completed the survey, which assessed: age, HIV-status, height, weight, rejection of sexual partners, number of anal intercourse partners, and condom use during anal intercourse. Increased BMI was associated with a lowered likelihood of rejecting sexual partners and decreased number of actual anal intercourse partners. Increased BMI was also associated with decreased condom use. In addition to cardiovascular disease, obese MSM may be at a higher risk for STDs relative to normal weight MSM. There was some evidence to suggest that inconsistent condom use in such men may be an expression of the overexcitement concomitant with the comparatively rare event of acquiring an anal intercourse partner. PMID:19234778

  7. Prevalence of generalized & abdominal obesity in urban & rural India- the ICMR - INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR - INDIAB-3

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Joshi, Shashank R.; Bhansali, Anil; Deepa, Mohan; Joshi, Prashant P.; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Geetha, Loganathan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Mohan, Viswanathan; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Overweight and obesity are rapidly increasing in countries like India. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of generalized, abdominal and combined obesity in urban and rural India. Methods: Phase I of the ICMR-INDIAB study was conducted in a representative population of three States [Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Jharkhand (JH)] and one Union Territory (UT)[Chandigarh (CH)] of India. A stratified multi-stage sampling design was adopted and individuals ≥20 yr of age were included. WHO Asia Pacific guidelines were used to define overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2 but <25 kg/m2), generalized obesity (GO, BMI≥25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (AO, waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80cm for women) and combined obesity (CO, GO plus AO). Of the 14,277 participants, 13,800 subjects (response rate, 96.7%) were included for the analysis (urban: n=4,063; rural: n=9737). Results: The prevalence of GO was 24.6, 16.6, 11.8 and 31.3 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, while the prevalence of AO was 26.6, 18.7, 16.9 and 36.1 per cent, respectively. CO was present in 19.3, 13.0, 9.8 and 26.6 per cent of the TN, MH, JH and CH population. The prevalence of GO, AO and CO were significantly higher among urban residents compared to rural residents in all the four regions studied. The prevalence of overweight was 15.2, 11.3, 7.8 and 15.9 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, hypertension, diabetes, higher socio-economic status, physical inactivity and urban residence were significantly associated with GO, AO and CO in all the four regions studied. Age was significantly associated with AO and CO, but not with GO. Interpretation & conclusions: Prevalence of AO as well as of GO were high in India. Extrapolated to the whole country, 135, 153 and 107 million individuals will have GO, AO and CO, respectively. However, these figures

  8. Association of Abdominal Obesity with Lumbar Disc Degeneration – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Samartzis, Dino; Korpelainen, Raija; Näyhä, Simo; Remes, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether midsagittal (abdominal) obesity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage are associated with lumbar disc degeneration in early adulthood. Methods We obtained the lumbar MRI (1.5-T scanner) of 325 females and 233 males at a mean age of 21 years. Lumbar disc degeneration was evaluated using Pfirrmann classification. We analysed the associations of MRI measures of obesity (abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST), and dorsal subcutaneous thickness (DST)), WC and body fat percentage with disc degeneration sum scores using ordinal logistic regression. Results A total of 155 (48%) females and 147 (63%) males had disc degeneration. AD and SAD were associated with a disc degeneration sum score of ≥3 compared to disc degeneration sum score of 0–2 (OR 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–2.33 and OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.12–1.75, respectively) among males, but we found no association among females. WC was also associated with disc degeneration among males (OR 1.03 per one cm; 95% CI 1.00–1.05), but not among females. Conclusion Measures of abdominal obesity in MRI and waist circumference were associated with disc degeneration among 21-year-old males. PMID:23418543

  9. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination. PMID:21836644

  10. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nino, Gustavo; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Ravindra, Anjani; Nino, Cesar L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC), as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 97th percentile) that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (n = 21). We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT (n = 7) with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (n = 14). Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) after AT (P ≤ 0.01). Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI), and neck circumference (NC). Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT. PMID:23251797

  11. Evaluation of the impact of abdominal obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Real de Asua, Diego; Parra, Pedro; Costa, Ramón; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Suarez, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to describe anthropometric differences in weight-related disorders between adults with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls, as well as their disparate impact on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. We underwent a cross-sectional study of 49 consecutively selected, community-residing adults with DS and 49 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Siblings of adults with DS were studied as controls in 42 cases. Epidemiological data (age and gender), anthropometric data (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio [WHR]), coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile) were measured and compared between the groups. Adults with DS were significantly younger and more often male, with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Adults with DS also had a higher WHR, and more frequently presented abdominal obesity. Moreover, insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment was more prevalent among adults with DS and abdominal obesity. However, lipid profiles were similar between groups. The kappa correlation index for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity between waist circumference and WHR was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.13-0.34). We concluded that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity was higher in adults with DS than in controls. Adults with DS and abdominal obesity showed higher indexes of insulin resistance than their non-obese peers. WHR was a useful tool for the evaluation of abdominal obesity in this population. PMID:25108610

  12. Smoking Is Associated with More Abdominal Fat in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Daniela; Wagner, Mario; Mottin, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers). We next compared the anthropometrical measurements and body composition data (measured by electric bioimpedance) of both groups. We analyzed the effect of smoking on body composition variables using univariate and multiple linear regression (MLR); differences are presented as regression coefficients (b) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 536 morbidly obese individuals, 453 (84.5%) non-smokers and 83 (15.5%) smokers. Male smokers had a higher BMI (b=3.28 kg/m2, p=0.036), larger waist circumference (b=6.07 cm, p=0.041) and higher percentage of body fat (b=2.33%, p=0.050) than non-smokers. These differences remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. For females, the only significant finding in MLR was a greater muscle mass among smokers (b=1.34kg, p=0.028). No associations were found between tobacco load measured in pack-years and anthropometric measures or body composition. Discussion Positive associations between smoking and BMI, and waist circumference and percentage of body fat, were found among male morbidly obese patients, but not among females. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of these aspects in morbidly obese subjects. We speculate that our findings may indicate that the coexistence of morbid obesity and smoking helps to explain the more serious medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, seen in these patients. PMID:25978682

  13. Sedentary Behavior Is Not Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K. Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine whether time spent in sedentary behaviors (SED) was associated with 2-hour glucose and insulin resistance in adults with abdominal obesity. We also examined the association between light physical activity (LPA) and sporadic (accumulated in bouts <10 minutes in duration) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with glucose metabolism. Methods Participants were 135 inactive, abdominally obese adults recruited from Kingston, Canada. SED and physical activity were determined by accelerometry over 7 days and summarized as SED (accelerometer counts/min <100), LPA (counts/min 100–1951), and MVPA (counts/min ≥1952). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was used to ascertain 2-hour glucose; the homeostasis model of assessment was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); lipid, lipoproteins and blood pressure were determined using standard protocols. Secondary analyses considered the association between SED and physical activity with other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Participants spent 627.2±82.9 min/d in SED, 289.0±91.7 min/d in LPA and 19.2±13.5 min/d in MVPA. Neither SED nor the physical activity variables were associated with 2-hour glucose or HOMA-IR (p>0.05). In secondary analyses, SED was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); with the exception of blood pressure (p<0.05), LPA was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); and MVPA was independently associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Objectively measured SED was not associated with 2-hr glucose or HOMA-IR. Our findings also suggest that the accumulation of LPA and sporadic MVPA is not associated with glucose metabolism in adults with abdominal obesity. PMID:21695179

  14. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases. PMID:19582986

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  16. Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for dysexecutive function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Andrea R; Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol; Bitzer, Markus; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the metabolic syndrome and its components on dysexecutive function (DF) in individuals with and without CKD. Among 588 participants aged over 70 from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), we defined DF as performance of 2SDs below the mean on any one test or 1.5SDs below the mean on any two of the following: Block Design, Digit Symbol Coding and the Trail-making Tests A and B. We defined CKD as an eGFR below 60 mL/min/m(2). MetS was defined according to recent guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program. 149 participants had CKD at cross-section, 16.1% of which also showed DF. Of the 439 participants without CKD, 12.3% displayed DF. Abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference, was an independent risk factor for dysexecutive function in CKD (OR = 14.3, 95%CI = 2.21-91.93, p = 0.005) but not in non-CKD. None of the other MetS components were associated with DF. Results suggested that abdominal obesity, recognized as an integral part of the MetS, is a strong risk factor for DF in individuals with CKD. PMID:27413673

  17. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  18. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:15628823

  19. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  20. Reduced alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes as a modulator of fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels in men.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Couillard, C; Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the postprandial lipemia of two groups of men displaying similar age, body weight, and regional fat distribution, but characterized by either low (n = 11) or high (n = 15) alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes. In addition to fat cell lipolysis, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) as well as postheparin plasma LPL activities were measured in the fasting state. Fasting AT-LPL and PH-LPL activities were similar in both groups. Maximal adipose cell lipolysis induced by isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) as well as the beta-adrenergic sensitivity did not differ between both groups of men. The selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK-14304 promoted a similar antilipolytic response in subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes from both groups. However, the alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity, defined as the dose of UK-14304 that produced half-maximal inhibition of lipolysis (IC(50)), was significantly different between groups (P < 0.0001). Men with low versus high subcutaneous abdominal fat cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher fasting TG levels. In the whole group, a positive relationship was observed between log-transformed IC(50) UK-14304 values of subcutaneous adipocytes and fasting TG levels (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), suggesting that a low abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity is associated with high TG levels. After the consumption of a high-fat meal, subjects with low subcutaneous abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher TG levels in total, medium, and small triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions at 0- to 6-h time points than men with high adipocyte alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity (P values ranging from 0.01 to 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the fasting TG concentration was the only variable retained as a significant predictor of the area under the curve of TG levels in total TRL fractions (73% of variance) among independent variables

  1. Altered baseline brain activities before food intake in obese men: a resting state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiao; von Deneen, Karen M; Zang, Yufeng; Walter, Martin; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has become a global epidemic. However, why obese individuals eat more still remains unclear. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in obese people. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to observe spontaneous blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese men. Using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis method, we measured temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signals. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly increased synchronicity of activity in the left putamen relative to lean men. Decreased synchronicity of activity was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC) in the obese subjects. And, the ratings of hunger of the obese subjects were higher than those of the lean subjects before food intake. After food intake, we did not find the significant differences between the obese men and the lean men. In all participations, synchronicity of activity increased from the fasted to the satiated state in the OFC. The results indicated that OFC plays an important role in feeding behavior, and OFC signaling may be disordered in obesity. Obese men show less inhibitory control during fasting state. This study has provided strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a hypo-functioning reward circuitry in obese individuals, in which the frontal cortex may fail to inhibit the striatum, and consequently lead to overeating and obesity. PMID:25459293

  2. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  3. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  4. Administration of Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-tang, a Herbal Complex, for Patients With Abdominal Obesity: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seungwon; Jung, WooSang; Byun, A Ri; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo; Shin, KyoungHo

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines have received attention as antiabdominal obesity agents. We present a series of 13 cases that demonstrate the positive effect of the herbal complex Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-Tang (HRHT; Tsumura, Tokyo, Japan) on weight and abdominal fat control in patients with abdominal obesity. We treated 13 patients with abdominal obesity treated for 54.46 ± 18.07 days with 5.0 g of HRHT daily. To evaluate the treatment, the morphometric (i.e., waist circumstance, weight, body fat) and biochemical parameters were measured once monthly. After HRHT therapy, the waist circumstance decreased from 91.96 ± 7.99 cm to 87.12 ± 8.09 cm (paired t test, P < .001) and the weight decreased from 78.09 ± 14.35 kg (average ± standard deviation) to 75.72 ± 14.60 kg (paired t test, P < .001). All 13 (100%) patients had low waist circumstances after treatment. Overall, 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients had a lower weight and body mass index. In the present study, we showed the clinical effects of HRHT on waist circumstance, weight, body mass index, and body fat in patients with abdominal obesity. Further clinical studies investigating the effects of HRHT are needed. PMID:26256500

  5. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  6. The association between abdominal obesity and characteristics of migraine attacks in Iranian adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Omid; Askari, Gholamreza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Khorvash, Fariborz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a primary headache disorder that affects the neurovascular system. Recent studies have shown that migraine patients with general obesity have higher characteristics of migraine attacks compared with normal weight patients, but data on central obesity are scarce. This study was done to assess the relationship between central obesity and the characteristics of migraine attacks in migraine patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 129 migraine patients (28 men and 101 women), aged 15–67 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and waist–height ratio (WHtR), as well as characteristics of migraine attacks such as severity, frequency, duration, and headache diary result (HDR) was determined for each participant. Linear regression was used to examine the association between anthropometric measurements and characteristics of migraine attacks. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: WC, WHR, and WHtR were positively associated with the severity (P-value: WC: 0.002, WHR: 0.002, WHtR: 0.001) and frequency (P-value: WC: 0.006, WHR: 0.01, WHtR: 0.002) of migraine attacks. Moreover, we found a significant association between WC (P = 0.001), WHR (P = 0.004), and WHtR (P < 0.001) with HDR. No significant relationship was observed between central obesity indicators and duration of migraine attacks. Conclusions: Central obesity indicators were positively associated with the severity and frequency of migraine attacks as well as HDR, but not with duration of attacks. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that weight loss may decrease the characteristics of migraine attacks. PMID:27186204

  7. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  8. Exercise training improves hemodynamic recovery to isometric exercise in obese men with type 2 diabetes but not in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Franklin, Ruth; Baynard, Tracy; Carhart, Robert L; Weinstock, Ruth S; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) show greater rates of mortality due to ischemic heart disease than men with T2D. We aimed to examine cardiovascular and autonomic function responses to isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise between men and women with T2D, before and after an exercise training program. Materials/Methods Hemodynamic responses were measured in 22 men and women with T2D during and following a 3-minute IHG test, and before and after 16 wks of aerobic exercise training. Results Women had a smaller decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (BP) during recovery from IHG (ΔMAPREC) than men pre- and post-training (P<0.05). Men showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP during recovery from IHG (P<0.05), and exercise training improved this response in men but not in women (men, pre-training: −13.9±1.8, post-training: −20.5±5.3 mmHg vs. women, pre-training: −10.7±1.7, post-training: −4.1±4.9 mmHg; P<0.05). Men had a greater reduction in sympathetic modulation of vasomotor tone (P<0.05), as estimated by blood pressure variability, following IHG. This response was accentuated after training, while this training effect was not seen in women. Post-training ΔMAPREC was correlated with recovery of low frequency component of the BP spectrum (ΔLFSBPrec, r=0.52, P<0.05). Conclusions Differences in BP recovery immediately following IHG may be attributed to gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. An improvement in these responses occurs following aerobic exercise training in obese men, but not in obese women with T2D which reflects a better adaptive autonomic response to exercise training. PMID:22902004

  9. Lifestyle Risk Factors of General and Abdominal Obesity in Students of the School of Medicine and Health Science of the University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aleyira, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among students of the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UDS-SMHS), Tamale, Ghana. Also, lifestyle risk factors for the two obesity indices were investigated. This study was conducted among a sample of 646 students. Anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference were appropriately assessed. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was 1.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Risk factors of general obesity were being female (crude OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.85–25.80, P = 0.0021), engaging in light PA (OR = 12.45, 95% CI = 2.96–52.41, P = 0.0006), being aged 28–37 years (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.39–20.68, P = 0.0329), nonintake of coffee (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.10–15.28, P = 0.0357), being married (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.48–22.02, P = 0.0286), and being abdominally obese (OR = 02.7, 95% CI = 25.61–11.60, P < 0.0001). Risk factors for abdominal obesity were being female, being married, having general obesity, and nonintake of coffee. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent than general obesity. Risk factors included being female, married, and generally obese and nonintake of coffee. PMID:24649393

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (β: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (β: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity. PMID:26744712

  11. n3 PUFAs Do Not Affect Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Overweight to Moderately Obese Men and Women123

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N.; Hagman, Derek K.; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Weigle, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m2 consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk. PMID:23761646

  12. Establishing abdominal height cut-offs and their association with conventional indices of obesity among Arab children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Sabico, Shaun; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional markers of obesity in this region. This is the first study to document the association of SAD with measures of obesity among Arab children and adolescents. METHODS: Nine hundred sixty-four Saudi children aged 5-17 years (365 prepubertal, including 146 boys and 219 girls; 249 pubertal, including 125 boys and 124 girls; and 350 postpubertal, including 198 boys and 152 girls) were included in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: SAD was significantly correlated with indices of obesity regardless of gender, but was strongest among pubertal boys. The cut-off values were as follows: for prepubertal children, 14 cm (equivalent to 50th percentile among girls and 60th percentile among boys); for pubertal children, 15 cm for girls (30th percentile) and 16 cm for boys (50th percentile), and for postpubertal, 21.5 cm for girls (70th percentile) and 22 cm for boys (80th percentile). CONCLUSION: SAD is a reliable indicator of visceral obesity among Arab children and adolescents in particular. Prospective studies should be done to determine whether such an association translates to a promising risk factor for hard endpoints such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. PMID:20427937

  13. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  14. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with excess body weight and abdominal obesity among resettled Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio, United States.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-07-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  15. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  16. WHEY PROTEIN SUPPRESSES PLASMA GHRELIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE MEN AND WOMEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein; however, it is unclear if different dietary protein sources have differing effects on satiety. Few studies that have investigated the effects of whey protein on satiety hormones, such as plasma ghrelin, in overweight and obese men and w...

  17. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  18. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives

    PubMed Central

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Results Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. Conclusion The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity. PMID:26196859

  19. Abdominal Obesity and Association With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: The Uberlândia Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Roever, Leonardo S; Resende, Elmiro S; Diniz, Angélica L D; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Veloso, Fernando C; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo M M; Chagas, Antonio C P

    2016-03-01

    Ectopic visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and ectopic fat in the Brazilian population still lacking. Cross-sectional study with 101 volunteers (50.49% men; mean age 56.5 ± 18, range 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal visceral adipose tissue with convex transducer of 3.5 MHz of frequency. The thickness of VF was ultrasonographically measured by the distance between the inner face of the abdominal muscle and the posterior face of abdominal aorta, 1 cm above the umbilicus. The SCF thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. The exams were always performed by the same examiner. Ectopic fat volumes were examined in relation to waist circumference, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. The VF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.005, r = 0.15), total cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), waist circumference (P < 0.0001, r = 0.43), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.41), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32) in women, and with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.002, r = 0,14), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.032, r = 0.07), glucose (P < 0.001, r = 0.15), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.008, r = 0.12), gamma-GT (P < 0.001, r = 0.30), waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.52), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.26) in men. SCF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.34), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, r = 0.36), waist circumference (P

  20. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  1. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. Results: The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after

  2. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p < 0.05) due to increases in VRC,p and VRC,a with constant VAB. End-expiratory VCW decreased with late increasing VRC,p, dynamically hyperinflating VRC,a (p < 0.05), and progressively decreasing VAB (p < 0.05). After MBWRP, weight loss was concentrated in the abdomen and total IC decreased. During exercise, abdominal rib cage hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p < 0.05) without ventilatory and metabolic changes. We conclude that otherwise healthy obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  3. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  4. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  5. Correlates of Adverse Outcomes in Abdominally Obese Individuals: Findings from the Five-Year Followup of the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Nele; Schneider, Harald J.; John, Ulrich; Dörr, Marcus; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Völker, Uwe; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and premature death. However, it has not been resolved which factors predispose for the development of these adverse obesity-related outcomes in otherwise healthy individuals with abdominal obesity. Methods. We studied 1,506 abdominal obese individuals (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5) free of CVD or T2DM from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania and assessed the incidence of CVD or T2DM after a five-year followup. Logistic regression models were adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors and liver, kidney diseases, and sociodemographic status. Results. During follow-up time, we observed 114 and 136 new T2DM and CVD cases, respectively. Regression models identified age, waist circumference, serum glucose, and liver disease as predictors of T2DM. Regarding CVD, only age, unemployment, and a divorced or widowed marital status were significantly associated with incident CVD. In this subgroup of obese individuals blood pressure, serum glucose, or lipids did not influence incidence of T2DM or CVD. Conclusion. We identified various factors associated with an increased risk of incident T2DM and CVD among abdominally obese individuals. These findings may improve the detection of high-risk individuals and help to advance prevention strategies in abdominal obesity. PMID:24191195

  6. Red Blood Cells from Individuals with Abdominal Obesity or Metabolic Abnormalities Exhibit Less Deformability upon Entering a Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Mancuso, Jordan E.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are multifactorial conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Previous work has demonstrated that the hemorheological profile is altered in patients with abdominal obesity and MS, as evidenced for example by increased whole blood viscosity. To date, however, no studies have examined red blood cell (RBC) deformability of blood from individuals with obesity or metabolic abnormalities under typical physiological flow conditions. In this study, we pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the mechanical behavior of ~8,000 RBCs obtained from either healthy individuals (n = 5) or obese participants with metabolic abnormalities (OMA) (n = 4). We demonstrate that the OMA+ cells stretched on average about 25% less than the healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ingesting a high-fat meal on RBC mechanical dynamics, and found that the postprandial period has only a weak effect on the stretching dynamics exhibited by OMA+ cells. The results suggest that chronic rigidification of RBCs plays a key role in the increased blood pressure and increased whole blood viscosity observed in OMA individuals and was independent of an acute response triggered by consumption of a high-fat meal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803633 PMID:27258098

  7. Psychological Disturbances and Quality of Life in Obese and Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Kocełak, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy; Naworska, Beata; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Kotlarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Monika; Madej, Paweł; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Skałba, Piotr; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed. PMID:22844280

  8. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  9. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  10. Obesity and future prostate cancer risk among men after an initial benign biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In general population studies, obesity has been associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa), but little is known about obesity and future PCa risk among men with an initial benign biopsy of the prostate; a high risk population. Methods Within a cohort of 6,692 men followed up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 494 PCa cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy vs. TURP and date of procedure. Body mass index at the time of the initial procedure was abstracted from medical records and initial biopsy specimens were reviewed for the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Results Obesity was associated with the presence of PIN in the initial benign specimen (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.13, 4.11). After adjustment for the matching variables, family history of PCa, PSA levels at the initial procedure, the number of PSA tests and DRE during follow-up, obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.07, 2.30) at the time of the initial procedure was associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Risk associated with obesity was confined to cases with follow-up less than 1,538 days, the median duration of follow-up among cases (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.09, 3.48). Conclusions Obesity is associated with the presence of PIN in benign specimens and with future PCa risk after an initial benign finding. Impact Obesity may be a factor to consider when planning clinical follow-up after a benign biopsy. PMID:23613026

  11. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  12. Exercise-Induced Weight Loss is More Effective than Dieting for Improving Adipokine Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation in Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Joan; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Chen, Dan-Dan; Yap, Siew-Yoon; Chen, Richard Yuan-Tud; Tian, Roger Ho-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The adipokines chemerin and adiponectin are reciprocally related in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Weight loss increases adiponectin and reduces chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammation, but the effects of caloric restriction and physical activity are difficult to separate in combined lifestyle modification. We compared effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on chemerin, adiponectin, insulin resistance, and inflammation in obese men. Eighty abdominally obese Asian men (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2), waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm, mean age 42.6 years) were randomized to reduce daily intake by ~500 kilocalories (n = 40) or perform moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise (200-300 min/week) (n = 40) to increase energy expenditure by a similar amount for 24 weeks. The diet and exercise groups had similar decreases in energy deficit (-456 ± 338 vs. -455 ± 315 kcal/day), weight (-3.6 ± 3.4 vs. -3.3 ± 4.6 kg), and WC (-3.4 ± 4.4 vs. -3.6 ± 3.2 cm). The exercise group demonstrated greater reductions in fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.5 vs. -2.7 ± 5.3 kg), serum chemerin (-9.7 ± 11.1 vs. -4.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml), the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-2.11 ± 3.13 vs. -1.49 ± 3.08 mg/L), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (-2.45 ± 1.88 vs. -1.38 ± 3.77). Serum adiponectin increased only in the exercise group. Exercise-induced fat mass loss was more effective than dieting for improving adipokine profile, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation in obese men, underscoring metabolic benefits of increased physical activity. PMID:26011919

