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Sample records for abdominis plane tap

  1. Perioperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for analgesia after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Shona; Cyna, Allan M; Middleton, Philippa; Griffiths, James D

    2010-12-08

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block which anaesthetises the abdominal wall. The increasing use of TAP block, as a form of pain relief after abdominal surgery warrants evaluation of its effectiveness as an adjunctive technique to routine care and, when compared with other analgesic techniques. To assess effects of TAP blocks (and variants) on postoperative analgesia requirements after abdominal surgery. We searched specialised registers of Cochrane Anaesthesia and Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Review Groups, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to June 2010. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TAP block or rectus sheath block with: no TAP or rectus sheath block; placebo; systemic, epidural or any other analgesia. At least two review authors assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We included eight studies (358 participants), five assessing TAP blocks, three assessing rectus sheath blocks; with moderate risk of bias overall. All studies had a background of general anaesthesia in both arms in most cases.Compared with no TAP block or saline placebo, TAP block resulted in significantly less postoperative requirement for morphine at 24 hours (mean difference (MD) -21.95 mg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -37.91 to 5.96; five studies, 236 participants) and 48 hours (MD -28.50, 95% CI -38.92 to -18.08; one study of 50 participants) but not at two hours (all random-effects analyses). Pain at rest was significantly reduced in two studies, but not a third.Only one of three included studies of rectus sheath blocks found a reduction in postoperative analgesic requirements in participants receiving blocks. One study, assessing number of participants who were pain-free after their surgery, found more participants who received a rectus sheath block to be pain-free for up to 10 hours postoperatively. As with TAP blocks, rectus sheath blocks made no apparent impact on nausea and vomiting

  2. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery improves postoperative pain management: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hain, E; Maggiori, L; Prost À la Denise, J; Panis, Y

    2018-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a locoregional anaesthesia technique of growing interest in abdominal surgery. However, its efficacy following laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still debated. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of TAP block after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. All comparative studies focusing on TAP block after laparoscopic colorectal surgery have been systematically identified through the MEDLINE database, reviewed and included. Meta-analysis was performed according to the Mantel-Haenszel method for random effects. End-points included postoperative opioid consumption, morbidity, time to first bowel movement and length of hospital stay. A total of 13 studies, including 7 randomized controlled trials, were included, comprising a total of 600 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with TAP block, compared with 762 patients without TAP block. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that TAP block was associated with a significantly reduced postoperative opioid consumption on the first day after surgery [weighted mean difference (WMD) -14.54 (-25.14; -3.94); P = 0.007] and a significantly shorter time to first bowel movement [WMD -0.53 (-0.61; -0.44); P < 0.001] but failed to show any impact on length of hospital stay [WMD -0.32 (-0.83; 0.20); P = 0.23] although no study considered length of stay as its primary outcome. Finally, TAP block was not associated with a significant increase in the postoperative overall complication rate [OR = 0.84 (0.62-1.14); P = 0.27]. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery improves postoperative opioid consumption and recovery of postoperative digestive function without any significant drawback. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Colostomy with Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    PubMed Central

    Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Demirhan, Abdullah; Şit, Mustafa; Kurt, Adem Deniz; Bilgi, Murat; Koçoğlu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is one of the abdominal field block. The TAP block is used for both anaesthetic management and post-operative pain therapy in lower abdominal surgery. TAP block is a procedure in which local anaesthetic agents are applied to the anatomic neurofacial space between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis muscle. TAP block is a good method for post-operative pain control as well as allows for short operations involving the abdominal area. In this article, a case of colostomy under TAP block is presented. PMID:27366540

  4. Clinical safety and effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in post-operative analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Duncan, Joanna K; Scarfe, Anje J; Schuhmann, Susanne; Cameron, Alun L

    2017-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks can provide analgesia postoperatively for a range of surgeries. Abundant clinical trials have assessed TAP block showing positive analgesic effects. This systematic review assesses safety and effectiveness outcomes of TAP block in all clinical settings, comparing with both active (standard care) and inactive (placebo) comparators. PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and the University of York CRD databases were searched. RCTs were screened for their eligibility and assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed on available data. TAP block showed an equivalent safety profile to all comparators in the incidence of nausea (OR = 1.07) and vomiting (OR = 0.81). TAP block was more effective in reducing morphine consumption [MD = 13.05, 95% CI (8.33, 51.23)] and in delaying time to first analgesic request [MD = 123.49, 95% CI (48.59, 198.39)]. Postoperative pain within 24 h was reduced or at least equivalent in TAP block compared to its comparators. Therefore, TAP block is a safe and effective procedure compared to standard care, placebo and other analgesic techniques. Further research is warranted to investigate whether the TAP block technique can be improved by optimizing dose and technique-related factors.

  5. The effect of morphine added to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia following lower abdominal cancer surgery, a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    El Sherif, Fatma Adel; Mohamed, Sahar Abdel-Baky; Kamal, Shereen Mamdouh

    2017-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block used for management of surgical abdominal pain by injecting local anesthetics into the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. We aimed to explore the effect of adding morphine to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided TAP-block in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgery. Randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Clinical trial identifier: NCT02566096. Academic medical center. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study after ethical committee approval. Patients divided into 2 groups (30 each): Bupivacaine group (GB): given ultrasound guided TAP-block 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine diluted in 20ml saline; Morphine group (GM): given ultrasound guided TAP-block with 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine+10mg morphine sulphate diluted in 20ml saline. Patients were observed for total morphine consumption, time for first request of rescue analgesia, sedation scores, hemodynamics and side effects for 24h postoperatively. Morphine added to bupivacaine in TAP block compared to bupivacaine alone reduced total morphine consumption (5.33±1.28mg) (10.70±3.09mg) respectively (p<0.001), prolonged the time to first request of analgesia (10.40±4.96h) (6.97±3.26h) respectively (p<0.008), with a statistically significant decrease in (VAS-M) in GM compared with GB at 12h postoperatively (p<0.002). No significant differences in hemodynamics, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, sedation score, and side effects except for nausea were observed (p>0.05). Addition of morphine to bupivacaine in TAP block is effective method for pain management in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery without serious side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Local wound infiltration plus transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block versus local wound infiltration in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and ERAS program.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Corrado; Menestrina, Nicola; Moro, Margherita; Brazzo, Gianluca; Mantovani, Guido; Polati, Enrico; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Few data are available on TAP block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and ERAS program. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate local wound infiltration plus TAP block compared to local wound infiltration in the management of postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, ileus and use of opioids in the context of laparoscopic colorectal surgery and ERAS program. From March 2014 to March 2015, 48 patients were treated by laparoscopic resection and ERAS program for colorectal cancer and diverticular disease at the Division of General and Hepatobiliary Surgery, University of Verona Hospital Trust. Among these, 24 patients received local wound infiltration plus TAP block (TAP block group) and 24 patients received local wound infiltration (control group). No differences were observed in baseline patient characteristics, clinical variables and surgical procedures between the two groups. Local wound infiltration plus TAP block allowed to achieve pain control despite a reduced use of opioid analgesics (P = 0.009). The adoption of TAP block resulted beneficial on the prevention of postoperative nausea (P = 0.002) and improvement of essential outcomes of ERAS program as recovery of bowel function (P = 0.005), urinary catheter removal (P = 0.003) and capability to tolerate oral diet (P = 0.027). TAP block plus local wound infiltration in the setting of laparoscopic colorectal surgery and ERAS program guarantees a reduced use of opioid analgesics and good pain control allowing the improvement of essential items of enhanced recovery pathways.

  7. Four quadrant transversus abdominis plane block and continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia: a 3-year prospective audit in 124 patients.

    PubMed

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, Aditi; Hart, Elaine; Kaushik, Vipul; Fleet, Danny; Jameson, John

    2015-11-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after abdominal surgery. To perform a prospective audit on the effectiveness of a novel technique of providing continuous transversus abdominis plane (TAP) analgesia in patients undergoing emergency and elective abdominal surgery. Prospective single center audit over a 3-year period. University hospital. One hundred twenty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I to IV adult patients presenting for elective as well as emergency abdominal surgery in whom epidural analgesia was contraindicated or refused. Four quadrant TAP blocks and continuous TAP analgesia. Numerical rating scale pain scores at rest and on coughing, nausea scores, satisfaction scores, complications, frequency of analgesia failure, therapeutic failure with continuous TAP analgesia and opioid consumption. One hundred twenty-four patients who received continuous TAP analgesia were audited. This included 34 patients for elective open surgery, 36 patients for emergency laparotomy, and 54 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surgical incision was within the dermatomal limit of the block in 70% of the patients (88/124). Therapeutic failure with the technique was 10%. Frequency of analgesic failure over the 48-hour period was none in 39% and below 5 episodes in 57%. Four quadrant transversus abdominis plane blocks and continuous TAP analgesia is an effective technique for providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. It has the potential to be used as a sole analgesic technique when the surgical incision is within its dermatomal limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of four-quadrant transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and continuous posterior TAP analgesia with epidural analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Hart, E; Horst, C; Malik, D; Yeow, C; Singh, B; Chaudhri, S

    2014-04-01

    Posterior transversus abdominis plane blocks have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after lower abdominal surgery. We compared the efficacy of a novel technique of providing continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia with epidural analgesia in patients on an enhanced recovery programme following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. A non-inferiority comparison was used. Adult patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive continuous transversus abdominis plane analgesia (n = 35) vs epidural analgesia (n = 35), in addition to a postoperative analgesic regimen comprising regular paracetamol, regular diclofenac and tramadol as required. Sixty-one patients completed the study. The transversus group received four-quadrant transversus abdominis plane blocks and bilateral posterior transversus abdominis plane catheters that were infused with levobupivacaine 0.25% for 48 h. The epidural group received an infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl. The primary outcome measure was visual analogue scale pain score on coughing at 24 h after surgery. We found no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 24 h between the transversus group 2.5 (1.0-3.0 [0-5.5]) and the epidural group 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6.0]). The one-sided 97.5% CI was a 0.0 (∞-1.0) difference in means, establishing non-inferiority. There were no significant differences between the groups for tramadol consumption. Success rate was 28/30 (93%) in the transversus group vs 27/31 (87%) in the epidural group. Continuous transversus abdominis plane infusion was non-inferior to epidural infusion in providing analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeffrey; Ayad, Sabry; Gonzales, Jeffrey J; Mehta, Jaideep; Boublik, Jan; Hutchins, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site.

  10. Transversus abdominis plane block in renal allotransplant recipients: A retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Gopwani, S R; Rosenblatt, M A

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block appears to vary considerably, depending on the surgical procedure and block technique. This study aims to add to the existing literature and provide a more clear understanding of the TAP blocks role as a postoperative analgesic technique, specifically in renal allotransplant recipients. A retrospective chart review was conducted by querying the intraoperative electronic medical record system of a 1200-bed tertiary academic hospital over a 5 months period, and reviewing anesthetic techniques, as well as postoperative morphine equivalent consumption. Fifty renal allotransplant recipients were identified, 13 of whom received TAP blocks while 37 received no regional analgesic technique. All blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance, with 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine injected in the transversus abdominis fascial plane under direct visualization. The primary outcome was postoperative morphine equivalent consumption. Morphine consumption was compared with the two-tailed Mann-Whitney U -test. Continuous variables of patient baseline characteristics were analyzed with unpaired t -test and categorical variables with Fischer Exact Test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A statistically significant decrease in cumulative morphine consumption was found in the group that received the TAP block at 6 h (2.46 mg vs. 7.27 mg, P = 0.0010), 12 h (3.88 mg vs. 10.20 mg, P = 0.0005), 24 h (6.96 mg vs. 14.75 mg, P = 0.0013), and 48 h (11 mg vs. 20.13 mg, P = 0.0092). The TAP block is a beneficial postoperative analgesic, opiate-sparing technique in renal allotransplant recipients.

  11. Subcostal Transverse Abdominis Plane Block for Acute Pain Management: A Review.

    PubMed

    Soliz, Jose M; Lipski, Ian; Hancher-Hodges, Shannon; Speer, Barbra Bryce; Popat, Keyuri

    2017-10-01

    The subcostal transverse abdominis plane (SCTAP) block is the deposition of local anesthetic in the transverse abdominis plane inferior and parallel to the costal margin. There is a growing consensus that the SCTAP block provides better analgesia for upper abdominal incisions than the traditional transverse abdominis plane block. In addition, when used as part of a four-quadrant transverse abdominis plane block, the SCTAP block may provide adequate analgesia for major abdominal surgery. The purpose of this review is to discuss the SCTAP block, including its indications, technique, local anesthetic solutions, and outcomes.

  12. Transversus abdominis plane block vs. wound infiltration in Caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Telnes, A; Skogvoll, E; Lonnée, H

    2015-04-01

    Multiple studies suggest that transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block (without intrathecal morphine) after Caesarean section (CS) reduces post-operative morphine consumption. In our study, we wanted to compare the analgesic effect of TAP block with infiltration of the wound after CS. We included 60 pregnant women scheduled for elective CS under spinal anaesthesia in a randomised, single-centre, double-blind study. Thirty patients received ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml bilaterally and 20 ml normal saline as wound infiltration (TAP group). The other 30 patients (the control group) received normal saline 20 ml bilaterally in the TAP, and 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml as wound infiltration. The main outcome was cumulative morphine consumption at 48 h after surgery. In addition, continuous morphine consumption, pain scores and side effects were registered. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. Cumulative morphine consumption at 48 h (mean±standard deviation) was 41±34 mg in the TAP group and 38±27 mg in the control group (P=0.7); a difference of 3 mg (95% confidence interval -13 to 19 mg). Morphine consumption at any time up to 48 h was virtually identical in both groups. Side effects were similar, except for a higher degree of sedation in the TAP group (P=0.04). Compared with wound infiltration with local anaesthetics, TAP block did not reduce cumulative morphine consumption following CS. The TAP block was associated with more pronounced sedation. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A randomized trial comparing surgeon-administered intraoperative transversus abdominis plane block with anesthesiologist-administered transcutaneous block.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, D M; Scharfman, L; Minkoff, H; George, B; Homel, P; Tyagaraj, K

    2018-04-27

    Injection of local anesthetic into the transversus abdominis plane (TAP block) decreases systemic morphine requirements after abdominal surgery. We compared intraoperative surgeon-administered TAP block (surgical TAP) to anesthesiologist-administered transcutaneous ultrasound-guided TAP block (conventional TAP) for post-cesarean analgesia. We hypothesized that surgical TAP blocks would take less time to perform than conventional TAP blocks. We performed a randomized trial, recruiting 41 women undergoing cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia, assigning them to either surgical TAP block (n=20) or conventional TAP block (n=21). Time taken to perform the block was the primary outcome, while postoperative pain scores and 24-hour opioid requirements were secondary outcomes. Student's t-test was used to compare block time and Kruskal-Wallis test opioid consumption and pain-scores. Time taken to perform the block (2.4 vs 12.1 min, P <0.001), and time spent in the operating room after delivery (55.3 vs 77.9 min, P <0.001) were significantly less for surgical TAP. The 24 h morphine consumption (P=0.17) and postoperative pain scores at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h were not significantly different between the groups. Surgical TAP blocks are feasible and less time consuming than conventional TAP blocks, while providing comparable analgesia after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of transversus abdominis plane block on cost of laparoscopic cholecystectomy anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kokulu, Serdar; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Kaçar, Emre; Bal, Ahmet; Şenay, Hasan; Üstün, Kübra Demir; Yılmaz, Sezgin; Ela, Yüksel; Sıvacı, Remziye Gül

    2014-12-23

    Use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia is continuously increasing. However, few studies have investigated intraoperative effects of TAP block. We aimed to study the effects of TAP block in terms of cost-effectiveness and consumption of inhalation agents. Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=20) patients received TAP block and Group 2 (n=20) patients did not receive TAP block. Standard anesthesia induction was used in all patients. For the maintenance of anesthesia, fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 50% in air with desflurane was used with a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. All patients were monitored with electrocardiography and for peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET), heart rate (HR), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MBP), and bispectral index (BIS). Bilateral TAP blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance to Group 1 patients. The BIS value was maintained at between 40 and 50 during the surgery. The Dion formula was used to calculate consumption of desflurane for each patient. There was no difference between the groups with respect to demographic characteristics of the patients. Duration of anesthesia, surgery time, and dosage of fentanyl were similar in the 2 groups. However, the cost and consumption of desflurane was significantly lower in Group 1. Total anesthesia consumption was lower and the cost-effectiveness of anesthesia was better in TAP block patients with general anesthesia than in non-TAP block patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on Cost of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kokulu, Serdar; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Kaçar, Emre; Bal, Ahmet; Şenay, Hasan; Üstün, Kübra Demir; Yılmaz, Sezgin; Ela, Yüksel; Sıvacı, Remziye Gül

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia is continuously increasing. However, few studies have investigated intraoperative effects of TAP block. We aimed to study the effects of TAP block in terms of cost-effectiveness and consumption of inhalation agents. Material/Methods Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=20) patients received TAP block and Group 2 (n=20) patients did not receive TAP block. Standard anesthesia induction was used in all patients. For the maintenance of anesthesia, fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 50% in air with desflurane was used with a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. All patients were monitored with electrocardiography and for peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET), heart rate (HR), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MBP), and bispectral index (BIS). Bilateral TAP blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance to Group 1 patients. The BIS value was maintained at between 40 and 50 during the surgery. The Dion formula was used to calculate consumption of desflurane for each patient. Results There was no difference between the groups with respect to demographic characteristics of the patients. Duration of anesthesia, surgery time, and dosage of fentanyl were similar in the 2 groups. However, the cost and consumption of desflurane was significantly lower in Group 1. Conclusions Total anesthesia consumption was lower and the cost-effectiveness of anesthesia was better in TAP block patients with general anesthesia than in non-TAP block patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25534331

  16. Analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block in neonates and early infants for colostomy and reversal of colostomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chee Kean; Teo, Shu Ching; Phui, Vui Eng; Saman, Mat Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    The application of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in paediatric population is gaining popularity among anaesthetists. We present a case series of ultrasound-guided TAP block in ten neonate and infants undergoing colostomy and reversal of stoma. Classical TAP as described by Hebbard was carried out and a maximum dosage of 1ml/kg of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected. Pain score was assessed using Neonatal Infant Pain Scale for 24 hours. In all patients, the block was successful with minimal hemodynamic changes intraoperatively and no additional systemic analgesia was needed intraoperative and immediate postoperatively. Ultrasound-guided TAP block has an important role in providing safe and effective analgesia for colostomy creation and reversal of stoma surgeries in paediatric population.

  17. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Surgical Site Infiltration for Pain Management After Open Total Abdominal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Gasanova, Irina; Alexander, John; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Hamid, Cherine; Rogers, David; Minhajuddin, Abu; Joshi, Girish P

    2015-11-01

    Surgical site infiltration and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks are commonly used to improve pain relief after lower abdominal surgery. This randomized, observer-blinded study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of TAP blocks with surgical site infiltration in patients undergoing open total abdominal hysterectomy via a Pfannenstiel incision. Patients were randomized to receive either bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP blocks using bupivacaine 0.5% 20 mL on each side (n = 30) or surgical site infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine 266 mg diluted to 60 mL injected in the preperitoneal, subfascial, and subcutaneous planes (n = 30). The remaining aspects of the perioperative care were standardized. An investigator blinded to the group allocation documented pain scores at rest and with coughing, opioid requirements, nausea, vomiting, and rescue antiemetics in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was pain scores on coughing at 6 hours postoperatively. One patient in each group was excluded from the analysis because of reoperation within 24 hours in the TAP block group and change of incision type in the infiltration group. The pain scores at rest and with coughing were significantly lower in the surgical site infiltration group at all postoperative time points (P < 0.0001) except at rest in the postanesthesia care unit. The opioid requirements between 24 and 48 hours were significantly lower in the infiltration group (P = 0.009). The nausea scores, occurrence of vomiting, and need for rescue antiemetics were similar. Surgical site infiltration provided superior pain relief at rest and on coughing, as well as reduced opioid consumption for up to 48 hours. Future studies need to compare TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine with surgical site infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine.

  18. Efficacy of transverse abdominis plane block in reduction of postoperation pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Saliminia, Alireza; Azimaraghi, Omid; Babayipour, Shiva; Ardavan, Kamelia; Movafegh, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently introduced regional anesthesia technique that is used for postoperative pain reduction in some abdominal surgeries. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the TAP block on the post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain intensity and analgesic consumption. Fifty-four patients were enrolled in three groups: TAP block with normal saline (Group 1, n = 18); TAP block with bupivacaine (Group 2, n = 18); and TAP block with bupivacaine plus sufentanil (Group 3, n = 18). The time to the first fentanyl request, fentanyl consumption in the 24 hours following surgery, and postoperative pain intensity at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours following discharge for recovery were measured and recorded. The total amount of 24-hour fentanyl consumption was higher in Group 1 (877.8 ± 338.8 μg) than either Group 2 (566.7 ± 367.8 μg) or Group 3 (555.5 ± 356.8 μg; p = 0.03). Postoperative pain score was higher in Group 1 than intervention groups (p = 0.006); however, there was no significant difference in intervention groups. The time to the first fentanyl request in Group 1 (79.44 ± 42.2) was significantly lower than Group 3 (206.38 ± 112.7; p = 0.001). The present study demonstrated that bilateral TAP block with 0.5% bupivacaine reduces post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain intensity and fentanyl request and prolongs time to the first analgesic request. Adding sufentanil to the block solution reduced neither pain intensity nor fentanyl further consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A randomised controlled trial investigating the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block for adult laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    PubMed

    Tupper-Carey, Darell Alexander; Fathil, Shahridan Mohd; Tan, Yin Kiat Glenn; Kan, Yuk Man; Cheong, Chern Yuen; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a single-centre, prospective randomised clinical trial to investigate the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in adult patients undergoing laparoscopic appendicectomy. Patients undergoing urgent laparoscopic appendicectomy under general anaesthesia alone (control group) and general anaesthesia supplemented by TAP block (TAP intervention group) were compared. All patients received a multimodal analgesia regime, which included postoperative morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia device. The primary endpoints were morphine consumption at 12 hours and 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints included pain scores, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and time to hospital discharge. A total of 58 patients were recruited, with 29 patients in each group. Mean postoperative morphine consumption at 12 hours (control group: 11.45 ± 7.64 mg, TAP intervention group: 9.79 ± 8.09 mg; p = 0.4264) and 24 hours (control group: 13.38 ± 8.72 mg, TAP intervention group: 11.31 ± 8.66 mg; p = 0.3686) for the control and TAP intervention groups were not statistically different. Secondary outcomes were also not different between the two groups. Length of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit was significantly shorter for the TAP intervention group, with a trend toward faster hospital discharge being observed. TAP block, a regional anaesthetic procedure performed immediately prior to skin incision for laparoscopic appendicectomy, did not significantly improve postoperative analgesia outcomes. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  20. Randomized clinical trial of transversus abdominis plane block versus placebo control in live-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Thiyagarajan, Umasanker M; Nicholson, Harriet F L; Jeyapalan, Inthira; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-09-15

    Laparoscopic surgery reduces pain after donor nephrectomy; however, most patients still require a significant amount of postoperative parenteral opiate analgesia. Therefore, there is a need to investigate techniques that might further reduce postoperative pain. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of using a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-six patients were analyzed in the trial and were randomized to undergo the TAP block procedure with either bupivacaine (n=24) or saline placebo (Control n=22) injected into the muscle plane. Prefilled syringes were dispensed with the group allocation concealed to maintain blinding. After surgery, the amount of morphine, level of pain, and measures of recovery were recorded. The amount of morphine used 6 hr after surgery was significantly lower in patients receiving TAP block with bupivacaine compared with the control (presented as mean [SD], 12.4 [8.4] vs. 21.2 [14.0] mg; P=0.015). However, the total amount of morphine used was similar in both groups 45.6 [31.4] vs. 52.7 [28.8] mg; P=0.771. Patients in the bupivacaine group experienced significantly less pain on postoperative days 1 (score, 19 [15] vs. 37 [20]; P=0.003) and 2 (score, 11 [10] vs. 19 [13]; P=0.031). Recovery and postoperative hospital stay were similar in both groups. There were no complications associated with the procedure. The TAP block procedure is beneficial in reducing postoperative pain and early morphine requirements in laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy.

  1. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Post Hysterectomy Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacal, Vanessa; Rana, Urvi; McIsaac, Daniel I; Chen, Innie

    2018-04-30

    The objective of this study was to address the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks in pain management among women who undergo elective hysterectomy for benign pathology in both open and minimally invasive surgeries. We performed a systematic review by searching for bibliographic citations from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. MeSH headings for TAP blocks and hysterectomy were combined and restricted to the English language. We included RCTs comparing TAP blocks to placebo or no block in patients who underwent elective hysterectomy. Pain was measured using a visual analog score (VAS) on a scale of 0-100. We calculated pooled mean differences in VAS and total morphine consumption at 2 and 24 hours by performing a random effects meta-analysis. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 855 participants. At 2 hours, mean VAS scores for patients who underwent TAP blocks were significantly lower after both total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) (mean difference -14.97 [CI: -20.35- -9.59]) and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) (-18.16 [CI: -34.78- -1.53]) compared to placebo or no block. Pain scores at 24 hours for patients who underwent TAPB were significantly lower after both TAH (-10.09 [CI: -17.35- -2.83]) and TLH (-9.12 [CI: -18.12- -0.13]) compared to placebo or no block. Mean difference in morphine consumption was -9.53 mg (CI -15.43- -3.63) for TAH and -3.15 mg (CI: -8.41- 2.12) for TLH. In conclusion, TAP blocks provide significant postoperative early and delayed pain control compared to placebo or no block among women who undergo hysterectomy. There was reduced morphine consumption among patients who underwent TAH, but not after TLH. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of ultrasound-guided posterior transversus abdominis plane block and lateral transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing cesarean section: a randomized double-blind clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud Reza; Derakhshan, Pooya; Imani, Farnad; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Ghaderi Ashtiani, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Due to the importance of pain control after abdominal surgery, several methods such as transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are used to reduce the pain after surgery. TAP blocks can be performed using various ultrasound-guided approaches. Two important approaches to do this are ultrasound-guided lateral and posterior approaches. This study aimed to compare the two approaches of ultrasound-guided lateral and posterior TAP blocks to control pain after cesarean section. In this double-blind clinical trial study, 76 patients scheduled for elective cesarean section were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 38 and underwent spinal anesthesia. For pain management after the surgery, one group underwent lateral TAP block and the other group underwent posterior TAP block using 20cc of ropivacaine 0.2% on both sides. Pain intensity was evaluated based on Numerical Analog Scale (NAS) at rest and when coughing, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours after surgery. The pain at rest in the posterior group at all hours post surgery was lower than the lateral group, especially at 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery and the difference was statistically significant ( p =0.03, p <0.004, p =0.001). The results of this study show that ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block compared with the lateral TAP block was more effective in pain control after cesarean section.

  3. Transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Oksar, Menekse; Koyuncu, Onur; Turhanoglu, Selim; Temiz, Muhyittin; Oran, Mustafa Cemil

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate and compare intercostal-iliac transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and oblique subcostal TAP (OSTAP) blocks for multimodal analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. Operating room, postoperative recovery area, and ward. In total, 60 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (43 women, 17 men, American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II) were enrolled from the general surgery department of our tertiary care center. The patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups. Group 1 received TAP blocks (n=20), group 2 received OSTAP blocks (n=20), and group 3 patients were used as controls and received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) only (n=20). After the induction of anesthesia, blocks were performed bilaterally in study groups 1 and 2, using 20mL of lidocaine (5mg/mL). PCA with intravenous tramadol was routinely provided for all patients during the first 24hours. The intraoperative use of remifentanil, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, demand for PCA, and total analgesic consumption were recorded. The patients in the control group had greater analgesic demands and analgesic consumption than did those in groups 1 and 2. However, patients in the OSTAP group had lower VAS scores than did those in groups 1 and 3. The demand for analgesia was greater in the control group than in groups 1 and 2. Moreover, lower VAS scores were recorded in the OSTAP group than in groups 1 and 3 and were positively correlated with total PCA consumption among all patients. However, postoperative VAS scores were negatively correlated with the total intraoperative consumption of remifentanil at 24hours. TAP and OSTAP blocks improved postoperative analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which resulted in lower VAS scores and reduction in total analgesic consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction: Analysis of Pain, Narcotic Consumption, Length of Stay and Cost."

    PubMed

    Salibian, Ara A; Frey, Jordan D; Thanik, Vishal D; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye

    2018-06-02

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks are increasingly being utilized in microvascular breast reconstruction. The implications of TAP blocks on specific reconstructive, patient and institutional outcomes remain to be fully elucidated. Patients undergoing abdominally-based microvascular breast reconstruction from 2015-2017 were reviewed. Length of stay, complications, narcotic consumption, donor-site pain and hospital expenses were compared between patients that did and those that did not receive TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine. Outcomes were subsequently compared in patients with elevated body mass index (BMI). Fifty patients (43.9%) received TAP blocks (27 [54.0%] under ultrasound guidance) and 64 patients (56.1%) did not. Patients with TAP blocks had significantly decreased oral and total narcotic consumption (p=0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively) as well as significantly less donor-site pain (3.3 versus 4.3, p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in hospital expenses between the two cohorts ($21,531.53 versus $22,050.15 per patient, p=0.5659). Patients with BMI≥25 who received TAP blocks had a significantly decreased length of stay (3.8 versus 4.4 days, p=0.0345) as well as decreased narcotic consumption and postoperative pain compared to patients without TAP blocks. Patients with BMI<25 did not have a significant difference in postoperative pain, narcotic consumption or length of stay between the TAP versus no TAP block groups. TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine significantly reduce oral and total postoperative narcotic consumption as well as donor-site pain in all patients after abdominally-based microvascular breast reconstruction without increasing hospital expenses. TAP blocks additionally significantly decrease length of stay in patients with BMI≥25.

  5. [Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can improve analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Mančić, Nedjica; Mihajlović, Dunja; Milićević, Suzana Tonković; Uvelin, Arsen; Vrsajkov, Jelena Pantić

    After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. We have randomized 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to receive either subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (n=38) or standard postoperative analgesia (n=38). First group received bilateral ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block with 20mL of 0.33% bupivacaine per side before operation and tramadol 1mg.kg -1 IV for pain breakthrough (≥6). Second group received after operation tramadol 1mg.kg -1 /6h as standard hospital analgesia protocol. Both groups received acetaminophen 1g/8h IV and metamizole 2.5g/12h. Pain at rest was recorded for each patient using NR scale (0-10) in period of 10min, 30min, 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h and 16h after the surgery. We obtained no difference between groups according age, weight, intraoperative fentanyl consumption and duration of surgery. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block significantly reduced postoperative pain scores compared to standard analgesia in all periods after surgery. Tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the subcostal transversus abdominis plane (24.29±47.54g) than in the standard analgesia group (270.2±81.9g) (p=0.000). Our results show that subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can provide superior postoperative analgesia and reduction in opioid requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block with liposomal bupivacaine during open abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Majumder, Arnab; Neupane, Ruel; Elliott, Heidi L; Novitsky, Yuri W

    2016-09-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPb) is an analgesic adjunct used for abdominal surgical procedures. Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) demonstrates prolonged analgesic effects, up to 72 hours. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of TAPb using LB for patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). Fifty patients undergoing AWR with TAPb using LB (TAP-group) were compared with a matched historical cohort undergoing AWR without TAPb (control group). Outcome measures included postoperative utilization of morphine equivalents, numerical rating scale pain scores, time to oral narcotics, and length of stay (LOS). Cohorts were matched demographically. No complications were associated with TAPb or LB. TAP-group evidenced significantly reduced narcotic requirements on operative day (9.5 mg vs 16.5 mg, P = .004), postoperative day (POD) 1 (26.7 mg vs 39.5 mg, P = .01) and POD2 (29.6 mg vs 40.7 mg, P = .047) and pain scores on operative day (5.1 vs 7.0, P <.001), POD1 (4.2 vs 5.5, P = .002), and POD2 (3.9 vs 4.8, P = .04). In addition, TAP-group demonstrated significantly shorter time to oral narcotics (2.7 days vs 4.0 days, P <.001) and median LOS (5.2 days vs 6.8 days, P = .004). TAPb with LB demonstrated significant reductions in narcotic consumption and improved pain control. TAPb allowed for earlier discontinuation of intravenous narcotics and shorter LOS. Intraoperative TAPb with LB appears to be an effective adjunct for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open AWR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Wound Infiltration for Analgesia After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Mohamed Mohamed; Mohamed, Yaser Mohamed; Elbadrawi, Rania Elmohamadi; Abdelkhalek, Mostafa; Mogahed, Maiseloon Mostafa; Ezz, Hanaa Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and local anesthetic wound infiltration provide analgesia after cesarean delivery. Studies comparing the 2 techniques are scarce, with conflicting results. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed to compare bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with single-shot local anesthetic wound infiltration for analgesia after cesarean delivery performed under spinal anesthesia. We hypothesized that the TAP block would decrease postoperative cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Eligible subjects were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II parturients with full-term singleton pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Exclusion criteria were: <19 years of age or >40 years of age; height <150 cm, weight <60 kg, body mass index ≥40 kg/m; contraindications to spinal anesthesia; history of recent opioid exposure; hypersensitivity to any of the drugs used in the study; significant cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic disease; and known fetal abnormalities. Eighty subjects were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups. In the infiltration group, participants received 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% in each side of the surgical wound (total 30 mL); and in the TAP group, participants received 20 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% bilaterally in the TAP block (total 40 mL). The TAP block and wound infiltration were performed by the primary investigator and the operating obstetrician, respectively. All participants received postoperative standard analgesia (ketorolac and paracetamol) and intravenous fentanyl via patient-controlled analgesia. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to the study group. The primary outcome was the cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of

  8. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces postoperative pain intensity and analgesic consumption in elective cesarean delivery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Laleh; Jalili, Zorvan; Jamal, Ashraf; Marsoosi, Vajiheh; Movafegh, Ali

    2012-06-01

    It is reported that following abdominal surgery, transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block can reduce postoperative pain. The primary outcome of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of TAP block on pain intensity following cesarean delivery with Pfannenstiel incision. Fifty pregnant women were randomized blindly to receive either a TAP block with 15 ml 0.25% bupivacaine in both sides (group T, n = 25) or no blockade (group C, n = 25) at the end of the surgery, which was performed with a Pfannenstiel incision under general anesthesia. The pain intensity in the patients was assessed by a blinded investigator at the time of discharge from recovery and at 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively, with a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. The women in the TAP block group had significantly lower VAS pain scores at rest and during coughing and consumed significantly less tramadol than the women in group C [50 mg (0-150) vs. 250 mg (0-400), P = 0.001]. There was a significantly longer time to the first request for analgesic in the TAP block group [210 min (0-300) vs. 30 min (10-180) in group C, P = 0.0001]. Two-sided TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in parturients who undergo cesarean section with a Pfannenstiel incision under general anesthesia can decrease postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The time to the first analgesic rescue was longer in the parturients who received the TAP block.

  9. Postoperative analgesic efficiency of transversus abdominis plane block after ventral hernia repair: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chesov, Ion; Belîi, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Effective postoperative analgesia is a key element in reducing postoperative morbidity, accelerating recovery and avoiding chronic postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block, performed before surgical incision, in providing postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair under general anaesthesia. Seventy elective patients scheduled for open ventral hernia repair surgery under general anaesthesia were divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I received bilateral TAP block performed before surgical incision (n = 35); Group II received systemic postoperative analgesia with parenteral opioid (morphine) alone (n = 35). Postoperatively pain scores at rest and with movement, total morphine consumption and opioid related side effects were recorded. Postoperative pain scores at rest and mobilization/cough were significantly higher in patients without TAP block (p < 0.05). Mean intraoperative fentanyl consumption was comparable between the two groups: 0.75 ± 0.31 mg in group I (TAP) and 0.86 ± 0.29 mg in group II (MO), p = 0.1299. Patients undergoing preincisional TAP block had reduced morphine requirements during the first 24 hours after surgery, compared to patients from group II, without TAP block (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of opioid related side effects (nausea, vomiting) in the both groups during the first 24 postoperative hours. The use of preincisional ultrasound guided TAP block reduced the pain scores at rest and with movement/cough, opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects after ventral hernia repair when compared with opioid-only analgesia.

  10. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of subcostal transversus abdominis plane blocks with epidural analgesia following upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Jeyapalan, I; Graff-Baker, P; Williams, O; Darbar, A; Maheshwaran, A; Powell, R

    2011-06-01

    Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. We compared their analgesic efficacy with that of epidural analgesia after major upper abdominal surgery in a randomised controlled trial. Adult patients undergoing elective open hepatobiliary or renal surgery were randomly allocated to receive subcostal TAP catheters (n=29) or epidural analgesia (n=33), in addition to a standard postoperative analgesic regimen comprising of regular paracetamol and tramadol as required. The TAP group patients received bilateral subcostal TAP catheters and 1 mg.kg(-1) bupivacaine 0.375% bilaterally every 8 h. The epidural group patients received an infusion of bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg.ml(-1) . The primary outcome measure was visual analogue pain scores during coughing at 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. We found no significant differences in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 8 h between the TAP group (4.0 (2.3-6.0 [0-7.5])) and epidural group (4.0 (2.5-5.3) [0-8.5])) and at 72 h (2.0 (0.8-4.0 [0-5]) and 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6]), respectively). Tramadol consumption was significantly greater in the TAP group (p=0.002). Subcostal TAP catheter boluses may be an effective alternative to epidural infusions for providing postoperative analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Hamill, James K; Rahiri, Jamie-Lee; Liley, Andrew; Hill, Andrew G

    2016-04-01

    The role of rectus sheath blocks (RSB) and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks in pediatric surgery has not been well established. We aimed to determine if RSB and TAP blocks decrease postoperative pain and improve recovery in children. Duplicate searching of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and trial registries databases by two reviewers. Included were randomized trials in children on RSB or TAP block in abdominal operations, excluding inguinal procedures. Independent duplicate data extraction and quality assessment using a standardized form. Ten trials met inclusion criteria (n = 599), RSB in five and TAP block in five. A linear mixed effects model on patient level data from three trials showed nerve blocks lowered morphine requirements 6-8 h after surgery, -0.03 mg · kg(-1) (95% CI -0.05, -0.002). Pooled analysis of summary data showed nerve blocks lowered 0-10 scale pain scores immediately after the operation, -0.7 (95% CI -1.3, -0.1); lowered 4-16 scale pain scores, -2.0 (95% CI -2.3, -1.7); and delayed the time to first rescue analgesia, 17 min (95% CI 1.3, 33). Quality assessment showed some studies at moderate to high risk of bias. Abdominal wall blocks reduce pain and opiate use in children. We advise cautious interpretation of the results given the heterogeneity of studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A comparison of plasma levobupivacaine concentrations following transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, R; Kobayashi, Y; Ochiai, R

    2016-05-01

    Levobupivacaine is commonly used as the local anaesthetic of choice in peripheral nerve blocks, but its pharmacokinetics have not been fully investigated. We compared the changes in plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine following transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block. Fifty woman undergoing laparoscopy were randomly allocated to receive either a transversus abdominis plane block or an rectus sheath block. In both groups, 2.5 mg.kg(-1) levobupivacaine was administered, and blood samples were obtained 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min after injection. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean time to reach Cmax (Tmax) as determined by non-linear regression analysis were 1.05 μg.ml(-1) and 32.4 min in the transversus abdominis plane group and 0.95 μg.ml(-1) and 60.9 min in the rectus sheath group, respectively. The plasma concentration of levobupivacaine peaked earlier in the transversus abdominis plane group than in the rectus sheath group and the maximum plasma concentration depended on the dose administered but not the procedure. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Comparison of Transversus Abdominis Plane Infiltration with Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Continuous Epidural Analgesia versus Intravenous Opioid Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Sabry; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Nadar, Vinayak; Lokhande, Chetan; Makarova, Natalya; Khanna, Rashi; Sessler, Daniel I; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered the standard of care but cannot be provided to all patients Liposomal bupivacaine has been approved for field blocks such as transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks but has not been clinically compared against other modalities. In this retrospective propensity matched cohort study we thus tested the primary hypothesis that TAP infiltration are noninferior (not worse) to continuous epidural analgesia and superior (better) to intravenous opioid analgesia in patients recovering from major lower abdominal surgery. 318 patients were propensity matched on 18 potential factors among three groups (106 per group): 1) TAP infiltration with bupivacaine liposome; 2) continuous Epidural analgesia with plain bupivacaine; and; 3) intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). We claimed TAP noninferior (not worse) over Epidural if TAP was noninferior (not worse) on total morphine-equivalent opioid and time-weighted average pain score (10-point scale) within first 72 hours after surgery with noninferiority deltas of 1 (10-point scale) for pain and an increase less of 20% in the mean morphine equivalent opioid consumption. We claimed TAP or Epidural groups superior (better) over IV PCA if TAP or Epidural was superior on opioid consumption and at least noninferior on pain outcome. Multivariable linear regressions within the propensity-matched cohorts were used to model total morphine-equivalent opioid dose and time-weighted average pain score within first 72 hours after surgery; joint hypothesis framework was used for formal testing. TAP infiltration were noninferior to Epidural on both primary outcomes (p<0.001). TAP infiltration were noninferior to IV PCA on pain scores (p = 0.001) but we did not find superiority on opioid consumption (p = 0.37). We did not find noninferiority of Epidural over IV PCA on pain scores (P = 0.13) and nor did we find superiority on opioid consumption (P = 0.98). TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine and

  14. Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on Postoperative Pain after Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Xie, Yan-Hu; Zhang, Wei; Chai, Xiao-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To assess the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in patients undergoing colorectal surgery (CRS). The databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase were searched, and randomized controlled studies (RCTs) that compared TAP block to control for relief of postoperative pain in patients who underwent CRS were included. Outcomes, including postoperative pain at rest and with movement, morphine use, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and the length of hospital stay, were analyzed using STATA software. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) or relative risk with 95% CI were used to present the strength of associations. A total of 7 RCTs with 511 patients were included. The results of this study suggested that TAP block significantly relieved postoperative pain during postanesthetic recovery after CRS at rest and during movement (WMDs were -0.98 [95% CI -1.57 to -0.38] and -0.68 [-1.07 to -0.30], respectively), and also decreased pain intensity during movement 24 h after CRS (WMD: -0.57 [95% CI -1.06 to -0.08]). TAP block significantly reduced opioid consumption within 24 h when compared to controls, with a WMD of 15.66 (95% CI -23.93 to -7.39). However, TAP block did not shorten the length of hospital stay. TAP block was an effective approach for relief of postoperative pain and reduced postoperative consumption of morphine. More RCTs with large sample sizes are required to confirm these findings. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Post-operative pain after ultrasound transversus abdominis plane block versus trocar site infiltration in laparoscopic nephrectomy: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ana M; Guimarães, Joana; Nunes, Catarina S; Couto, Paula S; Amadeu, Eduarda

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is useful in reducing post-operative pain in laparoscopic nephrectomy compared to placebo. The purpose of this work is to compare post-operative pain and recovery after TAP block or trocar site infiltration (TSI) in this surgery. A prospective, single blinded study on patients scheduled for laparoscopic nephrectomy. Patients were assigned to two groups: TSI Group: trocar site infiltration at the end of surgery; TAP Group: unilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block after induction. Sevoflurane and remifentanil, in a target controlled infusion mode, were used for maintenance of general anesthesia. Before the end of surgery paracetamol, tramadol and morphine were administered. Visual analogue scale (VAS 0-100mm) at rest and with cough was applied in three moments: in recovery room (T1 at admission and T2 before discharge) and 24h after surgery (T3). Pain scores with incentive spirometer were also evaluated at T3. In recovery, morphine was administered as a rescue drug whenever VAS>30mm. Time to oral intake, chair sitting, ambulation and length of hospital stay were evaluated 24h after surgery. Student's t-test and Chi-square test, and linear regression models. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Data are presented as mean (SD). Forty patients were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome variable, VAS pain scores did not show a statistical significant difference between groups (p>0.05). VAS at rest (TAP vs. TSI groups) was: T1=33±29 vs. 39±32, T2=10±9 vs. 17±18 and T3=7±12 vs. 10±18. VAS with cough (TAP vs. TSI groups) was: T1=51±34 vs. 45±32, T2=24±24 vs. 33±23 and T3=20±23 vs. 23±23. VAS with incentive spirometer (TAP vs. TSI groups) was: T3=21±27 vs. 21±25. Intraoperative remifentanil consumption was similar between TAP (0.16±0.07mcg.kg -1 .min -1 ) and TSI (0.18±0.9mcg.kg -1 .min -1 ) groups. There were no differences in opioid consumption between TAP (4.4±3.49mg) and TSI (6.87±4.83mg) groups during

  16. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Ömür, Dilek; Oğuzalp, Hüseyin; Kiraz, Hasan A; Ekin, Serpil; Alan, Cabir; Ersay, Ahmet R; Hancı, Volkan

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effect of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block administered before varicocele surgery. This study was completed at the Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, between January 2011 and April 2013. In a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study, 40 male patients scheduled for elective varicocele operations were randomized to group T (treatment group) or group C (controls). After receiving general anesthesia, group T received a TAP block using 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine on the operation side, whereas group C received a control block using 20 mL 0.9% Sodium chloride. During the first 24 hours after surgery, the patient pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and while coughing. Postoperative patient controlled analgesia morphine consumption, VAS scores, and side effects were recorded. Of 34 patients, Group T (n=18) had significantly lower VAS pain scores than Group C (n=16) both at rest and while coughing. The total morphine consumed was  lower (7.7 ± 4.0) versus 21.6 ± 12.4 mg, p less than 0.001) in the 24 hours after surgery. As part of a multimodal analgesic regime after varicocelectomy surgery, morphine consumption and VAS pain scores were significantly lower among those receiving 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine administered for a TAP block than among controls.

  17. Comparison of bilateral transversus abdominis plane block and wound infiltration with bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Görkem, Ümit; Koçyiğit, Kamuran; Toğrul, Cihan; Güngör, Tayfun

    2017-03-15

    The study aimed to compare efficacy, safety, pain intensity and analgesic consumption in patients receiving either bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block or wound infiltration with bupivacaine after cesarean delivery (CD). A total of 216 parturient women undergoing CD under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into five groups: i) controls (group 1), ii) TAP placebo (group 2), iii) TAP (group 3), iv) wound infiltration placebo (group 4), and, v) wound infiltration (group 5). Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analgesic consumptions were recorded by a blinded nurse at 6, 12, and 18 hours postoperatively. The baseline characteristics of the five groups were similar in terms of age, history of CD, and body mass indices (p>0.05). There were significant intergroup differences in VAS scores between all groups at the zero time-point (p=0.03), at the 6th hour (p=0.02), 12th hour (p=0.02), and at the 18th hour (p=0.02). Group 3 patients had lower pain scores and consumed less diclofenac than group 2 patients only within 12 hours postoperatively whereas pain intensity and analgesic consumption were not different between group 5 and group 4 patients. Group 5 patients received significantly less pethidine than group 4 and group 1 patients (p<0.001). TAP block provided better pain relief and less analgesic requirement than bupivacaine wound infiltration early after CD. Given the similar amounts of diclofenac but lower amounts of pethidine administered in the wound infiltration group, wound infiltration of bupivacaine seems promising in terms of reducing opioid use after CD under general anesthesia, especially when TAP block is not used.

  18. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic hysterectomy. Clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, D S; Lupi, S; Agejas, R; Allub, J M; García-Fornari, G

    2017-05-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block is a regional anaesthesia technique that has proven to be effective for postoperative pain reduction in different abdominal surgical procedures. This study evaluated its efficacy on post laparoscopic hysterectomy pain intensity and analgesic consumption. Randomized controlled trial which included 40 patients scheduled for laparoscopic hysterectomy, enrolled in 2 groups: transversus abdominis plane block+systemic analgesia (Group 1; n=20), versus systemic analgesia (Group 2; n=20). Opioid consumption within the first 24 postoperative hours, pain intensity scores at 60min, 2, 8 and 24h after surgery, adverse events related to systemic analgesia and time to hospital discharge were evaluated and registered. We found no differences between both groups in opioid consumption (10mg vs. 7mg; P=.2) and pain scores (NVS) within the first 24 postoperative hours, at 60min (3 vs. 5; P=.65), 120min (0 vs. 2; P=.15), 8 and 24h (0 vs. 0; P>.50) for the last 2 points in time analysed. Adverse events related to medication and time to hospital discharge showed similar results. Adding a transversus abdominis plane block technique to opioid PCA does not seem to improve postoperative pain management in laparoscopic hysterectomy. Patient preparation time and costs could be incremented and complications (although rare) related to the technique could appear. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Aksu, Recep; Patmano, Gülçin; Biçer, Cihangir; Emek, Ertan; Çoruh, Aliye Esmaoğlu

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n=31), 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL saline in Group B (n=31), and 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL dexmedetomidine (100μg) in Group BD (n=31). Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (p<0.05); it was lower in group BD than in group B at 10-24h. In Group B, it was lower than Group C at 2-8h (p<0.05). Total morphine consumption was lower in Group BD compared to other groups and lower in group B than in the controls (p<0.001). Patient satisfaction was higher in Group BD than in other groups and was higher in both study groups than in the controls (p<0.001). Nausea-vomiting scores, antiemetic requirement, or additional analgesic administration were not significant among groups (p>0.05). The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Dexmedetomidine in a surgically inserted catheter for transversus abdominis plane block in donor hepatectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Mohamed Adel; Kandeel, Al-Refaey; Elsayed, Usama; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elsayed, Eman; Elgawalby, Ahmed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Yassen, Amr

    2018-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a promising technique for analgesia after abdominal surgery. This prospective, randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in TAP block for donor hepatectomy. We hypothesized that this would improve postoperative morphine consumption and reduce analgesia related complication and inflammation. A total of 50 donor hepatectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients divided into two equal groups according to drugs used for TAP block. Group (B) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25%, Group (BD) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% and 0.3 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, on both sides at the end of surgery and every 8 h for 48 h at right side only through inserted catheter. Primary outcome objective was morphine consumption at first 72 h. Secondary outcome objectives were morphine requirement, numbers of intake, time to first intake, pain score numerical analog scale (NAS), postoperative analgesia related complications, recovery of intestinal motility, and inflammatory markers. Data were analyzed, rescue morphine analgesia was significantly lower in (BD) group compared with (B) groups as considering total morphine consumption (B 4 ± 1.9, BD 1.5 ± 0.5, P = 0.03), numbers of morphine intake ( P = 0.04), morphine requirement ( P = 0.03), and first time of analgesia intake ( P = 0.04). NAS was significantly lower in group (BD) compared with group (B) group in the first 12 h (NAS 0 - P = 0.001, NAS 1 - P = 0.03). Adding dexmedetomidine improved gut motility, first oral intake without detectable anti-inflammatory effect. Adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacine in a surgically inserted catheter for TAP block in donor hepatectomy reduced morphine consumption without detectable anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. An anatomical study of the transversus abdominis plane block: location of the lumbar triangle of Petit and adjacent nerves.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Zorica B; du Feu, Frances M; McConnell, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new technique for providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. Most previous studies have used the lumbar triangle of Petit as a landmark for the block. In this cadaveric study, we determined the exact position and size of the lumbar triangle of Petit and identified the nerves affected by the TAP block. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit was assessed unilaterally in 26 cadaveric specimens relative to reliably palpable surface landmarks. In addition, a series of dissections were performed to explore the course of the nerves blocked by the TAP. The mean distance from the midaxillary line along the iliac crest to the center of the base of the lumbar triangle of Petit at the level of the subcutaneous tissue and over the skin surface was 6.9 cm (range, 4.5-9.2 cm) and 9.3 cm (range, 4-15.1 cm), respectively. The center of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 1.4 cm above the iliac crest. The depth of the TAP at the lumbar triangle of Petit position was 0.5-4 cm and at the midaxillary line it was 0.5-2 cm. The average size of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 2.3 cm x 3.3 cm x 2.2 cm, with an average area of 3.63 +/- 1.93 cm2. The three cadaveric specimens we explored showed the nerves blocked by TAP passed lateral to the triangle. An incidental finding was that in 66% of specimens the lumbar triangle of Petit contained small branches of the subcostal artery. The lumbar triangles of Petit found in the specimens in this study were more posterior than the literature suggests. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit varies largely and the size is relatively small. The relevant nerves to be blocked had not entered the TAP in the specimens in this study at the point of the lumbar triangle of Petit. At the midaxillary line, however, all the nerves were in the TAP.

  2. [The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Karaman, Tugba; Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Karaman, Serkan; Dogru, Serkan; Tapar, Hakan; Sahin, Aynur; Dogru, Hatice; Suren, Mustafa

    A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group) or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group). Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24hours. The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD) 0.130 (0.25) vs. 0.094 (0.02) mcg.kg -1 .min -1 ; p<0.01 and 0.295 (0.05) vs. 0.243 (0.06) mL.min -1 ; p<0.01. In the postoperative period, pain scores were significantly reduced in transversus abdominis plane group soon after surgery; median (range) 6 (2-10) vs. 3 (0-5); p<0.001, at 2h (5 [3-9] vs. 2.5 [0-6]; p<0.001), at 6h (4 [2-7] vs. 3[0-6], p<0.001), at 12h (3.5 [1-6] vs. 2 [1-5]; p=0.003). The patients in the transversus abdominis plane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175-197) vs. 176.5 (141-187); p<0.001). Combining transversus abdominis plane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All

  3. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Amany S.; Mahmoud, Khaled M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30) or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone “8 mg” (dexamethasone group, n=30). The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA), morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01), 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01) and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02). Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002), with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003) and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03). No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23162395

  4. Transversus Abdominis Plane Blockade as Part of a Multimodal Postoperative Analgesia Plan in Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Richard S; Patel, Mehul; Jordan, Brian J; Morano, Jacqueline; Frainey, Brendan; Bhanji, Yasin; Bux, Mahreen; Nader, Antoun; Kundu, Shilajit D; Meeks, Joshua J

    2018-04-26

    Radical cystectomy (RC) is a morbid procedure with frequent complications that may benefit from implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol. To examine the benefits of a multimodal analgesic plan that uses continuous transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blockade as part of an ERAS protocol after RC. A retrospective comparison of consecutive patients undergoing RC over a 4-year period was conducted. Patients were designated as having surgery either before or after implementation of an ERAS protocol. A major component of the ERAS protocol was a multi-modal analgesia plan with TAP blockade. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative details, and outcomes, including days to flatus, bowel movement (BM), narcotic usage, and length of stay (LOS) were compared. In total, 171 patients were included: 100 pre-ERAS and 71 ERAS. There were no differences in age, smoking status, operative approach, or diversion type. The patients in the ERAS cohort were less likely to be male, had a higher median BMI, and more likely to have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Total and early postoperative narcotic use were lower in the ERAS cohort: 89 vs. 336 mg ( p  < 0.001) and 62 vs 203 mg ( p  = 0.001), respectively. The ERAS cohort had fewer days to flatus (3 vs. 4, p  < 0.001) and fewer days to bowel movement (4 vs. 5, p  < 0.001). Median LOS was shorter in the ERAS cohort (7 vs. 8.5d, p  = 0.001). There were no differences in complications or readmission rates between the two cohorts. TAP blockade as part of an ERAS multi-modal pain plan is associated with low narcotic usage, and significant improvement in time to flatus, BM, and LOS compared to traditional post-RC pain management.

  5. Evaluation of transversus abdominis plane block for renal transplant recipients - A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Trisha, Aanjan; Sinha, Aashish

    2018-01-01

    Patients undergoing renal transplant (RT) have altered drug/opioid pharmacokinetics. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in renal transplant recipients has been recently evaluated for analgesic and opioid-sparing potential by many trials. The studies comparing TAP-block to conventional analgesic regimens for RT were searched. Comparisons were made for total opioids consumed (as morphine-equivalents) during the first postoperative 24-h (primary objective), intraoperative, and immediate-postoperative period. Pain scores and postoperative nausea-vomiting (PONV) were also evaluated. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to quantify the strength of analysis. Ten-trials with 258 and 237 patients in control and TAP-block group, respectively, were included. TAP-block decreased the 24-h (reported in 9-trials) opioid consumption by 14.61 ± 4.34 mg (reduction by 42.7%, random-effects, P < 0.001, I 2 = 97.82%). Sample size of the present analysis (472) was well past the required "information-size" variable (396) as per the TSA for a power of 85%. Intraoperative opioid consumption also decreased by 2.06 ± 0.63 mg (reduction of 27.8%) (random effects, P < 0.001, I 2 = 98.84%). Pain scores with TAP-block were significantly lower in both early and delayed postoperative phase. Odds ratio for PONV without TAP block was 1.99 ± 1.05 (Fixed-effects, P = 0.04, I 2 = 0%). Publication bias was likely (Egger's test, X-intercept=7.89, P < 0.05). TAP-block significantly lowers the intraoperative and cumulative postoperative 24-h opioid consumption in RT recipients. Persistent and better pain control is achieved when TAP-Block is used. Benefits of TAP block extend beyond the analgesic actions alone as it also decreases the 24-h incidence of postoperative nausea vomiting as well. The technique of the block needs standardization for RT recipients.

  6. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic infiltration in adult patients undergoing single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bava, Ejas P; Ramachandran, Rashmi; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Trikha, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia with single incision laparoscopic (SIL) bariatric and gynecological surgery with mixed results. Its efficacy in providing analgesia for SIL cholecystectomy (SILC) via the same approach remains unexplored. The primary objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of bilateral TAP block with local anesthetic infiltration for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing SILC. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial performed in a tertiary care hospital. Forty-two patients undergoing SILC were randomized to receive either ultrasound-guided (USG) bilateral mid-axillary TAP blocks with 0.375% ropivacaine or local anesthetic infiltration of the port site. The primary outcome measure was the requirement of morphine in the first 24 h postoperatively. The data were analyzed using t -test, Mann-Whitney test or Chi-square test. The 24 h morphine requirement (mean ± standard deviation) was 34.57 ± 14.64 mg in TAP group and 32.76 ± 14.34 mg in local infiltration group ( P = 0.688). The number of patients requiring intraoperative supplemental fentanyl in TAP group was 8 and in local infiltration group was 16 ( P = 0.028). The visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were significantly higher in the local infiltration group in the immediate postoperative period ( P = 0.034 and P = 0.007, respectively). USG bilateral TAP blocks were not effective in decreasing 24 h morphine requirement as compared to local anesthetic infiltration in patients undergoing SILC although it provided some analgesic benefit intraoperatively and in the initial 4 h postoperatively. Hence, the benefits of TAP blocks are not worth the effort and time spent for administering them for this surgery.