  13. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  14. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  15. Abdominal obesity modifies the risk of hypertriglyceridemia for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the most prevalent lipid alteration in end-stage renal disease, and we studied the relationship between serum triglycerides and all-cause and cardiovascular death in these patients. Since abdominal fat modifies the effect of lipids on atherosclerosis, we analyzed the interaction between serum lipids and waist circumference (WC) as a metric of abdominal obesity. In a cohort of 537 hemodialysis patients, 182 died, 113 from cardiovascular causes, over an average follow-up of 29 months. In Cox models that included traditional and nontraditional risk factors, there were significant strong interactions between triglycerides and WC to both all-cause and cardiovascular death. A fixed (50 mg/dl) excess in triglycerides was associated with a progressive lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with threshold WC <95 cm but with a progressive increased risk in those above this threshold. A significant interaction between cholesterol and WC with all-cause and cardiovascular death emerged only in models excluding the triglycerides-WC interaction. Neither high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nor non-HDL cholesterol or their interaction terms with WC were associated with study outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of triglycerides and cholesterol for survival and atherosclerotic complications in hemodialysis patients is critically dependent on WC. Hence, intervention studies in end-stage renal disease should specifically target patients with abdominal obesity and hyperlipidemia. PMID:21178980

  16. Postprandial dyslipidemia in men with visceral obesity: an effect of reduced LDL receptor expression?

    PubMed

    Mamo, J C; Watts, G F; Barrett, P H; Smith, D; James, A P; Pal, S

    2001-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia after an oral fat challenge was studied in middle-aged men with visceral obesity. The two groups had similar plasma cholesterol levels, but obese subjects had higher levels of plasma triglyceride and reduced amounts of high-density cholesterol. Fasting plasma insulin was fourfold greater in obese subjects because of concomitant insulin resistance, with a calculated HOMA score of 3.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Plasma apolipoprotein B(48) (apoB(48)) and retinyl palmitate (RP) after an oral fat challenge were used to monitor chylomicron metabolism. Compared with lean subjects, the fasting concentration of apoB(48) was more than twofold greater in obese individuals, suggestive of an accumulation of posthydrolyzed particles. After the oral lipid load, the incremental areas under the apoB(48) and RP curves (IAUC) were both significantly greater in obese subjects (apoB(48): 97 +/- 17 vs. 44 +/- 12 microg.ml(-1). h; RP: 3,120 +/- 511 vs. 1,308 +/- 177 U. ml(-1). h, respectively). A delay in the conversion of chylomicrons to remnants probably contributed to postprandial dyslipidemia in viscerally obese subjects. The triglyceride IAUC was 68% greater in obese subjects (4.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.8 mM. h, P < 0.06). Moreover, peak postprandial triglyceride was delayed by approximately 2 h in obese subjects. The reduction in triglyceride lipolysis in vivo did not appear to reflect changes in hydrolytic enzyme activities. Postheparin plasma lipase rates were found to be similar for lean and obese subjects. In this study, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression on monunuclear cells was used as a surrogate marker of hepatic activity. We found that, in obese subjects, the binding of LDL was reduced by one-half compared with lean controls (70.9 +/- 15.07 vs. 38.9 +/- 4.6 ng LDL bound/microg cell protein, P = 0.02). Because the LDL receptor is involved in the removal of proatherogenic chylomicron remnants, we suggest that the hepatic

  17. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  18. Lifestyle modification decreases arterial stiffness in overweight and obese men: dietary modification vs. exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Seiji; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-02-01

    Obesity and increased arterial stiffness are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is increased in obese individuals than in age-matched nonobese individuals. We demonstrated that dietary modification and exercise training are effective in reducing arterial stiffness in obese persons. However, the differences in the effect on arterial stiffness between dietary modification and exercise training are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of dietary modification and aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in overweight and obese persons. Forty-five overweight and obese men (48 ± 1 year) completed either a dietary modification (well-balanced nutrient, 1680 kcal/day) or an exercise-training program (walking, 40-60 min/day, 3 days/week) for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all participants underwent anthropometric measurements. Arterial stiffness was measured based on carotid arterial compliance, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and endothelial function was determined by circulating level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide metabolite (nitrites/nitrate as metabolite: NOx). Body mass and waist circumference significantly decreased after both intervention programs. Weight loss was greater after dietary modification than after exercise training (-10.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. -3.6 ± 0.5 kg, p < .01). Although arterial stiffness and the plasma levels of ET-1 and NOx were improved after dietary modification or exercise training, there were no differences in those improvements between the 2 types of interventions. Exercise training improves arterial function in obese men without as much weight loss as after dietary modification. PMID:25029200

  19. A Role of the Inflammasome in the Low Storage Capacity of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kursawe, Romy; Dixit, Vishwa D; Scherer, Philipp E; Santoro, Nicola; Narayan, Deepak; Gordillo, Ruth; Giannini, Cosimo; Lopez, Ximena; Pierpont, Bridget; Nouws, Jessica; Shulman, Gerald I; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26718495

  20. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Urban Asian Indians Without Diabetes in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Sharma, Mukti; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18–60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2–L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.5±8.6 ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30 ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Conclusions: In obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2–L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels. PMID:24528222

  1. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. PMID:27525284

  2. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Ruíz, Perla-Monserrat; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Corona-Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz-Teresita

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. PMID:27525284

  3. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  4. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. Methods We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5–24.99), overweight (25–29.9), mild obesity (30–34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. Results The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Conclusions Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL. PMID:26866920

  5. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  6. Disruption of the gastroesophageal junction by central obesity and waist belt: role of raised intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; McColl, K E L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions. PMID:24575877

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Añez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Bello, Luis; Apruzzese, Vanessa; González, Robys; Chacín, Maricarmen; Cabrera, Mayela; Cano, Clímaco; Velasco, Manuel; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC) cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity) and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity). Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. PMID:25945356

  8. Physical Characteristics Associated with Weight Misperception among Overweight and Obese Men: NHANES 1999-2006

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dwight W.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Affuso, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the prevalence of weight misperception among overweight and obese men with total body fat levels ≥ 25%; and 2) examine associations of weight misperception with anthropometric and body composition measures. Methods Data came from 4,200 overweight or obese men from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Weight misperception was operationalized as having a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived total body fat percent (TBF) ≥ 25% and classifying oneself as either “underweight” or “about right weight.” Logistic regression was used to determine physical characteristics associated with weight misperception. Results Weight misperception was highest among Mexican American (35.9%) followed by Black (30.8%) and White men (22.9%). Physical characteristics (OR, 95% CI) associated with weight misperception were decreased arm fat (0.95, 0.91-0.98), being overweight (9.02, 5.34-15.24), and having a waist circumference ≤ 94 cm (2.31, 1.72-3.09). Conclusions Findings suggest that future research should include a measure of adiposity in the operationalization of weight misperception among male populations. PMID:25354815

  9. Altered baseline brain activity differentiates regional mechanisms subserving biological and psychological alterations in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Meng; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Yijun; Walter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease is a major factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, which has become a global health problem. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to investigate the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous signal during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese males. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly greater baseline activity in the precuneus and lesser activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) relative to lean subjects. Furthermore, after food intake, obese males had significantly lesser activity in dACC than lean males. We further found a significant positive correlation between precuneus activation and hunger ratings before food intake, while dACC activity was negatively correlated with plasma insulin levels before and after food intake. These results indicated that both precuneus and dACC may play an important role in eating behavior. While precuneus rather seemed to mediate subjective satiety, dACC levels rather reflected indirect measures of glucose utilization. PMID:26099208

  10. Altered baseline brain activity differentiates regional mechanisms subserving biological and psychological alterations in obese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Meng; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Yijun; Walter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease is a major factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, which has become a global health problem. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to investigate the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous signal during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese males. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly greater baseline activity in the precuneus and lesser activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) relative to lean subjects. Furthermore, after food intake, obese males had significantly lesser activity in dACC than lean males. We further found a significant positive correlation between precuneus activation and hunger ratings before food intake, while dACC activity was negatively correlated with plasma insulin levels before and after food intake. These results indicated that both precuneus and dACC may play an important role in eating behavior. While precuneus rather seemed to mediate subjective satiety, dACC levels rather reflected indirect measures of glucose utilization. PMID:26099208

  11. Do obese eat faster than lean subjects? Food intake studies in Pima Indian men.

    PubMed

    Rising, R; Larson, D E; Ravussin, E

    1994-01-01

    Food intake rate has previously been derived from observation of eating behavior in laboratory settings or in public eating establishments. Although it has been suggested that obese individuals eat faster than lean individuals, observations of such an "obese eating style" have yielded mixed results. In the present study, the relationship between ad-libitum food intake rate and obesity was evaluated over 4 days on a metabolic ward in 28 healthy Pima Indian men (Mean +/- SD; 29 +/- 7 y, 100.4 +/- 27.1 kg, 33 +/- 10% body fat) using an automated food selection system containing a large variety of foods. Total energy intake averaged 18829 +/- 3299 kJ/d consisting of 47 +/- 4, 40 +/- 3, and 13 +/- 1 percent of carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively. The average meal duration was 25 +/- 7 min. Food intake rate was 68 +/- 21 g/min while carbohydrate, fat and protein intake rates were 23 +/- 6, 9 +/- 3 and 6 +/- 2 g/min, respectively. Food intake rate correlated negatively with % body fat (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). Similar relationships were found between the intake rates of carbohydrate, fat and protein and body fatness. Only prospective studies will indicate whether a slow food intake rate may contribute to the etiology of obesity by possibly reducing satiety. PMID:16353604

  12. Consumption of different soymilk formulations differentially affects the gut microbiomes of overweight and obese men

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Bringe, Neal A.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Miller, Michael J.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20–45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p < 0.001). Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.001) and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) increased in LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p < 0.001). Bacterial diversity decreased for LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups. PMID:22895080

  13. Diet composition is associated with endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in obese men.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Grietje; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Fyfe, Claire; Gratz, Silvia W

    2012-09-01

    Endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) occurs in the human gut. Red meat is considered the most important dietary component linked to NOC formation, although nitrate and vitamin C (VitC) also contribute. We previously showed that high-protein weight-loss diets increased fecal NOC and this was enhanced by simultaneous carbohydrate restriction. Although previous studies have focused on the effect of either 1 or 2 dietary components on endogenous NOC formation, no study to date has investigated the combined contribution of various dietary components. The current study therefore assessed the joint impact of several known dietary contributors to the endogenous formation of NOC in obese men. It also aimed to identify further novel contributors and investigate their role in explaining shifts in endogenous formation of NOC. Three dietary trials were conducted in obese men consuming body weight maintenance or weight-loss diets, with NOC measured in fecal samples. Consumption of meat-based weight-loss diets increased (P < 0.001) fecal NOC. Red meat intake was positively correlated with the fecal log NOC concentration (r = 0.60; P < 0.001). Dietary carbohydrate and sugar were negatively correlated with the fecal log NOC concentration (r = -0.66 for both; P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis identified several dietary components that drive endogenous NOC formation, namely, red meat, nitrate, VitC, total energy, and nonstarch polysaccharides. We present a regression model that predicts endogenous NOC formation in obese men based on their dietary intakes. This model could improve the estimation of endogenous NOC formation, currently used in epidemiological studies into diet and cancer. PMID:22833653

  14. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  15. Snacking is associated with reduced risk for overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 5,811). Snacks/drinks were combined when eating occasions were named in the 24-h recall, but analysis separated snacks from snacks/drinks that were only drinks....

  16. DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, M A; Stanforth, P R; Bartholomew, J B; Lu, T; Abolt, C J; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the quantity of fat is different across the central (that is, android, trunk) and peripheral (that is, arm, leg and gynoid) regions among young African-American (AA), Asian (AS), Hispanic (HI) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) men. Subjects and Methods: A cohort of 852 men (18–30 years; mean total body fat percent (TBF%)=18.8±7.9, range=3.7–45.4) were assessed for body composition in five body regions via dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: HI men (21.8±8.3) had higher TBF% than AA (17.0±10.0), NHW (17.9±7.2) and AS (18.9±8.0) groups (P-values <0.0001). AS had a lower BMI (23.9±3.4) than all other groups, and NHW (24.7±3.2) had a lower BMI than HI (25.7±3.9) and AA (26.5±4.7; P-values<0.0001). A linear mixed model (LMM) revealed a significant ethnicity by region fat% interaction (P<0.0001). HI men had a greater fat% than NHW for every region (adjusted means (%); android: 29.6 vs 23.3; arm: 13.3 vs 10.6; gynoid: 27.2 vs 23.8; leg: 21.2 vs 18.3; trunk: 25.5 vs 20.6) and a greater fat% than AA for every region except the arm. In addition, in the android and trunk regions, HI had a greater fat% than AS, and AS had a higher fat% than AA. Finally, the android fat% for AS was higher than that of NHW. When comparing the region fat% within ethnicities, the android region was greater than the gynoid region for AS and HI, but did not differ for AA and NHW, and the arm region had the least fat% in all ethnicities. Conclusions: Fat deposition and body fat patterning varies by ethnicity. PMID:23507968

  17. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  18. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  19. Moderate weight loss in obese and overweight men preserves bone quality12345

    PubMed Central

    Pop, L Claudia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Tomaino, Katherine; Schlussel, Yvette; Schneider, Stephen H; Gordon, Chris L; Wang, Xiangbing; Shapses, Sue A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Weight loss (WL) negatively affects bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations and has specifically been shown in women. Objective: In this prospective controlled trial, we examined variables of bone quality and endocrine changes after intentional WL in men. Design: Thirty-eight overweight and obese [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 31.9 ± 4.4; age: 58 ± 6 y] men were recruited to either WL through caloric restriction or weight maintenance (WM) for 6 mo. Results: There was a −7.9 ± 4.4% and +0.2 ± 1.6% change in body weight in the WL and WM groups, respectively. There was a greater increase in femoral neck and total body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the WM group than in the WL group (P-interaction effect < 0.05). In contrast, there was a trend for the tibia cortical thickness and area to decrease more in the WM group than in the WL group (P ≤ 0.08). There was a decrease in the periosteal circumference in both groups over time (P < 0.01) and no statistically significant changes in trabecular bone. Circulating total, free, and bioavailable estradiol decreased in the WL group compared with the WM group, and changes were different between groups (P < 0.05). Serum total and bioavailable testosterone increased in both groups (P < 0.01). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Moderate WL in overweight and obese men did not decrease BMD at any anatomical site or alter cortical and trabecular bone and geometry. Also, despite increased BMD at some sites when maintaining excess body weight, cortical bone showed a trend in the opposite direction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00472745. PMID:25733651

  20. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  1. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  2. A study of abdominal ultrasound therapy combined with complex exercise for effective obesity management among shift work employees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Byoung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of abdominal ultrasound accompanied by complex exercise in shift work employees working in industry. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty shift work employees were randomly assigned to either a complex exercise group (control group) or a complex exercise and ultrasound treatment group (experimental group). The control group carried out complex exercise five times per week for 4 weeks, while the experimental group performed complex exercise twice per week and received deep ultrasound three times per week for 4 weeks. [Results] The results showed that there were no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. There were significant changes in weight, lean body mass, body fat mass, and body mass index in the control group; meanwhile, significant changes in weight and body fat mass were observed in the experimental group. There were no significant differences in blood lipids between the two groups. There was a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the control group; furthermore, a significant decrease in total cholesterol was observed in the experimental group, along with significant increases in HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study concerning short-term obesity management programs, complex exercise was effective for improving of body composition and weight loss, while complex exercise combined with abdominal ultrasound had a good effect on blood lipids and secondary complication prevention. PMID:25642080

  3. Adaptive reduction in thermogenesis and resistance to lose fat in obese men.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is defined as a greater than predicted change in energy expenditure in response to changes in energy balance. This issue is particularly relevant in the context of a weight-reducing programme in which diminished thermogenesis can be sufficient to compensate for a prescribed decrease in daily energy intake. In the present pilot study, we investigated the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis in resting state that appears to favour resistance to further weight loss. Eight obese men (mean BMI: 33.4 kg/m2, mean age: 38 years) participated in this repeated-measures, within-subject, clinical intervention. They were subjected to a weight-loss programme that consisted of a supervised diet (-2930 kJ/d) and exercise clinical intervention. The phases investigated were as follows: (i) baseline, (ii) after 5 (SE 1) kg loss of body weight (phase 1), (iii) after 10 (SE 1) kg weight loss (phase 2) and (iv) at resistance to further weight loss (plateau). At each phase of the weight-reducing programme, body weight and composition as well as RMR were measured. A regression equation was established in a control population of the same age to predict RMR in obese men at each phase of the weight-loss programme. We observed that body weight and fat mass (FM) were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while fat-free mass remained unchanged throughout the programme. In phase 1, measured RMR had fallen by 418 kJ/d, more than predicted (P < 0.05), and this difference reached 706 kJ/d at plateau (P < 0.05 v. phase 1). A positive association (r 0.64, P < 0.05) was observed between the reduction in thermogenesis and the degree of FM depletion at plateau. The adaptive reduction in thermogenesis at plateau was substantial and represented 30.9% of the compensation in energy balance that led to resistance to further lose body weight. In conclusion, these results show that adaptive reduction in thermogenesis may contribute to the occurrence of resistance to lose fat in obese men

  4. Serum Acylated Ghrelin Concentrations in Response to Short-Term Overfeeding in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Danny; Cahill, Farrell; Amini, Peyvand; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Yi, Yanqing; Zhang, Weizhen; Sun, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, an orexigenic gut hormone secreted primarily from the stomach, is involved in energy homeostasis. However, little data is available regarding its response to energy surplus and the development of human obesity. Objective The present study investigated the response of circulating acylated ghrelin to a 7-day positive energy challenge. Design A total of 68 healthy young men were overfed 70% more calories than required, for 1-week. Subjects were classified based on percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Serum acylated ghrelin concentration was measured before and after the positive energy challenge. Additionally, the relationship between acylated ghrelin and obesity-related phenotypes including weight, body mass index, percent body fat, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and β-cell function at baseline and change due to overfeeding, were assessed. Results Contrary to our expectations, serum acylated ghrelin was significantly increased in response to overfeeding and the increase was independent of obesity status. There was no significant difference in fasting acylated ghrelin between normal weight, overweight, and obese men at baseline. Acylated ghrelin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for normal weight and with BMI in overweight men. Also ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in overweight (negative relationship) and obese (positive relationship) groups. Conclusion Our results showed that circulating acylated ghrelin was increased after a 7-day positive energy challenge regardless of adiposity status. However, acylated ghrelin was correlated with change in weight and BMI in opposing directions, in overweight and obese subjects respectively, thus dependent on obesity status. PMID:23029221

  5. Obesity in Korean Men: Results from the Fourth through Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007~2014)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Won; Choi, Kwi Bok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is related to many diseases, including urological conditions. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of male obesity. Materials and Methods This study included 17,485 men older than 20 years of age who participated in the fourth, fifth, and sixth administrations of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Two main cutoff points for obesity were defined: a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and a BMI≥30 kg/m2. Additionally, we defined obesity requiring pharmacotherapy as the presence of a BMI≥30 kg/m2 or a BMI≥27 kg/m2 co-occurring with at least one associated comorbid medical condition, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results The prevalence rates of a BMI≥25 kg/m2, a BMI≥30 kg/m2, and obesity requiring pharmacotherapy were 35.7%, 3.4%, and 10.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity increased over time for all definitions of obesity. The prevalence of obesity requiring pharmacotherapy was highest in Jeju (12.5%) and lowest in Gangwon-do (7.7%). Having a higher income, being a non-manual worker, and having completed a high level of education were significantly related to obesity requiring pharmacotherapy. More than 70% of patients with obesity requiring pharmacotherapy reported taking diet pills, eating functional foods, or consuming a one-food diet for weight reduction, but only 13.9% reported exercising for this purpose. Conclusions Male obesity is a common condition, the prevalence of which is expected to continue to increase over time. A better strategy is required to manage male obesity in Korea. PMID:27574596

  6. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  7. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  8. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  9. Cellularity and Adipogenic Profile of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue From Obese Adolescents: Association With Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Eszlinger, Markus; Narayan, Deepak; Liu, Teresa; Bazuine, Merlijn; Cali, Anna M.G.; D'Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Sherman, Arthur; Caprio, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, 1H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents. PMID:20805387

  10. Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

  11. Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Hannon, Tamara; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE, RE, or a nonexercising control. Abdominal fat was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. Both AE and RE prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in controls. Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. Compared with controls, a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (27%) was observed in the RE group. Collapsed across groups, changes in visceral fat were associated with changes in intrahepatic lipid (r = 0.72) and insulin sensitivity (r = −0.47). Both AE and RE alone are effective for reducing abdominal fat and intrahepatic lipid in obese adolescent boys. RE but not AE is also associated with significant improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22751691

  12. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  13. Impact of a physician-supervised exercise-nutrition program with testosterone substitution in partial androgen-deficient middle-aged obese men

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ernst R; Willix, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Background Partial androgen deficiency syndrome in the aging male is associated with signs of aging such as a development of abdominal obesity, sexual dysfunction, increase body fat, weight gain and the development of cardiac disease. Objective We assessed the outcome of a commercially available physician supervised nutrition and exercise program with concomitant testosterone replacement therapy in middle age obese men with partial androgen deficiency in order to reduce cardiac risks factors. Methods Fifty-six self referred men without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease (ages 52.3 ± 7.8 years) were randomly selected from a large cohort. Baseline weight, body fat composition, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and fasting lipid levels, as well as free and total testosterone levels were assessed. All patients were assessed and followed 6–18 months after initiation of the program. The program consisted of a low glycemic load balanced nutrition diet, a recommended structured daily exercise program of 30–60 minutes, as well as once to twice weekly intramuscular testosterone injections (113.0 ± 27.8 mg). Results At follow up, weight was reduced from 233.9 ± 30.0 pounds (lbs) to 221.3 ± 25.1 lbs (P < 0.001), BMI was reduced from 33.2 ± 3.3 kg/m2 to 31.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Total body fat was 27.1% ± 5.2% vs. 34.3% ± 5.7% at baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting glucose was reduced from 95.3 ± 14.4 mg/dL to 87.5 ± 12.6 mg/dL (P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol was reduced from 195.4 ± 33.0 mg/dL to 172.7 ± 35.0 mg/dL (P < 0.005). No clinically significant adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged obese men with partial androgen deficiency appeared safe and might have promoted the effects of a weight reduction diet and daily exercise program as long as an adequate physician supervision and follow up was granted. The combination therapy significantly reduced coronary risk factors such as glucose

  14. Attenuated atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated lipolysis in subcutaneous adipocytes of obese type 2 diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Kenneth; Hansen, Dominique; Moro, Cedric; Eijnde, Bert O; Hoebers, Nicole; Knol, Joep; Bouckaert, Wim; Dams, Anne; Blaak, Ellen E; Jocken, Johan W E

    2016-07-01

    Catecholamines and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are major regulators of adipocyte lipolysis. Although obesity is characterized by catecholamine resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), data on ANP lipolytic response and sensitivity in different adipose tissue (AT) depots of metabolically distinct humans are scarce. Ex vivo catecholamine- and ANP-induced lipolysis was investigated in adipocytes derived from SCAT and visceral AT (VAT) depot of lean (n=13) and obese men, with (n=11) or without (n=18) type 2 diabetes (HbA1c < or ≥ 6.5%). Underlying molecular mechanisms were examined by looking at functional receptors in the NP signalling pathway at the mRNA and protein level. Maximal ANP- and catecholamine-induced lipolysis in SCAT was blunted in obese type 2 diabetics compared with age-matched lean men whereas non-diabetic obese subjects showed intermediate responses. This blunted ANP-mediated lipolytic response was accompanied by lower mRNA and protein expression of the type-A natriuretic peptide (NP) receptor and higher mRNA but reduced protein expression of the scavenging type-C receptor. Maximal ANP-induced lipolysis was lower in VAT compared with SCAT but not different between groups. Collectively, our data show that both ANP- and catecholamine-mediated lipolysis is attenuated in SCAT of obese men with type 2 diabetes, and might be partially explained by NP receptor defects. Therefore, improving maximal ANP responsiveness in adipose tissue might be a potential novel strategy to improve obesity-associated metabolic complications. PMID:27129190

  15. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation in a weight management group programme, gender-sensitised in content and style of delivery. Football Fans in Training (FFIT) provides 12 weeks of weight loss, physical activity and healthy eating advice at top professional football clubs in Scotland. This pilot randomized trial explored the feasibility of using these clubs as a setting for a randomized controlled trial of 12 month weight loss following men’s participation in FFIT. Methods A two-arm pilot trial at two Scottish Premier League football clubs (one large, one smaller), with 103 men (aged 35–65, body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2) individually randomized to the intervention (n=51, received the pilot programme (p-FFIT) immediately) and waitlist comparison (n=52, received p-FFIT after four months) groups. Feasibility of recruitment, randomization, data collection and retention were assessed. Objective physical measurements (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition) and questionnaires (self-reported physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, psychological outcomes) were obtained from both groups by fieldworkers trained to standard protocols at baseline and 12 weeks, and from the intervention group at 6 and 12 months. Qualitative methods elicited men’s experiences of participation in the pilot trial. Results Following a short recruitment period, the recruitment target was achieved at the large, but not smaller, club. Participants’ mean age was 47.1±8.4 years; mean BMI 34.5±5.0 kg/m2. Retention through the trial was good (>80% at 12 weeks and 6 months; >75% at 12 months), and 76% attended at least 80% of available programme delivery sessions. At 12 weeks, the intervention group lost

  16. The influence of hip circumference on the relationship between abdominal obesity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Adrian J; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Carstensen, Bendix; Alberti, K George MM; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Pauvaday, Vassen K; Kowlessur, Sudhirsen; Söderberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher waist circumference and lower hip circumference are both associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, despite being directly correlated. The real effects of visceral obesity may therefore be underestimated when hip circumference is not fully taken into account. We hypothesized that adding waist and hip circumference to traditional risk factors would significantly improve CVD risk prediction. Methods In a population-based survey among South Asian and African Mauritians (n = 7978), 1241 deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. In a model that included variables used in previous CVD risk calculations (a Framingham-type model), the association between waist circumference and mortality was examined before and after adjustment for hip circumference. The percentage with an increase in estimated 10-year cumulative mortality of >25% and a decrease of >20% after waist and hip circumference were added to the model was calculated. Results Waist circumference was strongly related to mortality only after adjustment for hip circumference and vice versa. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model increased estimated 10-year cumulative CVD mortality by >25% for 23.7% of those who died and 15.7% of those censored. Cumulative mortality decreased by >20% for 4.5% of those who died and 14.8% of those censored. Conclusions The effect of central obesity on mortality risk is seriously underestimated without adjustment for hip circumference. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model for CVD mortality substantially increased predictive power. Both may be important inclusions in CVD risk prediction models. PMID:22266094

  17. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  18. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  19. Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Leyva, Misti J.; Sanchez, Karah; Betts, Nancy M.; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age: 50.0 ± 3.0 y (mean ± SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, #126 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (− 6 and − 4%, respectively) than in controls (− 1.5 and − 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (− 28 and − 17%, respectively) than in the control group (− 9 and − 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses. PMID:20660279

  20. Inflammatory markers and adipocytokine responses to exercise training and detraining in men who are obese.

    PubMed

    Nikseresht, Mahmoud; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Ebrahim, Khosrow

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) and aerobic interval training (AIT), and detraining on selected inflammatory markers in men who are middle aged and obese. Subjects first were matched by aerobic capacity, age, and percentage body fat and then randomly assigned to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 10) and, control (CON, n = 11) groups. The experimental groups performed 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks followed by a 4-week detraining period. Nonlinear resistance training consisted of 40-65 minutes of weight training with flexible periodization. Aerobic interval training consisted of running on a treadmill (4 × 4 minutes at 80-90% maximal heart rate, with 3-minute recovery intervals). Compared with CON, serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) did not significantly change after training, but adiponectin (ADPN) increased significantly only with AIT (5.09 ± 2.29 vs. 4.36 ± 0.84 μg·ml). No significant changes in CRP and TNF-α occurred in both training groups after detraining, but ADPN (NRT: 3.6 ± 1.2 and AIT: 3.4 ± 1.7 vs. CON: 4.7 ± 1.2 μg·ml) and IL-6 (NRT: 5.8 ± 3.3 and AIT: 5.5 ± 2.9 vs. CON: 2.3 ± 1.2 pg·ml) worsened significantly. Both the AIT and NRT were equally effective at reducing soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (NRT: 187.2 ± 117.5 and AIT: 215.2 ± 142.4 vs. CON: 416.2 ± 205.9 ng·ml) and insulin (NRT: 4.0 ± 1.0 and AIT: 4.8 ± 2.7 vs. CON: 7.4 ± 3.0 μU·ml) levels, but these variables returned to the pretraining levels after detraining. The practical applications are that both the AIT and NRT and detraining had similar effects on most inflammatory markers in men who are obese, but the AIT seems to have better anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by ADPN) compared with NRT. PMID:25028994

  1. The effect of acute exercise on undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin sensitivity in obese men.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Itamar; Jerums, George; Stepto, Nigel K; Parker, Lewan; Serpiello, Fabio R; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L; Byrnes, Elizabeth; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego

    2014-12-01

    Acute exercise improves insulin sensitivity for hours after the exercise is ceased. The skeleton contributes to glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity via osteocalcin (OC) in its undercarboxylated (ucOC) form in mice. We tested the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity over the hours after exercise is associated with circulating levels of ucOC. Eleven middle-aged (58.1 ± 2.2 years mean ± SEM), obese (body mass index [BMI] = 33.1 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) ) nondiabetic men completed a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp at rest (rest-control) and at 60 minutes after exercise (4 × 4 minutes of cycling at 95% of HRpeak ). Insulin sensitivity was determined by glucose infusion rate relative to body mass (GIR, mL/kg/min) as well as GIR per unit of insulin (M-value). Blood samples and five muscle biopsies were obtained; two at the resting-control session, one before and one after clamping, and three in the exercise session, at rest, 60 minutes after exercise, and after the clamp. Exercise increased serum ucOC (6.4 ± 2.1%, p = 0.013) but not total OC (p > 0.05). Blood glucose was ∼6% lower and insulin sensitivity was ∼35% higher after exercise compared with control (both p < 0.05). Phosphorylated (P)-AKT (Ak thymoma) was higher after exercise and insulin compared with exercise alone (no insulin) and insulin alone (no exercise, all p < 0.05). In a multiple-linear regression including BMI, age, and aerobic fitness, ucOC was associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity at rest (β = 0.59, p = 0.023) and after exercise (β = 0.66, p = 0.005). Insulin sensitivity, after acute exercise, is associated with circulating levels of ucOC in obese men. Whether ucOC has a direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after exercise is yet to be determined. PMID:24861730

  2. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  3. Distinct effects of aerobic exercise training and weight loss on glucose homeostasis in obese sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Pratley, R E; Hagberg, J M; Rogus, E M; Goldberg, A P

    1996-07-01

    The decline in glucose homeostasis with aging may be due to the physical deconditioning and obesity that often develop with aging. The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise training (AEX) and weight loss (WL) on glucose metabolism were studied in 47 nondiabetic sedentary older men. There were 14 men in a weekly behavioral modification/WL program, 10 in a 3 times/wk AEX program, 14 in an AEX+WL program, and 9 in the control (Con) group. The 10-mo intervention increased maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in both the AEX and AEX+WL groups [0.33 +/- 0.05 and 0.37 +/- 0.09 (SE) l/min, respectively], but VO2max did not significantly change in the WL (0.01 +/- 0.06 l/min) and Con groups (-0.04 +/- 0.05 l/min; P > 0.05). The AEX+WL and WL groups had comparable reductions in body weight (-8.5 +/- 0.9 and -8.8 +/- 1.2 kg, respectively) and percent fat (-5.5 +/- 0.7 and -5.9 +/- 1.1%, respectively) that were significantly greater than those in the Con and AEX groups. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed significant reductions in insulin responses in the AEX, WL, and AEX+WL groups, but the decrease in insulin response in the AEX+WL group was significantly greater than that in the other three groups. The glucose area decreased significantly in the WL and AEX+WL groups but did not change in the Con or AEX groups. There were significant increases in insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates as measured by the hyperinsulinemic (600 pmol.m-2.min-1) euglycemic clamps in the AEX and AEX+WL groups [1.66 +/- 0.50 and 1.76 +/- 0.41 mg.kg fat-free mass (FFM)-1.min-1, respectively] that were significantly greater than those in the WL (0.13 +/- 0.31 mg.kg FFM-1.min-1) and Con groups (-0.05 +/- 0.51 mg.kg FFM-1.min-1; n = 5). These data suggest that AEX and WL improve glucose metabolism through different mechanisms and that the combined intervention of AEX+WL is necessary to improve both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in older men. PMID:8828680

  4. Relationships between electronic game play, obesity, and psychosocial functioning in young men.

    PubMed

    Wack, Elizabeth; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2009-04-01

    Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping. PMID:19006465

  5. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  6. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel‐group, superiority, multi‐centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post‐treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow‐up, the mean 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  7. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  8. Muscular strength is inversely related to prevalence and incidence of obesity in adult men.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allen W; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Morrow, James R; Church, Timothy S; Maslow, Andrea L; Blair, Steven N

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between quintiles of muscular strength after adjustment for age and body weight, and excessive body fat (EBF) and excessive abdominal fat (EAF) when controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other potential confounders. A two-phased cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted assessing the prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF across quintiles of muscular strength. The sample included 3,258 men (mean age = 42.2 ± 8.9; weight (kg) = 81.2 ± 11.0; BMI = 25.3 ± 2.9; %fat = 19.4 ± 5.8; waist girth (cm) = 91.2 ± 9.0) who completed at least two clinical examinations as part of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Muscular strength was assessed with tests of upper and lower body muscular strength using rack-mounted weights with participants placed into strength quintiles. CRF was measured by a modified Balke treadmill test, %fat via underwater weighing or seven-site skinfold measurements, and waist girth measured at the level of the umbilicus. EBF was defined as ≥25% and EAF was defined as >102 cm. There was a strong inverse gradient across quintiles of muscular strength for prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF (P trend <0.01, each). With the lowest quintile serving as the referent, reductions in risk of EBF and EAF exceeded 70% for the highest strength quintile. Evidence suggests muscular strength may provide protection from EBF and EAF and their related comorbidities. PMID:19960002

  9. Effect of diet therapy on maximum aerobic power in obese, hyperglycaemic men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vanninen, E; Uusitupa, M; Siitonen, O; Laitinen, J; Länsimies, E; Pyörälä, K

    1991-05-01

    To find out the effect of correction of hyperglycaemia on maximum aerobic power and anaerobic threshold, we studied 40 middle-aged obese men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes before and after 3 months diet therapy. Respiratory gas exchange was measured during maximal incremental bicycle exercise test with breath-by-breath technique at rest, at anaerobic threshold and at peak exercise. As a whole group, the diabetic men reached higher work load after therapy (+9 +/- 3 W (mean +/- SEM), p less than 0.01). A weak inverse linear correlation was found between the changes in fasting blood glucose and in maximum oxygen uptake (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05). When the patients were divided into two groups according to the median values in the change in fasting blood glucose, only those men with more than 1 mmol l-1 decrease in fasting blood glucose improved maximum oxygen uptake (+124 +/- 55 ml min-1 or +6%, p less than 0.05). Oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold did not change significantly. These results suggest that the correction of hyperglycaemia by diet therapy may improve maximal aerobic power in obese men with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. PMID:1882180

  10. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  11. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  12. Management of Septic Open Abdomen in a Morbid Obese Patient with Enteroatmospheric Fistula by Using Standard Abdominal Negative Pressure Therapy in Conjunction with Intrarectal One

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Özer, Mehmet; Aygar, Muhittin; Osmanoglu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of open abdomen (OA) with enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) in morbid obese patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report the management of septic OA in morbid obese patient with EAF which developed after strangulated recurrent giant incisional hernia repair. We would also like to emphasize, in this case, the conversion of EAF to ileostomy by the help of second Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT) on ostomy side, and the chance of new EAF occurrence was reduced with intrarectal NPT. Case Presentation. 62-year-old morbid obese woman became an OA patient with EAF after strangulated recurrent giant hernia. EAF was converted to ostomy with pezzer drain by the help of second NPT on ostomy. Colonic distention was reduced with the third NPT application via rectum. Abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system was used for delayed abdominal closure. Conclusions. Using the 2nd NPT on ostomy side may help in the maturation of the ostomy created in a difficult condition in an open abdomen. Using the 3rd NPT through rectum may decrease the chance of EAF formation by reducing the pressure difference between intraluminal pressure and extraluminal pressure in hollow viscera. PMID:26779360

  13. Depression and anxiety symptoms in relation to anthropometry and metabolism in men.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Ann-Charlotte; Ljung, Thomas; Rosmond, Roland; McEwen, Bruce; Holm, Göran; Akesson, Hans Olof; Björntorp, Per

    2002-10-10

    Depression is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Abdominal obesity is also a high risk factor for these diseases. Therefore, symptoms of depression and anxiety were examined in relation to abdominal obesity. A total of 59 middle-aged men volunteered for measurements with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS). These results were examined in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and sagittal abdominal diameter, a measurement of intra-abdominal fat mass, and metabolic variables. Men with WHR>1.0 (n=26) in comparison with men with normal WHR (<1.0, n=33) showed significantly higher sum scores in all the scales used. There were positive correlations between the sum scores of all the depression scales and the WHR or the sagittal abdominal diameter. BMI correlated comparatively weakly only with the HDS. The correlations with the WHR remained when the influence of BMI was eliminated, suggesting that obesity is less involved than centralization of body fat. Insulin and glucose were significantly related to the HDS. Morning cortisol levels were negatively related to the BDI and (borderline) to the MADRS, suggesting perturbations of the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We conclude that men with abdominal obesity have symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:12429356

  14. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes. PMID:27190482

  17. Sex-specific regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1: Differential implication in anxiety in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is cleaved from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of hunger and satiety as anorexigenic peptide hormone. Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is elevated in obesity and decreased in anorexia nervosa. In addition, a role in the regulation of stress, anxiety and depression has been demonstrated. First evidence suggested that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Thus, we investigated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels in association with perceived stress, anxiety and depressiveness in obese men and women. We enrolled 140 inpatients (87 female, 53 male; body mass index, BMI, 30.3-81.7 kg/m(2)) hospitalized due to obesity with mental and somatic comorbidities. Perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and depressiveness (PHQ-9) were measured psychometrically, and at the same time NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels by ELISA. Males and females did not differ in terms of age and BMI. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 did not show a correlation with age or BMI. Mean NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (+25%, p<0.001) as well as mean scores for perceived stress (+26%, p < 0.01), anxiety (+54%, p < 0.001) and depressiveness (+32%, p = 0.02) were higher in females compared to males. Scores for perceived stress (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and depressiveness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in women, while in men no correlation was observed (p>0.19). The strongest association was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and anxiety with a positive correlation in women (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), while in men even an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.32; p = 0.03). This result was reflected in higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in women with high versus low anxiety (+51%, p<0.001) and an opposite alteration in men (-17%, p = 0.04) after a median split into two groups with high and low anxiety. In conclusion, circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 showed a positive correlation with anxiety, perceived stress, and depressiveness in obese women. In men, no

  18. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Descriptive statistical methods were used to depict overall and factor-specific distributions of general and abdominal obesity among 16,013 respondents. Two-step logistic regression models were fitted on gender basis. Results The age-and-sex adjusted rates of general overweight, general obesity, abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in study population were 28.9% (95%CI: 27.9%-29.9%), 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.1%), 32.2% (95%CI: 31.2%-33.3%) and 12.3% (95%CI: 11.6%-13.1%), respectively. Based on model fitting results, a significant inverse association between education and obesity only existed in women, while in men, income rather than education was positively related to obesity. Conclusions The atypical SES-obesity relationship we found reflected the on-going social economy transformation in affluent regions of China. High-income men and poorly-educated women were at higher risk of obesity in Zhejiang province, thus merit intense focuses. PMID:23590682

  19. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter to Measure Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight or Obese Adolescent Children and Its Role as A Marker of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yashoda, H.T.; Boraiah, Ganga; Vishwa, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of sagittal abdominal diameter using a revalidated caliper is simple, inexpensive, non-invasive method. It strongly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as a surrogate marker to predict risk for Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Aim To assess visceral abdominal fat by measuring sagittal abdominal diameter using sliding calipers and to predict insulin resistance in obese or overweight adolescent children. Study design Explorative study for Paediatric age group among over weight and obese children aged 10-18 years in urban population in a Tertiary Care Centre. Materials and Methods Paediatric population satisfying ADA guidelines for diagnosis of prediabetes were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements with SAD were recorded. Blood was collected to investigate for prediabetes and insulin resistance using HOMA-IR. Results Out of 924 subjects who gave assent to participate in study 108 fulfilled ADA criteria. 33 subjects who didn’t come for the follow up were excluded. Out of 75 subjects 12 were detected to have insulin resistance (16%) and 63 were normal (84%). Pearson’s partial correlation of HOMA-IR and OGTT with SAD has demonstrated it to be better correlation with Insulin Resistance (IR) than other anthropometric measurements. Fasting Glucose correlated better with Waist Hip Circumference. Conclusion Insulin Resistance was diagnosed in 16% of the population and these had high levels of insulin resistance. SAD in relation to glucose metabolism, had a better correlation with OGTT followed by HOMA-IR and fasting Insulin. SAD with anthropometric measurements had better correlation all the parameters other than Waist Circumference, which had negative correlation. SAD can be used in evaluation of obese or overweight children for evaluation. PMID:26673888

  20. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here. PMID:27001436

  1. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Methods: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day−1) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg−1 min−1) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic–hyperglycemic clamp. Results: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue)−1; however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, P<0.001. During the clamp period, FFA and glycerol output declined significantly, P<0.05, with no differences before and after weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, P<0.05. Conclusions: In obese subjects, weight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:27136446

  2. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited. PMID:25782331

  3. Overall and abdominal obesity indicators had different association with central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in Chinese community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Zheng, Jin; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Limited large sample studies have specially compared overall and abdominal obesity in relation to central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in community-dwelling adults, especially in the People’s Republic of China. This study aimed to compare the relationship between an overall obesity indicator (body mass index [BMI]), an abdominal obesity index (waist circumference [WC]), and central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids, in Chinese community-dwelling adults. Methods For 2,624 adults in this study, anthropometric indices, such as BMI and WC, were measured. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Central hemodynamics was represented by central pulse pressure (cPP). Results Both overall and abdominally obese adults were older, with significantly higher cfPWV, cPP, peripheral pulse pressure (pPP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). After adjusting for age and sex, both the overall and abdominally obese individuals had independently higher pPP, FBG, and LDL-C levels, and lower HDL-C level. The overall obese individuals had independently higher cPP, but not cfPWV, after adjusting for age and sex, while the abdominally obese individuals had independently higher cfPWV, but not cPP. After adjusting for age, sex, pPP, FBG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, WC, but not BMI, was independently correlated with cfPWV, and BMI, but not WC, was independently associated with cPP. Age, sex, pPP, FBG, and HDL-C levels have independent association with cfPWV. Age, sex, pPP, but not FBG and HDL-C levels, have independent association with cPP. Conclusion The abdominal obesity index (WC), rather than the overall obesity indicator (BMI), was related to central arterial stiffness, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose and lipids, while the overall obesity

  4. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J

    2013-08-01

    The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families". PMID:24054928

  5. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  6. Comparison of the frequency of atrial fibrillation in young obese versus young nonobese men undergoing examination for fitness for military service.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-03-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)), 106 for overweight men (BMI: 25.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), and 144 for obese men (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). With normal weight as the reference group, the adjusted HR for AF was 0.99 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.87) for underweight men, 2.08 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.92) for overweight men, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.46 to 5.62) for obese men. The adjusted HR associating 1 unit increase in BMI with AF was 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). In conclusion, overweight and obese young men had more than twice the risk of AF compared with young men of normal weight. PMID:24406109

  7. Incidental Diagnosis of MEN1 Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Presenting With Obstructive Jaundice and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cengia, Brent; Conway, Jason; Pawa, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old adolescent boy presented with obstructive jaundice and was incidentally found to have a well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm upon endoscopic ultrasound. The discovery of this tumor led to further investigation and the eventual diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome. The diagnosis of MEN1 can prove difficult, and lack of treatment has been shown to lead to early mortality. One must maintain clinical suspicion for this disease in the evaluation of patients presenting with suspicious lesions of unknown etiology, especially those involving the pancreas, anterior pituitary, and parathyroid glands. PMID:27144202

  8. Incidental Diagnosis of MEN1 Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Presenting With Obstructive Jaundice and Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Cengia, Brent; Conway, Jason; Pawa, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    A 16-year-old adolescent boy presented with obstructive jaundice and was incidentally found to have a well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm upon endoscopic ultrasound. The discovery of this tumor led to further investigation and the eventual diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome. The diagnosis of MEN1 can prove difficult, and lack of treatment has been shown to lead to early mortality. One must maintain clinical suspicion for this disease in the evaluation of patients presenting with suspicious lesions of unknown etiology, especially those involving the pancreas, anterior pituitary, and parathyroid glands. PMID:27144202

  9. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Darimont, Christian; Drapeau, Vicky; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Lepage, Melissa; Rezzonico, Enea; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Berger, Bernard; Philippe, Lionel; Ammon-Zuffrey, Corinne; Leone, Patricia; Chevrier, Genevieve; St-Amand, Emmanuelle; Marette, André; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-04-28

    The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1.6 × 10(8) colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P = 0.02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0.53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss. PMID:24299712

  10. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  11. Did the perils of abdominal obesity affect depiction of feminine beauty in the sixteenth to eighteenth century British literature? Exploring the health and beauty link

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devendra; Renn, Peter; Singh, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ‘Good gene’ mate selection theory proposes that all individuals share evolved mental mechanisms that identify specific parts of a woman's body as indicators of fertility and health. Depiction of feminine beauty, across time and culture, should therefore emphasize the physical traits indicative of health and fertility. Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist size, is reliably linked to decreased oestrogen, reduced fecundity and increased risk for major diseases. Systematic searches of British literature across the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveal that a narrow waist is consistently described as beautiful. Works in ancient Indian and Chinese literature similarly associate feminine attractiveness with a narrow waist. Even without the benefit of modern medical knowledge, both British and Asian writers knew intuitively the biological link between health and beauty. PMID:17251110

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Resistance Exercise Orders on Number of Repetitions, Serum IGF-1, Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in Normal-Weight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi, Slahadin; Salavati, Rashad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise order affects repetition performance and acute hormonal responses to resistance training (RT) programs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of two different resistance exercise orders (REO) on number of repetitions and serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol levels in normal-weight and obese men. Materials and Methods: 25 untrained college-aged men were assigned to either obese (n = 11) or normal-weight (n = 15) groups. Subjects performed two REO protocols in 2 exercise groups. In the first group subjects began with large-muscle group and progressed to small-muscle group (Protocol A), while in the other group subjects performed the same exercise but in reverse sequence (Protocol B). Each activity was performed in 3 consecutive sets of 10 repetitions maximum to near fatigue. Results: REOs did not affect number of repetitions in none of the groups. The average rating of perceived exertion was higher for protocol B in both groups. IGF-1 and testosterone increased immediately post exercise for both protocols and in both groups, however immediately post exercise increase in IGF-1 and testosterone were lower in obese group. Cortisol response to REO was weaker in obese group. Conclusions: Performing large muscle group exercises first in RE training and progressing to small muscle group produced greater anabolic hormonal response relative to reverse sequence in normal-weight young adult men. Anabolic hormonal response to REOs was blunted in the obese group. PMID:27217934

  13. Intensive lifestyle intervention reduces urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: We determined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the prevalence, incidence and resolution of bothersome nocturia, increased daytime urinary voiding and urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes after 1 year in the Look AHEAD trial. Materials and Me...