  7. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in living liver donors: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kıtlık, Arzu; Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgul, Ulku; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Ucar, Muharrem; Toprak, Huseyin Ilksen; Colak, Cemil; Durmus, Mahmut

    2017-02-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block that reduces postoperative pain, nausea, vomiting and the need for postoperative opioids following various types of abdominal surgery. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of TAP block on postoperative analgesia and opioid consumption in living liver donors in whom a right "J" abdominal incision was used. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted with 50 living liver donors, aged 18-65years, who were scheduled to undergo right hepatectomy. Patients who received ultrasonography-guided subcostal TAP block were allocated into Group 1, and patients who did not receive TAP block were allocated into Group 2. The TAP blocks were performed bilaterally at the conclusion of surgery using 1.5mg∗kg -1 bupivacaine diluted with saline to reach a total volume of 40mL. For each patient, morphine consumption, pain scores at rest and movement, sedation scores, nausea, vomiting and the need for antiemetic medication were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24h postoperatively by researchers who were blinded to the study groups. Morphine consumption was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 at the 2nd, 6th and 24th hours (P<0.05). The mean total morphine consumption values after 24h were 40mg and 65mg in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The TAP block significantly reduced postoperative visual analog scale pain scores both at rest and during movement at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 24h postoperatively (P<0.05). The TAP block reduced 24-h postoperative morphine consumption and contributed to analgesia in living liver donors who underwent upper abdominal wall incisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic infiltration in adult patients undergoing single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Ejas P.; Ramachandran, Rashmi; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Trikha, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia with single incision laparoscopic (SIL) bariatric and gynecological surgery with mixed results. Its efficacy in providing analgesia for SIL cholecystectomy (SILC) via the same approach remains unexplored. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of bilateral TAP block with local anesthetic infiltration for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing SILC. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial performed in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients undergoing SILC were randomized to receive either ultrasound-guided (USG) bilateral mid-axillary TAP blocks with 0.375% ropivacaine or local anesthetic infiltration of the port site. The primary outcome measure was the requirement of morphine in the first 24 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using t-test, Mann–Whitney test or Chi-square test. Results: The 24 h morphine requirement (mean ± standard deviation) was 34.57 ± 14.64 mg in TAP group and 32.76 ± 14.34 mg in local infiltration group (P = 0.688). The number of patients requiring intraoperative supplemental fentanyl in TAP group was 8 and in local infiltration group was 16 (P = 0.028). The visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were significantly higher in the local infiltration group in the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.034 and P = 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: USG bilateral TAP blocks were not effective in decreasing 24 h morphine requirement as compared to local anesthetic infiltration in patients undergoing SILC although it provided some analgesic benefit intraoperatively and in the initial 4 h postoperatively. Hence, the benefits of TAP blocks are not worth the effort and time spent for administering them for this surgery. PMID:27746552

  9. Analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block using different volumes and concentrations of local analgesics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Ayça Sultan; Ay, Necmiye; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper; Akay, Mehlika Kocabaş; Demiraran, Yavuz; Derbent, Abdurrahim

    2017-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of an ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane (US-TAP) block used for postoperative pain relief by comparing the efficacy of two different volumes/concentrations of the local anaesthetic bupivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods This randomized study enrolled patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies. They were randomized to two groups: group A received a 20 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine +10 ml saline solution) and group B received a 30 ml US-TAP block (50 mg bupivacaine + 20 ml saline solution). The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, the requirement for postoperative rescue analgesics, patient satisfaction scores, postoperative complications, and postoperative pain as measured by a visual analogue scale at 20 min, 12 h, and 24 h were recorded. Results A total of 60 patients enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and patient satisfaction scores. The intraoperative consumption of remifentanil, postoperative VAS scores (20 min, 12 h and 24 h) and the requirement for postoperative analgesics were all significantly lower in group B who received a larger volume but a lower concentration of local anaesthetic solution compared with group A. Conclusion A US-TAP block can form part of a balanced postoperative analgesic regimen following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  10. Quadratus Lumborum Block Versus Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Postoperative Pain After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Rafael; Ansari, Tarek; Riad, Waleed; Shetty, Nanda

    Effective postoperative analgesia after cesarean delivery enhances early recovery, ambulation, and breastfeeding. In a previous study, we established the effectiveness of the quadratus lumborum block in providing pain relief after cesarean delivery compared with patient-controlled analgesia (morphine). In the current study, we hypothesized that this method would be equal to or better than the transversus abdominis plane block with regard to pain relief and its duration of action after cesarean delivery. Between April 2015 and August 2015, we randomized 76 patients scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia to receive the quadratus lumborum block or the transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain relief. This trial was registered prospectively (NCT 02489851) [corrected]. Patients in the quadratus lumborum block group used significantly less morphine than the transversus abdominis plane block group (P < 0.05) at 12, 24, and 48 hours but not at 4 and 6 hours after cesarean delivery. This group also had significantly fewer morphine demands than the control group (P < 0.05) at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after cesarean delivery. No significant differences in visual analog scale results were shown between the 2 groups at rest or with movement. Calculated total pain relief at rest and with movement were similar (P < 0.001) in both groups. The quadratus lumborum block was more effective in reducing morphine consumption and demands than transversus abdominis plane blocks after cesarean section. This effect was observed up to 48 hours postoperatively.

  11. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Khaled; Mohamdin, O W

    2016-01-01

    Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath (RS) and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for better perioperative analgesia. It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20) received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20) received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients' experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  12. Effects of preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Yim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jaehyun; Eom, Woosik; Lee, Soon Ae; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Ji Won; Park, Boram; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Although laparoscopic colorectal surgery decreases postoperative pain and facilitates a speedier recovery compared with laparotomy, postoperative pain at trocar insertion sites remains a clinical concern. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. In total, 58 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer were included in this study. The patients were randomized into TAP and control groups; the TAP group patients received a preoperative ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine, while the control patients received the block with an equal amount of saline. Pain on coughing and at rest was assessed during postanesthetic recovery (PAR; 1 h after surgery) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 (24 h), 2 (48 h), and 3 (72 h) by an investigator blinded to group allocations using the numeric rating scale (NRS). The primary outcome was pain on coughing on postoperative day (POD) 1. Fifty-five patients were included in the final analysis, including 28 in the TAP and 27 in the control groups. The pain intensity on coughing and at rest during PAR and on PODs 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant differences between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in postoperative opioid consumption, sedation scores, nausea scores at the four time points, complication rates, and length of hospital stay between groups. In colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, a TAP block did not offer enough benefit for clinical efficacy in terms of postoperative pain or analgesic consumption.

  13. High-dose versus low-dose local anaesthetic for transversus abdominis plane block post-Caesarean delivery analgesia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, S C; Habib, A S; Sodha, S; Carvalho, B; Sultan, P

    2018-02-01

    The optimal local-anaesthetic (LA) dose for transversus-abdominis-plane (TAP) block is unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to determine whether TAP blocks for Caesarean delivery (CD) with low-dose (LD) LA demonstrated non-inferiority in terms of analgesic efficacy, compared with high-dose (HD) LA. A literature search was performed for randomised controlled trials examining the analgesic efficacy of TAP blocks vs control after CD. The different dosing used in these studies was classified as HD or LD (bupivacaine equivalents >50 or ≤50 mg per block side, respectively). The pooled results of each dose group vs control were indirectly compared using the Q test. The primary outcome was 24 h opioid consumption. Secondary outcomes included 6 and 24 h postoperative pain scores, time to first analgesia, 6 h opioid consumption, opioid-related side-effects, and maternal satisfaction. Fourteen studies consisting of 770 women (389 TAP and 381 control) were included. Compared with controls, the 24 h opioid consumption (milligram morphine equivalents) was lower in HD [mean difference (MD) 95% confidence interval (CI) -22.41 (-38.56, -6.26); P=0.007; I 2 =93%] and LD [MD 95% CI -16.29 (-29.74, -2.84); P=0.02; I 2 =98%] TAP groups. However, no differences were demonstrated between the HD and LD groups (P=0.57). There were also no differences between the HD and LD groups for the 6 h opioid consumption, time to first analgesia, 6 and 24 h pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting, pruritus, and maternal satisfaction. Low-dose TAP blocks for Caesarean delivery provide analgesia and opioid-sparing effects comparable with the high-dose blocks. This suggests that lower doses can be used to reduce local anaesthetic toxicity risk without compromising the analgesic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study of Analgesic Efficacy of Intrathecal Buprenorphine with Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Postcesarean Delivery Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Marappa, Prakash; Chikkapillappa, Manjunath Abloodu; Chennappa, Nagaraj Mungasuvalli; Pujari, Vinayak Seenappa

    2017-01-01

    Women undergoing cesarean (CS) delivery present a unique set of challenges to the anesthetist in terms of postoperative pain management. This study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of intrathecal buprenorphine (ITB) with ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in post-CS delivery pain. A prospective randomized comparative study of sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II pregnant patients divided into two groups of thirty each as ITB group and TAP block group after satisfying the inclusion criteria. In the present study, demographic data were comparable between both groups. The time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in ITB group (389.67 ± 90.78 min) compared to TAP group (669.17 ± 140.65 min) and was statistically significant, P < 0.001. The mean paracetamol consumption in the first 24 h was higher in the TAP group (3.5 g) compared to the ITB group (1.13 g) and was statistically significant, P < 0.0001, and the mean tramadol consumed in first 24 h was higher in the TAP (46.66 mg) group as compared to the ITB group (16.66 mg) and was statistically significant, P < 0.001. The mean visual analog scale scores assessed at 4, 6, 12, and 24 h was higher in the TAP group and was statistically significant, P < 0.001. Our study showed that patients receiving ITB for post-CS pain management reported longer duration of analgesia, lower pain scores, and lower analgesic consumption during the first 24 h. The benefits of neuraxial opiates are significant and far outweigh the side effects.

  15. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block in pain control and recovery after gynecological transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mugita, M; Kawahara, R; Tamai, Y; Yamasaki, K; Okuno, S; Hanada, R; Inaoka, M; Funato, T

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and rectus sheath (RS) blocks in pain management and recovery after gynecological single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Abilateral TAP block (Group A, n = 9), bilateral TAP and RS blocks (Group B, n = 10), and a bilateral RS block (Group C, n = 9) with 40 ml ropivacaine per patient were conducted in 28 patients undergoing SILS for ovarian tumors. A pain score and walking distance in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were examined. Pain scores were significantly lower on postoperative day (POD) 3 than on POD 1 in Groups B (p = 0.03) and C (p = 0.02). The walking distance on POD 3 was comparable with that before surgery in Group C (p = 0.75), but shorter in Groups A (p = 0.004) and B (p = 0.02). The RS block alone was the most effective in relieving pain and accelerating general recovery after gynecological SILS.

  16. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of single-shot and continuous transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Mi; Byeon, Gyeong-Jo; Park, Soon-Ji; Ok, Young-Min; Shin, Sang-Wook; Yang, Kwangho

    2017-06-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided single-shot and continuous transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to that of IV-PCA in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Post-anesthesia care unit and General ward. 108 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I-II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group A received IV-PCA; group B received both ultrasound-guided single-shot TAP block with 0.2% ropivacaine (20mL) and IV-PCA; and group C received continuous TAP block using an ultrasound-guidance-inserted indwelling catheter. In group C, infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine at a basal rate of 3mL/h, bolus dose of 4mL, and a lockout interval of 30min was maintained for 48h postoperatively. The primary outcome was evaluated analgesic efficacy using the numeric rating scale (NRS) for 48h postoperatively. Other outcomes included the number of patients requiring additional analgesics, patient satisfaction with postoperative pain control, and incidence of postoperative adverse events. Compared to other groups, group C had higher deep abdominal NRS at 1h postoperatively (P<0.05), and lower incidence of postoperative urinary retention (P<0.05). There were no significant intergroup differences in the number of patients requiring additional analgesics, and patient satisfaction with postoperative pain control. Compared to IV-PCA with or without single-shot TAP block, ultrasound-guided continuous TAP block provided similar analgesia in somatic pain and less analgesia in visceral pain. Moreover, the latter resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative urinary retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The efficacy of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy – a prospective, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Hadade, Adina; Bartos, Adrian; Mitre, Călin; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pain control after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can represent a challenge, considering the side effects due to standard analgesia methods. Recently the transversus abdominis plane block (TAP Block) has been used as a part of multimodal analgesia with promising results. The subcostal approach (OSTAP Block), a variant on the TAP block, produces reliable unilateral supraumbilical analgesia. This study evaluated the efficacy of the OSTAP block with bupivacaine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with the placebo OSTAP block. Material and Methods Sixty ASA I/II adult patients listed for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated in one of two groups: Group A (OSTAP placebo) received preoperatively bilateral OSTAP block with sterile normal saline and Group B (OSTAP bupivacaine) received bilateral preoperatively OSTAP block with the same volumes of 0.25% bupivacaine. Twenty-four hours postoperative opioid consumption, the dose of opioid required during surgery, opioid dose in the recovery unit (PACU) and PACU length of stay were evaluated. The quality of analgesia was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at specific interval hours during 24 h, at rest and with movement. Results The mean intraoperative opioid consumption showed a significant difference between the two groups, (385 ± 72.52 mg in group A vs 173.67 ± 48.60 mg in group B, p < 0.001). The mean 24 h opioid consumption showed a statistically significant difference between groups (32 ± 26.05 mg vs 79 ± 16.68 mg, p < 0.001). PACU length of stay was significantly lower for group B patients compared with group A patients (20.67 ± 11.27 min vs 41.67 ± 12.41 min, p < 0.001). The OSTAP bupivacaine group had a statistically significant lower pain score than the OSTAP placebo group at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h, both at rest and with movement. No signs or symptoms of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity or other complications were detected. Conclusion OSTAP block with

  18. The efficacy of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy - a prospective, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Hadade, Adina; Bartos, Adrian; Mitre, Călin; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Pain control after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can represent a challenge, considering the side effects due to standard analgesia methods. Recently the transversus abdominis plane block (TAP Block) has been used as a part of multimodal analgesia with promising results. The subcostal approach (OSTAP Block), a variant on the TAP block, produces reliable unilateral supraumbilical analgesia. This study evaluated the efficacy of the OSTAP block with bupivacaine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with the placebo OSTAP block. Sixty ASA I/II adult patients listed for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated in one of two groups: Group A (OSTAP placebo) received preoperatively bilateral OSTAP block with sterile normal saline and Group B (OSTAP bupivacaine) received bilateral preoperatively OSTAP block with the same volumes of 0.25% bupivacaine. Twenty-four hours postoperative opioid consumption, the dose of opioid required during surgery, opioid dose in the recovery unit (PACU) and PACU length of stay were evaluated. The quality of analgesia was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at specific interval hours during 24 h, at rest and with movement. The mean intraoperative opioid consumption showed a significant difference between the two groups, (385 ± 72.52 mg in group A vs 173.67 ± 48.60 mg in group B, p < 0.001). The mean 24 h opioid consumption showed a statistically significant difference between groups (32 ± 26.05 mg vs 79 ± 16.68 mg, p < 0.001). PACU length of stay was significantly lower for group B patients compared with group A patients (20.67 ± 11.27 min vs 41.67 ± 12.41 min, p < 0.001). The OSTAP bupivacaine group had a statistically significant lower pain score than the OSTAP placebo group at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h, both at rest and with movement. No signs or symptoms of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity or other complications were detected. OSTAP block with bupivacaine 0.25% can provide effective analgesia up to 24

  19. Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block following cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, B; Charfi, R; Bennasr, L; Marzouk, S Ben; Eljebari, H; Jebabli, N; Sassi, M Ben; Trabelsi, S; Maghrebi, H

    2017-11-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block is an effective method of post-cesarean analgesia. There are no data available about plasma bupivacaine levels after this block in adults. This study aimed to assess bupivacaine pharmacokinetic parameters after ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks following cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. A prospective observational study in parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery under hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia was conducted. After surgery, patients received bilateral transversus abdominis plane block (50mg bupivacaine each side). Venous blood samples were collected immediately before performing the block and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 720 and 1440minutes. High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure total plasma bupivacaine concentrations. Mean bupivacaine area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from 0 to 24hours. Data were collected from 17 parturients. Mean age and body mass index were 31±6y and 30±4kg/m 2 respectively. Mean plasma bupivacaine concentration before the block was 171ng/mL. Mean peak concentration was 802.36ng/mL (range 231.8 to 3504.5ng/mL). Mean time to peak concentration was 30min and mean area-under-the-curve (0-24h) was 4505.4h.ng/mL. Mean elimination half-life was 8.75h. Three subjects had concentrations above the quoted toxic threshold and mild symptoms suggestive of neurotoxicity were reported by two subjects, but no treatment was required. Single-dose bilateral transversus abdominis plane block using 100mg of bupivacaine, after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, can result in toxic plasma bupivacaine concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block versus local wound infiltration for post operative analgesia in patients undergoing gynaecological surgery under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, S; Shrestha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block has been recently developed as a part of multimodal post operative analgesic techniques. We compared the analgesic efficacy of this technique with local bupivacaine infiltration in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries with pfannenstiel incision and lower midline incision under general anaesthesia. To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups: control group (n=15), transversus abdominis plane block group (n=15), who received bilateral transversus abdominis plane blockwith 0.25% bupivacaine, and local infiltration group (n=15), who received local wound infiltration with 0.25% bupivacaine at the end of surgery. All patients received intramuscular diclofenac 12 hourly and intravenous tramadol SOS in the postoperative period. Visual analogue scores for pain were assessed at 1,2,4,8,12 and 24 hours postoperatively and these were compared between the three groups. Average tramadol consumption in 24 hours were also compared among the three groups. Data were subjected to univariate ANOVA test and chi-square test. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Visual analogue scores were significantly less in transversus abdominis plane block group and effect lasted up to 12 hours at rest postoperatively and 8 hours during cough and movement. Bilateral Transversus abdominis plane block was effective in reducing postoperative pain scores for 8 to 12 hours postoperatively. This block was also successful in reducing postoperative opioid requirement.

  1. Effect of local wound infiltration and transversus abdominis plane block on morphine use after laparoscopic colectomy: a nonrandomized, single-blind prospective study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Seok; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Hoon; Jeon, Younghoon; Park, Sungsik; Yeo, Jinseok

    2015-05-01

    Recently, nonopioid-based treatment modalities have been used to improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects after surgery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and local infiltration of the surgical wound are commonly used multimodal analgesia techniques after abdominal surgery; however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of a TAP block with that of local infiltration of surgical wounds in patients who have undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery participated in this prospective comparative study. All patients were allocated to 1 of 2 groups as follows: the TAP group or the infiltration group. Patients in the TAP group received bilateral TAP blocks at the end of the surgery. Patients in the infiltration group received local infiltration of anesthetics in the surgical wounds after closure of the peritoneum. All patients received postoperative analgesia with morphine as a patient-controlled analgesia. Opioid consumption and pain scores were recorded at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after the operation. The characteristics of patients in the TAP group (n = 30) and local infiltration group (n = 29) were comparable. Pain scores while coughing and at rest were not different between the two groups. Postoperative morphine use was significantly reduced in the TAP group compared with that in the local infiltration group at 2-6 h (2.9 ± 1.9 mg versus 4.5 ± 3.2 mg, P = 0.02), 6-24 h (5.5 ± 3.3 mg versus 10.2 ± 8.4 mg, P = 0.00), the first 24 h (16.6 ± 6.6 mg versus 24.0 ± 9.7 mg), and 48 h (23.6 ± 8.2 mg versus 31.8 ± 12.5 mg, P = 0.00). No differences in rescue analgesic use or side effects were noted between the groups. Compared with local anesthetic infiltration, bilateral TAP blocks decreased the cumulative morphine use at 24 h and 48 h postoperatively in patients who had undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  2. Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Patients Undergoing Midline Colorectal Surgeries Using Ropivacaine: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Nahida; Bhat, Wasim Mohammad; Iqbal, Malik Zaffar; Wani, Anisur Rehman; Gurcoo, Showkat A; Rasool, Sahir

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is done as a part of multimodal analgesia for pain relief after abdominal surgeries. This prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of bilateral TAP block in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgeries using ropivacaine. Eighty patients scheduled for elective colorectal surgeries involving midline abdominal wall incision under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. Group A received TAP block with 20 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine on either side of the abdominal wall, and Group B received 20 ml of normal saline. The time to request for rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption in 24 h, and satisfaction with the anesthetic technique were assessed. The mean visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were higher in control group ( P > 0.05). Time (min) to request for the first rescue analgesia was prolonged in study group compared to control group ( P < 0.001). The total tramadol consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly high in control group ( P < 0.001). Nausea/vomiting was more common in control group ( P > 0.05). The level of satisfaction concerning postoperative pain control/anesthetic technique was higher in study group ( P < 0.001). TAP block produces effective and prolonged postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgery. It is a technically simple block to perform with a high margin of safety. It produces a considerable reduction in mean intravenous postoperative tramadol requirements, reduction in postoperative pain scores, and increased time to first request for further analgesia, both at rest and on movement.

  3. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8 th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8 th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest ( P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h ( P = 0.001). For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption.

  4. Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Patients Undergoing Midline Colorectal Surgeries Using Ropivacaine: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Nahida; Bhat, Wasim Mohammad; Iqbal, Malik Zaffar; Wani, Anisur Rehman; Gurcoo, Showkat A.; Rasool, Sahir

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is done as a part of multimodal analgesia for pain relief after abdominal surgeries. This prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of bilateral TAP block in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgeries using ropivacaine. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients scheduled for elective colorectal surgeries involving midline abdominal wall incision under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. Group A received TAP block with 20 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine on either side of the abdominal wall, and Group B received 20 ml of normal saline. The time to request for rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption in 24 h, and satisfaction with the anesthetic technique were assessed. Results: The mean visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were higher in control group (P > 0.05). Time (min) to request for the first rescue analgesia was prolonged in study group compared to control group (P < 0.001). The total tramadol consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly high in control group (P < 0.001). Nausea/vomiting was more common in control group (P > 0.05). The level of satisfaction concerning postoperative pain control/anesthetic technique was higher in study group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: TAP block produces effective and prolonged postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgery. It is a technically simple block to perform with a high margin of safety. It produces a considerable reduction in mean intravenous postoperative tramadol requirements, reduction in postoperative pain scores, and increased time to first request for further analgesia, both at rest and on movement. PMID:28928585

  5. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Results: Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest (P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h (P = 0.001). Conclusion: For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption. PMID:28928569

  6. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair: 0.125% bupivacaine provides similar analgesic effect compared to 0.25% bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan Arı, Dilek; Yıldırım Ar, Arzu; Karadoğan, Firdevs; Özcabı, Yetkin; Koçoğlu, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Fatih; Akgün, Fatma Nur

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 0.125% bupivacaine compared to 0.25% bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair. Randomized, double-blind study. Educational and research hospital. Forty adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III undergoing elective primary unilateral open inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia. Patients in group I received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, whereas patients in group II received 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine for TAP block at the end of the surgery. Pain intensity was assessed at rest and during coughing using 10-cm visual analog scale score at 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after TAP block. Morphine consumption and time to first morphine requirement were recorded. Visual analog scale scores at rest and during coughing were not significantly different between groups at all time points measured. Twenty-four hours of morphine consumption (7.72±7.33 mg in group I and 6.06±5.20 mg in group II; P=.437) and time to first morphine requirement (182.35±125.16 minutes in group I and 143.21±87.28 minutes in group II; P=.332) were not different between groups. 0.125% Bupivacaine provides similar analgesic effect compared to 0.25% bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Case of Leriche's syndrome treated with safe and effective analgesia after laparotomy by transversus abdominis plane block, rectus sheath block, and continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine].

    PubMed

    Hotta, Arisa; Yagi, Yuuki; Hakata, Saaya; Tsumura, Yae; Shimizu, Motoko; Kukida, Ayako; Nakamoto, Ai; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Oohira, Naoko; Tatekawa, Shigeki

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks in the abdominal wall, such as transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) and rectus sheath block, are now widely used. We report a case of Leriche's syndrome treated with safe and effective analgesia after laparotomy by abdominal wall block and continuous infusion. A 61-year-old man diagnosed with Leriche's syndrome underwent Y-graft replacement for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Preoperative enhanced and 3-dimensional CTs showed many collateral arterial systems, especially in the right abdominal wall. It was suggested that the right internal iliac artery had been completely occluded, and the left one showed severe stenosis. After the induction of general anesthesia, we recognized collateral arteries through an ultrasound view as on preoperative CTs. We lowered the pulse repetition frequency more than usual in order not to injure them. We injected 0.1875% ropivacaine 60 ml as TAP block, and 20 ml as rectus sheath block. When the wound was closed, a catheter was passed through an 18-gauge Tuohy needle placed above the fascia along the supraumbilical site. After the operation, 0.2% ropivacaine was continuously delivered at a rate of 6 ml hr-1 through the catheter. We could provide the patient with effective analgesia after surgery.

  8. No benefit of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks over wound infiltration with local anaesthetic in elective laparoscopic colonic surgery: results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rashid, A; Gorissen, K J; Ris, F; Gosselink, M P; Shorthouse, J R; Smith, A D; Pandit, J J; Lindsey, I; Crabtree, N A

    2017-07-01

    Advances in laparoscopic techniques combined with enhanced recovery pathways have led to faster recuperation and discharge after colorectal surgery. Peripheral nerve blockade using transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks reduce opioid requirements and provide better analgesia for laparoscopic colectomies than do inactive controls. This double-blind randomized study was performed to compare TAP blocks using bupivacaine with standardized wound infiltration with local anaesthetic (LA). Seventy-one patients were randomized to receive either TAP block or wound infiltration. The TAP blocks were performed by experienced anaesthetists who used ultrasound guidance to deliver 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine post-induction into the transverse abdominis plane. In the control group, 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine was injected around the trocar and the extraction site by the surgeon. Both groups received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Patients and nursing staff assessed pain scores 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The primary outcome was overall morphine use in the first 48 h. Of the 71 patients, 20 underwent a right hemicolectomy and 51 a high anterior resection. The modified intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences in overall morphine use [47.3 (36.2-58.5) mg vs 46.7 (36.2-57.3) mg; mean (95% CI), P = 0.8663] in the first 48 h. Pain scores were similar at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. No differences were found regarding time to mobilization, resumption of diet and length of hospital stay. In elective laparoscopic colectomies, standardized wound infiltration with LA has the same analgesic effect as TAP blocks post-induction using bupivacaine at 48 h. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Transversus abdominis plane block using a short-acting local anesthetic for postoperative pain after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lee, Se-Jun; Do, Sang-Hwan; Song, In-Ae

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block using a short-acting local anesthetic as part of multimodal analgesia is efficient in various abdominal surgeries, including laparoscopic surgery. However, information regarding its use in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still limited and sometimes controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic has a positive postoperative analgesic outcome in patients who have undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery. We searched for studies comparing the postoperative pain outcome after laparoscopic colorectal surgery between patients who received TAP block and a control group (placebo or no treatment). Outcome measures were early pain at rest (numeric rating scale [NRS] score at 0-2 h postoperatively), late pain at movement (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), late pain at rest (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), and postoperative opioid consumption (up to 24 h postoperatively). We used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis and Egger's regression test to detect publication bias. We included six studies involving 452 patients (224 in the TAP block group, 228 in the control group). Early and late pain scores at movement were significantly different between the TAP block and control groups (standardized mean difference: - 0.695, P < 0.0001 for early pain and - 0.242, P = 0.029 for late pain). There was no significant difference between the TAP block and control groups in early pain at rest (P = 0.475), late pain at rest (P = 0.826), and postoperative opioid consumption (P = 0.257). The TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic had a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) period at movement. However, it did not have a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) periods at rest after laparoscopic surgery.

  10. Role of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesic regimen for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized double blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Ashok; Jain, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Swastika; Motaka, Mayur; Parida, Sudhansu Sekhar; Sinha, Neelam; Agrawal, Amit; Pati, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-14

    While opioids are the mainstay for post-operative analgesia after lower segment caesarean section, they are associated with various untoward effects. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been postulated to provide effective analgesia for caesarean section. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of this block for post caesarean analgesia in a randomised controlled trial. One hundred thirty-nine mothers undergoing caesarean delivery were randomised to receive TAP block with either 20 ml 0.375% ropivacaine or 20 ml saline after obtaining informed consent. All the subjects received a standard spinal anaesthetic and diclofenac was administered for post-operative pain. Breakthrough pain was treated with tramadol. Post-operatively, all the subjects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 & 24 h. The primary outcome was the time to first analgesic request. The secondary measures of outcome were pain, nausea, sedation, number of doses of tramadol administered and satisfaction with the pain management. The median (interquartile range) time to first analgesic request was prolonged in the TAP group compared to the control group (p < 0.0001); 11 h (8,12) and 4 h (2.5,6) respectively. The median (interquartile range) number of doses of tramadol consumed in the TAP group was 0 (0,1) compared to 2 (1,2) in the control group (p < 0.0001). At all points in the study, pain scores both at rest and on movement were lower in the study group (p < 0.0001). Maternal satisfaction with pain relief was also higher in the study group (p 0.0002). One subject in the TAP group had convulsions following injection of local anaesthetic solution. She was managed conservatively with supportive treatment following which she recovered. TAP block reduces pain, prolongs the duration of analgesia and decreases supplemental opioid consumption when used for multimodal analgesia for pain relief after caesarean section. However, the risk of local anaesthetic systemic

  11. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block versus Ilioinguinal/Iliohypogastric Nerve Block with Wound Infiltration for Postoperative Analgesia in Inguinal Hernia Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Chinthavali; Zachariah, Mamie; Ranjan, R V; George, Sagiev Koshy; Ramachandran, T R; Pillai, Anil Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Various analgesic modalities have been used for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. In this randomized clinical trial, we have compared the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with that of ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (IIIH) nerve block with wound infiltration in patients undergoing unilateral open inguinal hernia repair. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of postoperative analgesia of ultrasound-guided TAP block and IIIH block with wound infiltration (WI) in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia surgery. This was a randomized clinical trial performed in a tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients scheduled for hernia repair were randomized into two groups, Group T and Group I. Postoperatively, under ultrasound guidance, Group T received 20 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine - TAP block and Group I received 10 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine - IIIH block + WI with 10 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine. The primary outcome measure was the time to rescue analgesia in the first 24 h postoperatively. Fentanyl along with diclofenac was given as first rescue analgesic when the patient complained of pain. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t -test and Chi-square test. Mean time to rescue analgesia was 5.900 ± 1.881 h and 3.766 ± 1.754 h ( P < 0.001) and the mean pain scores were 5.73 ± 0.784 and 6.03 ± 0.850 for Group TAP and IIIH + WI, respectively. Hemodynamics were stable in both the groups. One-third of the patients received one dose of paracetamol in addition to the rescue analgesic in the first 24 h. There were no complications attributed to the block. As a multimodal analgesic regimen, definitely both TAP block and IIIH block with wound infiltration have a supporting role in providing analgesia in the postoperative period for adult inguinal hernia repair. In this study, ultrasound-guided TAP block provided longer pain control postoperatively than IIIH block with WI after inguinal

  12. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Randomized, Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V; Aasvang, Eske K; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Lange, Kai H W

    2015-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6.9-15.7 mm) during a maximal contraction. Sensory block and muscle-relaxing effect duration were 570 minutes (512-716 minutes) and 609 minutes (490-724 minutes), respectively. Cutaneous sensory block area of the TAP block is predominantly located lateral to a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. The distribution is nondermatomal and does not cross the midline. The muscle-relaxing effect is significant and consistent. The block duration is approximately 10 hours with large variation.

  13. Liposomal Bupivacaine Use in Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks Reduces Pain and Postoperative Intravenous Opioid Requirement After Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Audrey L; Adhikary, Sanjib D; Quintili, Ashley; Puleo, Frances J; Choi, Christine S; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Messaris, Evangelos

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced recovery protocols frequently use multimodal postoperative analgesia to improve postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate liposomal bupivacaine use in transversus abdominis plane blocks on postoperative pain scores and opioid use after colorectal surgery. This was a retrospective cohort study comparing outcomes between patients receiving nonliposomal anesthetic (n = 104) and liposomal bupivacaine (n = 303) blocks. The study was conducted at a single tertiary care center. Patients included those identified within an institutional database as inpatients undergoing colorectal procedures between 2013 and 2015 who underwent transversus abdominis plane block for perioperative analgesia. The study measured postoperative pain scores and opioid requirements. Patients receiving liposomal bupivacaine had significantly lower pain scores for the first 24 to 36 postoperative hours. Pain scores were similar after 36 hours. The use of intravenous opioids among the liposomal bupivacaine group decreased by more than one third during the hospitalization (99.1 vs 64.5 mg; p = 0.040). The use of ketorolac was also decreased (49.0 vs 18.3 mg; p < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, the decrease in opioid use was observed between laparoscopic and robotic procedures but not with laparotomies. No significant differences were noted in the use of oral opioids, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen. Postoperative length of stay and total cost were decreased in the liposomal bupivacaine group but did not achieve statistical significance. The study was limited by its retrospective, single-center design and heterogeneity of block administration. Attenuated pain scores observed with liposomal bupivacaine use were associated with significantly lower intravenous opioid and ketorolac use, suggesting that liposomal bupivacaine-containing transversus abdominis plane blocks are well aligned with the opioid-reducing goals of many enhanced

  14. The analgesic efficacy of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block with Mercedes incision.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Guo; Li, Hui-Ling; Pei, Qing-Qing; Feng, Zhi-Ying

    2018-04-10

    Conventional perioperative analgesic modalities (e.g. opioids, epidural analgesia) have their own drawbacks, which limit their clinical application. This study investigated the opioid-sparing effectsof the oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) blockade with ropivacaine for the patients undergoing open liver resection with a Mercedes incision. 126 patients who were scheduled for open liver resection were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive bilateral ultrasound-guided OSTAPblocks with either 0.375% ropivacaine (groupT) or 0.9% isotonic saline (group C). Both groups also received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and intravenous 40 mg parecoxib every 12 h for a total of 3 days. Preoperative and intraoperative parameters, plus intraoperative and postoperative cumulative sufentanil consumption, were recorded. 70 patients were enrolled in the study finally. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to preoperative parameters, and surgical and anesthetic characteristics. The intraoperative sufentanil use, cumulative sufentanil consumption at 5 min after extubation, 2 h, 4 h,12 h and 24 h after operation in group T was significantly less than that in group C (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.000, 0.000, 0.001 and 0.044, respectively). Compared with group C, postoperative NRS pain scores at rest were significantly lower at 2 h and 4 h postoperatively in group T (P = 0.04and 0.02, respectively); NRS scores at the time of coughing were also significantly lower in group T than in group C at all time points except 5 min after extubation (all P < 0.001). Furthermore, compared with group C, the number of intraoperative vasodilator use, the extubation time and the incidence of nausea was reduced in group T. Ultrasound-guided OSTAP block with ropivacaine can significantly decrease the perioperative cumulative dosage of analgesics and improve analgesic effect without obvious side

  15. A randomised trial of the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after caesarean delivery under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Terry T; Teoh, Wendy H L; Woo, David C M; Ocampo, Cecilia E; Shah, Mukesh K; Sia, Alex T H

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies examining the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after caesarean section have mostly been in parturients under spinal anaesthesia. We postulated that the advantage of performing transversus abdominis plane block after caesarean section might be even more obvious after general anaesthesia, resulting in reduced 24-h consumption of morphine. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: In this single centre, randomised double-blind controlled trial, 40 women who underwent caesarean delivery under general anaesthesia were allocated randomly to receive a transversus abdominis plane block or no block. In those who received the block, 20 ml of levobupivacaine 2.5 mg ml was deposited bilaterally into the transversus abdominis plane under ultrasound guidance using a Sonosite Titan (SonoSite, Bothell, Washington, USA) 7-13 MHz linear transducer at the end of surgery when the patient was still anaesthetised. We recorded patient-controlled intravenous morphine use for 24 h, pain scores at rest and activity, sedation, nausea and vomiting, use of antiemetic medication and overall maternal satisfaction. The primary outcome was 24-h morphine consumption. Patients who received the transversus abdominis plane block used significantly less morphine in 24 h than those in the control group [12.3 (2.6) vs. 31.4 mg (3.1), P<0.001) and had higher satisfaction scores [16 (80%) vs. 5 (25%), P = 0.012). There were no differences between groups in the visual analogue pain scores, sedation level, nausea and vomiting or the use of antiemetic medication. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block reduced morphine consumption following caesarean section under general anaesthesia, with increased maternal satisfaction.

  16. Relative Efficacy of Ultrasound-guided Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric Nerve Block versus Transverse Abdominis Plane Block for Postoperative Analgesia following Lower Segment Cesarean Section: A Prospective, Randomized Observer-blinded Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiran, L Vamsee; Sivashanmugam, T; Kumar, V R Hemanth; Krishnaveni, N; Parthasarathy, S

    2017-01-01

    Quality of postoperative analgesia after cesarean section makes difference to mother in child bonding, early ambulation, and discharge. Ilioinguinal iliohypogastric (ILIH) and transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block had been tried to reduce the opioid analgesics, but the relative efficacy is unknown. Hence, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two regional analgesic techniques in sparing postoperative rescue analgesic requirement following lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). Sixty patients who underwent LSCS were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either US-guided TAP block or ILIH nerve block using sealed envelope technique at the end of the surgery. In the postoperative ward, whenever patient complained of pain, pain nurse in-charge administered the rescue analgesics as per the study protocol. A blinded observer visited the patient at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h postoperative intervals and recorded the quality of pain relief and the amount of rescue analgesic consumed. All patients in both the study groups required one dose of rescue analgesics in the form of injection diclofenac sodium 50 mg intravenously but subsequently 57% of patients did not require any further analgesics till 24 h in the TAP block group whereas in ILIH group, only 13% did not require further analgesics ( P = 0.00), correspondingly the cumulative tramadol dose was significantly higher at all the time interval in the ILIH group when compared to the TAP group. Quality of postoperative analgesia provided by TAP block was superior to ILIH block following LSCS.

  17. Dexmedetomidine decreases the required amount of bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in pediatrics patients: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Raof, Rehab Abdel; El Metainy, Shahira Ahmed; Alia, Doaa Abou; Wahab, Moataza Abdel

    2017-02-01

    The effect of dexmedetomidine on the potency of bupivacaine for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in pediatric patients has not been investigated. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine to decrease the concentration of bupivacaine needed for analgesia for ultrasound-guided TAP block in a pediatric patient undergoing hernia repair or hydrocelectomy. This is a randomized, double-blind, up-down, dose-finding study. Operating room. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients aged 1-4 years scheduled for elective unilateral herniorrhaphy or hydrocelectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups: group B (0.125% bupivacaine, 1mL/kg) TAP block or group BD (0.125% bupivacaine plus 2μg/kg dexmedetomidine, 1mL/kg) TAP block. The response of each child was observed for 60 seconds after skin incision and evaluated as 'unsuccessful' when skin incision caused a change in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and mean blood pressure) 20% more than the preincision values. If the response was determined to be unsuccessful, the concentration of bupivacaine administrated to the next patient was increased by 0.02%. If it was successful, the concentration of bupivacaine administrated to the next patient was decreased by 0.02%. The minimum local anesthetic concentration of bupivacaine was 0.0839% (0.0137) in the B group and 0.0550% (0.0169) in the BD group. The difference was statistically significant (t=7.165, P=.0001). The total postoperative analgesic dosage of morphine was significantly higher in the B group (0.17±0.04 mg/kg) than the BD group (0.11±0.02 mg/kg, P=.001). The addition of 2μg/kg of dexmedetomidine reduced the minimum local anesthetic concentration of bupivacaine used for a TAP block and improved postoperative analgesia in children undergoing surgery for inguinal hernia repair or hydrocelectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transperitoneal rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Nagata, Masato; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Tajima, Takehide; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Horishita, Reiko; Kida, Kentaro; Hamada, Kotaro; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-08-01

    A laparoscopic approach for inguinal hernia repair is now considered the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia cannot be used in patients with perioperative anticoagulant therapy because of complications such as epidural hematoma. As such, regional anesthetic techniques, such as ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block, have become increasingly popular. However, even these anesthetic techniques have potential complications, such as rectus sheath hematoma, if vessels are damaged. We report the use of a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach for rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block as a novel anesthetic procedure. An 81-year-old woman with direct inguinal hernia underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal repair. Epidural anesthesia was not performed because anticoagulant therapy was administered. A Peti-needle™ was delivered through the port, and levobupivacaine was injected though the peritoneum. Surgery was performed successfully, and the anesthetic technique did not affect completion of the operative procedure. The patient was discharged without any complications. This technique was feasible, and the procedure was performed safely. Our novel analgesia technique has potential use as a standard postoperative regimen in various laparoscopic surgeries. Additional prospective studies to compare it with other techniques are required. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block compared with medial transverse abdominis plane block in inguinal hernia repair: A prospective, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nidhi; Sen, Indu Mohini; Mandal, Banashree; Batra, Ankita

    2018-03-29

    Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block, administered a little more medially, just close to the origin of the transverse abdominis muscle has not yet been investigated in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. We hypothesised that medial transverse abdominis plane block would provide comparable postoperative analgesia to ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block in inguinal hernia repair patients. This prospective, randomised trial was conducted in 50 ASA I and II male patients≥18 years of age. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive either pre-incisional ipsilateral ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block or medial transverse abdominis plane block, with 0.3ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine. Our primary objective was postoperative 24-hour analgesic consumption and secondary outcomes included pain scores, time to first request for rescue analgesic and side effects, if any, in the postoperative period. There was no significant difference in the total postoperative analgesic consumption [group I: 66.04mg; group II: 68.33mg (P value 0.908)]. Time to first request for rescue analgesic was delayed, though statistically non-significant (P value 0.326), following medial transverse abdominis plane block, with excellent pain relief seen in 58.3% patients as opposed to 45.8% patients in ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block group. Medial transverse abdominis plane block being a novel, simple and easily performed procedure can serve as an useful alternative to ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block for providing postoperative pain relief in inguinal hernia repair patients. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B; Lind, Morten N; Pedersen, Lars M; Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Foss, Nicolai B

    2015-03-01

    To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. Hvidovre University Hospital. Forty-six women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. Women received either ropivacaine 0.75%, 20 mL (n = 24) or 0.9% saline, 20 mL (n = 24) in the transversus abdominis plane on each side. Primary outcome was the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest and during coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h, and time to first mobilization. There was no difference in the mean 24-h postoperative morphine consumption between the two groups (p = 0.733). The ropivacaine group had significantly lower median pain scores at 1 h (p = 0.008) and 2 h (p = 0.027) postoperatively at rest and at 8 h (p = 0.028) during coughing. There was no significant difference in other secondary outcomes. There was no reduction in 24-h morphine consumption when using an ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  2. Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks with Single-Dose Liposomal Bupivacaine in Conjunction with a Nonnarcotic Pain Regimen Help Reduce Length of Stay following Abdominally Based Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jablonka, Eric M; Lamelas, Andreas M; Kim, Julie N; Molina, Bianca; Molina, Nathan; Okwali, Michelle; Samson, William; Sultan, Mark R; Dayan, Joseph H; Smith, Mark L

    2017-08-01

    Side effects associated with use of postoperative narcotics for pain control can delay recovery after abdominally based microsurgical breast reconstruction. The authors evaluated a nonnarcotic pain control regimen in conjunction with bilateral transversus abdominis plane blocks on facilitating early hospital discharge. A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction using abdominally based free flaps, with or without being included in a nonnarcotic protocol using intraoperative transversus abdominis plane blockade. During this period, the use of locoregional analgesia evolved from none (control), to continuous bupivacaine infusion transversus abdominis plane and catheters, to single-dose transversus abdominis plane blockade with liposomal bupivacaine solution. Demographic factors, length of stay, inpatient opioid consumption, and complications were reported for all three groups. One hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients (182 flaps) were identified. Forty patients (62 flaps) were in the infusion-liposomal bupivacaine group, 48 (66 flaps) were in the single-dose blockade-catheter group, and 40 (54 flaps) were in the control group. The infusion-liposomal bupivacaine patients had a significantly shorter hospital stay compared with the single-dose blockade-catheter group (2.65 ± 0.66 versus 3.52 ± 0.92 days; p < 0.0001) and the control group (2.65 ± 0.66 versus 4.05 ± 1.26 days; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in flap loss or major complications among groups. When used as part of a nonnarcotic postoperative pain regimen, transversus abdominis plane blocks performed with single injections of liposomal bupivacaine help facilitate early hospital discharge after abdominally based microsurgical breast reconstruction. A trend toward consistent discharge by postoperative day 2 was seen. This could result in significant cost savings for health care systems. Therapeutic, III.

  3. Effect of transversus abdominis plane block in combination with general anesthesia on perioperative opioid consumption, hemodynamics, and recovery in living liver donors: The prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Mehmet A; Ozgul, Ulku; Uçar, Muharrem; Yalin, Mehmet R; Colak, Yusuf Z; Çolak, Cemil; Toprak, Huseyin I

    2017-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgeries. It can be also a useful strategy to reduce perioperative opioid consumption, support intraoperative hemodynamic stability, and promote early recovery from anesthesia. The aim of this prospective randomized double-blind study was to assess the effect of subcostal TAP blocks on perioperative opioid consumption, hemodynamic, and recovery time in living liver donors. The prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted with 49 living liver donors, aged 18-65 years, who were scheduled to undergo right hepatectomy. Patients who received subcostal TAP block in combination with general anesthesia were allocated into Group 1, and patients who received general anesthesia alone were allocated into Group 2. The TAP blocks were performed bilaterally by obtaining an image with real-time ultrasound guidance using 0.5% bupivacaine diluted with saline to reach a total volume of 40 mL. The primary outcome measure in our study was perioperative remifentanil consumption. Secondary outcomes were mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), mean desflurane requirement, anesthesia recovery time, frequency of emergency vasopressor use, total morphine use, and length of hospital stay. Total remifentanil consumption and the anesthesia recovery time were significantly lower in Group 1 compared with Group 2. Postoperative total morphine use and length of hospital stay were also reduced. Changes in the MAP and HR were similar in the both groups. There were no significant differences in HR and MBP between groups at any time. Combining subcostal TAP blocks with general anesthesia significantly reduced perioperative and postoperative opioid consumption, provided shorter anesthesia recovery time, and length of hospital stay in living liver donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale).

  5. Effect of addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in ultrasonography-guided transversus abdominis plane block for inguinal hernia repair: A prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma Datt; Prateek; Tak, Himani

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasonography (USG)-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an abdominal field block with high efficacy. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effect of the addition of dexamethasone to 0.5% ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in USG-guided TAP block for inguinal hernia repair. A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on sixty patients posted for inguinal hernia repair with the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I or II, who were allocated two groups of 30 each. Patients in Group RS received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml) and normal saline (2 ml) whereas patients in Group RD received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml) and dexamethasone (2 ml, i.e., 8 mg), in USG-guided TAP Block on the same side, after repair of inguinal hernia under spinal anaesthesia. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, time for request of first analgesia and total tramadol consumption in first 24 h were compared. Unpaired Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed using SPSS 23 Software. Patients in Group RD had significantly lower VAS scores as compared to Group RS from 4 th to 12 th h, postoperatively. Duration of analgesia was significantly more in Group RD (547.50 [530,530] min) when compared with Group RS (387.50 [370,400] min) ( P < 0.001). The demand for intravenous tramadol was significantly low in Group RD (223.33 ± 56.83 mg) as compared to Group RS (293.33 ± 25.71 mg) ( P < 0.001). Addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine in USG-guided TAP block significantly reduces post-operative pain and prolongs the duration of post-operative analgesia, thereby reducing analgesic consumption.

  6. A comparative study to evaluate ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block versus ilioinguinal iliohypogastric nerve block for post-operative analgesia in adult patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Kirti; Jain, Parul; Bansal, Teena; Ahlawat, Geeta

    2018-04-01

    Both transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and combined ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (IIN/IHN) blocks are used routinely under ultrasound (USG) guidance for postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. This study compares USG guided TAP Vs IIN/IHN block for post-operative analgesic efficacy in adults undergoing inguinal hernia surgery. Sixty adults aged 18 to 60 with American Society of Anesthesiologsts' grade I or II were included. After general anaesthesia, patients in Group I received USG guided unilateral TAP block using 0.75% ropivacaine 3 mg/kg (maximum 25 mL) and those in Group II received IIN/IHN block using 10 mL 0.75% ropivacaine. Postoperative rescue analgesia was with tramadol (intravenous) IV ± diclofenac IV in the first 4 h followed by oral diclofenac subsequently. Total analgesic consumption in the first 24 h was the primary objective, intraoperative haemodynamics, number of attempts and time required for performing the block as well as the postoperative pain scores were also evaluated. Time to first analgesic request was 319.8 ± 115.2 min in Group I and 408 ± 116.4 min in Group II ( P = 0.005). Seven patients (23.33%) in Group I and two (6.67%) in Group II required tramadol in first four hours. No patient in either groups received diclofenac IV. The average dose of tablet diclofenac was 200 ± 35.96 mg in Group I and 172.5 ± 34.96 mg in Group II ( P = 0. 004). USG guided IIN/IHN block reduces the postoperative analgesic requirement compared to USG guided TAP block.

  7. Chronological Changes in Ropivacaine Concentration and Analgesic Effects Between Transversus Abdominis Plane Block and Rectus Sheath Block.

    PubMed

    Murouchi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Soshi; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) and rectus sheath block (RSB) are popular methods of controlling postoperative pain. Chronological changes in blood concentrations of local anesthetics have not been described, although a large amount of local anesthetic is required to block these compartments. We postulated that blood concentrations of anesthetics would peak earlier during TAPB than RSB (primary end point). Secondary end points were elapsed time from block until first postoperative rescue analgesia and affected dermatomes. This prospective, randomized study included 22 patients scheduled for laparoscopic ovarian surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomized to receive either a bilateral single-shot TAPB or a bilateral RSB (15 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine per side). Arterial blood was sampled 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ropivacaine administration. This trial was registered at the UMIN-Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000012133) before patient recruitment. Arterial ropivacaine levels after block peaked earlier in the TAPB than in RSB [Tmax: 35 (12) vs 53 (16) minutes; P = 0.02], whereas peak ropivacaine concentrations did not significantly differ between the groups [Cmax: 1.83 (0.41) vs 1.79 (0.33) μg/mL; P = 0.54]. Peak ropivacaine concentrations exceeded 2.2 μg/mL in 1 and 2 patients in the RSB and TAPB groups, respectively, although symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were not evident in any of them. The median [interquartile range] duration of analgesia was significantly longer for TAPB than RSB (421 [335-536] vs 196 [168-277] minutes; P = 0.01). Peak ropivacaine concentrations were comparable during TAPB and RSB, but peaked earlier during TAPB. Although 150 mg of ropivacaine remained effective significantly longer during TAPB than RSB during laparoscopic surgery, this dose could cause local anesthetic systemic toxicity. The analgesic effects of blocks with less ropivacaine should be assessed.

  8. Pethidine efficacy in achieving the ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Bartos, Adrian; Bodea, Raluca; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela

    2017-02-21

    Pethidine is a synthetic opioid with local anesthetic properties. Our goal was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of pethidine for achieving the ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This prospective, double-blind study included 79 patients of physical status I and II according to American Society of Anesthesiologists, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups, depending on the drug used to achieve preoperative bilateral OSTAP block: 1) OSTAP-Placebo (treated with normal saline); 2) OSTAP-Bupivacaine (treated with 0.25% bupivacaine); and 3) OSTAP-Pethidine (treated with 1% pethidine). The efficacy of pethidine in achieving the OSTAP block was analyzed using visual analog scale (VAS), intraoperative opioid dose, opioid consumption in post anesthesia care unit, and opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain scores assessed by VAS at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine than in OSTAP-Placebo group (p < 0.001). The mean intraoperative opioid consumption was significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine compared to OSTAP-Placebo group (150 versus 400 mg, p < 0.001), as well as the mean opioid consumption in the first 24 hours (20.4 versus 78 mg, p < 0.001). Comparing VAS assessment between OSTAP-Bupivacaine and OSTAP-Pethidine groups, statistically significant differences were observed only for the immediate postoperative pain assessment (0 hours), where lower values were observed in OSTAP-Pethidine group (p = 0.004). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (p = 0.131) between the groups. The use of 1% pethidine can be an alternative to 0.25% bupivacaine in achieving OSTAP block for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  9. Postoperative Analgesia by a Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Using Different Concentrations of Ropivacaine for Abdominal Surgery: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ni; Wang, Shouyong; Ma, Pengpeng; Liu, Shuting; Shao, Aijie; Xiong, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) has been proven to be an effective means of postoperative anesthesia, but the optimum effective concentration of ropivacaine warrants further research. This study aimed to identify the optimal ropivacaine concentration of TAPB using a meta-analysis. This study consisted of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched online databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science. RCTs investigating the 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption and the rest and dynamic pain scores 2, 12, and 24 hours after surgery were included in this analysis. We also assessed opioid-related side-effects and patient satisfaction 24 hours after surgery. Nineteen RCTs (1217 patients) were included in this meta-analysis, which showed that only TAPB with 0.375% and 0.5% ropivacaine was able to reduce opioid consumption 24 hours after surgery by weighted mean differences of -6.55 and -4.44 mg (morphine IV equivalents), respectively (P<0.05). A meta-regression analysis did not reveal an association between the local anesthetic dose (in mg), surgery, anesthesia, block timing, and the TAPB effect on opioid consumption. Ropivacaine concentrations of 0.375% and 0.5% reduced the 2-hour postoperative pain score and reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting, but this analgesic effect disappeared at 12 and 24 hours. Only TAPB with 0.375% ropivacaine improved the degree of satisfaction 24 hours after surgery (weighted mean difference of 0.87 [0.08-1.66], P=0.03). In terms of efficacy and safety, the use of 0.375% ropivacaine for TAPB is preferred in the clinical work.

  10. [Ultrasound-guided Rectus Sheath Block vs Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Children Undergoing Umbilical Hernia Repair].

    PubMed

    Torii, Naoko; Tachibana, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Muneyuki; Kinouchi, Keiko

    2016-06-01

    Although many reports describe the usefulness of the rectus sheath block (RSB) in the umbilical hernia repair, the efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and technique of ultrasound-guided RSB and TAPB in children undergoing umbilical hernia repair. Thirty-four children younger than 12 years of age scheduled for umbilical hernia repair were enrolled in this prospective observer-blinded randomized clinical trial. They were randomly assigned either to RSB group (median age, 3.7 years) or TAPB group (median age, 3.8 years). After the induction of general anesthesia with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen children in both groups received regional anesthesia with 0.3 ml x kg(-1) of 0.25% ropivacaine on each side under ultrasound guidance. Hemodynamic changes at the skin incision, postoperative pain scores and parental satisfaction were recorded. Anesthesiologists rated the quality of ultrasound images and easiness of the block performance. The patients' demographics of the two groups were similar. There were no significant differences in the time needed for the block procedure, quality of ultrasound images and the change of the heart rate and blood pressure at the skin incision between the two groups. Postoperative pain score (immediately, 2 and 4 hours after the operation), need for rescue analgesia and satisfaction of the parents also did not differ. There were no major complications in the patients. TAPB provided comparable perioperative analgesia and easiness of block performance to RSB in the pediatric umbilical hernia repair.

  11. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  12. Comparison of efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block and iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy with spinal anesthesia: a prospective randomized controlled open-label study.

    PubMed

    Okur, Onur; Tekgul, Zeki Tuncel; Erkan, Nazif

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lateral abdominal transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) and iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block (IHINB) under ultrasound guidance for postoperative pain management of inguinal hernia repair. Secondary purposes were to compare the complication rates of the two techniques and to examine the effects of TAP block and IHINB on chronic postoperative pain. This was a prospective randomized controlled open-label study. After approval of the Research Ethics Board, a total of 90 patients were allocated to three groups of 30 by simple randomized sampling as determined with a priori power analysis. Peripheral nerve blocks (TAP block or IHINB) were administered to patients following subarachnoid block according to their allocated group. Patient pain scores, additional analgesic requirements and complication rates were recorded periodically and compared. Pain scores were significantly lower in the study groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 for 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 h and at 1 and 6 months, respectively). First pain declaration times were significantly longer in the study groups (TAP block group [GT] 266.6 ± 119.7 min; IHINB group [GI] 247.2 ± 128.7 min; and control group [GC] 79.1 ± 66.2 min; p < 0.001). At 24 h, the numeric rating scale scores of GT were significantly lower than GI (p = 0.048). Additional analgesic requirements of GT and GI patients were found to be significantly lower than GC patients (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.006, p = 0.002, p = 0.001, p < 0.001 for 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively). We conclude that administration of TAP block or IHINB for patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy reduces the intensity of both acute and chronic postoperative pain and additional analgesic requirements.