  14. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  15. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p < 0.01) and of the metabolic parameters without reaching, however, the glycaemic goals [HbA1c = >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol

  16. Decreased Transcription of ChREBP-α/β Isoforms in Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Giannini, Cosimo; Narayan, Deepak; Lin, Aiping; D’Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Cushman, Samuel W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with altered fat partitioning in liver and adipose tissues is a prediabetic condition in obese adolescents. We investigated interactions between glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the expression of lipogenic genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue in 53 obese adolescents. Based on their 2-h glucose tests they were stratified in the following groups: group 1, 2-h glucose level <120 mg/dL; group 2, 2-h glucose level between 120 and 140 mg/dL; and group 3, 2-h glucose level >140 mg/dL. Liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were greater in group 1 than in group 2 and group 3, and muscle insulin sensitivity progressively decreased from group 1 to group 3. The expression of the carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was decreased in adipose tissue but increased in the liver (eight subjects) in adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The expression of adipose ChREBPα and ChREBPβ was inversely related to 2-h glucose level and positively correlated to insulin sensitivity. Improvement of glucose tolerance in four subjects was associated with an increase of ChREBP/GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, early in the development of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in youth, ChREBPβ expression in adipose tissue predicts insulin resistance and, therefore, might play a role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. PMID:23209190

  17. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  18. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  19. Evidence of Reduced CBG Cleavage in Abdominal Obesity: A Potential Factor in Development of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nenke, M A; Lewis, J G; Rankin, W; Torpy, D J

    2016-08-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is involved in the regulation of cortisol delivery. Neutrophil elastase-mediated cleavage of high to low affinity CBG (haCBG to laCBG) induces cortisol release at inflammatory sites. Past studies have shown reduced CBG in obesity, an inflammatory state, particularly in central adiposity/metabolic syndrome. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study of the effects of obesity, age and sex on ha/laCBG in 100 healthy volunteers. Total and haCBG levels were 11% higher in women but did not vary with age or menopausal status. Total CBG levels were lower with increased body weight and waist circumference; laCBG levels were lower with increased body weight, waist circumference, body mass index and body fat; higher haCBG levels were seen with increased body fat. The relation between CBG and adiposity appeared to be driven predominantly by the metabolic syndrome group. The results suggest reduced CBG cleavage in central obesity, possibly contributing to the characteristic inflammatory phenotype of the central obesity and metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of gender differences in CBG levels is unclear. PMID:27300474

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting on serum concentration of apelin-13 and new obesity indices in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Ahmet; Saricicek, Edibe; Saricicek, Vahap; Sahin, Elif; Ozdemir, Gokhan; Bozkurt, Selim; Okumus, Mehmet; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Cikim, Gurkan; Coskun, Yasemin; Deniz, Mustafa Saygin; Dogan, Ekrem; Kilinc, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine how Ramadan fasting (RF) affected the recently described new obesity indices [visceral adiposity index (VAI), waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI)], and serum concentration of apelin-13 (RF) in healthy adult men. Material/Methods For this purpose, 42 healthy adult men were selected. Anthropometric parameters were measured and a sample of venous blood was obtained for biochemical assays on the first and last days of Ramadan. When all subjects were evaluated, all anthropometric parameters changed except VAI. Serum apelin-13, triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and insulin levels did not change. When patients were divided into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI), BAI decreased in normal-weight subjects and WHtR decreased in other groups, but VAI and apelin-13 did not change in any groups. Results We demonstrate for the first time that while some anthropometric parameters changed, VAI and serum apelin-13 levels did not change with RF. BMI, waist circumference (WC), TG, and HDL-C were evaluated together in calculation of VAI. TG, VAI, and HDL-C remained unchanged by RF. Even if body weight (BW) and BMI decreased, apelin-13 was not affected by RF. The data on serum apelin-13 may have been influenced by the small-percentage decrease in BW, as well as insignificant improvements in metabolic parameters such as lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin. Conclusions We found that Ramadan fasting in healthy adult men was associated with significant decreases in BW, BMI, WHtR, and BAI, but we found no significant changes in VAI and serum apelin-13 concentrations. PMID:24576923

  1. Relationship between generalized and upper body obesity to insulin resistance in Asian Indian men.

    PubMed

    Chandalia, M; Abate, N; Garg, A; Stray-Gundersen, J; Grundy, S M

    1999-07-01

    It has been proposed that excessive insulin resistance in Asian Indians living in urban areas or migrated to western countries is responsible for the higher incidence of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease observed in this population. To evaluate whether Asian Indians are more insulin resistant than Caucasians and to define the role of generalized and truncal adiposity, we performed hydrodensitometry, skinfold measurements, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps in 21 healthy Asian Indian men and 23 Caucasian men of similar age and body fat content. The glucose disposal rate (Rd) was significantly lower in the Asian Indians than in the Caucasians (3.7+/-1.3 vs. 5.3+/-2.0 mg/min x kg lean body mass, respectively; P = 0.003). Despite similar total body fat content, Asian Indians had higher truncal adiposity than Caucasians (sum of truncal skinfolds, 117+/-37 and 92.4+/-38 mm, respectively). In both Asian Indians and Caucasians, the insulin sensitivity index (Rd/plasma insulin concentrations) was inversely correlated with both total body fat (r = -0.49; P<0.03 and r = -0.67; P<0.001, respectively) and sum of truncal skinfold thickness (r = -0.55; P<0.001 and r = -0.61; P<0.002, respectively). After adjustment for total body fat and truncal skinfold thickness, Asian Indians still had a significantly lower glucose disposal rate (P = 0.04). These results show that Asian Indian men are more insulin resistant than Caucasian men independently of generalized or truncal adiposity. The excessive insulin resistance in Asian Indians is probably a primary metabolic defect and may account for the excessive morbidity and mortality from diabetes and coronary heart disease in this population. PMID:10404798

  2. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems ...

  3. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. PMID:17641453

  4. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  5. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Merali, N.; Almeida, R.A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Presentation of case Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Discussion Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. Conclusion This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. PMID:26322822

  6. Is there a bi-directional relationship between depression and obesity among adult men and women? Systematic review and bias-adjusted meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Munim; Mamun, Abdullah; Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of both obesity and depression represent two major public health concerns worldwide. But the evidence regarding the direction and strength of the association between these two disorders, for both adult men and women, are remain inconclusive. We systematically reviewed publications from five different databases: Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS, CINAHL and PsychINFO. A total of 21 articles were included for the systematic review and 19 of them for the meta-analysis using a bias-adjusted (quality effect) model. This resulted in the inclusion of approximately 226,063 (33.7% men) participants. Those who were depressed had a 37% (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.48) increased risk of being obese, and who were obese had an 18% increased risk of being depressed (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35). Those who were depressed had a 2% (RD: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03) excess risk of obesity, however, the reciprocal associations were not significant. The association between overweight and depression was not found significant in either direction. Both men and women were at risk of obesity and depression bi-directionally. In sensitivity analyses bi-directional associations were more pronounced among young and middle aged adults and in studies with longer follow-up. The findings of this study suggest that the strength of the association is greater for the direction leading from depression to obesity and this link was more pronounced for young and middle aged women. PMID:27208458

  7. Resistant Starch from High-Amylose Maize Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Men123

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Kevin C.; Pelkman, Christine L.; Finocchiaro, E. Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Lawless, Andrea L.; Schild, Arianne L.; Rains, Tia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (SI) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model SI was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for SI did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1). These results suggest that consumption of 15–30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves SI in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed. PMID:22357745

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  9. Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The nutritional composition of dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables such as mitochondrial oxidation, whose understanding could contribute to apply more individualized weight-lowering strategies. This study assessed the effects of four hypocaloric diets with high protein content or different food distribution on metabolic changes and mitochondrial oxidation accompanying weight loss. Thirty-five obese men (body mass index of 31.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2) and 38 +/- 7 years old) were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (8 weeks): control diet (C-diet); legume diet (L-diet); fatty fish diet (FF-diet); or high-protein diet (HP-diet). Body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, mitochondrial oxidation, blood biomarkers, and dietary intake were assessed. The HP-diet and L-diet achieved the greater body weight reduction (-8.4 +/- 1.2% and -8.3 +/- 2.9%, respectively), as compared to the C-diet (-5.5 +/- 2.5%; P = .042). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in all dietary groups except for the FF-diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved by the L-diet (P < .05), while the homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance value was significantly reduced in those men following the HP-diet. Mitochondrial oxidation was specifically activated by the HP-diet and L-diet at the end of the study. Interestingly, a lineal regression model explained about 25% (P = .029) of the mitochondrial oxidation variability as influenced by the diet changes once adjusted by resting energy expenditure. The specific consumption of legumes or high protein content within a hypocaloric diet could activate mitochondrial oxidation, which could involve additional benefits to those associated with the weight reduction. PMID:19298202

  10. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  12. Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Matikainen, Niina; Björnson, Elias; Söderlund, Sanni; Borén, Christofer; Eliasson, Björn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Rivellese, Angela; Riccardi, Gabriele; Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Borén, Jan; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to investigate possible relationships between incretin response and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) response to a fat-rich meal. Design Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were measured after an OGTT and after a fat-rich meal in 65 healthy obese (BMI 26.5–40.2 kg/m2) male subjects. Triglycerides (TG), apoB48 and apoB100 in TG-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL1 and VLDL2) were measured after the fat-rich meal. Main Outcome Measures Postprandial responses (area under the curve, AUC) for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GLP-2, GIP in plasma, and TG, apoB48 and apoB100 in plasma and TG-rich lipoproteins. Results The GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses after the fat-rich meal and after the OGTT correlated strongly (r = 0.73, p<0.0001; r = 0.46, p<0.001 and r = 0.69, p<0.001, respectively). Glucose and insulin AUCs were lower, but the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP were significantly higher after the fat-rich meal than after the OGTT. The peak value for all hormones appeared at 120 minutes after the fat-rich meal, compared to 30 minutes after the OGTT. After the fat-rich meal, the AUCs for GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP correlated significantly with plasma TG- and apoB48 AUCs but the contribution was very modest. Conclusions In obese males, GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP responses to a fat-rich meal are greater than following an OGTT. However, the most important explanatory variable for postprandial TG excursion was fasting triglycerides. The contribution of endogenous GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP to explaining the variance in postprandial TG excursion was minor. PMID:26752550

  13. Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota. PMID:24763370

  14. Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Anne; Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Holtrop, Grietje; Korpela, Katri; Duncan, Sylvia H; Date, Priya; Farquharson, Freda; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of 14 obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a weight-loss (WL) diet. We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the fecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. In addition, we analyzed fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as a proxy of colonic fermentation, and indices of insulin sensitivity from blood samples. The diet explained around 10% of the total variance in microbiota composition, which was substantially less than the inter-individual variance. Yet, each of the study diets induced clear and distinct changes in the microbiota. Multiple Ruminococcaceae phylotypes increased on the RS diet, whereas mostly Lachnospiraceae phylotypes increased on the NSP diet. Bifidobacteria decreased significantly on the WL diet. The RS diet decreased the diversity of the microbiota significantly. The total 16S ribosomal RNA gene signal estimated by qPCR correlated positively with the three major SCFAs, while the amount of propionate specifically correlated with the Bacteroidetes. The dietary responsiveness of the individual's microbiota varied substantially and associated inversely with its diversity, suggesting that individuals can be stratified into responders and non-responders based on the features of their intestinal microbiota. PMID:24763370

  15. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  16. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for ...

  17. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy withdrawal and re-treatment in hypogonadal elderly men upon obesity, voiding function and prostate safety parameters.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Aksam; Nettleship, Joanne E; Talib, Raidh A; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorge

    2016-01-01

    Whether testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a lifelong treatment for men with hypogonadism remains unknown. We investigated long-term TRT and TRT withdrawal on obesity and prostate-related parameters. Two hundred and sixty-two hypogonadal patients (mean age 59.5) received testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for a maximum of 11 years. One hundred and forty-seven men had TRT interrupted for a mean of 16.9 months and resumed thereafter (Group A). The remaining 115 patients were treated continuously (Group B). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, C-reactive protein (CRP), aging male symptoms (AMS), International Index of erectile function - erectile function (IIEF-EF) and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were measured over the study period with anthropometric parameters of obesity, including weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Prior to interruption, TRT resulted in improvements in residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, CRP, AMS, IIEF-EF, IPSS and obesity parameters while PSA and prostate volume increased. TRT interruption reduced total testosterone to hypogonadal levels in Group A and resulted in worsening of obesity parameters, AMS, IPSS, residual voiding volume and bladder wall thickness, IIEF-EF and PSA while CRP and prostate volume were unchanged until treatment resumed whereby these effects were reversed. TRT interruption results in worsening of symptoms. Hypogonadism may require lifelong TRT. PMID:26742589

  18. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  19. Lorcaserin (APD356), a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, reduces body weight in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Prosser, Warren A; Donahue, David J; Morgan, Michael E; Anderson, Christen M; Shanahan, William R

    2009-03-01

    Lorcaserin (APD356) is a potent, selective 5-HT(2C) agonist with ~15-fold and 100-fold selectivity vs. 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors, respectively. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of lorcaserin for weight reduction in obese patients during a 12-week period. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study enrolled 469 men and women between ages 18 and 65 and with BMI 30-45 kg/m(2). Patients received placebo, lorcaserin 10 mg q.d., lorcaserin 15 mg q.d., or lorcaserin 10 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks, and were counseled to maintain their usual diet and activity. The primary end point was change in weight from baseline to day 85 by completer analysis. Safety analyses included echocardiograms at Screening and day 85/study exit. Lorcaserin was associated with progressive weight loss of 1.8 kg, 2.6 kg, and 3.6 kg at 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., and 10 mg b.i.d., respectively, compared to placebo weight loss of 0.3 kg (P < 0.001 for each group). Similar results were seen by intent-to-treat last observation-carried forward (ITT-LOCF) analysis. The proportions of completers achieving > or =5% of initial body weight were 12.8, 19.5, 31.2, and 2.3% in the 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., 10 mg b.i.d., and placebo groups, respectively. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were transient headache, nausea, and dizziness. Echocardiograms showed no apparent drug-related effects on heart valves or pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Lorcaserin was well tolerated and efficacious for weight reduction in this 12-week study. Longer-term trials employing behavior modification will be needed to more fully assess its safety and efficacy. PMID:19057523

  20. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  1. Effect of obesity on the association between MYL2 (rs3782889) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Korean men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eo Rin; Jee, Yon Ho; Kim, Sang Won; Sull, Jae Woong

    2016-05-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease. Several genome-wide association studies that have examined HDL cholesterol levels have implicated myosin light chain 2 regulatory cardiac slow (MYL2) as a possible causal factor. Herein, the association between the rs3782889 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MYL2 gene and HDL cholesterol levels was tested in the Korean population. A total of 4294 individuals were included in a replication study with MYL2 SNP rs3782889. SNP rs3782889 in the MYL2 gene was associated with mean HDL cholesterol level (effect per allele, -1.055 mg dl(-1), P=0.0005). Subjects with the CT/CC genotype had a 1.43-fold (range 1.19-1.73-fold) higher risk of an abnormal HDL cholesterol level (<40 mg dl(-1)) than subjects with the TT genotype. When analyzed by sex, the MYL2 association was stronger in men than that in women. When analyzed by body mass index (BMI), the MYL2 association was much stronger in male subjects with BMI ⩾26.44 kg m(-2) (odds ratio (OR)=2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.87-3.84; P<0.0001) than that in male subjects with BMI <26.44 kg m(-2). When compared with subjects having the TT genotype and BMI <26.44 kg m(-2), ORs (95% CI) were 3.30 (2.41-4.50) in subjects having the CT/CC genotype and BMI ⩾26.44 kg m(-2) (P for interaction <0.0001). Our results clearly demonstrate that genetic variants in MYL2 influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean obese male subjects. PMID:26763873

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  3. Association between temporomandibular disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Eunmi; Han, Kyungdo; Yun, Kyoung-In

    2016-08-01

    Psychological stress can induce altered eating patterns, and studies have indicated that there is a correlation between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological stress. This study investigated the relationship between TMD and body mass index (BMI) in a large representative sample of the South Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Men and women with TMD showed decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity. Women with TMD had lower age, lower BMI, lower metabolic syndromic waist circumference, lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and lower prevalence of diabetes compared with the group without TMD. However, males with TMD didn't show any statistically significant difference between BMI, and metabolic syndromic waist circumference compared with the group without TMD, although there were similar tendencies in the female subject groups. Overall, TMD was associated with decreased BMI and abdominal obesity in women. PMID:27349686

  4. Effect of 1-h moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on intramyocellular lipids in obese men before and after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2015-12-01

    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men. PMID:26575100

  5. Sex Differences in Somatotrope Dependency on Leptin Receptors in Young Mice: Ablation of LEPR Causes Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency and Abdominal Obesity in Males.

    PubMed

    Allensworth-James, Melody L; Odle, Angela; Haney, Anessa; Childs, Gwen

    2015-09-01

    Leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling controls appetite and energy expenditure. Somatotrope-specific deletion of the LEPRb signaling isoform causes GH deficiency and obesity. The present study selectively ablated Lepr exon 1 in somatotropes, which removes the signal peptide, causing the loss of all isoforms of LEPR. Excision of Lepr exon 1 was restricted to the pituitary, and mutant somatotropes failed to respond to leptin. Young (2-3 mo) males showed a severe 84% reduction in serum GH levels and more than 60% reduction in immunolabeled GH cells compared with 41%-42% reductions in GH and GH cells in mutant females. Mutant males (35 d) and females (45 d) weighed less than controls and males had lower lean body mass. Image analysis of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging showed that young males had a 2-fold increase in abdominal fat mass and increased adipose tissue density. Young females had only an overall increase in adipose tissue. Both males and females showed lower energy expenditure and higher respiratory quotient, indicating preferential carbohydrate burning. Young mutant males slept less and were more restless during the dark phase, whereas the opposite was true of females. The effects of a Cre-bearing sire on his non-Cre-recombinase bearing progeny are seen by increased respiratory quotient and reduced litter sizes. These studies elucidate clear sex differences in the extent to which somatotropes are dependent on all isoforms of LEPR. These results, which were not seen with the ablation of Lepr exon 17, highlight the severe consequences of ablation of LEPR in male somatotropes. PMID:26168341

  6. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: A cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Premanath, M.; Basavanagowdappa, H.; Mahesh, M.; Babu, M. Suresh; Devananda, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN) in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group (P = 0.014). IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group (P = 0.028, P = 0.003). TNF-α was high in obese males (NS), IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS), hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS). AN was high in females of both groups (P = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful. PMID:26904474

  7. Effects of a breakfast spread out over time on the food intake at lunch and the hormonal responses in obese men.

    PubMed

    Allirot, Xavier; Seyssel, Kevin; Saulais, Laure; Roth, Hubert; Charrié, Anne; Drai, Jocelyne; Goudable, Joelle; Blond, Emilie; Disse, Emmanuel; Laville, Martine

    2014-03-29

    The effects of frequent eating on health and particularly on appetite and metabolism are unclear. We have previously shown that frequent eating decreased appetite and energy intake at the subsequent meal in lean men. In the present study, we tested the same pattern in obese subjects. Seventeen obese men participated in: (i) two sessions consisting of a breakfast consumed in one eating episode at T0 (F1), or in four isocaloric eating episodes at T0, T60, T120, and T180min (F4), followed by an ad libitum buffet (T240) in an experimental restaurant. Subjects rated their appetite throughout the sessions. (ii) two sessions consisting of the same breakfasts F1 and F4 in a Clinical Centre, followed by a standardized meal. Blood sampling was performed to study ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and metabolic kinetics. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed. After F4, at T240min, ghrelin concentration (P=0.03) and hunger ratings (P<0.001) were lower while GLP-1 concentration (P=0.006) and satiety ratings (P=0.02) were higher. In F4, subjects consumed at the buffet, less food in grams (P=0.04) and less energy from low energy dense foods (P=0.01), but total energy intakes were not different between conditions. In F4, the area under the curve was lower for insulin (P=0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (P=0.03). Diet induced thermogenesis was reduced in F4 (P=0.03) between T0 and T240. Even if subjective and physiological data suggest a beneficial effect of frequent eating on appetite in obese men, no effect was demonstrated on energy intake. Moreover, the decrease in diet induced thermogenesis and lipolysis, reflected by NEFA profiles, could be deleterious on energy balance in the long run. PMID:24472321

  8. Alterations in Metabolic Profile Occur in Normal-Weight and Obese Men during the Ramadan Fast Despite No Changes in Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mamlouk, Mohamed M.; Duval, Karine; Nardo Junior, Nelson; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the variations in eating behavior, appetite ratings, satiety efficiency, energy expenditure, anthropometric and metabolic profile markers prior to, during as well as 1 and 4 months after Ramadan in normal-weight and obese men. Anthropometric, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry and accelerometry), metabolic (fasting blood sample), appetite (visual analogue scales), and eating behavior (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) measurements were performed in 10 normal-weight (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 24.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 10 obese (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years; BMI: 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2) men. The satiety quotient (SQ) was calculated 180 minutes after breakfast consumption. All anthropometric variables, as well as resting and total energy expenditure, were greater in obese compared to normal-weight participants (P = 0.02–0.0001). Similarly, obese participants had greater triglycerides, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance concentrations (P = 0.02–0.002). Greater apolipoprotein B, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were noted during Ramadan (P = 0.04–0.0001). Dietary restraint scores were also greater during Ramadan (P = 0.0001). No differences in anthropometry, other metabolic profile markers, energy expenditure, appetite ratings, and SQ were noted across sessions. Lastly, changes in anthropometric measurements correlated with delta metabolic profile markers, as well as changes in disinhibition eating behavior trait and dietary restraint scores. The Ramadan fast led to increases in certain metabolic profile markers despite no changes in appetite and anthropometry. PMID:25177497

  9. Alterations in metabolic profile occur in normal-weight and obese men during the Ramadan fast despite no changes in anthropometry.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Mamlouk, Mohamed M; Duval, Karine; Schwartz, Alexander; Nardo Junior, Nelson; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the variations in eating behavior, appetite ratings, satiety efficiency, energy expenditure, anthropometric and metabolic profile markers prior to, during as well as 1 and 4 months after Ramadan in normal-weight and obese men. Anthropometric, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry and accelerometry), metabolic (fasting blood sample), appetite (visual analogue scales), and eating behavior (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) measurements were performed in 10 normal-weight (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 24.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 10 obese (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years; BMI: 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) men. The satiety quotient (SQ) was calculated 180 minutes after breakfast consumption. All anthropometric variables, as well as resting and total energy expenditure, were greater in obese compared to normal-weight participants (P = 0.02-0.0001). Similarly, obese participants had greater triglycerides, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance concentrations (P = 0.02-0.002). Greater apolipoprotein B, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were noted during Ramadan (P = 0.04-0.0001). Dietary restraint scores were also greater during Ramadan (P = 0.0001). No differences in anthropometry, other metabolic profile markers, energy expenditure, appetite ratings, and SQ were noted across sessions. Lastly, changes in anthropometric measurements correlated with delta metabolic profile markers, as well as changes in disinhibition eating behavior trait and dietary restraint scores. The Ramadan fast led to increases in certain metabolic profile markers despite no changes in appetite and anthropometry. PMID:25177497

  10. Effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese.

    PubMed

    Nikseresht, Mahmoud; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Azarbayjani, Mohammad A; Ebrahim, Khosrow

    2014-09-01

    Regular exercise training has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation, but there is limited research directly comparing different types of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on serum interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-20, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), and aerobic capacity in middle-aged men who are obese. Sedentary volunteers were assigned to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 12), and (CON, n = 10) control groups. The experimental groups performed 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks, whereas the CON grouped maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Nonlinear resistance training consisted of 40-65 minutes of weight training at different intensities with flexible periodization. Aerobic interval training consisted of running on a treadmill (4 sets of 4 minutes at 80-90% of maximal heart rate, with 3-minute recovery intervals). Serum IL-10, IL-20, and TNF-α levels did not change significantly in response to training (all p > 0.05), but IL-10:TNF-α ratio increased significantly with AIT compared with CON (2.95 ± 0.84 vs. 2.52 ± 0.65; p = 0.02). After the training period, maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly in AIT and NRT compared with CON (both p < 0.001; 46.7 ± 5.9, 45.1 ± 3.2, and 41.1 ± 4.7 ml·kg·min, respectively) and in AIT than in NRT (p = 0.001). The 2 exercise programs were equally effective at reducing insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 0.84 ± 0.34, NRT: 0.84 ± 0.27, and CON: 1.62 ± 0.56) and fasting insulin levels (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 3.61 ± 1.48, NRT: 3.66 ± 0.92, and CON: 6.20 ± 2.64 μU·ml), but the AIT seems to have better anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by the IL-10:TNF-α ratio) compared with NRT. PMID:24662224

  11. Restoration of adipose function in obese glucose-tolerant men following pioglitazone treatment is associated with CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lesley A; Crowe, Paul; Kankara, Chenchi; McPeake, Jennifer; McCance, David R; Young, Ian S; Trimble, Elisabeth R; McGinty, Ann

    2012-08-01

    Obese AT (adipose tissue) exhibits increased macrophage number. Pro-inflammatory CD16+ peripheral monocyte numbers are also reported to increase with obesity. The present study was undertaken to simultaneously investigate obesity-associated changes in CD16+ monocytes and ATMs (AT macrophages). In addition, a pilot randomized placebo controlled trial using the PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) agonists, pioglitazone and fenofibrate was performed to determine their effects on CD14+/CD16+ monocytes, ATM and cardiometabolic and adipose dysfunction indices. Obese glucose-tolerant men (n=28) were randomized to placebo, pioglitazone (30 mg/day) and fenofibrate (160 mg/day) for 12 weeks. A blood sample was taken to assess levels of serum inflammatory markers and circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocyte levels via flow cytometry. A subcutaneous AT biopsy was performed to determine adipocyte cell surface and ATM number, the latter was determined via assessment of CD68 expression by IHC (immunohistochemistry) and real-time PCR. Subcutaneous AT mRNA expression of CEBPβ (CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β), SREBP1c (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c), PPARγ2, IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), GLUT4 (glucose transporter type 4) and TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) were also assessed. Comparisons were made between obese and lean controls (n=16) at baseline, and pre- and post-PPAR agonist treatment. Obese individuals had significantly increased adipocyte cell surface, percentage CD14+/CD16+ monocyte numbers and ATM number (all P=0.0001). Additionally, serum TNF-α levels were significantly elevated (P=0.017) and adiponectin levels reduced (total: P=0.0001; high: P=0.022) with obesity. ATM number and percentage of CD14+/CD16+ monocytes correlated significantly (P=0.05). Pioglitazone improved adiponectin levels significantly (P=0.0001), and resulted in the further significant enlargement of adipocytes (P=0.05), without effect on the percentage CD14+/CD16

  12. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  13. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  14. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study of Men.