  13. Comparison of efficacy and safety of lateral-to-medial continuous transversus abdominis plane block with thoracic epidural analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery: A randomised, open-label feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Sugantha; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Terlecki, Magdalena; Brookes, Jonathan; Das Adhikary, Sanjib; Subramanian, Lakshmimathy

    2015-11-01

    We recently described a lateral-to-medial approach for transversus abdominis plane (LM-TAP) block, which may permit preoperative initiation of the block. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of continuous LM-TAP blocks in clinical practice in comparison with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). A randomised, open-label study. University Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada from July 2008 to August 2012. Fifty adult patients undergoing open abdominal surgery via laparotomy were allocated randomly to receive preoperative catheter-congruent TEA or ultrasound-guided continuous bilateral LM-TAP block for 72 h postoperatively. Reasons for noninclusion were American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status more than 4, known allergy to study drugs, chronic pain/opioid dependence, spinal abnormalities or psychiatric illness. In the TEA group (n = 24), patient-controlled epidural analgesia was maintained using bupivacaine 0.1% with hydromorphone 10 μg ml⁻¹ after establishment of the initial block. In the LM-TAP group (n = 26), ultrasound-guided LM-TAP catheters were inserted on each side preoperatively after a bolus of 30 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% (20 ml subcostal and 10 ml subumbilical injections on both sides). Analgesia was maintained with an infusion of ropivacaine 0.35% at a rate of 2 to 2.5 ml h⁻¹ through each catheter, along with rescue intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The primary outcome was pain score on coughing 24 h after the end of surgery. Secondary outcomes were pain scores from 24 to 72 h, intraoperative and postoperative opioid consumption, time to onset of bowel movement and side effect profiles. Mean [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] pain scores at rest ranged from 1. 7 (0.9 to 2.5) to 2.3 (1.1 to 3.4) in TEA vs. 1.5 (0.7 to 2.2) to 2.2 (1.3 to 3.0) in LM-TAP (P = 0.829). The dynamic pain scores ranged from 2.9 (1.5 to 4.4) to 3.8 (2.8 to 4.8) in TEA vs. 3.3 (2.4 to 4

  14. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Caudal Epidural for Lower Abdominal Surgery in Children: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bryskin, Robert B; Londergan, Bevan; Wheatley, Rebekah; Heng, Renee; Lewis, Marjorie; Barraza, Mark; Mercer, Erica; Ye, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) has emerged as a safe and effective regional anesthesia technique for providing postoperative lower abdominal analgesia. Complications associated with TAPB are rare and pose a lower overall risk to the patient receiving a TAPB versus a caudal block, which is considered the gold standard for pediatric lower abdominal regional anesthesia. Our study hypothesis was that TAPB would initially be equivalent to caudal block in providing postoperative pain control but would also show improved pain relief beyond the anticipated caudal duration. This study was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Forty-five children between the ages of 1 and 9 undergoing bilateral ureteral reimplantation surgery through a low transverse incision were enrolled. Narcotic requirement, pain scores (FLACC/Wong-Baker FACES), episodes of emesis, and antispasmodic requirement were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 6-hour intervals for 24 hours from the time of block placement. Our protocol used a multimodal approach toward pain management in all children, including randomized regional technique, scheduled ketorolac, morphine as needed, and the antispasmodic, oxybutynin, as needed. Morphine requirement showed no statistical difference during the initial 12 hours (all P ≥ 0.68 at PACU, 6 and 12 hours). However, at 24 hours those patients randomized to receive the TAPB required less cumulative morphine than the caudal group (0.05 mg/kg ± 0.06 vs 0.09 mg/kg ± 0.07, P = 0.03). There was a trend toward fewer episodes of emesis in the TAPB group which reached statistical significance at 18 and 24 hours (6 vs 1 episodes, P = 0.03; and 9 vs 2 episodes, P = 0.02). Pain scores (0-10) were higher in the TAPB group in the PACU (3.46 ± 2.69 vs 1.71 ± 2.1, P = 0.02), but there were no significant differences at all subsequent time points (all P ≥ 0.10). The TAPB group also had a higher requirement for the bladder antispasmodic oxybutynin

  15. Continuous Transversus Abdominis Plane Nerve Blocks: Does Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method-Automatic Repeated Bolus Versus Continuous Basal Infusion-Influence the Extent of Sensation to Cold?: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Crossover Study in Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Bahareh; Said, Engy T; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Monahan, Amanda M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Furnish, Timothy J; Tran, Johnathan T; Donohue, Michael C; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2017-04-01

    It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours. The right side was randomly assigned to either a basal infusion (8 mL/h) or bolus doses (24 mL administered every 3 hours for a total of 2 bolus doses) in a double-masked manner. The left side received the alternate treatment. The primary end point was the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller along the axillary line at hour 6 (6 hours after the local anesthetic administration was initiated). Secondary end points included the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller and Von Frey filaments along the axillary line and along a transverse line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine at hours 0 to 6. Although there were statistically significant differences between treatments within the earlier part of the administration period, by hour 6 the difference in extent of sensory deficit to cold failed to reach statistical significance along the axillary line (mean = 0.9 cm; SD = 6.8; 95% confidence interval -2.0 to 3.8; P = .515) and transverse line (mean = 2.5 cm; SD = 10.1; 95% confidence interval -1.8 to 6.8; P = .244). Although the difference between treatments was statistically significant at various early time points for the horizontal, vertical, and estimated area measurements of both cold and mechanical pressure sensory deficits, no comparison remained statistically significant by hour 6. No evidence was found in this study involving healthy volunteers to support the hypothesis that changing the local anesthetic

  16. Levobupivacaine-dextran mixture for transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Tsuchiya, M; Mizutani, K; Takahashi, R; Muguruma, K; Maeda, K; Ueda, W; Nishikawa, K

    2016-04-01

    We performed a randomised controlled double-blinded study of patients having laparoscopic colectomy with bilateral transversus abdominis plane block plus rectus sheath block, comparing a control group receiving 80 ml levobupivacaine 0.2% in saline with a dextran group receiving 80 ml levobupivacaine 0.2% in 8% low-molecular weight dextran. Twenty-seven patients were studied in each group. The mean (SD) maximum plasma concentration of levobupivacaine in the control group (1410 (322) ng.ml(-1) ) was higher than the dextran group (1141 (287) ng.ml(-1) ; p = 0.004), and was reached more quickly (50.6 (30.2) min vs 73.2 (24.6) min; p = 0.006). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 min to 240 min in the control group (229,124 (87,254) ng.min.ml(-1) ) was larger than in the dextran group (172,484 (50,502) ng.min.ml(-1) ; p = 0.007). The median (IQR [range]) of the summated numerical pain rating score at rest during the first postoperative 24 h in the control group (16 (9-20 [3-31]) was higher than in the dextran group (8 (2-11 [0-18]); p = 0.0001). In this study, adding dextran to levobupivacaine decreased the risk of levobupivacaine toxicity while providing better analgesia. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. [Radical hysterectomy in a patient with Steinert disease: spinal anaesthesia, ketamine and TAP and rectus sheath blocks].

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Buil, I; Marenco-Arellano, V

    2015-01-01

    The case of a patient with Steinert disease who underwent surgery for radical hysterectomy is presented. Because of her advanced disease, she suffered from chronic respiratory failure which required non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at night. Spinal anaesthesia was chosen as an anaesthetic treatment. At the time of aortic lymphadenectomy, the patient reported moderate pain at hypogastrium, which was well controlled with boluses of 10 mg of ketamine. Postoperatively, opioid administration was avoided by applying abdominal wall blocks: transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block and sheath of rectus abdominis muscle block. The evolution of the patient was satisfactory and she was discharged on the fifth day after surgery.

  18. Adding a transversus abdominis plane block to parenteral opioid for postoperative analgesia following trans-abdominal hysterectomy in a low resource setting: a prospective, randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Nomaqhawe; Madzimbamuto, Farai D; Shumbairerwa, Samson

    2016-01-28

    The current gold standard treatment for acute postoperative pain after major abdominal surgery is multimodal analgesia using patient controlled analgesia delivery systems. Patient controlled analgesia systems are expensive and their routine use in very low income countries is not practical. The use of ultrasound in anaesthesia has made some regional anaesthesia blocks technically easy and safe to perform. This study aimed to determine whether adding an ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block as an adjunct to the current parenteral opioid based regimen would result in superior pain relief after a trans abdominal hysterectomy compared to using parenteral opioids alone. Thirty-two elective patients having trans abdominal hysterectomy were recruited into a prospective randomised double-blind, controlled study comparing a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block using 21 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 4.0 mg dexamethasone with a sham block containing 21 ml 0.9% saline. Sixteen patients were allocated to each group. Anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia was left to the attending anaesthetist's discretion. Primary outcome was visual analogue scale for pain at 2 h and 4 h. Secondary outcomes were time to first request for analgesia, visual analogue scale for comfort and bother. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16). There was no statistically significant difference in the demographics of the two groups regarding weight, height, physical status and type of surgical incision. There was a statistically significant difference in visual analogue scale for pain at 4 h during movement with lower pain scales in the test group (p = 0.034). Women in the control group had an average pain free period of 56.8 min (median 56.5 min) before requesting a rescue analgesic compared to 116.5 min (median 103 min) in the study group. The between group difference in the average total analgesia duration was statistically

  19. Analgesic Effect Of Bilateral Subcostal Tap Block After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Karima Karam; Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital.

  20. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  1. Haitian Tap-Taps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the small island country of Haiti, colorful taxis transport the natives to the market. Although the taxis may be crowded with people, goods, and even livestock, it is considered a luxury to ride rather than go on foot. The children's picture book, "Tap-Tap," is a wonderful introduction to the culture of this land. The name…

  2. Ultrasound-guided Combined Fascial Plane Blocks as an Intervention for Pain Management after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramkiran, Seshadri; Jacob, Mathews; Honwad, Manish; Vivekanand, Desiraju; Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Patrikar, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pain associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy is most severe during the first 24 h and the port sites are the most painful. Recent multimodal approaches target incisional pain instead of visceral pain which has led to the emergence of abdominal fascial plane blocks. This study embraces a novel combination of two independently effective fascial plane blocks, namely rectus sheath block and subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to alleviate postoperative pain. Study Objective: The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of rectus sheath block and subcostal TAP block, to compare its efficacy with that of subcostal TAP block alone and with conventional port site infiltration (PSI) in alleviating postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methodology: This prospective, randomized control, pilot study included 61 patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and distributed among three groups, namely Group 1: Combined subcostal TAP block with rectus sheath block (n = 20); Group 2: Oblique subcostal TAP block alone (n = 21); and Group 3: PSI group as an active control (n = 20). Results: Combined group had significantly lower pain scores, higher satisfaction scores, and reduced rescue analgesia both in early and late postoperative periods than the conventional PSI group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided combined fascial plane blocks is a novel intervention in pain management of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and should become the standard of care. PMID:29628547

  3. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominal plane block with multimodal analgesia for pain management after total abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Gasanova, Irina; Grant, Erica; Way, Megan; Rosero, Eric B; Joshi, Girish P

    2013-07-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been shown to provide pain relief after abdominal procedures. However, TAP block combined with multimodal analgesia technique have not been assessed in a randomized controlled trial. This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study was designed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with or without acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) combination. Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to one of three groups. Group 1 (n = 25) received a TAP block and ketorolac 30 mg, IV at the end of surgery and then ketorolac plus paracetamol 650 mg, orally, every 6 h for 24 h. Group 2 (n = 24) received only TAP block at the end of surgery. Group 3 (n = 25) received ketorolac 30 mg, IV at the end of surgery and then ketorolac plus paracetamol 650 mg, orally, every 6 h for 24 h. All patients received IV-PCA morphine for 24-h, postoperatively. All patients received a standardized general anaesthetic technique and dexamethasone 4 mg and ondansetron 4 mg, IV for antiemetic prophylaxis. There were no statistically significant differences in pain at rest between the groups. However, the pain on coughing (dynamic pain) in Group 1 was significantly less variable, compared with the other two groups (P = 0.012). Opioid consumption and occurrences of nausea, vomiting, and rescue antiemetic were similar in three the groups. The combination of TAP block and acetaminophen and NSAID provided less variability in dynamic pain compared with either treatment alone.

  4. Comparing the effectiveness of ropivacaine 0.5% versus ropivacaine 0.2% for transabdominis plane block in providing postoperative analgesia after appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Abdul Jalil, Reymi Marseela; Yahya, Nurlia; Sulaiman, Omar; Wan Mat, Wan Rahiza; Teo, Rufinah; Izaham, Azarinah; Rahman, Raha Abdul

    2014-06-01

    The basis for the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block involves infiltration of a local anesthetic into the neurofascial plane between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis muscles, causing a regional block that spreads between the L1 and T10 dermatomes. Thus, the TAP block is said to be suitable for lower abdominal surgery. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different concentrations of ropivacaine for TAP block in patients undergoing appendectomy. Fifty-six patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 18 years and above, undergoing appendectomy were recruited in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. They were divided into two groups: Group A patients who received 0.5 mL/kg of ropivacaine 0.5% and Group B patients who received 0.5 mL/kg of ropivacaine 0.2% via TAP block under ultrasound guidance. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale upon arrival at the recovery room in the operating theatre, just prior to being discharged to the ward, and at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours postoperatively to compare the effectiveness of analgesia. Intraoperatively, patients in Group B required a significantly greater amount of additional intravenous fentanyl than those in Group A. There were no significant statistical differences in pain scores at rest and on movement at all assessment times as well as in the dose of 24-hour intravenous morphine consumption given via patient-controlled analgesia postoperatively between the two groups. The effectiveness of two different concentrations of ropivacaine (0.5% versus 0.2%) given via TAP block was comparable in providing postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing appendectomy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Neurolytic transversus abdominal plane block with alcohol for long-term malignancy related pain control.

    PubMed

    Hung, Joseph C; Azam, Nyla; Puttanniah, Vinay; Malhotra, Vivek; Gulati, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    There have been several case reports in the literature of neurolytic transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks being used for malignant abdominal wall pain. However, most used phenol as a neurolytic agent. We found only a single case report by Sakamoto using alcohol for TAP neurolysis. Unfortunately this patient passed away only 5 days after performance of the block. We attempt to extend upon the existing literature by describing neurolytic TAP blockade outcomes using alcohol on 3 cancer patients with metastatic disease to the abdominal wall. Two of our 3 patients had colorectal cancer invading the abdominal musculature. The third patient had a metastatic neuroendocrine nodule in the left rectus muscle. In our case series, all 3 patients had sustained and significant (greater than 50%) relief of abdominal wall pain after performing TAP neurolysis using alcohol. Ultrasound guidance was used for all blocks. The concentration of alcohol used varied from 33% to 77% between patients. Duration of relief lasted between 17 days and 6 months. Opioid use either decreased or remained relatively stable for prolonged periods of time after neurolysis. Other than one patient with transient post-procedure pain related to alcohol injection, there were no significant complications. Addition of a depo steroid for diagnostic TAP blockade prior to neurolysis did not appear to extend or provide additional analgesia. Based on our observations, TAP neurolysis using alcohol also offers a feasible option for long-term control of malignant abdominal wall pain. Further investigation is needed to determine if alcohol offers any significant advantage compared with phenol.

  6. Lower extremity kinetics in tap dance.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2010-01-01

    Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.

  7. Stereotypes for lever-tap operation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2016-04-15

    Lever-operated taps have become more popular and are commonly used in operating theatres, food preparation areas and where users have poor strength; however, there is very little data available for user expectations on tap operation. Thus, an experiment on dual lever-operated water tap (faucets) was conducted with the aim of for providing information for improved design. This study aims to compare different lever-tap designs and their stereotypes adopted by the end-user to operate them also to verify the stereotypes for increasing or decreasing the water flow. 240 participants were requested to rotate the lever tap to indicate direction for increasing and decreasing water flow with simulated hardware, using actual taps placed at the top of a simulated washbasin. Nine initial positions of the lever were used for increasing and decreasing flows, ranging from the ends of both levers facing outward from the bowl center to the ends of both levers facing inward. All levers operated in the horizontal plane. Strong stereotypes (greater than 80%) for several initial lever orientations were found for increasing water flow, especially when the initial lever end positions were facing outwards. However, for different initial positions at which participants were told that the water was flowing and the flow was to be decreased, no strong stereotypes existed. The stereotypes for increasing water flow of dual-lever taps were strong, whereas those for decreasing water flow were weak and hence the stereotype reversibility was also weak. In terms of user expectations, lever taps do not show any great advantage over cross-taps in terms of operator expectations for increasing and decreasing water flow.

  8. NASA/UK TAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Technology Applications Program (TAP) is to provide problem solving information and assistance to both the public and private sectors in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, with emphasis primarily in the public sector. The TAP accesses over 1200 online computer databases, including files from the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Australia. During the 1985 to 1986 contract period, TAP responded to 645 inquiries which resulted in an increase of 16 percent over the 1984 to 1985 contract period. The activities of TAP for the 1985 to 1986 contract period are summarized.

  9. TAPS for Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    By placing the Focused Assessment approach within the TAPS pyramid framework, schools are beginning to find a number of ways in which learning in science can be enhanced for pupils. The quotations in this article provide examples of the ways in which science subject leaders (SSL) describe the impact of TAPS on their pupils.

  10. Rectus abdominis atrophy after ventral abdominal incisions: midline versus chevron.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Y; Poli, E; Talamonti, M S; Haggerty, S P; Linn, J G; Ujiki, M B

    2017-08-01

    Although many outcomes have been compared between a midline and chevron incision, this is the first study to examine rectus abdominis atrophy after these two types of incisions. Patients undergoing open pancreaticobiliary surgery between 2007 and 2011 at our single institution were included in this study. Rectus abdominis muscle thickness was measured on both preoperative and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans to calculate percent atrophy of the muscle after surgery. At average follow-up of 24.5 and 19.0 months, respectively, rectus abdominis atrophy was 18.9% greater in the chevron (n = 30) than in the midline (n = 180) group (21.8 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.0001). Half the patients with a chevron incision had >20% atrophy at follow-up compared with 10% with a midline incision [odds ratio (OR) 9.0, p < 0.0001]. No significant difference was observed in incisional hernia rates or wound infections between groups. In this study, chevron incisions resulted in seven times more atrophy of the rectus abdominis compared with midline incisions. The long-term effects of transecting the rectus abdominis and disrupting its innervation creates challenging abdominal wall pathology. Atrophy of the abdominal wall can not be readily fixed with an operation, and this significant side effect of a transverse incision should be factored into the surgeon's decision-making process when choosing a transverse over a midline incision.

  11. Hot tap thermowell installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    System permits valve housings or other fillings to be installed in live steam lines or water pipes without interrupting their operation, thus eliminating current tapping restrictions. Two basic assemblies for installation under pressure are described.

  12. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  13. Physics on Tap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Andrew P. S.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe how to visualize surface tension effects in liquid jets. A simple experiment is proposed using the liquid jet flow from a mains water tap/faucet. Using a modern digital camera with a high shutter speed, it is possible to visualize the instabilities (capillary waves) that form within the jet due to the action of…

  14. The influence of simulated transversus abdominis muscle force on sacroiliac joint flexibility during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Gnat, Rafael; Spoor, Kees; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-10-01

    The role of so-called local muscle system in motor control of the lower back and pelvis is a subject of ongoing debate. Prevailing beliefs in stabilizing function of this system were recently challenged. This study investigated the impact of in vitro simulated force of transversely oriented fibres of the transversus abdominis muscle (a part of the local system) on flexibility of the sacroiliac joint during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis. In 8 embalmed specimens an incremental moment was applied in the sagittal plane to one innominate with respect to the fixed contralateral innominate. Ranges of motion of the sacroiliac joint were recorded using the Vicon Motion Capture System. Load-deformation curves were plotted and flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was calculated separately for anterior and posterior rotations of the innominate, with and without simulated muscle force. Flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was significantly bigger during anterior rotation of the innominate, as compared to posterior rotation (Anova P<0.05). After application of simulated force of transversus abdominis, flexibility of the joint did not change both during anterior and posterior rotations of the innominate. A lack of a stiffening effect of simulated transversus abdominis force on the sacroiliac joint was demonstrated. Earlier hypotheses suggesting a stiffening influence of this muscle on the pelvis cannot be confirmed. Consistent with previous findings smaller flexibility of the joint recorded during posterior rotation of the innominate may be of clinical importance for physio- and manual therapists. However, major limitations of the study should be acknowledged: in vitro conditions and simulation of only solitary muscle force. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic Harvest of the Rectus Abdominis for Perineal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Agochukwu, Nneamaka; Bonaroti, Alisha; Beck, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The rectus abdominis is a workhorse flap for perineal reconstruction, in particular after abdominoperineal resection (APR). Laparoscopic and robotic techniques for abdominoperineal surgery are becoming more common. The open harvest of the rectus abdominis negates the advantages of these minimally invasive approaches. (Sentence relating to advantages of laparoscopic rectus deleted here.) We present our early experience with laparoscopic harvest of the rectus muscle for perineal reconstruction. Three laparoscopic unilateral rectus abdominis muscle harvests were performed for perineal reconstruction following minimally invasive colorectal and urological procedures. The 2 patients who underwent APR also had planned external perineal skin reconstruction with local flaps. (Sentence deleted here to shorten abstract.) All rectus muscle harvests were performed laparoscopically. Two were for perineal reconstruction following laparoscopic APR, and 1 was for anterior vaginal wall reconstruction. This was done with 4 ports positioned on the contralateral abdomen. The average laparoscopic harvest time was 60–90 minutes. The rectus muscle remained viable in all cases. One patient developed partial necrosis of a posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap after cancer recurrence. There were no pelvic abscesses, or abdominal wall hernias. Laparoscopic harvest of the rectus appears to be a cost-effective, reliable, and reproducible procedure for perineal with minimal donor-site morbidity. Larger clinical studies are needed to further establish the efficacy and advantages of the laparoscopic rectus for perineal reconstruction. PMID:29263976

  16. Endoscopic Rectus Abdominis and Prepubic Aponeurosis Repairs for Treatment of Athletic Pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya

    2017-02-01

    Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.

  17. Physics of beer tapping.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  18. Physics of Beer Tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  19. Ultrasound Assessment of the Transverse Abdominis During Functional Movement.

    PubMed

    Mangum, L Colby; Henderson, Kaitlin; Murray, Kyle P; Saliba, Susan A

    2018-05-01

    The traditional activation ratio divides contracted muscle thickness by resting muscle thickness while an abdominal draw-in maneuver is performed during hook lying. Ultrasound imaging during function, such as standing or gait, or peak knee flexion in a single-leg squat allows for further visualization of muscle activity. The goal of this study was to examine activation ratio calculations for transverse abdominis function in supine versus loaded conditions to determine the most informative normalization strategy for muscle activity based on thickness values. Transverse abdominis thickness was measured via ultrasound in 35 healthy participants under 4 different conditions. Comparisons were made between the traditional activation ratio tabletop, standing activation ratio (standing abdominal draw-in maneuver thickness/quiet standing thickness), and functional activation ratio (single-leg squat thickness/quiet standing thickness). Additionally, a cued activation ratio (single-leg squat with cued abdominal draw-in maneuver thickness/single-leg squat thickness) during the single-leg squat was obtained. Activation ratios of greater than 1.0 indicated that participants could activate the muscle during activity, and values were compared by analysis of variance. The participants included 23 women and 12 men with a mean age ± SD of 21.3 ± 2.7 years, mass of 66.1 ± 14.4 kg, and height of 168.5 ± 10.1 cm. Activation ratios exceeded 1.0 in 94.3% for the traditional activation ratio, 85.7% for the standing activation ratio, 82.9% for the cued activation ratio, and 82.9% for the functional activation ratio. With groups defined as tabletop activated or not, the standing, cued, and functional activation ratios were all significantly different (all P < .05). Normalizing muscle thickness to the corresponding functional position quiet value provides a useful functional activation ratio and may help clinicians better understand the transverse abdominis role

  20. Myositis with antimitochondrial antibodies diagnosed by rectus abdominis muscle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Takeshi; Kowa, Hisatomo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nagata, Kakuya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihisa; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2013-05-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies are autoantibodies detected in 90% of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients. Some PBC cases are complicated by myositis, which is difficult to confirm due to minimal histological evidence of inflammation in limb muscles. Our aim was to determine the extent of inflammatory changes in a truncal muscle biopsy specimen from a PBC patient. A 48-year-old woman with a 5-year history of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure was evaluated for elevated serum creatine kinase level. Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies were detected, and PBC was diagnosed. A biceps brachii biopsy specimen showed mild, non-specific myogenic changes; a second biopsy was performed on the rectus abdominis muscle, which showed typical inflammatory changes. Myositis with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies was confirmed. In myositis patients with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies, muscles of the extremities are involved to a lesser extent. Radiological and histological examination focusing on truncal muscles, including a biopsy, is important. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. INL’s TAP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2017-06-22

    The starting point for many consumer products is the industrial manufacture of platform chemicals. The recent boom in domestic shale gas production makes it possible to envision a new resource for chemical manufacturing. Catalysts are the accelerants behind most industrial chemical reactions. A sophisticated research technique using a Temporal Analysis of Products (or TAP) reactor can now help. By shedding light on a catalyst’s fundamental step-by-step process, a TAP reactor can help chemists and chemical engineers understand why a new catalyst works better in the lab than in the chemical plant.

  2. Introducing the TAPS Pyramid Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) project is a three-year project based at Bath Spa University and funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT). It aims to develop support for a valid, reliable and manageable system of science assessment that will have a positive impact on children's learning. In this article, the author…

  3. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  4. Transportation Air Pollution Studies (TAPS) System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-03-01

    This report describes the Transportation Air Pollution Studies (TAPS) Data Base and the Software System which has been developed in association with it. : The TAPS Data Base will be used to store the transportation air pollution data (including emiss...

  5. Rectus abdominis overuse injury in a tennis athlete treated with traumeel.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel(®) injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel(®) on the 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th) post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10(th) post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel(®) injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain.

  6. Diastasis of rectus abdominis muscles in low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Doubkova, Lucie; Andel, Ross; Palascakova-Springrova, Ingrid; Kolar, Pavel; Kriz, Jiri; Kobesova, Alena

    2018-02-06

    Abdominal muscles are important spinal stabilizers and its poor coordination, as seen in diastasis of rectus abdominis (DRA), may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP). However, this has not yet been studied directly. To conduct a pilot study to examine the association between DRA and LBP. Using a digital caliper, standard clinical DRA measurement was performed in 55 participants with and 54 without chronic LBP. Participants were on average 55 years old, 69 (63%) were women. Among the 16 participants with DRA, 11 (69%) had chronic LBP; among the 93 participants without DRA, 44 (47%) had LBP. Among men, 7 of 9 (77%) with DRA had LBP and 14 of 31 (45%) without DRA had LBP. Among women, 4 of 7 (57%) with DRA had LBP and 30 of 62 (48%) without DRA had LBP. BMI was the strongest correlate of DRA and may explain the relation between DRA and chronic LBP. DRA and LBP may be interrelated, especially among men. This may be a function of greater BMI in individuals with chronic LBP. Understanding the association between DRA, LBP, and BMI may have important implications for treatment of LBP and for intervention.

  7. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping. 192.151 Section 192.151 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.151 Tapping. (a) Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be designed for at least the operating pressure of...

  8. Tapping into the Wiretap Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-03

    Shamrock (1945 – 1975). During World War II the U.S. Army had the authority to read and censor all telegram traffic going into and out of the United...with foreigners, organizations, and American citizens who were active in the 9 anti- war and civil rights movements. Names of U.S. persons were...Tapping into the Wiretap Debate by Lieutenant Colonel David W. May United States Army United States Army War College

  9. Blunt transection of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma with associated small and large bowel injury.

    PubMed

    Patel, K; Doolin, R; Suggett, N

    2013-01-01

    Closed rupture of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma is rare. We present the case of a 45 year old female who presented with closed rupture of the rectus abdominis in conjunction with damage to small bowel mesentery and infarction of small and large bowel following a high velocity road traffic accident. Multiple intestinal resections were required resulting in short bowel syndrome and abdominal wall reconstruction with a porcine collagen mesh. Post-operative complications included intra-abdominal sepsis and an enterocutaneous fistula. The presence of rupture of rectus abdominis muscle secondary to seatbelt injury should raise the suspicion of intra-abdominal injury. Our case highlights the need for suspicion, investigation and subsequent surgical management of intra-abdominal injury following identification of this rare consequence of seatbelt trauma. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Donor-Site Complications and Remnant of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Status after Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Trikunagonvong, Noppadol; Rongthong, Sasiprapa; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Panawattanakul, Rujira; Thaweepworadej, Panya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after mastectomy in breast cancer patients has become one of the milestones in breast reconstruction. There are several techniques that have been used in an attempt to minimize untoward complications. We present the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique that focuses on the anatomy of arcuate line and the closure of the anterior abdominal wall techniques with mesh and determine factors associated with its complications and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively and prospectively review the results of 30 pedicled TRAM flaps that were performed between November 2013 and March 2016, focusing on outcomes and complications. Results: Among the 30 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 30 patients, there were complications in 5 patients (17%). Most common complications were surgical-site infection (7%). After a median follow-up time of 15 months, no patient developed abdominal wall hernia or bulging in daily activities in our study, but 6 patients (20%) had asymptomatic abdominal wall bulging when exercised. Significant factors related to asymptomatic exercised abdominal wall bulging included having a body mass index of more than 23 kg/m2. Conclusion: Pedicled TRAM flap by using the technique of the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line with mesh can reduce the occurrence of abdominal bulging and hernia. PMID:28740793

  11. Non-plugging pressure tap

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure tap having utility in an environment of a solid-gas phase process flow includes a tubular coupling part having attached over a passage therethrough at an end opening thereof exposed to the flow a grating of spaced bars, and affixed internally across a passage therethrough so as to cover over an opening therein a screen which maintains contained within the passage between it and the grating a matrix of smooth spheres. The grating bars are so oriented by the disposition of the aforesaid end opening with respect to the flow such that accumulations of solids therebetween tending to bridge the opening are removed therefrom by the flow.

  12. Dynamic rectus abdominis muscle sphincter for stoma continence: an acute functional study in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Perez-Abadia, G A; Galandiuk, S; Zonnevijlle, E D; Maldonado, C; Stremel, R W; Tobin, G R; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2001-02-01

    Fecal stomal incontinence is a problem that continues to defy surgical treatment. Previous attempts to create continent stomas using dynamic myoplasty have had limited success due to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap used in the creation of the sphincter and because of muscle fatigue resulting from continuous electrical stimulation. To address the problem of denervation atrophy, a stomal sphincter was designed using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle, preserving its intercostal innervation as well as its vascular supply. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this rectus abdominis muscle island flap sphincter design could maintain stomal continence acutely. In this experiment, six dogs were used to create eight rectus abdominis island flap stoma sphincters around a segment of distal ileum. Initially, the intraluminal stomal pressures generated by the sphincter using different stimulation frequencies were determined. The ability of this stomal sphincter to generate continence at different intraluminal bowel pressures was then assessed. In all cases, the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter generated peak pressures well above those needed to maintain stomal continence (60 mmHg). In addition, each sphincter was able to maintain stomal continence at all intraluminal bowel pressures tested.