    PubMed

    Chou, Louisa; Brady, Sharmayne R E; Urquhart, Donna M; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Wluka, Anita E

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist-hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist-hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction).In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain. PMID:27082599

  15. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25 kg/m2 or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60 min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  16. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2) or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60 min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  17. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35–74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), general obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and < 88 in women, ≥ 94 and < 102 in men), abdominal obesity (WC ≥88 cm ≥102 cm in women and men, respectively) and WHtR ≥0.5 was estimated, standardized for the European population. Results We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). Conclusions The

  18. Ambient Temperature and Prevalence of Obesity: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a possible association between outdoor or indoor temperature and obesity. We aimed to examine whether ambient temperature is associated with the prevalence of obesity or abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Methods Data on anthropometric, socio-demographic, laboratory and lifestyle factors were retrieved from National Health Insurance System data obtained in 2009–2010. Thirty years (1981 to 2010) of meteorological parameters for 71 observation areas were acquired from the Korea Meteorological Administration. Included in this analysis were 124,354 individuals. A body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (men) or 85 cm (women) were considered to represent obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results The mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 6.6°C to 16.6°C, and BMI was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0078, P = 0.0065). WC was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0165, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with the number of days with mean temperature < 0°C (DMT0; r = –0.0129, P = 0.0002). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise, income, residential area and altitude, the odds ratios (95% CI) for obesity and abdominal obesity in the highest quintile MAT group were 1.045 (1.010, 1.081) and 1.082 (1.042, 1.124), respectively, compared with the lower four quintiles of the MAT group. Similarly, subjects in the area of the lowest quintile of DMT0 had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with the higher four quintile groups of DMT0. Conclusion This study finds an association between ambient temperature and prevalence of obesity in the Korean population when controlling for several confounding factors. Adaptive thermogenesis might be a possible explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:26524686

  19. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Mofidi, Anita; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Stewart, Katherine A.; Tulk, Hilary M. F.; Robinson, Lindsay E.; Duncan, Alison M.; Graham, Terry E.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g) in part 1 (n = 12) and bread mass (107 g) in part 2 (n = 11), and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state. PMID:22474577

  20. Lifestyle Intervention for Sleep Disturbances Among Overweight or Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Stewart, Kerry J; Dobrosielski, Devon A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of different lifestyle interventions on sleep disturbances among sedentary obese or overweight persons. We randomized men and women aged 35-65 to 6 months of a weight loss diet (D); or D combined with supervised exercise training [Formula: see text] Measurements were self-reported sleep disturbances, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, BMI, total abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and aerobic fitness expressed as VO2peak. The groups did not differ in changes for body weight, abdominal total fat, VO2peak, and sleep disturbances. The novel finding herein is that reduced abdominal subcutaneous fat and depressive symptoms, with either D or [Formula: see text] were associated with less sleep disturbances. PMID:26375410

  1. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. Methods We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35–65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2–9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. Findings 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95–5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64–5·08), both in favour of the intervention (p<0·0001). Eight serious adverse events were reported, five in the intervention group (lost consciousness due to drugs for pre-existing angina, gallbladder removal, hospital admission with suspected heart attack, ruptured gut, and ruptured Achilles tendon) and three in the comparison group (transient ischaemic attack, and two deaths). Of these, two adverse events were reported as related to

  2. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Methods/design Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and

  3. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. PMID:26311660

  4. Increased Whole-Body and Sustained Liver Cortisol Regeneration by 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Obese Men With Type 2 Diabetes Provides a Target for Enzyme Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, Roland H.; Andrew, Ruth; McAvoy, Norma C.; Tripathi, Dhiraj; Hayes, Peter C.; Walker, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) amplifies glucocorticoid levels in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 inhibitors are being developed to treat type 2 diabetes. In obesity, 11β-HSD1 is increased in adipose tissue but decreased in liver. The benefits of pharmacological inhibition may be reduced if hepatic 11β-HSD1 is similarly decreased in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. To examine this, we quantified in vivo whole-body, splanchnic, and hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten obese men with type 2 diabetes and seven normal-weight control subjects were infused with 9,11,12,12-[2H]4cortisol (40%) and cortisol (60%) at 1.74 mg/h. Adrenal cortisol secretion was suppressed with dexamethasone. Samples were obtained from the hepatic vein and an arterialized hand vein at steady state and after oral administration of cortisone (5 mg) to estimate whole-body and liver 11β-HSD1 activity using tracer dilution. RESULTS In obese type 2 diabetic subjects, the appearance rate of 9,12,12-[2H]3cortisol in arterialized blood was increased (35 ± 2 vs. 29 ± 1 nmol/min, P < 0.05), splanchnic 9,12,12-[2H]3cortisol production was not reduced (29 ± 6 vs. 29 ± 6 nmol/min), and cortisol appearance in the hepatic vein after oral cortisone was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS Whole-body 11β-HSD1 activity is increased in obese men with type 2 diabetes, whereas liver 11β-HSD1 activity is sustained, unlike in euglycemic obesity. This supports the concept that inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 are likely to be most effective in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:21266326

  5. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  6. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  7. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  8. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  9. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China’s four provinces survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. Methods The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. Results An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours

  10. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  11. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  12. Assessing the Causality Factors in the Association between (Abdominal) Obesity and Physical Activity among the Newfoundland Population—A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barning, Frank; Abarin, Taraneh

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,263 adults from Newfoundland and Labrador were studied in the research. Body mass index (BMI) and percent trunk fat (PTF) were analyzed as biomarkers for obesity. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach with two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the fat-mass and obesity (FTO) gene as instruments was employed to assess the causal effect. In both genders, increasing physical activity significantly reduced BMI and PTF when adjusted for age and the FTO gene. The effect of physical activity was stronger on PTF than BMI. Direct observational analyses showed significant increase in BMI/PTF when physical activity decreased. A similar association in MR analyses was not significant. The association between physical activity and BMI/PTF could be due to reversed causality or common confounding factors. Our study provides insights into the causal contributions of obesity to physical activity in adults. Health intervention strategies to increase physical activity among adults should include some other plans such as improving diet for reducing obesity. PMID:27478388

  13. [Obesity and high health risk due to beberages consumption and obesity among high school students in méxico].

    PubMed

    Caravalí-Meza, NurisYohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the consumption of beverages among high school Mexican students and to determine obesity (OB) and abdominal obesity (AB). Differences in range and calorie beverage consumption between gender and BMI categories were calculated with the Mann-Whitney test. We assessed 1,677 students 15 to 17 yo. The prevalence of OB and AO was 15% and 53% in men and 12% and 47% in women. The consumption of energy, sugary drinks, and alcohol in milliliters and kilocalories per week, was higher in men (p = 0.001). More than 70% of students consumed per day more than 25 g/day of sugar from beverages, and more than 38% consumed more than 50 g/day of sugar. This high risk food consumption warrants immediate intervention. PMID:25929409

  14. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  15. Migration surrogates and their association with obesity among within-country migrants.

    PubMed

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2010-11-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the link between acculturation and health outcomes of within-country migrants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether well-known acculturation surrogates were associated with obesity among Peruvian rural-to-urban migrants. We performed a cross-sectional survey, the PERU MIGRANT study, using single-stage random sampling. Evaluation included weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) as well as acculturation surrogates. Obesity was assessed using BMI and WC. Length of residence, age at migration, language proficiency, and language preferences (Spanish or Quechua) were assessed in logistic regression models to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 589 rural-to-urban migrants were enrolled. The mean age was 47.8 (s.d.: 11.7, range: 30-92), and 280 (47.5%) were men. Obesity prevalence assessed using BMI was 30.4% among women and 10.7% among men (P < 0.001), whereas abdominal obesity assessed using WC was 29.1% among women and 19.1% among men (P < 0.01). Obesity was associated with older age at first migration, language speaking proficiency, and language preferences. The association between obesity and acculturation surrogates is variable in this population. Thus, acculturation per se can explore positive channels associated with better health outcomes. The patterns shown in this report suggest a more complex association for these factors. PMID:20395946

  16. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  17. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  18. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  19. Regional variation in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes and their correlates among the adult rural population in India.

    PubMed

    Meshram, I I; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Sudershan Rao, V; Laxmaiah, A; Polasa, K

    2016-04-14

    A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of India by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Information was collected from the participants about socio-demographic particulars such as age, sex, occupation, education, etc. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained. Fasting blood sugar was assessed using a Glucometer. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, χ(2) test for association and logistic regression analysis. A total of 7531 subjects were covered for anthropometry and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was 29 and 21%, respectively, and was higher in the Southern region (40% each) as compared with other regions. The prevalence of hypertension was 18 and 16% and diabetes was 9·5% each among men and women, respectively. The risk of hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher among adults from the Southern and Western regions, the among elderly, among overweight/obese individuals and those with abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension was higher in the Southern region, whereas diabetes was higher in the Southern and Western regions. Factors such as increasing age, male sex, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity were important risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Appropriate health and nutrition education should be given to the community to control these problems. PMID:26867590

  20. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  1. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  2. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Yuxiu; Zheng, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Zhixin

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration by having volunteers to chew sugarless gum. Our intention was to explore the neural mechanisms regulating the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1). After fasting for 12 h, 12 healthy male, non-obese volunteers (18 < BMI < 30), were asked to chew sugarless gum at a frequency of 80 times every 2 min for a total of 30 min. Blood samples were collected before the start of chewing and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after the start of chewing. Satiety and hunger were evaluated on a scale from 0 to 100 at each time point. Compared with the control group, the test group's satiety was increased at 15, 25, and 30 min (p = 0.043, p = 0.014 and p = 0.018, respectively) after they began chewing sugarless gum 80 times every 2 min. The blood GLP-1 level of the test group at 30 min was 49.6 ± 20.3 pmol/l, significantly higher than that of the control group (38.9 ± 20.9 pmol/l; p = 0.031). There was no significant difference in the test group's GLP-1 concentration at each time point. In the control group, compared to baseline, the GLP-1 concentrations at 15, 25, and 30 min were significantly decreased (p = 0.042, p = 0.0214 and p = 0.012, respectively). No significant differences in the blood concentration of glucose, insulin and GIP or hunger were observed between groups. Our study suggests that fasting sugarless gum chewing can increase satiety and reduce the decrease in GLP-1 concentration. PMID:25758865

  3. Effects of long-term treatment with testosterone on weight and waist size in 411 hypogonadal men with obesity classes I-III: observational data from two registry studies

    PubMed Central

    Saad, F; Yassin, A; Doros, G; Haider, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Long-term testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) up to 5 years has been shown to produce progressive and sustainable weight loss (WL) in hypogonadal men. This study investigated effects of long-term TRT up to 8 years in hypogonadal men with different obesity classes. Subjects/Methods: From two independent observational registries we identified a total of 411 obese, hypogonadal men receiving TRT in urological clinics. The effects of TRT on anthropometric as well as metabolic parameters were studied for a maximum duration of 8 years, mean follow-up: 6 years. All men received long-acting injections of testosterone undecanoate in 3-monthly intervals. Results: In all three classes of obesity, T therapy produced significant WL, decrease in waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). In patients with class I obesity, mean weight decreased from 102.6±6.4 to 84.1±4.9 kg, change from baseline: −17.4±0.5 kg and −16.8±0.4%. WC in this group of patients decreased from 106.8±7.4 to 95.1±5.3 cm, change from baseline: −10.6±0.3 cm. BMI decreased from 32.69±1.4 to 27.07±1.57, change from baseline: −5.52±0.15 kg m−2. In patients with class II obesity, weight decreased from 116.8±6.9 to 91.3±6.3 kg, change from baseline: −25.3±0.5 kg and −21.5±0.4%. WC decreased from 113.5±7.5 to 100.0±5.4 cm, change from baseline: −13.9±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 37.32±1.45 to 29.49±1.71, change from baseline: −8.15±0.17 kg m−2. In patients with class III obesity, weight decreased from 129.0±5.6 to 98.9±4.8 kg, change from baseline: −30.5±0.7 kg and −23.6±0.5%. WC decreased from 118.5±5.6 to 103.8±4.9 cm, change from baseline: −14.3±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 41.93±1.48 to 32.46±1.59, change from baseline −9.96±0.29 kg m−2. Conclusions: Testosterone therapy appears to be an effective approach to achieve sustained WL in obese hypogonadal men irrespective of severity of

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapy?

    PubMed

    Carbonelli, M G; Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A; Fusco, M A

    2010-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation has supposed as the major biochemical alteration underling oxidant-induced cell injury in stress including numerous diseases. One of the natural molecules know to prevent or retard oxidation is alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and, therefore, the lipoic acid/dihydrolipoic acid (LA/DHLA) redox couple has received considerable attention. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of free LA and DHLA as powerful metabolic antioxidants that are able to scavenge the reactive oxygen species, to recycle other antioxidants. Our aim was to investigate the beneficial effects of LA in the treatment of Italian pre-obese and obese subjects. We screened 1612 subjects for enrollment; of these, 1127 subjects (445 men and 682 women, 18-60 age) met enrolment criteria and were enrolled in the study. According to body mass index (BMI) the 53% was obese and the 43% was pre-obese. The subjects were treated for 4 month with 800 mg/day of LA. In pre-obese subject significant reduction (p<0.001) of weight (8%, both gender), BMI (2 points), blood pressure, and abdominal circumference (female 6 cm, male 7 cm) were observed. In obese subjects significant reductions (p<0.001) of weight (9%, both gender), BMI (female 3 point, male 4 point), blood pressure and abdominal circumference (female 9 cm, male 11 cm) were observed. Our study indicated that LA is an ideal antioxidant candidate for the therapy of obesity related diseases. Further clinical studies should be considered to highlight the role and efficacy of LA treatment. PMID:20388095

  6. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  7. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Excess intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, often termed visceral obesity, is part of a phenotype including dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride storage closely related to clustering cardiometabolic risk factors. Hypertriglyceridemia; increased free fatty acid availability; adipose tissue release of proinflammatory cytokines; liver insulin resistance and inflammation; increased liver VLDL synthesis and secretion; reduced clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; presence of small, dense LDL particles; and reduced HDL cholesterol levels are among the many metabolic alterations closely related to this condition. Age, gender, genetics, and ethnicity are broad etiological factors contributing to variation in visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Specific mechanisms responsible for proportionally increased visceral fat storage when facing positive energy balance and weight gain may involve sex hormones, local cortisol production in abdominal adipose tissues, endocannabinoids, growth hormone, and dietary fructose. Physiological characteristics of abdominal adipose tissues such as adipocyte size and number, lipolytic responsiveness, lipid storage capacity, and inflammatory cytokine production are significant correlates and even possible determinants of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with visceral obesity. Thiazolidinediones, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women, and testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men have been shown to favorably modulate body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk to various degrees. However, some of these therapies must now be considered in the context of their serious side effects. Lifestyle interventions leading to weight loss generally induce preferential mobilization of visceral fat. In clinical practice, measuring waist circumference in addition to the body mass index could be helpful for the identification and management of a subgroup of overweight or obese

  8. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). There is substantial variability in the effects of obesity on FRC and ERV, at least some of which is related to the location, rather than the total mass of adipose tissue. Obesity also results in airflow obstruction, which is only partially attributable to breathing at low lung volume, and can also promote airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Hypoxemia is common is obesity, and correlates well with FRC, as well as with measures of abdominal obesity. However, obese subjects are usually eucapnic, indicating that hypoventilation is not a common cause of their hypoxemia. Instead, hypoxemia results from ventilation perfusion mismatch caused by closure of dependent airways at FRC. Many obese subjects complain of dyspnea either at rest or during exertion, and the dyspnea score also correlates with reductions in FRC and ERV. Weight reduction should be encouraged in any symptomatic obese individual, since virtually all of the respiratory complications of obesity improve with even moderate weight loss. PMID:23737172

  9. [Gender Obesity Report--Influence of obesity on Reproduction and Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Obesity influences reproduction in men and women at all ages. The increasing prevalence of obesity is associated with rising numbers of reproductive disorders in both sexes. Obesity influences menstrual cycle and ovulation irregularities, increases pregnancy complications and complication rates in assisted reproductive technologies in women and in men obesity is associated with lower semen parameters. Weight loss through lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery has positive effects on hormonal parameters and fertility in both men and women. PMID:26650059

  10. Association of a New Measure of Obesity with Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wankyo; Park, Chun Gun; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite its shortcomings, body mass index (BMI) has traditionally been used to define obesity. Another recently introduced obesity measure, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), has been introduced to focus on abdominal obesity, but its applicability remains limited. We analyzed the statistical properties of the ABSI and propose a modified ABSI, the z-score of the log-transformed ABSI (LBSIZ), to improve its applicability. We also examined the sensitivity of the newly introduced index in diagnosing obesity based on the percentage of body fat and its ability to predict hypertension and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Results We transformed the ABSI to the LBSIZ in order to create a standard normalized obesity measure. All available data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (1998–2012) have shown BMI to be highly correlated with weight (r = 0.85 for women, r = 0.87 for men) and waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.86 for women, r = 0.85 for men), but the LBSIZ was found to be weakly correlated with weight (r = 0.001 for women, r = 0.0001 for men) and moderately correlated with WC (r = 0.51 for women, r = 0.52 for men). BMI showed an inverted U-shaped pattern when plotted against age, but a linear pattern was observed for the LBSIZ, indicating they are different kinds of obesity measures. Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio of obesity for the LBSIZ was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73–2.00) for males and 1.32 (95% CI = 1.24–1.40) for females after adjusting for weight, height, age, and year of participation in the KNHANES. While both BMI and the LBSIZ were significantly related to hypertension, the LBSIZ alone was significantly associated with impaired HRQOL. Conclusions The LBSIZ is a standard normalized obesity measure independent of weight, height, and BMI. LBSIZ is a new measure of abdominal obesity with the ability to predict hypertension and impaired HRQOL, irrespective of BMI

  11. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  12. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  13. Obesity and the lung: 3 · Obesity, respiration and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, A; Hillman, D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem from a public health perspective and a difficult practical matter for intensivists. The obesity pandemic has required treating clinicians to develop an appreciation of the substantial pathophysiological effects of obesity on the various organ systems. The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:18820119

  14. OBESITY PREVALENCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PARK USERS

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2015-01-01

    Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270

  15. Homocysteine levels in morbidly obese patients: its association with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; de la Fuente, Miguel; Solá, Eva; Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, R; Laiz, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The association between morbid obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) remains controversial and the nature of this relationship needs to be clarified as several metabolic, lipidic, inflammatory and anthropometric alterations that accompany morbid obesity may be involved. In 66 morbidly obese patients, 47 women and 19 men aged 41 ± 12 years and 66 normo-weight subjects, 43 women and 23 men, aged 45 ± 11 years, we determined homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with lipidic, anthropometric, inflammatory and insulin resistance markers. In addition, we investigated the effect of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components on Hcy levels. Obese patients had statistically higher Hcy levels than controls: 12.76 ± 5.30 μM vs. 10.67 ± 2.50 μM; p = 0.006. Moreover, morbidly obese subjects showed higher waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA, leptin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001, respectively), and lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.002), folic acid and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate regression analysis, waist circumference, glucose, leptin and folic acid levels were independent predictors for Hcy values (p < 0.050). When obese patients were classified as having MS or not, no differences in Hcy levels were found between the two groups (p = 0.752). Yet when we analysed separately each MS component, only abdominal obesity was associated with Hcy levels (p = 0.031). Moreover when considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria) instead of glucose intolerance >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria), it also was associated with HH (p = 0.042). These results were confirmed in the logistic regression analysis where abdominal obesity and glucose >115 mg/dL constitute independent predictors for HH (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.23-13.2; p = 0.032, OR: 4.6; CI: 1.7-22.2; p = 0.016, respectively). The results of our study indicate that increased Hcy levels are related mostly with abdominal obesity and with insulin resistance. Thus, HH may

  16. Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function (GELDING) - a novel theory for the development of late onset hypogonadism in obese men.

    PubMed

    Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health problem, with two-thirds of the adult population in many Western countries now being either overweight or obese. Male obesity is associated with late onset hypogonadism, a condition characterised by decreased serum testosterone, sperm quality plus diminished fertility and quality of life. In this paper we propose a novel theory underlying the development of obesity related hypogonadism- the GELDING theory (Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function). Several observational studies have previously reported an association between obesity related hypogonadism (low testosterone) and systemic inflammation. However, for the first time we postulate that the trans-mucosal passage of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut lumen into the circulation is a key inflammatory trigger underlying male hypogonadism. Obesity and a high fat/high calorie diet are both reported to result in changes to gut bacteria and intestinal wall permeability, leading to the passage of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide- LPS) from within the gut lumen into the circulation (metabolic endotoxaemia), where it initiates systemic inflammation. Endotoxin is known to reduce testosterone production by the testis, both by direct inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic pathways and indirectly by reducing pituitary LH drive, thereby also leading to a decline in sperm production. In this paper we also highlight the novel evolutionary benefits of the GELDING theory. Testosterone is known to be a powerful immune-suppressive, decreasing a man's ability to fight infection. Therefore we postulate that the male reproductive axis has evolved the capacity to lower testosterone production during times of infection and resulting endotoxin exposure, decreasing the immunosuppressive influence of testosterone, in turn enhancing the ability to fight infection. While this response is adaptive in times of sepsis, it becomes maladaptive in the setting of "non

  17. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong; Ran, Xingwu; Su, Benli; Ji, Qiuhe; Pan, Changyu; Weng, Jianping; Ma, Changsheng; Hao, Chuanming; Zhang, Danyi; Hu, Dayi

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B) goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. Methods Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B) were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24–27.9kg/m2 and ≥28.0kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80cm in women and ≥85cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90mmHg and LDL-C<2.6mmol/L. Results Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6%) were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals. Conclusions Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients. PMID:26726883

  18. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: towards metabolomics diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewa; Bouwman, Jildau; Strassburg, Katrin; Vervoort, Jacques; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Westerhuis, Johan; van Duynhoven, John P M; Mela, David J; Macdonald, Ian A; Vreeken, Rob J; Smilde, Age K; Jacobs, Doris M

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid components, 12 lipoprotein subclasses, 17 low-molecular-weight metabolites, 12 clinical markers) and 28 phenotype parameters (including different body fat distribution parameters such as android (A), gynoid (G), abdominal visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT) fat) in 215 plasma/serum samples from healthy overweight men (n=32) and women (n=83) with central obesity. (Partial) correlation analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed that only specific metabolites were associated to A:G ratio, VAT, and SAT, respectively. These association patterns were gender dependent. For example, insulin, cholesterol, VLDL, and certain triacylglycerols (TG 54:1-3) correlated to VAT in women, while in men VAT was associated with TG 50:1-5, TG 55:1, phosphatidylcholine (PC 32:0), and VLDL ((X)L). Moreover, multiple regression analysis revealed that waist circumference and total fat were sufficient to predict VAT and SAT in women. In contrast, only VAT but not SAT could be predicted in men and only when plasma metabolites were included, with PC 32:0 being most strongly associated with VAT. These findings collectively highlight the potential of metabolomics in obesity and that gender differences need to be taken into account for novel biomarker and diagnostic discovery for obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:23215804

  19. Reduced gene expression of UCP2 but not UCP3 in skeletal muscle of human obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Nordfors, L; Hoffstedt, J; Nyberg, B; Thörne, A; Arner, P; Schalling, M; Lönnqvist, F

    1998-08-01

    Massive overweight is an increasing health problem and underlies several complications which in turn result in premature death. The mechanisms underlying the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, that lead to obesity in humans, are still only partly understood. In rodents, heat generation and the burning of calories by the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) are important for metabolic control. However, UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown fat which is only present in limited amounts in human adults. The recent characterization of two new uncoupling proteins, UCP2 and UCP3, may elucidate potentially important pathways for energy expenditure regulation in man. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is accompanied by aberrations in UCP2 and UCP3 regulation. Expression of these two genes was examined using in situ hybridization in six lean and six obese, but otherwise healthy, men. The UCP2 expression was decreased by 28 % (p = 0.001) in the abdominal muscle of the obese subjects. No differences in UCP3 expression were observed between obese and control subjects, although there was great variation in the expression between subjects. In conclusion, these data suggest an impaired activity of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, but probably not UCP3, in obese subjects. This may result in decreased energy expenditure and contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity. PMID:9726596

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  1. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  2. [The epidemiology of obesity].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; López-R, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In excess of 50% of adult population and nearly one third of children in Mexico have overweight and obesity. This accounts for slightly >32,671,000 million persons, excluding children; thus, total numbers are even more significant. These figures are alarming for those responsible for the economic future and well-being of Mexico. Overweight and obesity lead to higher risk of mortality as well as development of multiple diseases, mainly coronary heart disease, diabetes type 2, cancer, and stroke, which are at present the principal causes of mortality in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there are throughout the world more than one billion adults with overweight, of whom 300 million have obesity. In addition to the obesity epidemic in Mexico, there is high prevalence of diabetes type 2. Coexistence of both epidemics has been denominated the twin epidemic. As many as 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes are linked with overweight or obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. The disease was once thought to be limited to adults, but obese children are now developing the illness. In Mexico, we are able to refer to at least three epidemics, because not only are obesity and type 2 diabetes advancing rapidly in the country, but also cardiovascular disease, linked with high prevalence of both hypertension and metabolic syndrome as reported by scientists based on Mexican National Health Survey 2000 data. PMID:15641467

  3. The Impact of Obesity on Patient Reported Outcomes Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Robyn; Feng, Li Rebekah; Bae, Edward; Danner, Malika T; Ayoob, Marilyn; Yung, Thomas M; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Saligan, Leorey; Simeng, Suy; Kumar, Deepak; Collins, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The relationship between obesity (Body Mass Index ­>30 kg/m2) and quality of life (QoL) following prostate cancer (PCa) radiation therapy (RT) is unknown. Excess abdominal fat may compromise the precise delivery of radiation, putting surrounding organs at risk for greater radiation exposure. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) utilizes a real-time tracking system that provides updated prostate position information and allows for correction of the therapeutic beam during treatment with high accuracy. In this study, we evaluate the impact of obesity on patient reported outcomes following SBRT for prostate cancer. Materials and methods Between February 2008 and April 2012, 88 obese and 178 non-obese patients with PCa were treated with SBRT at Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC. Health-related quality of life (HRQol) was assessed via the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC)-26 at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after 5-fraction delivery of 35-36.25 Gy with the CyberKnife. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded from this analysis due to its known negative impact on HRQoL. Results Pretreatment characteristics of obese and non-obese patient groups were similar except that obese patients had lower total testosterone levels. Urinary and bowel function and bother scores between the two patient cohorts were comparable at baseline and subsequent follow-ups. Sexual function and bother were also similar at baseline between both groups. Bother was defined by displeasure patients may experience from functional decline. At 24 months post-SBRT, obese men experienced borderline clinically significant decrease in sexual function and greater sexual bother compared to non-obese patients. Fatigue was significantly higher in obese patients compared to non-obese patients at 18 months post-SBRT. Conclusions Prostate SBRT affects obese and non-obese patients similarly in total HRQoL scores and majority of its

  4. Cortisol and ACTH response to oral dexamethasone in obesity and effects of sex, body fat distribution, and dexamethasone concentrations: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Renato; Ambrosi, Bruno; Armanini, Decio; Cavagnini, Francesco; Uberti, Ettore Degli; Del Rio, Graziano; de Pergola, Giovanni; Maccario, Mauro; Mantero, Franco; Marugo, Mario; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Vettor, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the abdominal obesity phenotype may be associated with multiple alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in both sexes. Our hypothesis is that the lack of adequate cortisol suppression after the dexamethasone test may constitute an indirect marker of HPA axis hyperactivity in the presence of the abdominal obesity phenotype. A total of 34 normal-weight (13 men and 21 women) and 87 obese (36 men and 51 women), healthy, nondepressed subjects therefore underwent four different dexamethasone suppression tests randomly performed at varying intervals of at least 1 wk between each test. After a standard overnight 1-mg dexamethasone test, which served as a reference, three other tests were randomly performed at 1-wk intervals by administering 0.0035, 0.0070, and 0.015 mg oral dexamethasone per kilogram of body weight overnight. Blood samples were obtained for cortisol, ACTH, and dexamethasone. Results were analyzed separately in men and women as well as in normal-weight [body mass index (BMI) < or = 25 kg/m(2)] and overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)) subjects. The waist circumference and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) were used as markers of body fat distribution. After the standard 1-mg test, cortisol suppression was greater than 90% in all subjects. However, after each test, obese women had significantly higher values of percent cortisol and percent ACTH suppression than normal-weight women without any difference between obese and normal-weight men. Considering the response to the three variable-dose tests, a clear dose- response pattern (P < 0.001 for trend analysis) in percent cortisol and percent ACTH suppression was found in all subjects. After each test men had significantly higher dexamethasone levels than women, regardless of BMI. However, obese women, but not men, had significantly higher dexamethasone levels after each test than their normal-weight counterpart. Plasma dexamethasone

  5. Obesity inversely correlates with prostate-specific antigen levels in a population with normal screening results of prostate cancer in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ma, M; Nan, X; Sheng, B

    2016-07-11

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a diagnostic biomarker of prostate cancer and is possibly associated with obesity. This study aimed to explore the relationships between obesity indicators [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] with PSA in Chinese men. A cross-sectional study of men aged 30-85 years undergoing prostate cancer screening was conducted from August 2008 to July 2013 in Xi'an, China. Data were obtained from clinical reports, condition was recorded based on self-report including demographics, weight, height, and WC (>90 cm=obese). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and prostate volume (PV) were assessed clinically. Patients were grouped by BMI (normal=22.9, overweight=23-27.4, obese≥27.5 kg/m2). PSA parameters of density (PSAD), PSA serum level, and PSA increasing rate per year (PSAR) were calculated per BMI and age groups (30-40, 41-59, 60-85 years). Obesity indicators (BMI and WC) and PSA parameter relationships were modeled by age-stratified linear regression. Of 35,632 Chinese men surveyed, 13,084 were analyzed, including 13.44% obese, 57.44% overweight, and 29.12% normal weight, according to BMI; 25.84% were centrally (abdominally) obese according to WC. BMI and WC were negatively associated with all PSA parameters, except PSAD and PSAR [P<0.05, BMI: β=-0.081 (95%CI=-0.055 to -0.036), WC: β=-0.101 (-0.021 to -0.015)], and independent of FBG and PV (P<0.05) in an age-adjusted model. In conclusion, obesity was associated with lower PSA in Chinese men. Therefore, an individual's BMI and WC should be considered when PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer. PMID:27409334

  6. Obesity inversely correlates with prostate-specific antigen levels in a population with normal screening results of prostate cancer in northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Ma, M.; Nan, X.; Sheng, B.

    2016-01-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a diagnostic biomarker of prostate cancer and is possibly associated with obesity. This study aimed to explore the relationships between obesity indicators [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] with PSA in Chinese men. A cross-sectional study of men aged 30-85 years undergoing prostate cancer screening was conducted from August 2008 to July 2013 in Xi'an, China. Data were obtained from clinical reports, condition was recorded based on self-report including demographics, weight, height, and WC (>90 cm=obese). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and prostate volume (PV) were assessed clinically. Patients were grouped by BMI (normal=22.9, overweight=23-27.4, obese≥27.5 kg/m2). PSA parameters of density (PSAD), PSA serum level, and PSA increasing rate per year (PSAR) were calculated per BMI and age groups (30-40, 41-59, 60-85 years). Obesity indicators (BMI and WC) and PSA parameter relationships were modeled by age-stratified linear regression. Of 35,632 Chinese men surveyed, 13,084 were analyzed, including 13.44% obese, 57.44% overweight, and 29.12% normal weight, according to BMI; 25.84% were centrally (abdominally) obese according to WC. BMI and WC were negatively associated with all PSA parameters, except PSAD and PSAR [P<0.05, BMI: β=-0.081 (95%CI=-0.055 to -0.036), WC: β=-0.101 (-0.021 to -0.015)], and independent of FBG and PV (P<0.05) in an age-adjusted model. In conclusion, obesity was associated with lower PSA in Chinese men. Therefore, an individual's BMI and WC should be considered when PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer. PMID:27409334

  7. Urinary enterolactone is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in men in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qunwei; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2015-02-28

    Phyto-oestrogens are a family of plant-derived xeno-oestrogens that have been shown to prevent cancer in some studies. Whether phyto-oestrogen intake affects obesity status in a population is still unclear. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the association of urinary phyto-oestrogen metabolites with obesity and metabolic parameters in children and adults. Data from 1294 children (age 6-19 years) and from 3661 adults (age ≥ 20 years) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-10 were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of BMI, waist circumference, serum metabolites (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting glucose and fasting insulin) and the metabolic syndrome with urinary phyto-oestrogen levels. When stratified by age and sex, we found a stronger association (OR 0·30, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·54; P< 0·001) between urinary enterolactone levels and obesity in adult males (age 20-60 years) than in children (age 12-19 years) or the elderly (age >60 years) in the same survey. However, no associations with urinary daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, enterodiol or genistein were found in the overall population. We also found that the elevation of enterolactone levels was inversely associated with TAG levels, fasting glucose levels, fasting insulin levels and the metabolic syndrome in males aged 20-60 years, but positively associated with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present results provide epidemiological evidence that urinary enterolactone is inversely associated with obesity in adult males. PMID:25634494

  8. MANAGING OBESITY IN PRIMARY CARE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and other industrialized nations. Obesity has been traditionally defined as an excess of body fat (i.e., 25% body fat in men and 33% in women. This increased body fat is associated with greater risk for a number of health problems, including c...

  9. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  10. [Obesity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990

  11. 10: Management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Proietto, Joseph; Baur, Louise A

    2004-05-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in Australia, with 67.5% of men, 52.1% of women and 19%-23% of children and adolescents being overweight or obese. Genetically predisposed individuals are especially vulnerable to developing obesity in the highly obesogenic environment of 21st century Australia. Obesity causes or contributes to many comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, orthopaedic problems and polycystic ovary syndrome. Management in the individual requires their complete co-operation and should be tailored to individual needs and complications. Management of obesity in children should consider the family context and involve the parents. All treatment strategies must involve lifestyle modification, with a reduction of energy intake and an increase in physical activity. Some patients may also require the assistance of drug therapy or bariatric surgery. PMID:15115430

  12. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  13. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Most men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to Smoke and drink Make ... There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate cancer and low testosterone. Many ...

  14. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  15. Obesity and psoriasis: inflammatory nature of obesity, relationship between psoriasis and obesity, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, J M; Rocamora, V; Fernandez-Torres, R M; Jimenez-Puya, R; Moreno, J C; Coll-Puigserver, N; Fonseca, E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is currently considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition that plays an active role in the development of the pathophysiologic phenomena responsible for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease through the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines. In recent years clear genetic, pathogenic, and epidemiologic links have been established between psoriasis and obesity, with important implications for health. The relationship between the 2 conditions is probably bidirectional, with obesity predisposing to psoriasis and psoriasis favoring obesity. Obesity also has important implications in the treatment of psoriasis, such as a greater risk of adverse effects with conventional systemic drugs and reduced efficacy and/or increased cost with biologic agents, for which dosage should be adjusted to the patient's weight. PMID:23177976

  16. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  17. Obesity and kidney protection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: The concept of the “Metabolic Syndrome“ helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Conclusions: Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity. PMID:25093156

  18. Epidemiologic Behavior of Obesity in the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Pacheco, Maikol; Rojas, Joselyn; Córdova, Evelyn; Velázquez, Rossibel; Carrillo, Daniela; Parra, María G.; Toledo, Alexandra; Añez, Roberto; Fonseca, Eneida; Marcano, Rafael París; Cano, Clímaco; Miranda, José López

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09%) women and 989 (46.91%) men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC) from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009) and ATPIII statements were applied. Results For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701), and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363) and men had 34.2% (n = 338). Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733), Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629), and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45). Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m2) was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. Conclusions These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects. PMID:22530014

  19. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  20. Effects of dietary milk- and soya-phospholipids on lipid-parameters and other risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases in overweight or obese men - two double-blind, randomised, controlled, clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Anne; Bub, Achim; Barth, Stephan W; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Pfeuffer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of milk phospholipids (milk-PL) on lipid metabolism and on other risk factors for CVD, in comparison with milk fat (control) or soya phospholipids (soya-PL), respectively. Two double-blind parallel-group intervention trials were conducted in overweight or obese male subjects. In the first trial (trial 1), sixty-two men consumed milk enriched with either 2 g milk-PL or 2 g milk fat (control) for 8 weeks. In trial 2, fifty-seven men consumed milk enriched with either 3 g milk-PL or 2·8 g soya-PL for 7 weeks. In trial 1, milk-PL as compared with control reduced waist circumference but did not affect plasma lipids (total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG, phospholipids), apoB, apoA1, glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity index, C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule and total homocysteine (tHcy). Serum activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were not changed. Activity of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of fatty liver, increased in the control but not in the milk-PL group, with a significant intervention effect. In trial 2, milk-PL as compared with soya-PL did not affect the above-mentioned parameters, but decreased GGT. Subjects with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations CT and TT had 11 % (P < 0·05) higher baseline tHcy concentrations than those with the wild-type CC. However, genotype did not modulate the phospholipid intervention effect on tHcy. In conclusion, supplementation with milk-PL as compared with control fat reduced waist circumference and, as compared with both control fat and soya-PL, GGT activity. PMID:27293558

  1. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  2. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    PubMed

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

  3. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  4. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  5. Obesity. Part I--Pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Obesity--defined by a body mass index above 30 kg per m2--is a major problem for affluent nations. Its prevalence is higher in North America than in Europe--between 9% and 12% of the population. Reduced energy expenditure from exercise or metabolism or both may be an important contributory factor in the development of obesity because of a failure to reduce food intake sufficiently to maintain energy balance. A high ratio of abdominal circumference relative to gluteal circumference carries a twofold or greater risk of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, and death. The effect of increased quantities of abdominal fat is greater than that of a similar increase in total body fat on the risks of ill health associated with obesity. Genetic factors appear to contribute about 25% to its etiology. Images PMID:3067447

  6. Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Khurana, L

    2011-02-01

    South Asians are at higher risk than White Caucasians for the development of obesity and obesity-related non-communicable diseases (OR-NCDs), including insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Rapid nutrition and lifestyle transitions have contributed to acceleration of OR-NCDs in South Asians. Differences in determinants and associated factors for OR-NCDs between South Asians and White Caucasians include body phenotype (high body fat, high truncal, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and low muscle mass), biochemical parameters (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, low levels of adiponectin and high levels of C-reactive protein), procoagulant state and endothelial dysfunction. Higher prevalence, earlier onset and increased complications of T2DM and CHD are often seen at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Asians than White Caucasians. In view of these data, lower cut-offs for obesity and abdominal obesity have been advocated for Asian Indians (BMI; overweight >23 to 24.9 kg m(-2) and obesity ≥ 25 kg m(-2); and WC; men ≥ 90 cm and women ≥ 80 cm, respectively). Imbalanced nutrition, physical inactivity, perinatal adverse events and genetic differences are also important contributory factors. Other differences between South Asians and White Caucasians include lower disease awareness and health-seeking behavior, delayed diagnosis due to atypical presentation and language barriers, and religious and sociocultural factors. All these factors result in poorer prevention, less aggressive therapy, poorer response to medical and surgical interventions, and higher morbidity and mortality in the former. Finally, differences in response to pharmacological agents may exist between South Asians and White Caucasians, although these have been inadequately studied. In view of these data, prevention and management strategies should be more

  7. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  8. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition. PMID:24010741

  9. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  10. Sleep and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Beccuti, Guglielmo; Pannain, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking decreased sleep duration and poor sleep quality to obesity, focusing upon studies in adults. Recent findings Published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies suggest that the worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1 in 10 adults was obese, with women more likely to be obese than men. This obesity epidemic has been paralleled by a trend of reduced sleep duration. Poor sleep quality, which leads to overall sleep loss has also become a frequent complaint. Growing evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies points to short sleep duration and poor sleep quality as new risk factors for the development of obesity. Summary Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism and sleep loss has been shown to result in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. Recent epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirm previous findings of an association between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity. PMID:21659802

  11. HLA ASSOCIATIONS IN OBESE WHITE AND BLACK ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Walton, Dominique; Zhu, Weitong; Niblack, Gary

    2016-01-01

    We summarized HLA-A and -B data from 1095 black and white adult men and women with or without obesity to determine if specific HLA tissue types are overrepresented in obese individuals compared with nonobese. None of the three HLA types (Aw30, B18, Bw35) previously reported to relate to obesity was overrepresented in obese subjects in our study. However, B14 and B41 haplotypes were overrepresented in obese white men compared with nonobese men, and B7 was overrepresented in obese black men compared with nonobese men. Additional research will be required to confirm the HLA associations we found and to determine if methodologic differences could account for the differences among the previous studies.

  12. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  13. What is Obesity Doing to Your Gut?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Abnormal cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the obese host seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis, but more studies are needed. PMID:25892944

  14. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87 years. It was registered the patients’ weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm) and SAD (cm), and these parameters were correlated with glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and blood pressure. Results After adjustment for gender and age, it was observed a positive correlation between SAD and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.20), glycemia (r = 0.20), triglycerides (r = 0.32), LDL (r = 0.26), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.33), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.21) (p < 0.05). It was observed a positive correlation between WC and systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.14), triglycerides (r = 0.31), total cholesterol (r = 0.21), and a negative correlation with HDL-c (r = −0.24) (p < 0.05). BMI showed a positive correlation with systolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.22), total cholesterol (r = 0.20), and triglycerides (r = 0.23) (p < 0.05). Conclusion SAD correlated with almost all the cardiovascular risk factors analyzed and it might be considered the best predictor of abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23856008

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  17. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  19. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  20. Association of weight regain with specific methylation levels in the NPY and POMC promoters in leukocytes of obese men: a translational study.

    PubMed

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Campion, Javier; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Milagro, Fermin I; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Abete, Itziar; Casanueva, Felipe F; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-09-10

    Specific methylation of appetite-related genes in leukocytes could serve as a useful biomarker to predict weight regain after an energy restriction program. We aimed to evaluate whether the pre-intervention DNA methylation patterns involved in the epigenetic control of appetite-regulatory genes in leukocytes are associated with the weight regain process. Eighteen men who lost ≥5% of body weight after an 8-week nutritional intervention were categorized as "regainers" (≥10% weight regain) and "non-regainers" (<10% weight regain) 32weeks after stopping dieting. At baseline, leukocytes were isolated and DNA was analyzed for epigenetic methylation patterns of appetite-related gene promoters by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Regainers showed higher methylation levels than non-regainers in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) CpG sites +136bp and +138bp (fold change from non-regainers=26%; p=0.020) and lower methylation of the whole analyzed region of neuropeptide Y (NPY; fold change from non-regainers=-22%; p=0.033), as well as of several individual NPY-promoter CpG sites. Importantly, total baseline NPY methylation was associated with weight-loss regain (r=-0.76; p<0.001), baseline plasma ghrelin levels (r=0.60; p=0.011) and leptin/ghrelin ratio (r=-0.52; p=0.046). Lower methylation levels of POMC CpG sites +136bp and +138bp were associated with success in weight-loss maintenance (odds ratio=0.042 [95% CI 0.01-0.57]; p=0.018), whereas lower total methylation levels in NPY promoter were associated with higher risk of weight regain (odds ratio=14.0 [95% CI 1.13-172]; p=0.039). Therefore, the study of leukocyte methylation levels reflects a putative epigenetic regulation of NPY and POMC, which might be implicated in the weight regain process and be used as biomarkers for predicting weight regain after dieting. PMID:23831408

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  2. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35 kg/m2 (N = 114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p < 0.005 for each). After adjusting for age and gender, the obese patients were more likely to have upper GI symptoms: any oral symptom (OR = 2.3, p = 0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p = 0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR = 1.7, p = 0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR = 2.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These observations suggest a statistically significant increase in frequency of both upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

  3. CT-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Infected Collections Due to Gastric Leak After Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kelogrigoris, M. Sotiropoulou, E.; Stathopoulos, K.; Georgiadou, V.; Philippousis, P.; Thanos, L.

    2011-06-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage in treating infected collections due to gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. From January 2007 to June 2009, 21 patients (9 men and 12 women; mean age, 39.2 (range, 26-52) years) with infected collections due to gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity underwent image-guided percutaneous drainage. All procedures were performed using CT guidance and 8- to 12-Fr pigtail drainage catheters. Immediate technical success was achieved in all 21 infected collections. In 18 of 21 collections, we obtained progressive shrinkage of the collection with consequent clinical success (success rate 86%). In three cases, the abdominal fluid collection was not resolved, and the patients were reoperated. Among the 18 patients who avoided surgery, 2 needed replacement of the catheter due to obstruction. No major complications occurred during the procedure. The results of our study support that CT-guided percutaneous drainage is an effective and safe method to treat infected abdominal fluid collections due to gastric leak in patients who had previously underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. It may be considered both as a preparatory step for surgery and a valuable alternative to open surgery. Failure of the procedure does not, however, preclude a subsequent surgical operation.