  13. Sexual dysfunction after colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Løve, Uffe S; Sjøgren, Pia; Rasmussen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren; Christensen, Henrik K

    2013-02-01

    The use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection or pelvic exenteration for neoplasia is well documented. However, functional outcomes after vaginal reconstruction, including sexual function, are poorly described. This study aimed to examine sexual function in women following extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. This study is a retrospective review of medical records in combination with patient questionnaires. Nonresponders were followed up with a second contact. This study was performed at a tertiary care university medical center (Colorectal Section, Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark) All women undergoing pelvic surgery and simultaneous vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap between 2004 and 2010 at our department were identified from a patient database. Thirty women who were alive at the time of identification were included in the study. Sexual function before and after surgery was evaluated by the use of the Sexual function Vaginal changes Questionnaire. The main outcome end point was whether the patient was sexually active after vaginal reconstruction. Twenty-six participants (87%) answered the questionnaire. Fifty percent of patients reported an active sex life before surgery. In general, patients reported an unchanged desire for both physical and sexual contact after surgery. However, only 2 patients (14%) reported being sexually active after surgery. This was a retrospective study with a heterogeneous cohort involving several types of cancers and surgical procedures. Factors other than vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction itself may interfere with the sexual function. Extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy leads to sexual dysfunction even when the vagina is reconstructed with a vertical rectus abdominis

  14. The Transfer Achievement Program (TAP): Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segura, Armando; Noseworthy, Victoria

    Santa Barbara City College (California) created the Transfer Achievement Program (TAP) to deliver an integrated and cohesive set of services to underrepresented students to help increase their transfer rate to four-year institutions. TAP provides students with a developmental map of transfer-related activities through the use of the Transfer Task…

  15. Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Franklin, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-advancing tool bits that are hybrids of drills and stepped taps make it possible to form threaded holes wider than about 1/2 in. (about 13 mm) without applying any more axial force than is necessary for forming narrower pilot holes. These self-advancing stepped-tap drills were invented for use by space-suited astronauts performing repairs on reinforced carbon/carbon space-shuttle leading edges during space walks, in which the ability to apply axial drilling forces is severely limited. Self-advancing stepped-tap drills could also be used on Earth for making wide holes without applying large axial forces. A self-advancing stepped-tap drill (see figure) includes several sections having progressively larger diameters, typically in increments between 0.030 and 0.060 in. (between about 0.8 and about 1.5 mm). The tip section, which is the narrowest, is a pilot drill bit that typically has a diameter between 1/8 and 3/16 in. (between about 3.2 and about 4.8 mm). The length of the pilot-drill section is chosen, according to the thickness of the object to be drilled and tapped, so that the pilot hole is completed before engagement of the first tap section. Provided that the cutting-edge geometry of the drill bit is optimized for the material to be drilled, only a relatively small axial force [typically of the order of a few pounds (of the order of 10 newtons)] must be applied during drilling of the pilot hole. Once the first tap section engages the pilot hole, it is no longer necessary for the drill operator to apply axial force: the thread engagement between the tap and the workpiece provides the axial force to advance the tool bit. Like the pilot-drill section, each tap section must be long enough to complete its hole before engagement of the next, slightly wider tap section. The precise values of the increments in diameter, the thread pitch, the rake angle of the tap cutting edge, and other geometric parameters of the tap sections must be chosen, in consideration of

  16. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  17. Exercise and Transversus Abdominis Muscle Atrophy after 60-d Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel Ludovic; Gast, Ulf; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate atrophy in the deep abdominal muscles, spinal extensors, and the effect of high-load resistive exercise with and without whole-body vibration after 60 d of strict bed rest. Twenty-four subjects underwent 60 d of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (RVE), resistive exercise only (RE), or no exercise control (2nd Berlin BedRest Study). The thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscles and the area of the multifidus muscle were measured bilaterally via real-time ultrasound. Intention-to-treat analysis was implemented, and P values were adjusted by the false discovery rate method. At the end of the bed rest, transversus abdominis thickness was reduced by 18.3% in the inactive group (P = 0.00011) with no significant change in the RVE (-4.0%; P = 0.014 vs control) or RE (-5.0%; P = 0.10 vs control) groups. In the inactive subjects, internal oblique thickness reduced by 10.6% (P = 0.0025) and by 7% (P > 0.05) in each of the training groups. The lengthening of the lumbar spine was greatest on day 1 (+7.4%, P = 0.004) and day 2 (+6.3%, P = 0.004; day 54: +4.1%, P = 0.023). A 4.7% reduction of multifidus area was observed on day 1 of bed rest (P = 0.0049) and a 4.2% reduction of erector spinae thickness was observed on day 2 (P = 0.0011). Extensor atrophy and spinal lengthening was not affected by exercise. No significant difference was seen between RVE and RE. Bed rest leads to atrophy of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. The exercise program, which implemented lower-limb and back extension exercises against shoulder restraints, was able to reduce atrophy seen in transversus abdominis in bed rest.

  18. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-12-31

    To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001). Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  19. Soccer Attenuates the Asymmetry of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Observed in Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Idoate, Fernando; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) in professional soccer players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05) and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01) sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42) and in controls (P = 0.75) (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups). Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05) and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05). The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury. PMID:21541351

  20. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle for abdominal stoma sphincter construction: an anatomical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Tobin, G R; Werker, P M; Stremel, R W; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2000-02-01

    Permanent fecal abdominal stomas significantly decrease quality of life. Previous attempts to create continent stomas by using dynamic myoplasty procedures have resulted in disappointing outcomes, primarily owing to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap that was used in the creation of the sphincter and because of muscle fatigue resulting from continuous electrical stimulation that is received by the flap to force contraction. On the basis of these problems, we designed two separate studies: an anatomical study addressing flap denervation and a functional study addressing muscle fatigue. The present study addresses the first topic and was designed to develop a rectus abdominis muscle flap into a sphincter that was anatomically situated to create a stoma while preserving as much innervation as possible. In 24 rectus abdominis muscles of human cadavers, the neurovascular anatomy was defined, then the anatomical feasibility of two different muscle flap configurations was considered. The flaps investigated were the peninsula flap and island flap designs, with both using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle in construction of the sphincter. Neither flap design required the killing of a nerve for stoma sphincter creation, resulting in minimal muscle denervation. The conclusion of our comparison was that the above, in conjunction with other features of the island flap design, such as muscle overlap after sphincter formation and abdominal wall positioning of the sphincter, made the island flap design better suited to stoma sphincter construction.

  1. The influence of TAP1 and TAP2 gene polymorphisms on TAP function and its inhibition by viral immune evasion proteins.

    PubMed

    Praest, P; Luteijn, R D; Brak-Boer, I G J; Lanfermeijer, J; Hoelen, H; Ijgosse, L; Costa, A I; Gorham, R D; Lebbink, R J; Wiertz, E J H J

    2018-06-04

    Herpesviruses encode numerous immune evasion molecules that interfere with the immune system, particularly with certain stages in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. In this pathway, the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a frequent target of viral immune evasion strategies. This ER-resident transporter is composed of the proteins TAP1 and TAP2, and plays a crucial role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. Several variants of TAP1 and TAP2 occur in the human population, some of which are linked to autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections. Here, we assessed the influence of naturally occurring TAP variants on peptide transport and MHC class I expression. In addition, we tested the inhibitory capacity of three viral immune evasion proteins, the TAP inhibitors US6 from human cytomegalovirus, ICP47 from herpes simplex virus type 1 and BNLF2a from Epstein-Barr virus, for a series of TAP1 and TAP2 variants. Our results suggest that these TAP polymorphisms have no or limited effect on peptide transport or MHC class I expression. Furthermore, our study indicates that the herpesvirus-encoded TAP inhibitors target a broad spectrum of TAP variants; inhibition of TAP is not affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms of TAP tested in this study. Our findings suggest that the long-term coevolution of herpesviruses and their host did not result in selection of inhibitor-resistant TAP variants in the human population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of cracks and have good threads; and (2) A 11/4-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-inch... climate, soil, and service conditions may create unusual external stresses on cast iron pipe, unreinforced...

  3. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of cracks and have good threads; and (2) A 11/4-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-inch... climate, soil, and service conditions may create unusual external stresses on cast iron pipe, unreinforced...

  4. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of cracks and have good threads; and (2) A 11/4-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-inch... climate, soil, and service conditions may create unusual external stresses on cast iron pipe, unreinforced...

  5. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of cracks and have good threads; and (2) A 11/4-inch (32 millimeters) tap may be made in a 4-inch... climate, soil, and service conditions may create unusual external stresses on cast iron pipe, unreinforced...

  6. Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-15

    Title II of P.L. 112-56) which made a pre-separation counseling program mandatory for all servicemembers who have served at least 180 continuous days...anticipated retirement date or 12-month period preceding the anticipated separation date. It also specifies that pre-separation counseling should...in the development, management oversight, and strategic planning of TAP. TAP Counseling Requirements Over time, Congress has increased the

  7. Kinematics of the tooth tapping movement.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Hedegård, B

    1977-07-01

    Electrical activity in the masseter muscles and tooth contact vibrations were recorded simultaneously from subjects tapping their teeth slowly into maximal intercuspidation and again with maximal frequency. High speed cinephotography was also used with four of the ten subjects. Three main parts could be distinguished on the obtained graphical representation of the tooth tapping movement: tooth contact phase (TCP), opening phase (OP) and closing phase (CP). Tapping frequency was increased by decreasing the jaw opening degree and the durations of TCP, OP and CP. The jaw velocity immediately before tooth contact, which may be of significance for the reflex response, was however not increased. The average jaw speed was nevertheless increased from 10 to 15 cm/s since the turning from OP to CP was more abrupt in high than in low frequency tapping. The duration of electrical activity after tooth contact was significantly shorter at tapping with high than with low frequency. The teeth maintained contact without detectable rebound between each open-close cycle. The OP started about 100 ms after the cessation of electrical activity both at low and high tapping frequency. The time between end of electrical activity and the start of a new OP was supposed to be dependent upon the relaxation time of the masseter muscles.

  8. Reflex Augmentation of a Tap-Elicited Eyeblink: The Effects of Tone Frequency and Tap Intensity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michelle E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes two experiments that examined whether the amplitude of the human eyeblink by a mild tap between the eyebrows can be increased if a brief tone is presented simultaneously with the tap and how these effects change from newborn infants to adults. (HOD)

  9. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential (TAP) Progress Report, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Business Roundtable and fifteen of America's most prominent business organizations--Tapping America's Potential, the TAP coalition--issued a report stating that "one of the pillars of American economic prosperity--U.S. scientific and technological superiority--is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own…

  10. Biomechanical loading on the upper extremity increases from single key tapping to directional tapping.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Trudeau, Matthieu; Katz, Jeffrey N; Buchholz, Bryan; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders associated with computer use span the joints of the upper extremity. Computing typically involves tapping in multiple directions. Thus, we sought to describe the loading on the finger, wrist, elbow and shoulder joints in terms of kinematic and kinetic difference across single key switch tapping to directional tapping on multiple keys. An experiment with repeated measures design was conducted. Six subjects tapped with their right index finger on a stand-alone number keypad placed horizontally in three conditions: (1) on single key switch (the number key 5); (2) left and right on number key 4 and 6; (3) top and bottom on number key 8 and 2. A force-torque transducer underneath the keypad measured the fingertip force. An active-marker infrared motion analysis system measured the kinematics of the fingertip, hand, forearm, upper arm and torso. Joint moments for the metacarpophalangeal, wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints were estimated using inverse dynamics. Tapping in the top-bottom orientation introduced the largest biomechanical loading on the upper extremity especially for the proximal joint, followed by tapping in the left-right orientation, and the lowest loading was observed during single key switch tapping. Directional tapping on average increased the fingertip force, joint excursion, and peak-to-peak joint torque by 45%, 190% and 55%, respectively. Identifying the biomechanical loading patterns associated with these fundamental movements of keying improves the understanding of the risks of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for computer keyboard users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-advancing step-tap tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Franklin, Larry D. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and tool for simultaneously forming a bore in a work piece and forming a series of threads in said bore. In an embodiment, the tool has a predetermined axial length, a proximal end, and a distal end, said tool comprising: a shank located at said proximal end; a pilot drill portion located at said distal end; and a mill portion intermediately disposed between said shank and said pilot drill portion. The mill portion is comprised of at least two drill-tap sections of predetermined axial lengths and at least one transition section of predetermined axial length, wherein each of said at least one transition section is sandwiched between a distinct set of two of said at least two drill-tap sections. The at least two drill-tap sections are formed of one or more drill-tap cutting teeth spirally increasing along said at least two drill-tap sections, wherein said tool is self-advanced in said work piece along said formed threads, and wherein said tool simultaneously forms said bore and said series of threads along a substantially similar longitudinal axis.

  12. More than just tapping: index finger-tapping measures procedural learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Felipe N; Irani, Farzin; Richard, Jan; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-05-01

    Finger-tapping has been widely studied using behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Evidence supports the use of finger-tapping as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, but its relationship with motor procedural learning remains unexplored. To our knowledge, this study presents the first use of index finger-tapping to study procedural learning in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SZA) as compared to healthy controls. A computerized index finger-tapping test was administered to 1169 SCZ/SZA patients (62% male, 88% right-handed), and 689 healthy controls (40% male, 93% right-handed). Number of taps per trial and learning slopes across trials for the dominant and non-dominant hands were examined for motor speed and procedural learning, respectively. Both healthy controls and SCZ/SZA patients demonstrated procedural learning for their dominant hand but not for their non-dominant hand. In addition, patients showed a greater capacity for procedural learning even though they demonstrated more variability in procedural learning compared to healthy controls. Left-handers of both groups performed better than right-handers and had less variability in mean number of taps between non-dominant and dominant hands. Males also had less variability in mean tap count between dominant and non-dominant hands than females. As expected, patients had a lower mean number of taps than healthy controls, males outperformed females and dominant-hand trials had more mean taps than non-dominant hand trials in both groups. The index finger-tapping test can measure both motor speed and procedural learning, and motor procedural learning may be intact in SCZ/SZA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal postural responses preceding shoulder flexion: co-activation or asymmetric activation of transverse abdominis?

    PubMed

    Davarian, Sanaz; Maroufi, Nader; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Parnianpour, Mohammad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that activation of the transverse abdominis muscle has a stabilizing effect on the lumbar spine by raising intra-abdominal pressure without added disc compression. However, its feedforward activity has remained a controversial issue. In addition, research regarding bilateral activation of trunk muscles during a unilateral arm movement is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate bilateral anticipatory activity of trunk muscles during unilateral arm flexion. Eighteen healthy subjects (aged 25 ± 3.96 years) participated in this study and performed 10 trials of rapid arm flexion in response to a visual stimulus. The electromyographic activity of the right anterior deltoid (AD) and bilateral trunk muscles including the transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), superficial lumbar multifidus (SLM) and lumbar erector spine (LES) was recorded. The onset latency and anticipatory activity of the recorded trunk muscles were calculated. The first muscle activated in anticipation of the right arm flexion was the left TA/IO. The right TA/IO activated significantly later than all other trunk muscles (P < 0.0005). In addition, anticipatory activity of the right TA/IO was significantly lower than all other trunk muscles (P < 0.0005). There was no significant difference in either onset latency or anticipatory activity among other trunk muscles (P > 0.05). Healthy subjects showed no bilateral anticipatory co-activation of TA/IO in unilateral arm elevation. Further investigations are required to delineate normal muscle activation pattern in healthy subjects prior to prescribing bilateral activation training of transverse abdominis for subjects with chronic low back pain.

  14. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  15. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap for oral reconstruction in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lanz, O I

    2001-12-01

    A five-month-old intact/male Boxer dog was presented 5-days following bite wound trauma to the maxillary region resulting in an oronasal fistula extending from the maxillary canine teeth to the soft palate. Multiple surgical procedures using local, buccal mucosal flaps failed to repair the oronasal fistula. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap using microvascular surgical techniques was successful in providing soft tissue reconstruction of the hard palate area. Complications of these surgical techniques included muscle contraction and subsequent muzzle distortion. Small, refractory oronasal fistulae at the perimeter of the myoperitoneal flap were repaired by primary wound closure.

  16. Freely Chosen Index Finger Tapping Frequency Is Increased in Repeated Bouts of Tapping.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Ebbesen, Brian Duborg; Dalsgaard, Ane; Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Rasmussen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Healthy individuals (n = 40) performed index finger tapping at freely chosen frequency during repeated bouts and before and after near-maximal muscle action consisting of 3 intense flexions of the index finger metacarpal phalangeal joint. One experiment showed, unexpectedly, that a bout of tapping increased the tapping frequency in the subsequent bout. Thus, a cumulating increase of 8.2 ± 5.4% (p < .001) occurred across 4 bouts, which were all separated by 10 min rest periods. Follow-up experiments revealed that tapping frequency was still increased in consecutive bouts when rest periods were extended to 20 min. Besides, near-maximal muscle activation, followed by 5 min rest, did not affect the tapping frequency. In conclusion, freely chosen tapping frequency was increased in repeated bouts of tapping, which were separated by 10-20 min rest periods. The observed phenomenon is suggested to be termed repeated bout rate enhancement.

  17. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, P<0.001) and the SD of the tapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  18. The TAPS Pyramid: Where, Who and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood-Stephens, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    The TAPS pyramid was developed in late 2014 and has been available as a download on the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT) website since August 2015. But where has it gone since then? Who is using it? And how is it being used in schools to change primary science assessment practice? This article attempts to answer these questions with data from…

  19. TAP into Learning, Fall-Winter 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Dimock, Vicki; Martinez, Danny

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the final three issues of "TAP into Learning" (Technology Assistance Program). The double fall issue focuses on knowledge construction and on using multimedia applications in the classroom. Contents include: "Knowledge Under Construction"; "Hegel and the Dialectic"; "Implications for…

  20. Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

  1. Making planes plain.

    PubMed

    O'Rahilly, R

    1997-01-01

    The major anatomical planes (horizontal, coronal, and sagittal, including the median plane) are discussed from a historical perspective, and their correct usage is clarified. Unofficial and unnecessary terms to be avoided (for reasons explained) include midsagittal, parasagittal, and midline.

  2. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  3. Right Lower Quadrant Pain in a Young Female: Ultrasound Diagnosis of Rectus Abdominis Tear.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Joseph; Shaver, Erica; Monseau, Aaron; Pratt, Adam; Layman, Shelley M

    2015-11-01

    Right lower quadrant pain in young females presents a frequent diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians, with a broad differential and several important diagnoses. Using an "ultrasound first" imaging strategy can help decrease the use of computed tomography scans, with associated savings in radiation exposure, cost, and other resource use. We report a case of right lower quadrant pain in a young woman. After her initial history and physical examination, appendicitis was the leading differential. A bedside ultrasound was performed, leading to the uncommon diagnosis of rectus abdominis muscle tear. The sonographic findings of a muscle tear include increase in size, loss of linear, homogeneous architecture, and decreased echogenicity. Making this diagnosis at the bedside using ultrasound obviated the need for further imaging, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure, and decreasing emergency department length of stay and overall cost, while leading to a tailored treatment plan. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Rectus abdominis tear is a cause of right lower quadrant pain that may mimic appendicitis and should be considered in patients with this complaint. The ability to make this diagnosis with bedside ultrasound may assist in several important patient-oriented outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drinking of tap water is smart, but how do it better? - A tap water quality research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Anna; Sekuła, Klaudia; Dendys, Marta; Ptaszek, Weronika; Postawa, Adam

    2018-02-01

    Drinking tap water has recently become popular. It is a way to fight with the tons of garbage (disposable, plastic bottles). However, many people are afraid of water quality. The research was performed in December 2015 in Krakow, during one week. 56 samples were collected. The samples were taken in different times of the day and in the two types of building (old one with installation from the 80s and new one with installation built in past few years). Samples were taken by two qualified operators. The first sample was collected at the morning at 6 a.m., before anyone uses the tap. The second one after the tap was flushed and then the third one after 30 minutes stagnation. At the evening was taken one sample (after using the tap all day).The aim of the research was to check the quality of drinking water in the end-user. The results show that quality of tap water in Krakow is good, also in the end-user, but the concentration of chemical elements are changing during the flushing and using of the tap.

  5. Transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.): molecular cloning and characterization of TAP1 and TAP2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2011-11-01

    The transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP), play an important role in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) TAP1 and TAP2 genes and transcripts were isolated and characterized. Only the TAP2 gene is structurally similar to its human orthologue. As other TAP molecules, sea bass TAP1 and TAP2 are formed by one N-terminal accessory domain, one core membrane-spanning domain and one canonical C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain. Homology modelling of the sea bass TAP dimer predicts that its quaternary structure is in accordance with that of other ABC transporters. Phylogenetic analysis segregates sea bass TAP1 and TAP2 into each subfamily cluster of transporters, placing them in the fish class and suggesting that the basic structure of these transport-associated proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, the present data provides information that will enable more studies on the class I antigen presentation pathway in this important fish species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  7. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: implications for core stability theories.

    PubMed

    Allison, Garry T; Morris, Sue L; Lay, Brendan

    2008-05-01

    Experimental laboratory study supplemented with a repeated case study. To examine bilateral muscle activity of the deep abdominals in response to rapid arm raising, specifically to examine the laterality and directional specificity of feedforward responses of the transversus abdominis (TrA). Based on the feedforward responses of trunk muscles during rapid arm movements, authors have concluded that the deep trunk muscles have different control mechanisms compared to the more superficial muscles. It has been proposed that deep trunk muscles such as TrA contribute substantially to the stability of the lumbar spine and that this is achieved through simultaneous bilateral feedforward activation. These inferences are based on unilateral fine-wire electromyographic (EMG) data and there are limited investigations of bilateral responses of the TrA during unilateral arm raising. Bilateral fine-wire and surface EMG data from the anterior deltoid, TrA, obliquus internus (OI), obliquus externus, biceps femoris, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis during repeated arm raises were recorded at 2 kHz. EMG signal linear envelopes were synchronized to the onset of the anterior deltoid. A feedforward window was defined as the period up to 50 ms after the onset of the anterior deltoid, and paired onsets for bilateral muscles were plotted for both left and right arm movements. Trunk muscles from the group data demonstrated differences between sides (laterality), which were systematically altered when alternate arms were raised (directional specificity). This was clearly evident for the TrA but less obvious for the erector spinae. The ipsilateral biceps femoris and obliquus externus, and contralateral OI and TrA, were activated earlier than the alternate side for both right and left arm movements. This was a consistent pattern over a 7-year period for the case study. Data for the rectus abdominis derived from the case study demonstrated little laterality or directionally specific

  8. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  9. What's wrong with the tap? Examining perceptions of tap water and bottled water at Purdue University.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates (n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors-especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean-but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  10. The Sierpinski Triangle Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettestad, David; Carbonara, Joaquin

    The Sierpinski Triangle (ST) is a fractal which has Haussdorf dimension log23 ≈ 1.585 that has been studied extensively. In this paper, we introduce the Sierpinski Triangle Plane (STP), an infinite extension of the ST that spans the entire real plane but is not a vector subspace or a tiling of the plane with a finite set of STs. STP is shown to be a radial fractal with many interesting and surprising properties.

  11. Spontaneous eye blinks are entrained by finger tapping.

    PubMed

    Cong, D-K; Sharikadze, M; Staude, G; Deubel, H; Wolf, W

    2010-02-01

    We studied the mutual cross-talk between spontaneous eye blinks and continuous, self-paced unimanual and bimanual tapping. Both types of motor activities were analyzed with regard to their time-structure in synchronization-continuation tapping tasks which involved different task instructions, namely "standard" finger tapping (Experiment 1), "strong" tapping (Experiment 2) requiring more forceful finger movements, and "impulse-like" tapping (Experiment 3) where upward-downward finger movements had to be very fast. In a further control condition (Experiment 4), tapping was omitted altogether. The results revealed a prominent entrainment of spontaneous blink behavior by the manual tapping, with bimanual tapping being more effective than unimanual tapping, and with the "strong" and "impulse-like" tapping showing the largest effects on blink timing. Conversely, we found no significant effects of the tapping on the timing of the eye blinks across all experiments. The findings suggest a functional overlap of the motor control structures responsible for voluntary, rhythmic finger movements and eye blinking behavior.

  12. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  13. Extensive Chest Wall Tissue Loss and its Management by Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Extensive electric burn around the chest in children is rare and this type of injury always poses a great challenge for its management. A 12-year-old male child with extensive electric burn of the chest wall was admitted to hospital. It was a neglected case of 9 days old burn; the young boy was in critical condition having systemic features of toxemia with widespread necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles along with exposed bones (ribs and sternum) with the risk of impending rupture of pleura through the exposed intercostal spaces. After initial resuscitation, a thorough debridement of all necrotic tissues was done. Thereafter, a superiorly based vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was harvested to cover the exposed bones and intercostal spaces. The remaining raw areas were skin grafted. The child made an excellent recovery with good outcome. PMID:28082777

  14. Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (P<0·001), but measurement repeatability did not differ significantly between the imaging planes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (P<0·001). Image stability and measurement values of shear wave elastography images varied with imaging plane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  16. PREDICTIVE MODELING OF ACOUSTIC SIGNALS FROM THERMOACOUSTIC POWER SENSORS (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dumm, Christopher M.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2016-06-30

    Thermoacoustic Power Sensor (TAPS) technology offers the potential for self-powered, wireless measurement of nuclear reactor core operating conditions. TAPS are based on thermoacoustic engines, which harness thermal energy from fission reactions to generate acoustic waves by virtue of gas motion through a porous stack of thermally nonconductive material. TAPS can be placed in the core, where they generate acoustic waves whose frequency and amplitude are proportional to the local temperature and radiation flux, respectively. TAPS acoustic signals are not measured directly at the TAPS; rather, they propagate wirelessly from an individual TAPS through the reactor, and ultimately to a low-powermore » receiver network on the vessel’s exterior. In order to rely on TAPS as primary instrumentation, reactor-specific models which account for geometric/acoustic complexities in the signal propagation environment must be used to predict the amplitude and frequency of TAPS signals at receiver locations. The reactor state may then be derived by comparing receiver signals to the reference levels established by predictive modeling. In this paper, we develop and experimentally benchmark a methodology for predictive modeling of the signals generated by a TAPS system, with the intent of subsequently extending these efforts to modeling of TAPS in a liquid sodium environmen« less

  17. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  18. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  19. Dynamics of a Tapped Granular Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, Anthony; Blackmore, Denis; Zuo, Luo; Hao, Wu; Horntrop, David

    2015-11-01

    We consider the behavior of a column of spheres subjected to a time-dependent vertical taps. Of interest are various dynamical properties, such as the motion of its mass center, its response to taps of different intensities and forms, and the effect of system size and material properties. The interplay between diverse time and length scales are the key contributors to the column's evolving dynamics. Soft sphere discrete element simulations were conducted over a very wide parameter space to obtain a portrait of column behavior as embodied by the collective dynamics of the mass center motion. Results compared favorably with a derived reduced-order paradigm of the mass center motion (surprisingly analogous to that for a single bouncing ball on an oscillating plate) with respect to dynamical regimes and their transitions. A continuum model obtained from a system of Newtonian equations, as a locally averaged limit in the transport mode along trajectories is described, and a numerical solution protocol for a one-dimensional system is outlined. Typical trajectories and density evolution profiles are shown. We conclude with a discussion of our investigations to relate predictions of the continuum and reduced dynamical systems models with discrete simulations.

  20. Vaccination and the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways.

    PubMed

    López, Daniel; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte-mediated cellular response is important for the elimination of virus-infected cells and requires the prior recognition of short viral peptide antigens previously translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or infected cells with TAP molecules blocked by specific viral proteins, such as the cowpoxvirus, a component of the first source of early empirical vaccination against smallpox, are still able to present several HLA class I ligands generated by the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways to specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Currently, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases have renewed interest in poxviruses. Recent works that have identified HLA class I ligands and epitopes in virus-infected TAP-deficient cells have implications for the study of both the effectiveness of early empirical vaccination and the analysis of HLA class I antigen processing in TAP-deficient subjects.

  1. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de; Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonicmore » crystals.« less

  2. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle. PMID:23362477

  3. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.01) and internal oblique (p<0.01) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. Furthermore, at 20% and 30% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) and the internal oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. At 10% PEmax, no significant differences were observed in muscle activity. Although we observed no significant difference between 10% and 20% PEmax, activity during 30% PEmax was significantly greater than during 20% PEmax (external oblique: p<0.05; internal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TAP polymorphism in patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    González-Escribano, M F; Morales, J; García-Lozano, J R; Castillo, M J; Sánchez-Román, J; Núñez-Roldán, A; Sánchez, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if susceptibility to Behçet's disease (BD) is associated with polymorphism of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, DQB1, and TAP1 and TAP2 genes. METHODS--Fifty eight Spanish BD patients and 116 ethnically matched unrelated healthy subjects were typed at the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci using polymerase chain reaction/sequence specific oligotyping (PCR/SSO). TAP1 and TAP2 alleles were assigned using amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. RESULTS--TAP1C was absent in BD patients, but was found in 12.1% of control subjects (pcorr < 0.05; relative risk = 0.06). Additionally, a linkage disequilibrium between HLA-DQB1*0501 and TAP2B was observed in BD patients (delta = 0.095, pcorr < 0.02), but not in the control group (delta = -0.0031, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--The complete absence of TAP1C alleles in BD patients may indicate that TAP1 polymorphism is not without some significance in the development of BD. Furthermore, the existence of a linkage disequilibrium between HLA-DQB1*0501 and TAP2B in our patients suggests that the gene conferring susceptibility for BD is inherited as an extended haplotype in the population studied. PMID:7794046

  5. 2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, INCLINE PLANE CAR, INCLINE PLANE TRACK, UPPER STATION. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  7. Effect of age and carcass weight on quality traits of m. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    PubMed

    Ellies-Oury, M P; Dumont, R; Perrier, G; Roux, M; Micol, D; Picard, B

    2017-04-01

    In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer's meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer's cycles (age and/or carcass weight in

  8. Assessment of leg muscle activity using toe tapping in patients with Parkinson's disease: comparison of two types of toe tapping.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Seira; Peper, Ferdinand; Shimokawa, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates two types of toe tapping, i.e., "closed," with both feet on the floor, and "open," in which the foot does not touch the ground, and evaluates their usefulness in combination with monitoring of muscle activity during toe tapping. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 9 controls (Controls). The tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscle activity during toe tapping was measured using surface electromyography. [Results] In closed tapping, the minima in GS activation with the first tap was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In open tapping, the coefficient of variation (CV) of local maxima in TA activation was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In both types of tapping, the CV of extrema in GS activities increased with disease duration, but this may be due to the long-term administration of Levodopa, which itself tends to cause excessive GS activities. [Conclusion] Closed tapping is suitable for the assessment of GS activity and can detect excessive activities, which is observed as visible movement. Open tapping, on the other hand, is suitable for assessment of TA activity.