  4. Obesity, employment and wages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jaume; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between obesity, employment status and wages for several European countries. Our results provide weak evidence that obese workers are more likely to be unemployed or tend to be more segregated in self-employment jobs than their non-obese counterparts. We also find difficult to detect statistically significant relationships between obesity and wages. As previously reported in the literature, the associations between obesity, unemployment and wages seem to be different for men and women. Moreover, heterogeneity is also found across countries. Such heterogeneity can be somewhat explained by some labor market institutions, such as collective bargaining coverage and employer-provided health insurance. PMID:19548553

  5. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression. PMID:26650060

  6. Obesity and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kunal; Karssiens, Timothy; Kumar, Vijay; Pandit, Hemant

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date review of obesity and lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). OA is a major global cause of disability, with the knee being the most frequently affected joint. There is a proven association between obesity and knee OA, and obesity is suggested to be the main modifiable risk factor. Obese patients (Body Mass Index, BMI, over 30kg/m(2)) are more likely to require total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The global prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980; by 2025, 47% of UK men and 36% of women are forecast to be obese. This rising global burden is a key factor in the growing rise in the use of TKA. It is therefore important to appreciate the outcomes of surgery in patients with end-stage OA and a high BMI. This review found that while OA is felt to contribute to weight gain, it is unclear whether TKA facilitates weight reduction. Surgery in obese patients is more technically challenging. This is reflected in the evidence, which suggests higher rates of short- to medium-term complications following TKA, including wound infection and medical complications, resulting in longer hospital stay, and potentially higher rates of malalignment, dislocation, and early revision. However, despite slower initial recovery and possibly lower functional scores and implant survival in the longer term, obese patients can still benefit from TKA in terms of improved function, quality of life and satisfaction. In conclusion, despite higher risks and more uncertain outcomes of surgery, higher BMI in itself should not be a contraindication to TKA; instead, each patient's individual circumstances should be considered. PMID:27180156

  7. Financial hardship and obesity.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan L; Smith, Julie K

    2014-12-01

    There is a substantial correlation between household debt and health. Individuals with less healthy lifestyles are more likely to hold debt, yet there is little evidence as to whether this is merely a correlation or if financial hardship actually causes obesity. In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to test whether financial hardship affects body weight. We divide our sample into two groups: men and women, explore two different types of financial hardship: holding credit card debt and having trouble paying bills, and three outcomes: overweight, obese and body mass index (BMI). We use a variety of econometric techniques: Ordinary Least Squares, Propensity Score Matching, Sibling Fixed Effects, and Instrumental Variables to investigate the relationship that exists between financial hardship and body weight. In addition, we conduct several robustness checks. Although our OLS and PSM results indicate a correlation between financial hardship and body weight these results appear to be largely driven by unobservables. Our IV results suggest that there is no causal relationship between credit card debt and overweight or obesity for either men or women. However, we find suggestive evidence that having trouble paying bills may be a cause of obesity for women. PMID:24411309

  8. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  9. Fitness, adiposopathy, and adiposity are independent predictors of insulin sensitivity in middle-aged men without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huth, Claire; Pigeon, Étienne; Riou, Marie-Ève; St-Onge, Josée; Arguin, Hélène; Couillard, Erick; Dubois, Marie-Julie; Marette, André; Tremblay, Angelo; Weisnagel, S John; Lacaille, Michel; Mauriège, Pascale; Joanisse, Denis R

    2016-09-01

    Adiposopathy, or sick fat, refers to adipose tissue dysfunction that can lead to several complications such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The relative contribution of adiposopathy in predicting insulin resistance remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between adiposopathy, as assessed as a low plasma adiponectin/leptin ratio, with anthropometry, body composition (hydrostatic weighing), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), inflammation, and fitness level (ergocycle VO2max, mL/kgFFM/min) in 53 men (aged 34-53 years) from four groups: sedentary controls without obesity (body mass index [BMI] <25 kg/m(2)), sedentary with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)), sedentary with obesity and glucose intolerance, and endurance trained active without obesity. The adiponectin/leptin ratio was the highest in trained men (4.75 ± 0.82) and the lowest in glucose intolerant subjects with obesity (0.27 ± 0.06; ANOVA p < 0.0001) indicating increased adiposopathy in those with obesity. The ratio was negatively associated with adiposity (e.g., waist circumference, r = -0.59, p < 0.01) and positively associated with VO2max (r = 0.67, p < 0.01) and insulin sensitivity (M/I, r = 0.73, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis revealed fitness as the strongest independent predictor of insulin sensitivity (partial R (2) = 0.61). While adiposopathy was also an independent and significant contributor (partial R (2) = 0.10), waist circumference added little power to the model (partial R (2) = 0.024). All three variables remained significant independent predictors when trained subjects were excluded from the model. Plasma lipids were not retained in the model. We conclude that low fitness, adiposopathy, as well as adiposity (and in particular abdominal obesity) are independent contributors to insulin resistance in men without diabetes. PMID:27139423

  10. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  11. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  12. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  13. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  14. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  15. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  17. Time to tackle obesity.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Obesity has been described by the WHO as a global epidemic. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2 and it is estimated that almost a quarter of the population of England are obese. Lighten Up was a randomised controlled trial that studied 740 obese or overweight men and women identified from GP records in a primary care trust in Birmingham. The study compared a range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity. The commercial weight management programmes were more effective and cheaper than the primary care based services studied. The authors calculated that patients lost an average of 1.3 kg/m2 with the most effective intervention which if maintained gives a crude cost per life year saved of 77 pound sterling. This would indicate that providing commercial weight loss programmes as an NHS funded service is a potentially cost-effective intervention. PMID:22272525

  18. Obesity in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Ulriksen, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore obese patients' experiences with GPs' management of their weight problems. Methods Focus-group study with a purposive sample of 13 participants (eight women and five men), aged 30–55 years, with BMI above 40, or BMI above 35 with additional weight-related problems. Two focus-group interviews were conducted, inviting the participants to speak about their health care experiences from general practice. Analysis applied Systematic Text Condensation inspired by Giorgi's approach, searching for issues describing or discussing participants' experiences of GPs' obesity management. Results Obese patients want their GPs to put their weight problems on the agenda. When the patient appears reluctant, it may be a sign of embarrassment rather than rejection of the issue. However, restricted attention to obesity could lead to neglect of patients' problems. Participants complained that GPs often demonstrated insufficient engagement and knowledge regarding service resources for obesity treatment, leaving the responsibility for information on available referral resources to the patient. Finally, considerate attitudes in the GPs are needed for follow-up to be experienced as helpful by the patients. Vulnerable feelings of failure could be reinforced by well-intended advice. Degrading attitudes were perceived as especially subversive when they came from doctors. Conclusions The challenge for the GP is to increase his or her competence in individualized and evidence-based counselling, while acknowledging the efforts needed by the patient to achieve permanent change, and shifting attention from shame to coping. PMID:20942741

  19. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  20. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  1. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  2. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  3. Obesity management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

  4. Weight Loss Alone Improves Conduit and Resistance Artery Endothelial Function in Young and Older Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Beske, Stacy D.; Lawson, Brooke R.; Southall, Kara L.; Benay, Francoise J.; Donato, Anthony J.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by impaired endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). Presently there is no direct evidence that energy intake restricted weight loss alone improves conduit or resistance artery EDD, the mechanisms involved, or if improvements differ with patient age. A total of 40 overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 25<40 kg/m2) non-diabetic men and women aged 21–69 years completed 12 weeks of reduced energy intake (n=26, 15M) or attention control (n=14, 9M) and 4 weeks of weight maintenance (randomized trial). Energy intake restriction reduced estimated total energy intake (33%), body weight (10.5%), total and abdominal body fat, plasma leptin, oxidized LDL, and improved some metabolic risk factors. Brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) was increased by 30% (6.0 ± 0.7 vs. 7.9 ± 0.7 % Δ, P=0.01, n=17). Peak forearm blood flow during intra-brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine was increased by 26% (16.8 ± 1.4 vs. 21.1± 1.9 ml/100ml/min, P<0.05, n=15); this was inversely related to the reduction in abdominal visceral:subcutaneous fat ratio (r=−0.46, P<0.05) and was abolished by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with Ng-monomethyl L-arginine. Improvements in EDD were not related to age: mean increases in subjects >50 years were similar to or greater than those <50. Energy intake restricted weight loss alone is an effective intervention for improving peripheral conduit and resistance artery endothelial function in young and older overweight/obese adults. The improvements in resistance artery function are mediated by an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability and are related to reductions in abdominal visceral fat. PMID:18504322

  5. Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

  6. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  7. Acute Abdominal Pain in the Bariatric Surgery Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle D; Takenaka, Katrin Y; Luber, Samuel D

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is present in epidemic proportions in the United States, and bariatric surgery has become more common. Thus, emergency physicians will undoubtedly encounter many patients who have undergone one of these procedures. Knowledge of the anatomic changes specific to these procedures aids the clinician in understanding potential complications and devising an organized differential diagnosis. This article reviews common bariatric surgery procedures, their complications, and the approach to acute abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:27133251

  8. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  9. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  10. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. PMID:23970905

  11. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  12. Mineralocorticoid Receptors Modulate Vascular Endothelial Function in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity increases linearly with age and is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) contribute to impaired vascular endothelial function in cardiovascular disease; however, their role in uncomplicated human obesity is unknown. Because plasma aldosterone levels are elevated in obesity and adipocytes may be a source of aldosterone, we hypothesized that MR modulate vascular endothelial function in older adults in an adiposity-dependent manner. To test this hypothesis, we administered MR blockade (Eplerenone; 100 mg/day) for 1 month in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to 22 older adults (10 men, 55–79 years) varying widely in adiposity (body mass index: 20–45 kg/m2) but who were free from overt cardiovascular disease. We evaluated vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD] via ultrasonography) and oxidative stress (plasma F2-isoprostanes and vascular endothelial cell protein expression of nitrotyrosine and NADPH oxidase p47phox) during placebo and MR blockade. In the whole group, oxidative stress (P>0.05) and FMD did not change with MR blockade (6.39±0.67 vs. 6.23±0.73 %, P=0.7, placebo vs. Eplerenone). However, individual improvements in FMD in response to Eplerenone were associated with higher total body fat (body mass index: r=0.45, P=0.02 and DXA-derived % body fat: r=0.50, P=0.009) and abdominal fat (total: r=0.61, P=0.005, visceral: r=0.67, P=0.002 and subcutaneous: r=0.48, P=0.03). In addition, greater improvements in FMD with Eplerenone were related with higher baseline fasting glucose (r=0.53, P=0.01). MR influence vascular endothelial function in an adiposity-dependent manner in healthy older adults. PMID:23786536

  13. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  14. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381

  15. [The social stigma of obesity].

    PubMed

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition. PMID:25329415

  16. Effects of an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention consisting of caloric restriction with or without physical activity on common carotid artery remodeling in severely obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer N.; Columbus, Mindy L.; Shields, Kelly J.; Asubonteng, Julius; Meyer, Michelle L.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Goodpaster, Bret H.; DeLany, James P.; Jakicic, John M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and adversely affects vascular structure and function. Few studies have evaluated the vascular effects of non-surgical weight reduction in the severely obese. We hypothesized that weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic factors would reduce common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (AD) in severely obese adults. Methods We performed carotid ultrasound and measured cardiometabolic factors in 90 severely obese participants (body mass index (BMI)≥35 kg/m2, age 30–55) at baseline and 6 months in a randomized clinical trial of dietary intervention with (n=45) or without (n=45) physical activity. Results The achieved weight loss (mean=8%) did not differ significantly by intervention group (P=0.10) and resulted in a 0.07 mm mean decrease in AD (P=0.001). AD change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and body fat mass, and AD decreased more in men (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, changes in BMI (P=0.03) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (P=0.04) were significant determinants of AD change. Although CIMT did not decrease significantly overall (−0.008 mm, P=0.16), individuals who lost at least 5% of their body weight experienced a significant mean reduction in CIMT of 0.02 mm (P=0.002). CIMT change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, fat-free mass, leptin, and insulin (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, insulin reduction remained a significant determinant of CIMT decrease (P=0.03). Conclusion A6 month intensive behavioral intervention can significantly reverse metabolic and vascular abnormalities in severely obese adults. PMID:22579053

  17. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  18. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  19. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  20. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  1. 2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Overweight and Obesity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kang, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Bom Taeck; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Eun Mi; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Kyu Rae; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Seon Yeong; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Chang Beom; Chung, Sochung; Jeong, In Kyung; Hur, Kyung Yul

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities are major health concerns in Korea. Obesity is defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in Korea. Current estimates are that 32.8% of adults are obese: 36.1% of men and 29.7% of women. The prevalence of being overweight and obese in national surveys is increasing steadily. Early detection and the proper management of obesity are urgently needed. Weight loss of 5% to 10% is the standard goal. In obese patients, control of cardiovascular risk factors deserves the same emphasis as weight-loss therapy. Since obesity is multifactorial, proper care of obesity requires a coordinated multidisciplinary treatment team, as a single intervention is unlikely to modify the incidence or natural history of obesity. PMID:25559568

  2. 2014 clinical practice guidelines for overweight and obesity in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Lee, Won Young; Kang, Jae Heon; Kang, Jee Hyun; Kim, Bom Taeck; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Eun Mi; Suh, Sang Hoon; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Kyu Rae; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Seon Yeong; Lee, Seong Kyu; Lee, Chang Beom; Chung, Sochung; Jeong, In Kyung; Hur, Kyung Yul; Kim, Sung Soo; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2014-12-29

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities are major health concerns in Korea. Obesity is defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m² in Korea. Current estimates are that 32.8% of adults are obese: 36.1% of men and 29.7% of women. The prevalence of being overweight and obese in national surveys is increasing steadily. Early detection and the proper management of obesity are urgently needed. Weight loss of 5% to 10% is the standard goal. In obese patients, control of cardiovascular risk factors deserves the same emphasis as weight-loss therapy. Since obesity is multifactorial, proper care of obesity requires a coordinated multidisciplinary treatment team, as a single intervention is unlikely to modify the incidence or natural history of obesity. PMID:25559568

  3. Obesity Statistics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic. PMID:26896205

  4. Obesity and kidney disease: Beyond the hyperfiltration.

    PubMed

    Mascali, A; Franzese, O; Nisticò, S; Campia, U; Lauro, D; Cardillo, C; Di Daniele, N; Tesauro, M

    2016-09-01

    In industrialized countries, overweight and obesity account for approximately 13.8% and 24.9% of the kidney disease observed in men and women, respectively. Moreover, obesity-associated glomerulopathy is now considered as "an emerging epidemic." Kidney function can be negatively impacted by obesity through several mechanisms, either direct or indirect. While it is well established that obesity represents the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, awareness that obesity is associated with direct kidney damage independently of hypertension and diabetes is still not widespread. In this paper we will discuss the emerging role of adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral depot, in obesity-induced chronic kidney damage. PMID:27044633

  5. The brain's supply and demand in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

    2012-01-01

    During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as “cerebral insulin suppression” (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy—particularly glucose—is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. PMID:22408618

  6. The effect of abdominal fat parameters on percutaneous nephrolithotomy success

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cimen, Sertac; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Oztekin, Ozgur; Can, Ertan; Suelozgen, Tufan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity has been suggested to lower the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, the relationship between abdominal fat parameters, such as visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and PCNL success remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal fat parameters on PCNL success. Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent PCNL were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who had no residual stones or residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter while group 2 included patients with residual stone fragments ≥3 mm. PCNL procedure was defined as successful if all stones were eliminated or if there were residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed postoperatively. Preoperative NCCT was used to determine abdominal fat parameters. Results: Group 1 consisted of 117 (78.0%) patients while group 2 included 33 (22.0%) patients. On univariate analysis, stone number, stone surface area (SSA), visceral fat area (VFA), abdominal circumference on computerized tomography (ACCT), and duration of procedure were found to be predictive factors affecting PCNL success. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ACCT and SSA were independent prognostic factors for PCNL success. Conclusions: PCNL success was not affected by VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and body mass index (BMI) in our series. However, ACCT and SSA had negative associations with PCNL success. We conclude that both ACCT and SSA can be used as tools for predicting PCNL outcomes. PMID:27330587

  7. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  8. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  9. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  10. Men's Role and Men's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, James B.

    1978-01-01

    The growing literature on men is clearly a response to the cultural ferment generated by feminism. However, as in the discussion of women's lives since the first advent of feminism, centuries of assumptions do not give way readily to appropriate scientific skepticism. (Author/MC)

  11. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  12. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  13. Effects of different types of contraction in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478

  14. Contribution of body fatness and adipose tissue distribution to the age variation in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Gagnon, J; Bergeron, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men. Older men present an altered steroid hormone profile compared to younger individuals, and an increase in body fatness and changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution are noted with advancing age. Thus, there is a need to examine the relative importance of increased body fatness and changes in AT distribution with advancing age to plasma steroid hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in men. We, therefore, investigated the relationships among age, body fatness, AT distribution, and the plasma steroid hormone profile in a group of 217 Caucasian men (mean age +/- SD, 36.2 +/- 14.9 yr) who covered a wide age range (17-64 yr). Compared to young adult men, older men were characterized by increased adiposity (P < 0.0001) expressed either as body mass index or total body fat mass assessed by underwater weighing. Differences in AT distribution were also noted with a preferential accumulation of abdominal fat as indicated by a larger waist girth (P < 0.0001) and higher visceral AT accumulation (P < 0.0001), measured by computed tomography, in older subjects. Age was associated with decreases (P < 0.0001) in C19 adrenal steroid levels, namely reduced dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA fatty acid ester, DHEA sulfate, as well as androstenedione levels. Androgens, i.e. dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, were also affected by age, with lower levels of both steroids being found in older individuals (P < 0.0005). When statistical adjustment for body fatness and AT distribution was performed, differences in C19 adrenal steroids between the age groups remained significant, whereas differences in androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were no longer significant. The present study suggests that age-related differences in plasma steroid hormone levels, especially androgens, are partly mediated by concomitant variation in adiposity in men. PMID:10720034

  15. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominalPa in inCh ildre n What is functional abdominal pain, and why does it happen? Most otherwise-healthy ... stomachaches for two months or more have functional abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that ...

  17. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

  18. Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys; Gollhofer, Albert; Büchert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. PMID:26633473

  19. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men.The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008).Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  20. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  1. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ biologic mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2013-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. We aimed to review the experience of a large healthcare organization with Permacol™. A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent abdominal hernia repair with Permacol™ in 14 Southern California hospitals. One hundred ninety-five patients were analyzed over a 4-year period. Operations included ventral/incisional hernia repairs, ostomy closures, parastomal hernia repairs, and inguinal hernia repairs. In 50 per cent of the patients, Permacol™ was used to reinforce a primary fascial repair and in 50 per cent as a fascial bridge. The overall complication rate was 39.5 per cent. The complication rate was higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds, body mass index (BMI) 40 kg/m(2) or greater versus BMI less than 40 kg/m(2), in patients with prior mesh repair, and when mesh was used as a fascial bridge. With a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, morbid obesity was associated with a higher recurrence. To date this is the largest study on the use of Permacol™ in abdominal wall hernia repair. In our patient population undergoing heterogeneous operations with a majority of wounds as Class II or higher, use of Permacol™ did not eliminate wound morbidity or prevent recurrence, especially in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24160785

  2. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  3. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. Methods We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Results Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05) and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05). Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men. Conclusions Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs. PMID:27442250

  4. An In-depth Study of Abdominal Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Lenard, James; Compigne, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Currently, neither abdominal injury risk nor rear seat passenger safety is assessed in European frontal crash testing. The objective of this study was to provide real world in-depth analysis of the factors related to abdominal injury for belted front and rear seat occupants in frontal crashes. Rear occupants were significantly more at risk of AIS 2+ and 3+ abdominal injury, followed by front seat passengers and then drivers. This was still the case even after controlling for occupant age. Increasing age was separately identified as a factor related to increased abdominal injury risk in all seating positions. One exception to this trend concerned rear seated 15 to 19 year olds who sustained moderate to serious abdominal injury at almost the same rate as rear occupants aged 65+.No strong association was seen between AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates and gender. The majority of occupant body mass indices ranged from underweight to obese. Across that range, the AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates were very similar but a small number of very obese and extremely obese occupants outside of the range did exhibit noticeably higher rates. An analysis of variance in the rate of AIS 2+ abdominal injury with different restraint systems showed that simple belt systems, as used by most rear seat passengers, were the least protective. Increasing sophistication of the restraint system was related to lower rates of injury. The ANOVA also confirmed occupant age and crash severity as highly associated with abdominal injury risk. The most frequently injured abdominal organs for front seat occupants were the liver and spleen. Abdominal injury patterns for rear seat passengers were very different. While they also sustained significant injuries to solid organs, their rates of injury to the hollow organs (jejunum-ileum, mesentary, colon) were far higher even though the rate of fracture of two or more ribs did not differ significantly between seat positions. These results have implications for the

  5. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    PubMed Central

    Parikesit, Dyandra; Mochtar, Chaidir Arief; Umbas, Rainy; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. PMID:27014656

  6. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases.

    PubMed

    Parikesit, Dyandra; Mochtar, Chaidir Arief; Umbas, Rainy; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. PMID:27014656

  7. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H

    2008-01-01

    The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732

  8. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as <1, 1–3, and >3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming <1 serving/wk of nuts, those consuming >3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  9. Gender Differences in Assessment of Obesity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    PKatz, Patricia; Yazdany, Jinoos; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Garbriela; Margaretten, Mary; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Yelin, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine prevalence of obesity and how accurately standard anthropometric measures identify obesity among men and women with RA. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed for 141 persons with RA (56 men, 85 women). Two anthropometric proxies of obesity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]) were compared to a DXA-based obesity criterion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined optimal cut-points for each anthropometric measure, relative to DXA. Association of body fat and anthropometric obesity measures with disease status and cardiovascular risk was assessed in multiple regression analyses, controlling for age and glucocorticoid use. All analyses were performed separately for men and women. Results 20%, 32%, and 44% of women, and 41%, 36%, and 80% of men were classified as obese by BMI, WC, and DXA, respectively. Cut-points were identified for anthropometric measures to better approximate DXA estimates of percent body fat (BMI: women, ≥26.1 kg/m2; men ≥24.7 kg/m2. WC: women, ≥83 cm; men, ≥96 cm). For women and men, higher % fat was associated with poorer RA status. Anthropometric measures were more closely linked to RA status for women, but identified cardiovascular risk for both women and men. Conclusions A large percentage of this RA sample was overfat; DXA-defined obesity was twice as common in men than in women. Utility of revised BMI and WC cut-points compared to traditional cut-points remains to be examined in prospective studies, but results suggest that lower, sex-specific cut-points may be warrented to better identify individuals at risk for poor RA and/or cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:22833513

  10. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Junior, Mário Maciel; Bezerra, Emanuel Araújo; Ticianeli, José Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and identify socioeconomic factors contributing to the risk. Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study. Physical examination and questionnaire survey were conducted on the participants. Results: Of the 598 participants (average age = 55.38 ± 10.77 years), 346 completed all the examinations and answered the survey, while 252 completed the survey and the physical examinations but did not undertake the laboratory tests. A large proportion of participants were overweight (42.6%) or obese (23.6%), 14.5% were hypertensive, and 71.9% were prehypertensive. Consumption of red meat and junk food was high, while participation in the exercise was low. Framingham scores ranged from −3 to 13 (mean score: 3.86 ± 3.16). A total of 204 participants (34.1%) had a low risk of cardiovascular disease, 98 (16.4%) had a medium risk, and 44 (7.4%) possessed high risk. Increased abdominal circumference (P = 0.013), resting pulse (P = 0.002), and prostate-specific antigen levels (P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Our study highlights a worrying trend in increasing obesity and hypertension, most likely associated with increasingly poor diet and reduced participation in exercises. As the Brazilian population ages, this will drive increasing rates of cardiovascular mortality unless these trends are reversed. This study suggests that such campaigns should focus on men over the age of 40, who are married or divorced and of

  11. Obesity and Cecal Intubation Time

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Goyal, Abhinav; Uribe, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obesity is a much-debated factor with conflicting evidence regarding its association with cecum intubation rates during colonoscopy. We aimed to identify the association between cecal intubation (CI) time and obesity by eliminating confounding factors. Methods: A retrospective chart review of subjects undergoing outpatient colonoscopy was conducted. The population was categorized by sex and obesity (body mass index [BMI, kg/m2]: I, <24.9; II, 25 to 29.9; III, ≥30). CI time was used as a marker for a difficult colonoscopy. Mean CI times (MCT) were compared for statistical significance using analysis of variance tests. Results: A total of 926 subjects were included. Overall MCT was 15.7±7.9 minutes, and it was 15.9±7.9 and 15.5±7.9 minutes for men and women, respectively. MCT among women for BMI category I, II, and III was 14.4±6.5, 15.5±8.3, and 16.2±8.1 minutes (p=0.55), whereas for men, it was 16.3±8.9, 15.9±8.0, and 15.6±7.2 minutes (p=0.95), respectively. Conclusions: BMI had a positive association with CI time for women, but had a negative association with CI for men. PMID:26867549

  12. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  13. Perception of attractiveness by obesity and hair color.