  9. Calibration Testing of Network Tap Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Chee, Brian; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-11-14

    Abstract: Understanding the behavior of network forensic devices is important to support prosecutions of malicious conduct on computer networks as well as legal remedies for false accusations of network management negligence. Individuals who seek to establish the credibility of network forensic data must speak competently about how the data was gathered and the potential for data loss. Unfortunately, manufacturers rarely provide information about the performance of low-layer network devices at a level that will survive legal challenges. This paper proposes a first step toward an independent calibration standard by establishing a validation testing methodology for evaluating forensic taps against manufacturermore » specifications. The methodology and the theoretical analysis that led to its development are offered as a conceptual framework for developing a standard and to "operationalize" network forensic readiness. This paper also provides details of an exemplar test, testing environment, procedures and results.« less

  10. The Expanding Universe of Astronomy on Tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Morris, Brett; Narayan, Gautham; Morrison, Sarah J.; Schneider, Evan; Bozek, Brandon; Rice, Emily L.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Garofali, Kristen; Martinez, Raquel; Li, Yuan; Green, Joel D.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Silvia, Devin W.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Arcavi, Iair; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT) is a constellation of free public outreach presentations held in bars. AoT events aim to engage audiences who might not choose to attend public lectures in a university setting by creating an informal atmosphere and combining scientific talks with music, games, and prizes. The events have a flexible format, typically consisting of between one and three astronomy-related presentations, sometimes with additional games and trivia, and some locations also produce merchandise. The flexible structure means that the format can be adapted to the resources available in the location and the time commitment the local organizers are willing to make. Some events are broadcast online through live streaming, with some others being posted to YouTube. In conjunction with an active social media presence, this ensures engagement beyond those able to attend events in person. Astronomy on Tap events have now been held in 20 cities around the world and are typically organised by postdocs and graduate students, with some involvement from faculty and outreach or education staff. Holding these events under the global AoT constellation facilitates knowledge transfer, sharing of resources, and networking opportunities for scientists interested in outreach/communication. The events have been highly successful, with some locations regularly attracting more than 200 people per month. In this poster we describe the goals and characteristics of AoT events, the different adaptations by various locations, the resources we have developed, and provide information for those interested in starting a new event in their location.

  11. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  12. Water use and time analysis in ablution from taps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaied, Roubi A.

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of water resources and an extreme use of potable water in our Arab region. Ablution from taps was studied since it is a repeated daily activity that consumes more water. Five different tap types are investigated for water consumption fashions including traditional mixing tap and automatic tap. Analyzing 100 experimental observations revealed that 22.7-28.8 % of ablution water is used for washing of feet and the largest water waste occurs during washing of face portions. Moreover, 30-47 % amount of water consumed in ablution from taps is wasted which can be saved if tap releases water only at moments of need. The push-type tap is being spread recently especially in airports. If it is intended for use in ablution facilities, batch duration and volume must be tuned. When each batch is 0.25 L of water and lasts for 3 s, 3 L are sufficient for one complete ablution in average which means considerable saving. A cost-benefit model is proposed for using different tap types and an economic feasibility study is performed on a case study. This analysis can help us to design better ablution systems.

  13. Tapping the Sugar Maple--Learning and Appreciating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses how to tap a maple tree. Tapping a maple tree to produce maple syrup can: (1) lead to better understanding in many subject areas, (2) develop skills through participation in a rewarding activity, and (3) help students appreciate the many important roles that trees play in our environment and daily lives. (NQ)

  14. Healthy and Creative Tap Dance: Teaching a Lifetime Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ozmun, Michelle; Keeton, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    As a result of competitive dance television shows, interest in tap dance seems to have increased in the past few years. Tap dance is a challenging and fun lifetime physical activity that is appropriate for people of all ages. It is an excellent activity for K-12 physical education programs, higher education, parks and recreation facilities,…

  15. TAP High School Symposium: Lessons Learned from Principals and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1999-2000 school year, TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (TAP) has been implemented in hundreds of schools across the nation and demonstrated an ability to raise student achievement, improve the quality of instruction and increase the ability of high-need schools to recruit, retain and support effective teachers. The…

  16. Tap Testing Hammer using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JaMein DeShon; Ayorinde, Emmanuel Temiloluwa; Mascarenas, David Dennis

    This is the final poster for a Student Symposium at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research describes the development, validation, and testing of a remote concrete tapping mechanism enabled by UAS. The conclusion is the following: The results quantify for the first time concrete tapping data collected remotely with UAS, enabling cost-effective, safer and sustainable upgrade prioritization of railroad bridges inventories.

  17. The mineral content of tap water in United States households

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The composition of tap water contributes to dietary intake of minerals. The USDA’s Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) conducted a study of the mineral content of residential tap water, to generate current data for the USDA National Nutrient Database. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper...

  18. Reliability of real-time ultrasound for the assessment of transversus abdominis function.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Adrian W; Magee, Scott; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2002-07-01

    Transversus abdominis (TrA) has now been established as a key muscle for the stabilization of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints. Significantly, dysfunction of this muscle has also been implicated in low back pain. Real-time ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive procedure that has the potential to evaluate objectively the function of TrA. To investigate M-mode US as a reliable method of assessing TrA function. M-mode US was used to measure the width of TrA as subjects drew in their lower abdominal wall at a controlled speed to a target depth. Eleven subjects were imaged. the measures of TrA width were reliable and ranged between 3.14mm relaxed and 6.35mm contracted. The standard error of measurement ranged between 0.18mm and 0.57mm. M-mode US provides a reliable non-invasive measure of a controlled contraction of TrA.

  19. Transversus abdominis is part of a global not local muscle synergy during arm movement.

    PubMed

    Morris, S L; Lay, B; Allison, G T

    2013-10-01

    The trunk muscle transversus abdominis (TrA) is thought to be controlled independently of the global trunk muscles. Methodological issues in the 1990s research such as unilateral electromyography and a limited range of arm movements justify a re-examination of this theory. The hypothesis tested is that TrA bilateral co-contraction is a typical muscle synergy during arm movement. The activity of 6 pairs of trunk and lower limb muscles was recorded using bilateral electromyography during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) associated with the arm movements. The integrated APA electromyographical signals were analyzed for muscle synergy using Principle Component Analysis. TrA does not typically bilaterally co-contract during arm movements (1 out of 6 participants did). APA muscle activity of all muscles during asymmetrical arm movements typically reflected a direction specific diagonal pattern incorporating a twisting motion to transfer energy from the ground up. This finding is not consistent with the hypothesis that TrA plays a unique role providing bilateral, feedforward, multidirectional stiffening of the spine. This has significant implications to the theories underlying the role of TrA in back pain and in the training of isolated bilateral co-contraction of TrA in the prophylaxis of back pain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of elbow osteomyelitis with an interposition arthroplasty using a rectus abdominis free flap.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Busse, Brittany; Allen, Robert; Sahar, David

    2015-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the elbow may be a complex clinical problem. Treatment goals include the eradication of infection and preservation of maximal joint function. Bony debridement may be necessary in addition to elbow joint arthroplasty. The use of synthetic material or allograft as the arthroplasty material may be contraindicated in the setting of infection. The use of free muscle transfer as an arthroplasty medium has not been well described. A 22-year-old paraplegic man developed recurrent osteomyelitis of the right elbow, necessitating extensive bony debridement by the orthopedic surgery team. Reconstruction arthroplasty was performed using a free rectus abdominis muscle flap as the arthroplasty material to serve as a source of biologically active, well-vascularized arthroplasty medium in the presence of ongoing infection. A successful free muscle flap arthroplasty was performed. External fixation and physical therapy were implemented postoperatively. The patient had resolution of osteomyelitis and excellent functional use of the elbow for activities of daily living and wheelchair motion. Elbow arthroplasty in the setting of active infection may be accomplished by means of free tissue muscle transfer. Elimination of infection and acceptable joint function may be possible with this form of reconstruction.

  1. Astronomy on Tap: Public Outreach Events in Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, E. L.; Levine, B. W.

    2016-12-01

    Astronomy on Tap public outreach events are as easy to organise or as elaborate as you would like them to be. In addition to communicating cutting-edge research and fundamental concepts to the public, Astronomy on Tap events showcase the passion, creativity and diversity of scientists, facilitate personal and meaningful interactions between scientists and the general public, and offer networking and professional development opportunities for scientists. Astronomy on Tap organisers provide a growing cadre of resources for starting similar events, which have so far taken place in twenty locations around the world, mainly in the United States but also in Canada, Chile, and Taiwan, reaching a total of almost 15 000 people. Through this reflection on the Astronomy on Tap project we invite you to consider whether you could adopt aspects of the Astronomy on Tap model for existing outreach programmes, or even organise a new satellite event in your location.

  2. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentrations in stem-wood, bark and root tissues of the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst) in two natural woodlands of Ethiopia. Two tapping treatments, one without tapping (control) and the other with tapping at 12 incisions, are applied on experimental trees. Trees are tapped in the leafless dry period, diminishing their carbon storage pools. If storage pools are not refilled by assimilation during the wet season, when crowns are in full leaf, tapping may deplete the carbon pool and weaken Boswellia trees. The highest soluble sugar concentrations were in the bark and the highest starch concentrations in the stem-wood. The stem-wood contains 12 times higher starch than soluble sugar concentrations. Hence, the highest TNC concentrations occurred in the stem-wood. Moreover, wood volume was larger than root or bark volumes and, as a result, more TNC was stored in the stem-wood. As predicted, tapping reduced the TNC concentrations and pool sizes in frankincense trees during the dry season. During the wet season, these carbon pools were gradually filled in tapped trees, but never to the size of non-tapped trees. We conclude that TNC is dynamic on a seasonal time scale and offers resilience against stress, highlighting its importance for tree carbon balance. But current resin tapping practices are intensive and may weaken Boswellia populations, jeopardizing future frankincense production.

  3. [Hodge and his planes].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2010-01-01

    Hugh Lenox Hodge (1796-1873) was professor of obstetrics at the University of Pennsylvania for more than 25 years. He divided the birth canal into four virtual and parallel planes through pelvic protuberances, a method still widely used. He also developed a pessary that is now mainly used in stress incontinence.

  4. Plane Jane(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2001-01-01

    Describes an assignment that was used in an advanced drawing class in which the students created self-portraits, breaking up their images using planes and angles to suggest their bone structure. Explains that the students also had to include three realistic portions in their drawings. (CMK)

  5. Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominis Muscle Fatigue Induced by Slumped Sitting Posture after 1 Hour of Sitting in Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Waongenngarm, Pooriput; Rajaratnam, Bala S.; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting leads to low back discomfort and lumbopelvic muscle fatigue. This study examined the characteristics of body perceived discomfort and trunk muscle fatigue during 1 hour of sitting in three postures in office workers. Methods Thirty workers sat for 1 hour in one of three sitting postures (i.e., upright, slumped, and forward leaning postures). Body discomfort was assessed using the Body Perceived Discomfort scale at the beginning and after 1 hour of sitting. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from superficial lumbar multifidus, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, internal oblique (IO)/transversus abdominis (TrA), and rectus abdominis muscles during 1 hour of sitting. The median frequency (MDF) of the EMG power spectrum was calculated. Results Regardless of the sitting posture, the Body Perceived Discomfort scores in the neck, shoulder, upper back, low back, and buttock significantly increased after 1 hour of sitting compared with baseline values (t(9) = −11.97 to −2.69, p < 0.05). The MDF value of the EMG signal of rectus abdominis, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and multifidus muscles was unchanged over time in all three sitting postures. Only the right and left IO/TrA in the slumped sitting posture was significantly associated with decreased MDF over time (p = 0.019 to 0.041). Conclusion Prolonged sitting led to increased body discomfort in the neck, shoulder, upper back, low back, and buttock. No sign of trunk muscle fatigue was detected over 1 hour of sitting in the upright and forward leaning postures. Prolonged slumped sitting may relate to IO/TrA muscle fatigue, which may compromise the stability of the spine, making it susceptible to injury. PMID:27014491

  6. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more thanmore » 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.« less

  7. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  8. The neural substrates of impaired finger tapping regularity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Calautti, Cinzia; Jones, P Simon; Guincestre, Jean-Yves; Naccarato, Marcello; Sharma, Nikhil; Day, Diana J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2010-03-01

    Not only finger tapping speed, but also tapping regularity can be impaired after stroke, contributing to reduced dexterity. The neural substrates of impaired tapping regularity after stroke are unknown. Previous work suggests damage to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and prefrontal cortex (PFCx) affects externally-cued hand movement. We tested the hypothesis that these two areas are involved in impaired post-stroke tapping regularity. In 19 right-handed patients (15 men/4 women; age 45-80 years; purely subcortical in 16) partially to fully recovered from hemiparetic stroke, tri-axial accelerometric quantitative assessment of tapping regularity and BOLD fMRI were obtained during fixed-rate auditory-cued index-thumb tapping, in a single session 10-230 days after stroke. A strong random-effect correlation between tapping regularity index and fMRI signal was found in contralesional PMd such that the worse the regularity the stronger the activation. A significant correlation in the opposite direction was also present within contralesional PFCx. Both correlations were maintained if maximal index tapping speed, degree of paresis and time since stroke were added as potential confounds. Thus, the contralesional PMd and PFCx appear to be involved in the impaired ability of stroke patients to fingertap in pace with external cues. The findings for PMd are consistent with repetitive TMS investigations in stroke suggesting a role for this area in affected-hand movement timing. The inverse relationship with tapping regularity observed for the PFCx and the PMd suggests these two anatomically-connected areas negatively co-operate. These findings have implications for understanding the disruption and reorganization of the motor systems after stroke. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of fiber type transformation and histology in chronic electrically stimulated canine rectus abdominis muscle island-flap stomal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey K; Bardoel, Janou W J M; Maldonado, Claudio; Barker, John H; Stadelmann, Wayne K

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic skeletal muscle flaps are designed to perform a specific functional task through contraction and relaxation of their muscle fibers. The most commonly used dynamic skeletal flaps today are for cardiomyoplasty and anal or urinary myoplasty. Low-frequency chronic stimulation of these flaps enables them to use their intrinsic energy stores in a more efficient manner through aerobic metabolic pathways for increased endurance and improved work capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether fiber type transformation from fatigue-prone (type II) muscle fibers to fatigue-resistant (type I) muscle fibers could be demonstrated in the authors' chronic canine stomal sphincter model where the rectus abdominis muscle was used to create a functional stomal sphincter, (2) assess whether there is any correlation between the degree of muscle fiber type transformation and the continence times, and (3) examine the long-term effects of the training regimens on the skeletal muscle fibers through histologic and volumetric analysis. Eight dynamic island-flap sphincters were created from a part of the rectus abdominis muscle in mongrel dogs by preserving the deep inferior epigastric vascular pedicle and the most caudal investing intercostal nerve. The muscular sphincters were wrapped around a blind loop of distal ileum and trained with pacing electrodes. Two different training protocols were used. In group A (n = 4), a preexisting anal dynamic graciloplasty training protocol was used. A revised protocol was used in group B (n = 4). Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained before and after training from the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter. Fiber type transformation was assessed using a monoclonal antibody directed against the fatigue-prone type II fibers. Pretraining and posttraining skeletal muscle specimens were examined histologically. A significant fiber type conversion was achieved in both group A and group B animals, with each group achieving greater than 50

  10. Fixture For Drilling And Tapping A Curved Workpiece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, P. S.; Lockyer, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Simple fixture guides drilling and tapping of holes in prescribed locations and orientations on workpiece having curved surface. Tool conceived for use in reworking complexly curved helicopter blades made of composite materials. Fixture is block of rigid foam with epoxy filler, custom-fitted to surface contour, containing bushings and sleeves at drilling and tapping sites. Bushings changed, so taps and drills of various sizes accommodated. In use, fixture secured to surface by hold-down bolts extending through sleeves and into threads in substrate.

  11. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  12. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and supercomplex assembly in rectus abdominis muscle of diabetic obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ghadi; McMurray, Fiona; Thrush, A Brianne; Patten, David A; Peixoto, Alyssa C; Slack, Ruth S; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction has been documented in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, specific respiratory defects and their mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to examine oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain (ETC) supercomplex assembly in rectus abdominis muscles of 10 obese diabetic and 10 obese non-diabetic individuals. Twenty obese women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were recruited for this study. Muscle samples were obtained intraoperatively and subdivided for multiple analyses, including high-resolution respirometry and assessment of supercomplex assembly. Clinical data obtained from referring physicians were correlated with laboratory findings. Participants in both groups were of a similar age, weight and BMI. Mitochondrial respiration rates were markedly reduced in diabetic vs non-diabetic patients. This defect was observed during maximal ADP-stimulated respiration in the presence of complex I-linked substrates and complex I- and II-linked substrates, and during maximal uncoupled respiration. There were no differences in fatty acid (octanoyl carnitine) supported respiration, leak respiration or isolated activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Intriguingly, significant correlations were found between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and maximal respiration or respiration supported by complex I, complex I and II or fatty acid. In the muscle of diabetic patients, blue native gel electrophoresis revealed a striking decrease in complex I, III and IV containing ETC supercomplexes. These findings support the hypothesis that ETC supercomplex assembly may be an important underlying mechanism of muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Reliability of real-time ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis thickness in healthy trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Gnat, Rafael; Saulicz, Edward; Miądowicz, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    To investigate intra- and inter-rater reliability of the ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis (TrA) thickness and thickness change (difference between thickness at rest and during contraction) in asymptomatic, trained subjects. To define the number of repeated measurements that provide acceptable level of reliability. To investigate variability of the measurements over time of 5 days and the reliability of duplicate analysis of images. A single-group repeated-measures design was used to assess reliability. Healthy volunteers (n = 10) were subjected to 1-week training in voluntary activation of TrA. Real-time ultrasound imaging and subsequent measurement of the TrA thickness at rest and during voluntary contraction were repeated on Monday, Wednesday and Friday of the next week. Using a single repeated measurement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for TrA thickness were: 0.86-0.95 (intra-rater), 0.86-0.92 (inter-rater); and for TrA thickness change: 0.34-0.56 (intra-rater), 0.47-0.61 (inter-rater). Using the mean of three repeated measurements respective values were: 0.97, 0.96-0.98; and 0.81-0.84, 0.80-0.90. No significant differences were found between mean values of TrA thickness as well as thickness change obtained on three consecutive measurement days. Duplicate analysis of the images was highly reliable with ICCs of 0.89-0.99. Two repeated measurements for TrA thickness and at least three measurements for TrA thickness change are needed to achieve acceptable levels of intra- and inter-rater reliability. In healthy trained volunteers TrA thickness and thickness change are relatively stable parameters over a 5-day period. Duplicate analysis of the same images by two blinded observers is reliable.

  14. Supercharging the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: breast reconstruction for the overweight and obese population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liza C; Iteld, Lawrence; Song, David H

    2008-06-01

    Autologous breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is traditionally based on either the superior epigastric vessels (pedicled) or the deep inferior system (free). In the overweight and obese population, both techniques have been shown to have increased complications of the reconstructed breast. Another alternative is supercharging the flap by anastamosing the deep inferior epigastric vessels to either the internal mammary or thoracodorsal systems. We present a single surgeon's experience with unilateral TRAM reconstructions supercharged to either the thoracodorsal vessels, the internal mammary system, or in one case, perforator vessels in overweight and obese patients. Nineteen consecutive overweight or obese patients underwent delayed or immediate, unilateral autologous breast reconstruction with supercharged TRAM flaps between November 2000 and November 2004. The patients ranged in age from 28 to 66 years (average 49) and had an average body mass index (BMI) of 29.5 (24.9-38.3). Twelve patients had a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2; 7 patients had BMI > or =30 kg/m2. Left-sided reconstructions were 13; right-sided reconstructions were 6. Supercharging was performed by anastamosing the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein to the thoracodorsal vessels, internal mammary vessels, or perforator vessels. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 54 months. There was a qualitative increase in blood flow measured by audible Doppler signals in all patients after the arterial and venous anastamoses. There were no cases of partial or complete flap loss. One patient had a hematoma and subsequently developed minor fat necrosis. One patient had an infection of the reconstructed breast. There were no donor site complications. Supercharging the TRAM flap by means of microvascular augmentation of the deep inferior epigastric vessels provides a safe and effective breast reconstruction in the overweight and obese population with no additional

  15. Simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging.

    PubMed

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Paulson, Eric S

    2017-11-01

    Intrafraction motion can result in a smearing of planned external beam radiation therapy dose distributions, resulting in an uncertainty in dose actually deposited in tissue. The purpose of this paper is to present a pulse sequence that is capable of imaging a moving target at a high frame rate in two orthogonal planes simultaneously for MR-guided radiotherapy. By balancing the zero gradient moment on all axes, slices in two orthogonal planes may be spatially encoded simultaneously. The orthogonal slice groups may be acquired with equal or nonequal echo times. A Cartesian spoiled gradient echo simultaneous orthogonal plane imaging (SOPI) sequence was tested in phantom and in vivo. Multiplexed SOPI acquisitions were performed in which two parallel slices were imaged along two orthogonal axes simultaneously. An autocalibrating phase-constrained 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition) algorithm was implemented to reconstruct the multiplexed data. SOPI images without intraslice motion artifacts were reconstructed at a maximum frame rate of 8.16 Hz. The 2D-SENSE-GRAPPA reconstruction separated the parallel slices aliased along each orthogonal axis. The high spatiotemporal resolution provided by SOPI has the potential to be beneficial for intrafraction motion management during MR-guided radiation therapy or other MRI-guided interventions. Magn Reson Med 78:1700-1710, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  17. The Danger of Using Tap Water with Contact Lenses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acanthamoeba is a microbe that is very common in tap water. It has two forms: the trophozoite and the cyst. These trophozoites and cysts can stick to the surface of your contact lenses and then infect your eye.

  18. VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR AREA, NOTE FOUNDATIONS OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  20. NREL Taps Young to Oversee Geothermal Energy Program | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Taps Young to Oversee Geothermal Energy Program News Release: NREL Taps Young to Oversee Geothermal (NREL) promoted Katherine Young to laboratory program manager for geothermal energy. Young has been with NREL since 2008, working as a senior geothermal analyst and engineer in the Strategic Energy Analysis

  1. Quantification of Finger-Tapping Angle Based on Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Djurić-Jovičić, Milica; Jovičić, Nenad S.; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Popović, Mirjana B.; Kostić, Vladimir S.; Djordjević, Antonije R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel simple method for quantitative and qualitative finger-tapping assessment based on miniature inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes) placed on the thumb and index-finger. We propose a simplified description of the finger tapping by using a single angle, describing rotation around a dominant axis. The method was verified on twelve subjects, who performed various tapping tasks, mimicking impaired patterns. The obtained tapping angles were compared with results of a motion capture camera system, demonstrating excellent accuracy. The root-mean-square (RMS) error between the two sets of data is, on average, below 4°, and the intraclass correlation coefficient is, on average, greater than 0.972. Data obtained by the proposed method may be used together with scores from clinical tests to enable a better diagnostic. Along with hardware simplicity, this makes the proposed method a promising candidate for use in clinical practice. Furthermore, our definition of the tapping angle can be applied to all tapping assessment systems. PMID:28125051

  2. Quantification of Finger-Tapping Angle Based on Wearable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Djurić-Jovičić, Milica; Jovičić, Nenad S; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Popović, Mirjana B; Kostić, Vladimir S; Djordjević, Antonije R

    2017-01-25

    We propose a novel simple method for quantitative and qualitative finger-tapping assessment based on miniature inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes) placed on the thumb and index-finger. We propose a simplified description of the finger tapping by using a single angle, describing rotation around a dominant axis. The method was verified on twelve subjects, who performed various tapping tasks, mimicking impaired patterns. The obtained tapping angles were compared with results of a motion capture camera system, demonstrating excellent accuracy. The root-mean-square (RMS) error between the two sets of data is, on average, below 4°, and the intraclass correlation coefficient is, on average, greater than 0.972. Data obtained by the proposed method may be used together with scores from clinical tests to enable a better diagnostic. Along with hardware simplicity, this makes the proposed method a promising candidate for use in clinical practice. Furthermore, our definition of the tapping angle can be applied to all tapping assessment systems.

  3. Evaluation of primary stability of self-tapping and non-self-tapping dental implants. A 12-week clinical study.

    PubMed

    Marković, Aleksa; Calvo-Guirado, José Luís; Lazić, Zoran; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Ćalasan, Dejan; Guardia, Javier; Čolic, Snježana; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Gačić, Bojan; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Janjić, Bojan; Mišić, Tijana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between surgical techniques and implant macro-design (self-tapping/non-self-tapping) for the optimization of implant stability in the low-density bone present in the posterior maxilla using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). A total of 102 implants were studied. Fifty-six self-tapping BlueSkyBredent® (Bredent GmbH&Co.Kg®, Senden, Germany) and 56 non-self-tapping Standard Plus Straumann® (Institut Straumann AG®, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed in the posterior segment of the maxilla. Implants of both types were placed in sites prepared with either lateral bone-condensing or with bone-drilling techniques. Implant stability measurements were performed using RFA immediately after implant placement and weekly during a 12-week follow-up period. Both types of implants placed after bone condensing achieved significantly higher stability immediately after surgery, as well as during the entire 12-week observation period compared with those placed following bone drilling. After bone condensation, there were no significant differences in primary stability or in implant stability after the first week between both implant types. From 2 to 12 postoperative weeks, significantly higher stability was shown by self-tapping implants. After bone drilling, self-tapping implants achieved significantly higher stability than non-self-tapping implants during the entire follow-up period. The outcomes of the present study indicate that bone drilling is not an effective technique for improving implant stability and, following this technique, the use of self-tapping implants is highly recommended. Implant stability optimization in the soft bone can be achieved by lateral bone-condensing technique, regardless of implant macro-design. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Probing and Tapping: Are We Inserting Pedicle Screws Correctly?

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vishal; Mesfin, Addisu; Lee, Robert; Reigrut, Julie; Schmidt, John

    2016-11-01

    Although there are a significant number of research publications on the topic of bone morphology and the strength of bone, the clinical significance of a failed pedicle screw is often revision surgery and the potential for further postoperative complications; especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this report is to quantify the mechanical strength of the foam-screw interface by assessing probe/pilot hole diameter and tap sizes using statistically relevant sample sizes under highly controlled test conditions. The study consisted of two experiments and used up to three different densities of reference-grade polyurethane foam (ASTM 1839), including 0.16, 0.24, and 0.32 g/cm 3 . All screws and rods were provided by K2M Inc. and screws were inserted to a depth of 25 mm. A series of pilot holes, 1.5, 2.2, 2.7, 3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 5.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter were drilled through the entire depth of the material. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 720). A 3.0-mm pilot hole was drilled and tapped with: no tap, 3.5-, 4.5-, 5.5-, and 6.5-mm taps. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 300). The size of the probe/pilot hole had a nonlinear, parabolic effect on pullout strength. This shape suggests an optimum-sized probe hole for a given size pedicle screw. Too large or too small of a probe hole causes a rapid falloff in pullout strength. The tap data demonstrated that not tapping and undertapping by two or three sizes did not significantly alter the pullout strength of the screws. The data showed an exponential falloff of pullout strength when as tap size increased to the diameter of the screw. In the current study, the data show that an ideal pilot hole size half the diameter of the screw is a starting point. Also, that if tapping was necessary, to use a tap two sizes smaller than the screw being implanted. A similar optimum pilot hole or tap size may be

  5. The Three Planes of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the language sciences place together four different forms of mental activity on one plane of language, which results in confusion. This paper presents arguments from metaphysics, hermeneutics, and semiotics to demonstrate that there are actually three planes of language (a biologically-based information processing plane, a literal…

  6. Comparative analysis of open and robotic transversus abdominis release for ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Bittner, James G; Alrefai, Sameer; Vy, Michelle; Mabe, Micah; Del Prado, Paul A R; Clingempeel, Natasha L

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis release (TAR) is a safe, effective strategy to repair complex ventral incisional hernia (VIH); however, open TAR (o-TAR) often necessitates prolonged hospitalization. Robot-assisted TAR (r-TAR) may benefit short-term outcomes and shorten convalescence. This study compares 90-day outcomes of o-TAR and r-TAR for VIH repair. A single-center, retrospective review of patients who underwent o-TAR or r-TAR for VIH from 2015 to 2016 was conducted. Patient and hernia characteristics, operative data, and 90-day outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, and secondary metrics were morbidity, surgical site events, and readmission. Overall, 102 patients were identified (76 o-TAR and 26 r-TAR). Patients were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index, and the presence of co-morbidities. Diabetes was more common in the open group (22.3 vs. 0%, P = 0.01). Most VIH defects were midline (89.5 vs. 83%, P = 0.47) and recurrent (52.6 vs. 58.3%, P = 0.65). Hernia characteristics were similar regarding mean defect size (260 ± 209 vs. 235 ± 107 cm 2 , P = 0.55), mesh removal, and type/size mesh implanted. Average operative time was longer in the r-TAR cohort (287 ± 121 vs. 365 ± 78 min, P < 0.01) despite most receiving mesh fixation with fibrin sealant alone (18.4 vs. 91.7%, P < 0.01). r-TAR trended toward lower morbidity (39.2 vs. 19.2%, P = 0.09), less severe complications, and similar rates of surgical site events and readmission (6.6 vs. 7.7%, P = 1.00). In addition, r-TAR resulted in a significantly shorter median hospital length of stay compared to o-TAR (6 days, 95% CI 5.9-8.3 vs. 3 days, 95% CI 3.2-4.3). In select patients, the robotic surgical platform facilitates a safe, minimally invasive approach to complex abdominal wall reconstruction, specifically TAR. Robot-assisted TAR for VIH offers the short-term benefits of low morbidity and decreased hospital length of stay compared to open TAR.

  7. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  8. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  9. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  10. Computerized measures of finger tapping: reliability, malingering and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Kerry A; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed computerized finger tapping metrics in four experiments. Experiment 1 showed tapping-rate differences associated with hand dominance, digits, sex, and fatigue that replicated those seen in a previous, large-scale community sample. Experiment 2 revealed test-retest correlations (r = .91) that exceeded those reported in previous tapping studies. Experiment 3 investigated subjects simulating symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI); 62% of malingering subjects produced abnormally slow tapping rates. A tapping-rate malingering index, based on rate-independent tapping patterns, provided confirmatory evidence of malingering in 48% of the subjects with abnormal tapping rates. Experiment 4 compared tapping in 24 patients with mild TBI (mTBI) and a matched control group; mTBI patients showed slowed tapping without evidence of malingering. Computerized finger tapping measures are reliable measures of motor speed, useful in detecting subjects performing with suboptimal effort, and are sensitive to motor abnormalities following mTBI.