    PubMed

    Clayson, D E; Klassen, M L

    1989-02-01

    In a study of 318 Caucasian college students, obese persons and redheaded men were seen as unattractive compared to the nonobese and other hair colors. The obesity stereotype and the hair-color stereotype appear to be evaluated separately with little interaction. The results imply that a stereotypic characteristic like obesity, which is perceived as being under a person's control, may be evaluated differently than a stereotypic characteristic independent of personal choice such as hair color. PMID:2928047

  14. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  15. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  16. Micromanaging abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  17. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  18. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  19. [Single central obesity and combined with overweight/obesity in preeschool Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana Maria; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Alvaro; González-Guajardo, Eduardo Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a useful measure for identifying children at higher risk of complications related with abdominal fat. We determined the magnitude of central adiposity, single and combined with overweight and obesity in infants 1-5 years old. We also identified smoothed age-and sex-specific WC percentile values, which were compared with other countries available data. This was a cross-sectional study in children of 8 day care centers located in Monterrey, Mexico (n = 903, 431 boys and 472 girls). Because the risk due to abdominal obesity begins at WC percentile > or = 75, we considered two thresholds, percentile 75 y 90. Overweight was defined based on body mass index at percentile 85-94 for age and sex; and obesity, at percentile > or = 95. Analysis consisted of point prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. The LMS Chart Maker Light software was used for smoothing WC percentile values. The study population mean age was 2.7 +/- 1.0 years. Mexican children's WC was 1 cm above that of Afro-American; and it was up to 4 cm below that Mexican-American. Prevalence of central obesity with WC at percentile 75 combined with overweight/obesity was 25.1% (95% CI 22.3-28.0) and single, 15.4% (95 CI% 13.0-17.8). Prevalence of single abdominal obesity with WC at percentile > or = 90 was 4.4% (IC 95% 3.0, 5.8). Day care centers represent a key opportunity for defying central obesity. WC can be used since early age for screening and caring children at higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:24020252

  20. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  1. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  2. Effects of Genetic Loci Associated with Central Obesity on Adipocyte Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J.; Laumen, Helmut; Hamsten, Anders; Breier, Michaela; Grallert, Harald; Hauner, Hans; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Numerous genetic loci have been associated with measures of central fat accumulation, such as waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). However the mechanisms by which genetic variations influence obesity remain largely elusive. Lipolysis is a key process for regulation of lipid storage in adipocytes, thus is implicated in obesity and its metabolic complications. Here, genetic variants at 36 WHRadjBMI-associated loci were examined for their influence on abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis. Subjects and Methods Fasting subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 789 volunteers (587 women and 202 men, body mass index (BMI) range 17.7–62.3 kg/m2). We quantified subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis, both spontaneous and stimulated by the catecholamine isoprenaline or a cyclic AMP analogue. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and genotyping of SNPs associated with WHRadjBMI conducted. The effects on adipocyte lipolysis measures were assessed for SNPs individually and combined in a SNP score. Results The WHRadjBMI-associated loci CMIP, PLXND1, VEGFA and ZNRF3-KREMEN1 demonstrated nominal associations with spontaneous and/or stimulated lipolysis. Candidate genes in these loci have been reported to influence NFκB-signaling, fat cell size and Wnt signalling, all of which may influence lipolysis. Significance This report provides evidence for specific WHRadjBMI-associated loci as candidates to modulate adipocyte lipolysis. Additionally, our data suggests that genetically increased central fat accumulation is unlikely to be a major cause of altered lipolysis in abdominal adipocytes. PMID:27104953

  3. Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea. Methods We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale. Results In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women. Conclusion Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25922808

  4. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  5. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  6. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  7. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on

  8. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  9. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  10. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  11. Relationship between the Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Bioelements in Aging Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Iwona; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Safranow, Krzysztof; Lubkowska, Anna; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals may exacerbate metabolic syndrome (MS) but abnormal serum concentrations of bioelements may also co-exist with MS. The primary aim of the study was to assess the relationship of blood heavy metal and bioelement concentrations and MS, in men aged 50–75 years. Heavy metals—lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), tungsten (W), Macroelements—magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), and microelements—iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), abdominal circumference (AC) and blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TCh), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment—Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The men with MS showed statistically significant higher Zn and lower Mg concentrations. Those with diabetes had higher Ca concentration and lower Mg concentration. Cr and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in obese men. The participants with hypertension had lower Mg concentration. We found statistically significant positive correlations (W-TCh, W-LDL, Mg-TCh, Mg-LDL, Ca-TCh, Ca-LDL, Ca-insulin, Ca-HOMAR-IR, Zn-TG, Zn-insulin, Zn-HOMA-IR, Cu-BP systolic, Mn-BMI, Mn-AC, Mn-WHR, Mn-insulin, Mn-HOMA-IR, Se-TCh, Se-LDL, Se-TG, Se-insulin, Se-HOMA-IR, Cr-TCh, Cr-HDL, Cr-LDL, Cr-TG) and negative correlations (Cd-insulin, Hg-WHR, W-insulin, W-HOMA-IR, Mg-BMI, Mg-AC, Mg-WHR, Mg-BP systolic, Mo-insulin, Mn-HDL). Tungsten may contribute to lipid disorders. Magnesium appears to play the protective role in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. Microelements Mn, Cr and Se may intensify MS. PMID:25867198

  12. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  13. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  14. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  15. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  16. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  17. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity. PMID:23885012

  18. Alcohol, smoking, and obesity epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-03-01

    The health impact of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and obesity differs between Asian and Western countries. The epidemiology of cancer and death related to these lifestyles are described in this article. In Japan, heavy alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are rather high in men. While there is a worldwide anti-smoking policy, Japan is still on the way to aiming at this goal, and this delay in health promotion has maintained the high impact of smoking, whether active or passive, on people's health in that country. Public health policy should focus more strongly on the control of smoking and heavy drinking, especially among men. Maintaining the consumption of alcohol at a level below 46 g a day in men and 23 g a day in women appears to minimize the risks of mortality and cancer in the Japanese population. On the other hand, the obesity rate is low and being underweight is common both in men and women. Proportions of cancer attributable to a body mass index of 25 or more are only 0.5% in men and 1.1% in women. Given that many previous studies in Japanese and Asian populations have associated a low body mass index with an increased risk of cancer, the impact of being underweight--not only obese--may warrant further investigation. PMID:22320929

  19. Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Westerbacka, Jukka; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Vehkavaara, Satu; Häkkinen, Anna-Maija; Andrew, Ruth; Wake, Deborah J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R

    2003-10-01

    In Cushing's syndrome, cortisol causes fat accumulation in specific sites most likely to be associated with insulin resistance, notably in omental adipose and also perhaps in the liver. In idiopathic obesity, cortisol-metabolizing enzymes may play a key role in determining body fat distribution. Increased regeneration of cortisol from cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral fat accumulation, whereas decreased hepatic 11HSD1 may protect the liver from glucocorticoid excess. Increased inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases in the liver may drive compensatory activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hence increasing adrenal androgens and 'android' central obesity. This study aimed to examine relationships between these enzymes and detailed measurements of body fat distribution. Twenty-five healthy men (age, 22-57 yr; body mass index, 20.6-35.6 kg/m(2)) were recruited from occupational health services. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, and cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was measured in a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Cortisol metabolites were measured in a 24-h urine sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo hepatic 11HSD1 activity was measured by generation of plasma cortisol after an oral dose of cortisone. In vitro 11HSD1 activity and mRNA were measured in 18 subjects who consented to provide abdominal sc adipose biopsies. Indices of obesity (body mass index, whole-body percentage fat, waist/hip ratio) were associated with higher urinary excretion of 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced cortisol metabolites (for percentage fat, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and increased adipose 11HSD1 activity (P < 0.05). Liver fat accumulation was associated with a selective increase in

  20. The association between masked hypertension and waist circumference as an obesity-related anthropometric index for metabolic syndrome: the Ohasama study.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Sato, Atsushi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Mimura, Akira; Hayashi, Katsuhisa; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yasui, Daisaku; Kanno, Atsuhiro; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Satoh, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2009-06-01

    Masked hypertension has been proven to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct associations of obesity-related anthropometric indices, including waist circumference, with masked hypertension. Participants in this population-based survey included 395 residents (> or = 35 years) of Ohasama, a rural Japanese community. They measured blood pressure at home (HBP) and underwent an oral glucose-tolerance test. Participants were classified into four groups on the basis of their HBP and casual-screening blood pressure (CBP) values: sustained normotension, white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. The relationships between the obesity-related anthropometric indices and the four blood pressure groups were examined using multivariate analysis adjusted for confounding factors. The mean waist circumference in men was significantly higher in individuals with masked hypertension (87.3 cm) than in those with sustained normotension (81.0 cm) and white-coat hypertension (79.3 cm), whereas the mean waist circumference in women was significantly higher in individuals with sustained hypertension (79.5 cm) than in those with sustained normotension (75.0 cm). In the multivariate analysis, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio were significantly associated with masked hypertension, particularly in individuals with normal CBP. Our results suggest that HBP measurements might be particularly important in abdominally obese people for the early detection of masked hypertension. PMID:19390540

  1. Recommended Screenings for Men 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... and continue reading about other screenings. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm If you are between the ages of 65 ... care team about being screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). AAA is a bulging in your abdominal ...

  2. Adipose tissue remodeling in a novel domestic porcine model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Aditya S.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and characterize a novel domestic porcine model of obesity. Design and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were fed normal (lean, n=7) or high-fat/high-fructose diet (obese, n=7) for 16 weeks. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after 8, 12 and 16 weeks of diet, and pericardial adipose tissue after 16 weeks, for assessments of adipocyte size, fibrosis, and inflammation. Adipose tissue volume and cardiac function were studied with multi-detector computed-tomography, and oxygenation with magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma lipids profiles, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation were evaluated. Results Compared with lean, obese pigs had elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. Both abdominal and pericardial fat volume increased after 16 weeks of obese. In abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipocyte size and both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression progressively increased. Macrophage infiltration showed in both abdominal and pericardial adipose tissues. Circulating TNF-α increased in obese only at 16 weeks. Compared with Lean, obese pigs had similar global cardiac function, but myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were significantly impaired. Conclusion A high-fat/high-fructose diet induces in domestic pigs many characteristics of metabolic syndrome, which is useful to investigate the effects of the obesity. PMID:25627626

  3. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  4. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  5. [Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Bezsilla, János

    2010-10-01

    Repair of abdominal wall defects is a challenge for all general surgeons and a variety of methods have been described in the past. Traditionally, primary suture repair was shown to have a high recurrence rate in long-term follow-up studies. Herniorrhaphies that apply a large prosthetic mesh are appear to have a lower failure rate, but extensive dissection of soft tissue contributes to an increased incidence of wound infections and wound-related complications. The method of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair was developed in the early 1990s. This technique is based on the same physical and surgical principles as the open underlay procedure. The laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) technique and mesh materials were developed further in subsequent years, and there have been numerous reports on successful use of the IPOM technique even for extremely large hernia openings in obese and elderly patients. Reduced surgical trauma and lower infection and recurrence rates are key advantages of the minimally invasive repair. Therefore, this operation has increased in popularity promising shorter hospital stay, improved outcome, and fewer complications than traditional open procedures. PMID:20965866

  6. Sarcopenic obesity and endocrinal adaptation with age.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:23690769

  7. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample) control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF) programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention) comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion This study is designed

  8. Abdominal bloating: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, A Young; Kim, Nayoung; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  9. Abdominal pain with a twist

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Malrotation in children is due to either an incomplete or non-rotation of the foetal mid-gut during perinatal development. Presentation is usually in the first few weeks of life, often with life-threatening volvulus and ischaemia. However, it can be a rare cause of abdominal pain in older children and young adults. We present such a case, as a reminder to emergency physicians that malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or chronic abdominal pain not only in children but also in adolescents. PMID:21635723

  10. Ultrasonographic diagnosis in abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M; Moosa, I; Hussein, F M; Qurttom, M A; Behbehani, A I

    1999-05-01

    Sonographic findings were retrospectively analysed in 39 patients with proven abdominal tuberculosis (TB). The patients were treated over 15 years at a major teaching hospital, Mubarak Al-Kabber Hospital, in Kuwait. The findings included clear or complex ascites with fine strands, loculations and debris. The other findings were lymphadenopathy, bowel wall thickening, omental mass, focal lesions in the liver and spleen and psoas abscess. The sonographic findings in abdominal TB are not specific but may give valuable information to prevent unnecessary laparotomy. PMID:10901897

  11. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  12. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  13. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  14. Psychosocial factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, P

    1987-01-01

    Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

  15. The epidemiology and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Rosalyn D; Gallagher, Emily J; Scheinman, Eyal J; Damouni, Rawan; LeRoith, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity is associated with increasing rates of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have reported that these conditions are linked to increased rates of cancer incidence and mortality. Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and the development of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and ultimately type 2 diabetes. Although many metabolic abnormalities occur with obesity and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be central to these conditions and may contribute to dyslipidemia and altered levels of circulating estrogens and androgens. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological and molecular links between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, and how hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia may contribute to cancer development. We will discuss how these metabolic abnormalities may interact with estrogen signaling in breast cancer growth. Finally, we will discuss the effects of type 2 diabetes medications on cancer risk. PMID:23810003

  16. [Statement about diagnosis assessment ano non pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Manrique E, Mónica; de la Maza, María Pía; Carrasco, Fernando; Moreno, Manuel; Albala, Cecilia; García, Jaime; Díaz, Jaime; Liberman, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The risk of complications of obesity is proportional to body mass index and is higher in severe or morbid obesities and when abdominal or visceral fat is predominant. In Chile the prevalence of obesity is increasing. According to the World Health Organization, obese subjects must reduce at least a 5% of their weight to reduce the risk of complications. Although this amount of reduction is seldom achieved with non pharmacological treatments, better results are obtained with multidisciplinary/ approaches that include a medical, psychosocial and laboratory assessment, to determine obesity level and different factors involved and the associated complications. In a second stage, goals of treatment are set and a personalized treatment is designed including dietary changes and physical activity. The aim is to obtain perdurable lifestyles modifications. PMID:19802427

  17. Obesity Patterns among Women in a Slum Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Romero W.; Pinto, Renato A.; Correia, Jailson B.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour diet recall questionnaire, data were collected from 632 women aged 20-60 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29% and 17% respectively. Physical inactivity was found in 17% of the women; 12% of them had short stature, and 44% had energy intake below the recommended dietary allowance. Results of multiple logistic regression showed that overweight/obesity differed significantly (p<0.05) in the following aspects: abdominal circumference, energy intake, and short stature. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity was found in a very poor community associated with high-energy intake and short stature. PMID:21766564

  18. Are sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity predictive of outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastases?

    PubMed Central

    Lodewick, Toine M; van Nijnatten, Thiemo J A; van Dam, Ronald M; van Mierlo, Kim; Dello, Simon A W G; Neumann, Ulf P; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Dejong, Cornelis H C

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of body composition on outcomes after surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity on morbidity, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Method Between 2005 and 2012, all patients undergoing a partial liver resection for CRLM in the Maastricht University Medical Centre, and who underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging within 3 months before liver surgery, were included. Body composition was primarily based on pre-operative CT measurements. Sarcopenia was based on total muscle area at the level of the third lumbar vertebra and predefined body mass index (BMI)- and gender-specific cut-off values for sarcopenia were used. Body fat percentages were calculated and the top 40% for men and women were considered obese. Results Of the 171 included patients undergoing liver surgery for CRLM, 80 (46.8%) patients were sarcopenic, 69 (40.4%) obese and 49 (28.7%) sarcopenic obese. The presence of sarcopenia, obesity or sarcopenic obesity did not affect the complication rates. However, readmission rates were significantly increased in patients with (sarcopenic) obesity (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, obesity seemed to prolong OS (P = 0.021) and was identified as an independent predictor [hazard ratio (HR):0.58 and P = 0.046] for better OS. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity did not affect DFS or OS. Conclusion Sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity did not worsen DFS, OS and complication rates after a partial liver resection for CRLM. PMID:25512239

  19. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  20. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  1. Obesity and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G D; Herrinton, L J

    1994-09-01

    An exploratory study was conducted of common clinical conditions as predictors of subsequent cancer in 143,574 outpatients of a health maintenance organization (in California, USA). An association was noted between obesity, diagnosed in 14,388 patients, and the subsequent development of multiple myeloma (MM) in up to 21 years (33 cases observed, 21.3 expected based on the experience of the entire cohort; standardized morbidity ratio = 1.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.17). This association was evaluated further in a second cohort of 163,561 multiphasic-checkup examinees followed up for as many as 24 years. Body mass index (BMI) at entry examination was associated positively with the incidence of MM in White men (e.g., relative risk [RR] = 1.07, CI = 1.01-1.15 per unit increase in BMI; and RR = 1.68, CI = 0.75-3.78, comparing the highest with lowest quartile). This association was absent in White women, partially confirmed in Black men and women (BMI quartiles two, three, and four showed higher risk than quartile one), and not explained by the presence of diabetes mellitus. The association was reduced or absent with BMI based on reported greatest adult-weight, and in White women was inverse with BMI based on reported lowest adult-weight. Among subjects with more than one checkup, increased risk was associated directly with weight loss among White men and associated inversely with weight gain among Black women. These findings suggest that body build or nutritional status may be involved in the development of MM by mechanisms that are presently unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7999970

  2. The Association between Sleep Patterns and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Blackwell, Terri; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Wing, Yun K.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep duration has been increasingly reported to predict obesity. However, timing and regularity of sleep may also be important. In this study, the cross-sectional association between objectively measured sleep patterns and obesity was assessed in two large cohorts of older individuals. Methods Wrist actigraphy was performed in 3053 men (mean age: 76.4 years) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) and 2985 women (mean age: 83.5 years) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Timing and regularity of sleep patterns were assessed across nights, as well as daytime napping. Results Greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean nocturnal sleep duration in both men and women. Each 1 hour increase in the variability of nocturnal sleep duration increased the odds of obesity 1.63-fold (95% CI [1.31-2.02]) among men and 1.22-fold (95% CI [1.01-1.47]) among women. Each 1 hour increase in napping increased the odds of obesity 1.23-fold (95%CI [1.12-1.37]) in men and 1.29-fold (95%CI [1.17-1.41]) in women. In contrast, associations between later sleep timing and night-to-night variability in sleep timing with obesity were less consistent. Conclusions In both older men and women, variability in nightly sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean sleep duration. These findings suggest that characteristics of sleep beyond mean sleep duration may play a role in weight homeostasis, highlighting the complex relationship between sleep and metabolism. PMID:24458262

  3. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  4. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  5. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  6. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  7. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  8. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  11. [Ultrasound measurement of visceral fat in obese patients (changes in certain parameters during an outpatient reducing program)].

    PubMed

    Urbánek, R; Simek, J

    2000-01-01

    Abdominal type of obesity is linked to risk factors of metabolic diseases. The determination of visceral fat with the ultrasound assessment by Armellini is a very simple method. 55 obese patients were such examined including other parameters during the weight reduction. The results of our small experimental group are shown in the Tab. 1 and 2. PMID:10953641

  12. A qualitative evidence synthesis on the management of male obesity

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Daryll; Douglas, Flora; Hoddinott, Pat; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Stewart, Fiona; Robertson, Clare; Boyers, Dwayne; Avenell, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate what weight management interventions work for men, with which men, and under what circumstances. Design Realist synthesis of qualitative studies. Data sources Sensitive searches of 11 electronic databases from 1990 to 2012 supplemented by grey literature searches. Study selection Studies published between 1990 and 2012 reporting qualitative research with obese men, or obese men in contrast to obese women and lifestyle or drug weight management were included. The studies included men aged 16 years or over, with no upper age limit, with a mean or median body mass index of 30 kg/m2 in all settings. Results 22 studies were identified, including 5 qualitative studies linked to randomised controlled trials of weight maintenance interventions and 8 qualitative studies linked to non-randomised intervention studies, and 9 relevant UK-based qualitative studies not linked to any intervention. Health concerns and the perception that certain programmes had ‘worked’ for other men were the key factors that motivated men to engage with weight management programmes. Barriers to engagement and adherence with programmes included: men not problematising their weight until labelled ‘obese’; a lack of support for new food choices by friends and family, and reluctance to undertake extreme dieting. Retaining some autonomy over what is eaten; flexibility about treats and alcohol, and a focus on physical activity were attractive features of programmes. Group interventions, humour and social support facilitated attendance and adherence. Men were motivated to attend programmes in settings that were convenient, non-threatening and congruent with their masculine identities, but men were seldom involved in programme design. Conclusions Men's perspectives and preferences within the wider context of family, work and pleasure should be sought when designing weight management services. Qualitative research is needed with men to inform all aspects of intervention

  13. Obesity. An analysis of epidemiological and prognostic research

    PubMed Central

    Wierzejska, Ewelina; Zielińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apart from its medical dimension, the current problem with obesity has acquired social urgency. This serious lifestyle disease has a negative impact on a number of life processes in the body, causing distortions and damaging different structures. It also contributes to clinical complications, lowers the quality of life and reduces life expectancy. Apart from health-related consequences, it can bring such unfavourable results as social, mental and emotional disorders. Material and methods A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies on obesity in Poland relative to selected countries in Europe and the world over the past 15 years was conducted. Also an attempt was made at forecasting the development of the obesity problem. Results The analysed results demonstrated that the percentage of obese people among the adult population of Poland was on the rise in the period under investigation. Taking into account the estimated growth rate, we can assume that the percentage of obese people in Poland right now might total 23.7% for men and 23.3% for women. If no changes are introduced in this respect, in 2020 we can expect a rise to, respectively, 30.3% and 27.3%, and in 2030 to 37% for men and 31.4% for women. Conclusions The increase in the percentage of obese people among the adult population in Poland is most likely connected with a positive energy balance. In comparison to other European countries Poland has the highest percentage of obese men and women. PMID:25861287

  14. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges' g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z = 10.35, P < 0.05). Significant moderator effects of gender (Z = −2.90) and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z = −2.17) were found for visceral fat (P < 0.05), but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z = −5.10) and subcutaneous (Z = −7.09) abdominal adiposity volumes (P < 0.05). Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics) were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity. PMID:25525511

  15. Adenylate cyclase 3: a new target for anti-obesity drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Shen, C; Seed Ahmed, M; Östenson, C-G; Gu, H F

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, and abdominal obesity has a negative impact on health. Current treatment options on obesity, however, still remain limited. It is then of importance to find a new target for anti-obesity drug development based upon recent molecular studies in obesity. Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is the third member of adenylyl cyclase family and catalyses the synthesis of cAMP from ATP. Genetic studies with candidate gene and genome-wide association study approaches have demonstrated that ADCY3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with obesity in European and Chinese populations. Epigenetic studies have indicated that increased DNA methylation levels in the ADCY3 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Furthermore, biological analyses with animal models have implicated that ADCY3 dysfunction resulted in increased body weight and fat mass, while reduction of body weight is partially explained by ADCY3 activation. In this review, we describe genomic and biological features of ADCY3, summarize genetic and epigenetic association studies of the ADCY3 gene with obesity and discuss dysfunction and activation of ADCY3. Based upon all data, we suggest that ADCY3 is a new target for anti-obesity drug development. Further investigation on the effectiveness of ADCY3 activator and its delivery approach to treat abdominal obesity has been taken into our consideration. PMID:27256589

  16. Biochemical effect of a ketogenic diet on the brains of obese adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; El-Swefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Leila A; Abd El-Latif, Sally K

    2010-07-01

    Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Obesity is also a proven risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in weight reduction and in modifying the disease activity of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Therefore, in this study we examined the metabolic and neurodegenerative changes associated with obesity and the possible neuroprotective effects of a KD in obese adult rats. Compared with obese rats fed a control diet, obese rats fed a KD showed significant weight loss, improvement in lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and upregulation of adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue. In addition, the KD triggered significant downregulation of brain amyloid protein precursor, apolipoprotein E and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and improvement of brain oxidative stress responses. These findings suggest that a KD has anti-obesity and neuroprotective effects. PMID:20395146

  17. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  18. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  19. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Beau

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Design A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Setting Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. Participants The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. Main outcome measures A focused “quick screen,” which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (ie, a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Results Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Conclusion Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point

  20. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  1. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  2. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

  3. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  4. Association between abdominal aortic diameter and peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, C; Bonapace, S; Starr, J; Radia, M; Bulpitt, C J

    1997-09-01

    Fifty-four elderly people 81.2 years +/- 7.4 (mean age +/- s.d., range 66-98 years) were selected. These included 20 men (78.6 +/- 6.4 years, range 70-91 years) and 34 women (82.2 +/- 7.6 years, range 66-98 years). The relationship between the size of the abdominal aorta and various cardiovascular risk indicators such as calf:-brachial systolic pressure ratio, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and random blood glucose were examined. Abdominal aortic diameter correlated well with calf:-brachial systolic ratio measured by Doppler method over the posterior tibial artery and taking the lowest result of the right and left side (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). This correlation tended to be stronger in men (r = -0.55, P = 0.02) compared to women (r = -0.10, P = 0.57). However, the relationship tended to be confined to the systolic pressure in the left leg, raising the hypothesis that left-sided vascular disease is better related to aortic diameter, possibly due to a difference in the effects of reflected waves between the two sides. This needs further investigation. The contrast between the sexes was seen in the absence of any significant difference in resting blood pressure and calf:brachial systolic pressure ratio between the two. This finding suggests that the sex differences in the relationship between the size of the abdominal aorta and calf:brachial systolic pressure ratio are related to intrinsic properties of the arterial wall. PMID:9364278