  11. Effects of channel tap spacing on delay-lock tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Roger A.; Milner, Brian R.; Bogusch, Robert L.

    1995-12-01

    High fidelity simulations of communication links operating through frequency selective fading channels require both accurate channel models and faithful reproduction of the received signal. In modern radio receivers, processing beyond the analog-to-digital converter (A/D) is done digitally, so a high fidelity simulation is actually an emulation of this digital signal processing. The 'simulation' occurs in constructing the output of the A/D. One approach to constructing the A/D output is to convolve the channel impulse response function with the combined impulse response of the transmitted modulation and the A/D. For both link simulations and hardware channel simulators, the channel impulse response function is then generated with a finite number of samples per chip, and the convolution is implemented in a tapped delay line. In this paper we discuss the effects of the channel model tap spacing on the performance of delay locked loops (DLLs) in both direct sequence and frequency hopped spread spectrum systems. A frequency selective fading channel is considered, and the channel impulse response function is constructed with an integer number of taps per modulation symbol or chip. The tracking loop time delay is computed theoretically for this tapped delay line channel model and is compared to the results of high fidelity simulations of actual DLLs. A surprising result is obtained. The performance of the DLL depends strongly on the number of taps per chip. As this number increases the DLL delay approaches the theoretical limit.

  12. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations. PMID:20549630

  14. Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Sihan; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang

    Stable isotopes in water (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) are important indicators of hydrological and ecological patterns and processes. Tap water can reflect integrated features of regional hydrological processes and human activities. China is a large country with significant meteorological and geographical variations. This report presents the first national-scale survey of Stable Isotopes in Tap Water (SITW) across China. 780 tap water samples have been collected from 95 cities across China from December 2014 to December 2015. (1) Results yielded the Tap Water Line in China is δ2H = 7.72 δ18O + 6.57 (r2 = 0.95). (2) SITW spatial distribution presentsmore » typical "continental effect". (3) SITW seasonal variations indicate clearly regional patterns but no trends at the national level. (4) SITW can be correlated in some parts with geographic or meteorological factors. This work presents the first SITW map in China, which sets up a benchmark for further stable isotopes research across China. This is a critical step toward monitoring and investigating water resources in climate-sensitive regions, so the human-hydrological system. These findings could be used in the future to establish water management strategies at a national or regional scale. Title: Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China Authors: Zhao, SH; Hu, HC; Tian, FQ; Tie, Q; Wang, LX; Liu, YL; Shi, CX Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7 10.1038/srep43653 MAR 2 2017« less

  15. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  16. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners’ tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing. PMID:28276461

  17. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-03-09

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners' tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing.

  18. Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Ellström-Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as a separation of the 2 muscle bellies of rectus abdominis. To date there is scant knowledge on prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the condition. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DRA during pregnancy and post partum, presence of possible risk factors, and the occurrence of lumbopelvic pain among women with and without DRA. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 300 first-time pregnant women from pregnancy till 12 months post partum. Data were collected by electronic questionnaire and clinical examinations. DRA was defined as a palpated separation of ≥2 fingerbreadths either 4.5 cm above, at or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. Women with and without DRA were compared with independent samples Student's t-test and χ2/Fisher exact test, and OR with significance level >0.05. Results Prevalence of DRA was 33.1%, 60.0%, 45.4%, and 32.6% at gestation week 21, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post partum, respectively. No difference in risk factors was found when comparing women with and without DRA. OR showed a greater likelihood for DRA among women reporting heavy lifting ≥20 times weekly (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.05 to 4.52). There was no difference in reported lumbopelvic pain (p=0.10) in women with and without DRA. Conclusions Prevalence of mild DRA was high both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Women with and without DRA reported the same amount of lumbopelvic pain 12 months post partum. PMID:27324871

  19. Cocontraction of Ankle Dorsiflexors and Transversus Abdominis Function in Patients With Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung-Chul; You, Joshua H.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Context The abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) with cocontraction has been shown to be a more effective method of activating the transversus abdominis (TrA) in healthy adults than the ADIM alone. Whether such an augmented core stabilization exercise is effective in managing low back pain (LBP) remains uncertain. Objective To determine the effect of 2 weeks of ADIM and cocontraction training on abdominal muscle thickness and activation timing and to monitor pain and function in patients with LBP. Design Case-control study. Setting Local orthopaedic clinic and research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty patients with mechanical LBP (age = 27.20 ± 6.46 years, height = 166.25 ± 8.70 cm, mass = 58.10 ± 11.81 kg) and 20 healthy, age-matched people (age = 24.25 ± 1.59 years, height = 168.00 ± 8.89 cm, mass = 60.65 ± 11.99 kg) volunteered for the study. Intervention(s) Both the LBP and control groups received ten 30-minute sessions of ADIM and cocontraction training of the tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s) A separate, mixed-model analysis of variance was computed for the thicknesses of the TrA, internal oblique (IO), and external oblique muscles. The differences in mean and peak electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes, onset time, and latency were compared between the groups. The visual analog pain scale, Pain Disability Index, and LBP rating scale were used to assess pain in the LBP group before and after the intervention. Results We found an interaction between the LBP and control groups and a main effect from pretest to posttest for only TrA muscle thickness change (F1,38 = 6.57, P = .01). Reductions in all pain measures were observed after training (P < .05). Group differences in peak and mean EMG amplitudes and onset time values for TrA/IO and TA were achieved (P < .05). The RF peak (t38 = −3.12, P = .003) and mean (t38 = −4.12, P = .001) EMG amplitudes were different, but no group

  20. Fourier plane filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

  1. Altered Expression of TAP-1 and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in Laryngeal Papillomatosis: Correlation of TAP-1 with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vambutas, Andrea; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Steinberg, Bettie M.

    2000-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is an insidious disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. It is characterized by a variable clinical course that can include frequent disease recurrence, significant morbidity, and occasional mortality. The mechanisms responsible for the variability in the clinical course and the persistence of latent HPV infection remain unknown. Effective T-cell-mediated clearance of HPV-infected cells may be defective in patients with RRP, leading to recurrent disease and failure to suppress latent HPV reactivation. This study describes the down-regulation of the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP-1) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I protein expression in laryngeal papilloma tissue biopsies and cell culture of primary explants. There was a statistically significant correlation between reduction of TAP-1 expression in biopsy tissues and rapid recurrence of disease. Patients with RRP had less frequent recurrence if their papillomas expressed TAP-1 at levels close to that of normal tissue, compared with those with very low expression of TAP-1, who had frequent recurrence (32 versus 5 weeks to the next surgical intervention). These findings suggest that HPV may evade immune recognition by down-regulating class I MHC cell surface expression via decreased TAP-1 levels. Expression of TAP-1 could be used for prognostic evaluation of disease severity. Gamma interferon was able to restore class I MHC expression at the surfaces of laryngeal papilloma cells in culture. This up-regulation of class I MHC antigen at the cell surface potentially allows the infected cell to become a target for the immune system again. This finding provides some promise for nonsurgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas. PMID:10618282

  2. Deep Smarts: How to Tap Teachers' Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbach, Harold J.; Duke, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Principals can tap the tacit knowledge, or "deep smarts," of their teachers in a variety of ways, many of which are based on the notion that tacit knowledge is best sought indirectly. Coming right out and asking people to share what they have learned over the years can be intimidating and disconcerting, especially if trust has not yet been…

  3. 9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tower building. Hot water tap floor shown. Mixing vat at center level. Juices mix and flow and left lower level. Copper kettles are down below view level. Looking toward front of building. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  4. Two Axis Pointing System (TAPS) attitude acquisition, determination, and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azzolini, John D.; Mcglew, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The Two Axis Pointing System (TAPS) is a 2 axis gimbal system designed to provide fine pointing of Space Transportation System (STS) borne instruments. It features center-of-mass instrument mounting and will accommodate instruments of up to 1134 kg (2500 pounds) which fit within a 1.0 by 1.0 by 4.2 meter (40 by 40 by 166 inch) envelope. The TAPS system is controlled by a microcomputer based Control Electronics Assembly (CEA), a Power Distribution Unit (PDU), and a Servo Control Unit (SCU). A DRIRU-II inertial reference unit is used to provide incremental angles for attitude propagation. A Ball Brothers STRAP star tracker is used for attitude acquisition and update. The theory of the TAPS attitude determination and error computation for the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) are described. The attitude acquisition is based upon a 2 star geometric solution. The acquisition theory and quaternion algebra are presented. The attitude control combines classical position, integral and derivative (PID) control with techniques to compensate for coulomb friction (bias torque) and the cable harness crossing the gimbals (spring torque). Also presented is a technique for an adaptive bias torque compensation which adjusts to an ever changing frictional torque environment. The control stability margins are detailed, with the predicted pointing performance, based upon simulation studies. The TAPS user interface, which provides high level operations commands to facilitate science observations, is outlined.

  5. Tapping a Potential for the Good of All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabo, Annika

    Historically, the spread of universal formal mass education in the West is closely linked to emergence of nation-states. This is also true of the Third World. The salient feature of education today is that it reflects a model of society in which citizens, including children, are seen as a potential to be tapped for development of the nation, as…

  6. Assessment of Working Scientifically--The TAPS Focused Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra

    2018-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) Focused Assessment approach embeds assessment within normal classroom science activities. Essentially, a Focused Assessment is a lesson plan for a science inquiry, with an identified focus for assessment and guidance on how to interpret the children's responses in relation to expectations for that…

  7. Complexity Matching Effects in Bimanual and Interpersonal Syncopated Finger Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Coey, Charles A.; Washburn, Auriel; Hassebrock, Justin; Richardson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate complexity matching during syncopated behavioral coordination. Participants either tapped in (bimanual) syncopation using their two hands, or tapped in (interpersonal) syncopation with a partner, with each participant using one of their hands. The time series of inter-tap intervals (ITI) from each hand were submitted to fractal analysis, as well as to short-term and multi-timescale cross-correlation analyses. The results demonstrated that the fractal scaling of one hand’s ITI was strongly correlated to that of the other hand, and this complexity matching effect was stronger in the bimanual condition than in the interpersonal condition. Moreover, the degree of complexity matching was predicted by the strength of short-term cross-correlation and the stability of the asynchrony between the two tapping series. These results suggest that complexity matching is not specific to the inphase synchronization tasks used in past research, but is a general result of coordination between complex systems. PMID:26840612

  8. Lead and Copper Tap Sample Site Plan Instructions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be used by public water systems in Wyoming and on EPA R8 Tribal Lands as a guide for how to properly complete their lead and copper tap sample site plans to comply with the Lead and Copper Rule.

  9. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  10. Media Leader Tapped to Head New York City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…

  11. 20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  13. "Bottled or Tap?" A Controversy for Science, Economics, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Americans spend billions of dollars on bottled water. They purchase a bottle from the vending machine or buy a case at the grocery, no longer considering the water that's freely available from their taps. As consumers and as citizens, however, Americans should pause to study the personal and public consequences of this choice. In this…

  14. 17. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE TAPPING SIDE OF BASIC OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF THE TAPPING SIDE OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Viewing Saturn from the Plane

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-19

    This view of the ringed planet shows its tilt relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun. The planet tilts nearly 27 degrees relative to the ecliptic plane giving rise to seasons in which the rings shadow each hemisphere in its respective winter

  16. Eliciting Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials by Bone-Conducted Vibration via Various Tapping Sites.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) via tapping at various skull sites in healthy subjects and patients with vestibular migraine (VM) to optimize stimulation conditions. Twenty healthy subjects underwent a series of cVEMP tests by BCV tapping via a minishaker at the Fz (forehead), Cz (vertex), and inion (occiput) sites in a randomized order of tapping sites. Another 20 VM patients were also enrolled in this study for comparison. All 20 healthy subjects had clear BCV cVEMPs when tapping at the inion (100%) or Cz (100%), but not at the Fz (75%). Mean p13 and n23 latencies from the Cz tapping were significantly longer than those from the Fz tapping, but not longer than those from the inion tapping. Unlike healthy subjects, tapping at the Cz (95%) elicited a significantly higher response rate of present cVEMPs than tapping at the inion (78%) in 20 VM patients (40 ears), because seven of nine VM ears with absent cVEMPs by inion tapping turned out to be present cVEMPs by Cz tapping. While both inion and Cz tapping elicited 100% response rate of cVEMPs for healthy individuals, Cz tapping had a higher response rate of cVEMPs than inion tapping for the VM group. In cases of total loss of saccular function, cVEMPs could not be activated by either inion or Cz tapping. However, if residual saccular function remains, Cz tapping may activate saccular afferents more efficiently than inion tapping.

  17. BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CERVICAL SCREWS TAPPING AND DESIGN.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patricia; Rosa, Rodrigo César; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Albuquerque de Paula, Francisco José; Volpon, José Batista; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To assess if the screw design (self-drilling/self-tapping) and the pilot hole tapping could affect the insertion torque and screw pullout strength of the screw used in anterior fixation of the cervical spine. Forty self-tapping screws and 20 self-drilling screws were inserted into 10 models of artificial bone and 10 cervical vertebrae of sheep. The studied parameters were the insertion torque and pullout strength. The following groups were created: Group I-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling and tapping; Group II-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling without tapping; Group III-self-drilling screw insertion without drilling and tapping. In Groups I and II, the pilot hole had 14.0 mm in depth and was made with a 3mmn drill, while tapping was made with a 4mm tap. The insertion torque was measured and the pullout test was performed. The comparison between groups was made considering the mean insertion torque and the maximum mean pullout strength with the variance analysis (ANOVA; p≤ 0.05). Previous drilling and tapping of pilot hole significantly decreased the insertion torque and the pullout strength. The insertion torque and pullout strength of self-drilling screws were significantly higher when compared to self-tapping screws inserted after pilot hole tapping.

  18. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice.

  19. Establishing Immediate Reliability of Sonographic Measurements of the Transversus Abdominis in Asymptomatic Adults Performing Upright Loaded Functional Tasks in a Clinical Context Without Delayed Recorded Measurement.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sue; Watson, Todd; Pate, Lindsey

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the reliability of sonographic measurements of the transversus abdominis of adults without low back pain during upright loaded functional tasks in real time, without relying on delayed recorded images. A single-group repeated-measures reliability study was conducted on 12 healthy participants without low back pain. Six of these adults reported a prior history of abdominal drawing-in maneuver training without sonographic measurement. The participants performed 3 trials of neutral standing, a loaded forward reach, and a loaded box lift under rest and with abdominal drawing-in maneuver instructions; task order was randomized. Transversus abdominis thickness measurements were obtained by an experienced rater using B-mode sonography in real-time via electronic calipers twice on the same static image during all trials by a rater. The rater was masked to group assignment and on-screen measurement output and required to respond to trivia questions between repeated measurements. The participants included 6 male and 6 female adults with a mean age ± SD of 26.3 ± 3.7 years. Intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficients (2,3) were high and precise for the rater's first and second measurements for all tasks and instruction conditions for mean transversus abdominis thickness and percent change in thickness measurements (eg, ranges were 0.968-0.997 for intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.01-0.21 mm for standard errors of the measurement, and 0.01-0.58 mm for minimal detectable changes). Calipers cleared by the rater or a research assistant produced similar findings of excellent reliability and precision. High intra-rater reliability and precision of transversus abdominis thickness measurements were obtained by a physical therapist in real time from asymptomatic adults performing upright loaded functional tasks under rest and with abdominal drawing-in maneuver instructions.

  20. Do various baseline characteristics of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Funabashi, Martha; Stanton, Tasha R; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2013-12-01

    Although individual reports suggest that baseline morphometry or activity of transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP), a related systematic review is unavailable. Therefore, this review summarized evidence regarding the predictive value of these muscular characteristics. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic medical databases. After review, 5 cohort studies were included. Although this review intended to encompass studies using different muscle assessment methods, all included studies coincidentally used ultrasound imaging. No research investigated the relation between static morphometry and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis showed limited evidence supporting poor baseline transversus abdominis contraction thickness ratio as a treatment effect modifier favoring motor control exercise. Limited evidence supported that high baseline transversus abdominis lateral slide was associated with higher pain intensity after various exercise interventions at 1-year follow-up. However, there was limited evidence for the absence of relation between the contraction thickness ratio of transversus abdominis or anticipatory onset of lateral abdominal muscles at baseline and the short- or long-term LBP intensity after exercise interventions. There was conflicting evidence for a relation between baseline percent thickness change of lumbar multifidus during contraction and the clinical outcomes of patients after various conservative treatments. Given study heterogeneity, the small number of included studies and the inability of conventional greyscale B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure muscle activity, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale prospective studies that use appropriate technology (ie, electromyography to assess muscle activity) should be conducted to investigate the predictive value of morphometry or activity of these muscles with respect to LBP-related outcomes measures

  1. The effect of bridge exercise method on the strength of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taewook; Lee, Jaeseok; Seo, Junghoon; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the method of bridge exercise on the change of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this research are healthy female students consisting of 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a supine group, 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a prone group, and 10 persons in a control group while in S university in Busan. Bridge exercise in supine position is performed in hook lying position. Bridge exercise in prone position is plank exercise in prostrate position. To measure the strength of rectus abdominis muscle, maintaining times of the posture was used. To measure the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles, EMG (4D-MT & EMD-11, Relive, Korea) was used. [Results] The strength of rectus abdominis muscle of both bridge exercises in the supine group and bridge exercises in the prone group increases significantly after exercise. The muscle activity of paraspinal muscle such as thoracic parts and lumbar parts in bridge exercises in the prone group decreases statistically while walking on a treadmill with high heels. Muscle activity of thoracic parts paraspinal muscle and bridge exercises in the supine group decreased significantly. [Conclusion] According to this study, we noticed that bridge exercise in a prone position is desirable for women who prefer wearing high heels as a back pain prevention exercise method.

  2. Effects of age, task, and frequency on variability of finger tapping.

    PubMed

    Sommervoll, Yngve; Ettema, Gertjan; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2011-10-01

    The goal was to assess whether prior studies might have overestimated performance variability in older adults in dual task conditions by relying on primary motor tasks that are not constant with aging. 30 younger and 31 older adults performed a bimanual tapping task at four different frequencies in isolation or concurrently with a secondary task. Results showed that performance of younger and older adults was not significantly different in performing the tapping task at all frequencies and with either secondary task, as indicated by mean tapping performance and low number of errors in the secondary tasks. Both groups showed increased variability as tapping frequency increased and with the presence of a secondary task. Tapping concurrently while reading words increased tapping variability more than tapping concurrently while naming colours. Although older participants' performances were overall more variable, no interaction effects with age were found and at the highest frequencies of tapping, younger and older participants did not differ in performance.

  3. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  4. A hot Jupiter around the very active weak-line T Tauri star TAP 26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Donati, J.-F.; Hébrard, E. M.; Moutou, C.; Malo, L.; Grankin, K.; Hussain, G.; Collier Cameron, A.; Vidotto, A. A.; Baruteau, C.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Takami, M.; Herczeg, G.; Gregory, S. G.; Jardine, M.; Morin, J.; Ménard, F.; Matysse Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    We report the results of an extended spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star TAP 26, carried out within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in massive Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) programme with the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) spectropolarimeter at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Applying Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) to our observations, concentrating in 2015 November and 2016 January and spanning 72 d in total, 16 d in 2015 November and 13 d in 2016 January, we reconstruct surface brightness and magnetic field maps for both epochs and demonstrate that both distributions exhibit temporal evolution not explained by differential rotation alone. We report the detection of a hot Jupiter (hJ) around TAP 26 using three different methods, two using ZDI and one Gaussian-process regression (GPR), with a false-alarm probability smaller than 6 × 10-4. However, as a result of the aliasing related to the observing window, the orbital period cannot be uniquely determined; the orbital period with highest likelihood is 10.79 ± 0.14 d followed by 8.99 ± 0.09 d. Assuming the most likely period, and that the planet orbits in the stellar equatorial plane, we obtain that the planet has a minimum mass Msin I of 1.66 ± 0.31 MJup and orbits at 0.0968 ± 0.0032 au from its host star. This new detection suggests that disc type II migration is efficient at generating newborn hJs, and that hJs may be more frequent around young T Tauri stars than around mature stars (or that the MaTYSSE sample is biased towards hJ-hosting stars).

  5. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    PubMed

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  7. 75 FR 40033 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... comments concerning Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver. DATES: Written comments should [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver. OMB...

  8. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  9. Effects of aging on control of timing and force of finger tapping.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined whether the elderly produced a hastened or delayed tap with a negative or positive constant intertap interval error more frequently in self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping for the 2 N target force at 2 or 4 Hz frequency. The analysis showed that, at both frequencies, the percentage of the delayed tap was larger in the self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping, whereas the hastened tap showed the opposite result. At the 4 Hz frequency, all age groups had more variable intertap intervals during the self-paced tapping than during the stimulus-synchronized tapping, and the variability of the intertap intervals increased with age. Thus, although the increase in the frequency of delayed taps and variable intertap intervals in the self-paced tapping perhaps resulted from a dysfunction of movement timing in the basal ganglia with age, the decline in timing accuracy was somewhat improved by an auditory cue. The force variability of tapping at 4 Hz further increased with age, indicating an effect of aging on the control of force.

  10. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  11. Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July-September 2013.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Dilber; Celebi, Bekir; Isik, Mehmet Emirhan; Tutus, Celal; Ozturk, Huseyin; Temel, Fehminaz; Kizilaslan, Mecit; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned.

  12. Molecular mechanism and species specificity of TAP inhibition by herpes simplex virus ICP47.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, K; Meyer, T H; Uebel, S; Sempé, P; Djaballah, H; Yang, Y; Peterson, P A; Früh, K; Tampé, R

    1996-01-01

    The immediate early protein ICP47 of herpes simplex virus (HSV) inhibits the transporter for antigen processing (TAP)-mediated translocation of antigen-derived peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. This interference prevents assembly of peptides with class I MHC molecules in the ER and ultimately recognition of HSV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, potentially leading to immune evasion of the virus. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant, purified ICP47 containing a hexahistidine tag inhibits peptide import into microsomes of insect cells expressing human TAP, whereas inhibition of peptide transport by murine TAP was much less effective. This finding indicates an intrinsic species-specificity of ICP47 and suggests that no additional proteins interacting specifically with either ICP47 or TAP are required for inhibition of peptide transport. Since neither purified nor induced ICP47 inhibited photocrosslinking of 8-azido-ATP to TAP1 and TAP2 it seems that ICP47 does not prevent ATP from binding to TAP. By contrast, peptide binding was completely blocked by ICP47 as shown both by photoaffinity crosslinking of peptides to TAP and peptide binding to microsomes from TAP-transfected insect cells. Competition experiments indicated that ICP47 binds to human TAP with a higher affinity (50 nM) than peptides whereas the affinity to murine TAP was 100-fold lower. Our data suggest that ICP47 prevents peptides from being translocated by blocking their binding to the substrate-binding site of TAP. Images PMID:8670825

  13. Analysis of chronic morphologic changes of small bowel in electrically stimulated canine island-flap rectus abdominis muscle stomal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, R K; Bardoel, J W; Ackermann, D; Maldonado, C; Barker, J; Stadelmann, W K

    2001-11-01

    Dynamic myoplasty to achieve fecal continence has been used in humans with varying results. A potential complication of the use of dynamic skeletal sphincters to attain fecal continence is the development of ischemic strictures within the bowel encircled by the functional sphincter. This study examines the histologic changes present in the bowel wall used to create a functional dynamic island-flap stomal sphincter in a chronic canine model. The rectus abdominis muscles of canines were used to create island-flap stomal sphincters. Eight dynamic island-flap stomal sphincters were created from the rectus abdominis muscles in mongrel dogs by wrapping them around a blind loop of distal ileum that was no longer in continuity with the terminal small bowel. Temporary pacing electrodes were secured intramuscularly near the intercostal nerve entry point and connected to a subcutaneously placed pulse stimulator. Two different training protocols resulting in different contractile properties were used: Program A (n = 4) and Program B (n = 4). The island-flap sphincters were trained over 3 months to generate stomal intraluminal pressures of more than 60 mmHg in all animals. The intact sphincters, normal bowel, and contralateral stomal bowel were obtained when the animals were killed. Specimens were processed with paraffin embedding, sectioned, and stained with trichrome and hematoxylin-and-eosin stains. Measurements of the different bowel layers were made with a micrometer. The muscular sphincters were biopsied before and after training. Fiber-type histochemistry was performed with a monoclonal antibody to the fast isoforms of myosin. Pretrained and posttrained skeletal muscle specimens were examined histologically. The bowel wall within the functional dynamic stomal sphincter did not exhibit any significant architectural changes related to ischemic fibrosis or mucosal damage. A significant fiber-type conversion was achieved in both training groups with Programs A and B, with a

  14. Robotic Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR): is it possible to offer minimally invasive surgery for abdominal wall complex defects?

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Vitória França DO; Guimarães, José Ricardo; Volpe, Paula; Oliveira, Flávio Malcher Martins DE; Domene, Carlos Eduardo; Roll, Sérgio; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti

    2017-01-01

    We describe the preliminary national experience and the early results of the use of robotic surgery to perform the posterior separation of abdominal wall components by the Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR) technique for the correction of complex defects of the abdominal wall. We performed the procedures between 04/2/2015 and 06/15/2015 and the follow-up time was up to six months, with a minimum of two months. The mean surgical time was five hours and 40 minutes. Two patients required laparoscopic re-intervention, since one developed hernia by peritoneal migration of the mesh and one had mesh extrusion. The procedure proved to be technically feasible, with a still long surgical time. Considering the potential advantages of robotic surgery and those related to TAR and the results obtained when these two techniques are associated, we conclude that they seem to be a good option for the correction of complex abdominal wall defects. RESUMO Descrevemos a experiência preliminar nacional na utilização da cirurgia robótica para realizar a separação posterior de componentes da parede abdominal pela técnica transversus abdominis release (TAR) na correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal e seus resultados precoces. As cirurgias foram realizadas entre 02/04/2015 e 15/06/2015 e o tempo de acompanhamento dos resultados foi de até seis meses, com tempo mínimo de dois meses. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de cinco horas e 40 minutos. Dois pacientes necessitaram reintervenção por laparoscopia, pois um desenvolveu hérnia por migração peritoneal da tela e um teve escape da tela. A cirurgia provou ser factível do ponto de vista técnico, com um tempo cirúrgico ainda elevado. Tendo em vista as vantagens potenciais da cirurgia robótica e aquelas relacionadas ao TAR e os resultados obtidos ao se associar essas duas técnicas, conclui-se que elas parecem ser uma boa opção para a correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal.

  15. Tapping mode imaging with an interfacial force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, O. L.; Graham, J. F.; Norton, P. R.

    1997-11-01

    In their present embodiment, sensors used in interfacial force microscopy do not have the necessary mechanical bandwidth to be employed as free-running tapping mode devices. We describe an extremely stable method of obtaining tapping mode images using feedback on the sensor. Our method is immune to small dc drifts in the force signal, and the prospect of diminishing the risk of damaging fragile samples is realized. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by our imaging work on a Kevlar fiber-epoxy composite. We also present a model which accounts for the frequency dependence of the sensor in air when operating under closed loop control. A simplified force modulation model is investigated to explore the effect of contact on the closed loop response of the sensor.

  16. Recent Results from the CBELSA/TAPS Experiment at ELSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, A.

    To determine the excitation spectrum of the nucleon, measurements of different observables in meson photoproduction are necessary. Many of these observables can be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The calorimeter system is ideally suited to measure reactions containing photons, giving an opportunity to measure final states comprising neutral mesons like π0 or η. A linearly or circularly polarized photon beam was used in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized butanol target. This allows the measurement of different (double) polarization observables like P, T E, G, and H. This contribution reports on the measurement of polarization observables in single or double meson photoproduction off the proton, measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment.

  17. Manual asymmetries in bimanual isochronous tapping tasks in children.

    PubMed

    Faria, Inês; Diniz, Ana; Barreiros, João

    2017-01-01

    Tapping tasks have been investigated throughout the years, with variations in features such as the complexity of the task, the use of one or both hands, the employ of auditory or visual stimuli, and the characteristics of the subjects. The evaluation of lateral asymmetries in tapping tasks in children offers an insight into the structure of rhythmic movements and handedness at early stages of development. The current study aims to investigate the ability of children (aged six and seven years-old) to maintain a rhythm, in a bimanual tapping task at two different target frequencies, as well as the manual asymmetries displayed while doing so. The analyzed data in this work are the series of the time intervals between successive taps. We suggest several profiles of behavior, regarding the overall performance of children in both tempo conditions. We also propose a new method of quantifying the variability of the performance and the asymmetry of the hands, based on ellipses placed on scatter plots of the non-dominant-dominant series versus the dominant-non-dominant series. We then use running correlations to identify changes of coordination tendencies over time. The main results show that variability is larger in the task with the longer target interval. Furthermore, most children evidence lateral asymmetries, but in general they show the capacity to maintain the mean of consecutive intertap intervals of both hands close to the target interval. Finally, we try to interpret our findings in the light of existing models and timing modes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developments in signal processing and interpretation in laser tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perton, M.; Neron, C.; Blouin, A.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique, called laser-tapping, based on the thermoelastic excitation by laser like laser-ultrasonics has been previously introduced for inspecting honeycomb and foam core structures. If the top skin is delaminated or detached from the substrate, the detached layer is driven into vibration. The interpretation of the vibrations in terms of Lamb wave resonances is first discussed for a flat bottom hole configuration and then used to determine appropriate signal processing for samples such as honeycomb structures.

  19. Stroking and tapping the skin: behavioral and electrodermal effects.

    PubMed

    Etzi, Roberta; Carta, Carlotta; Gallace, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided. Stroking (slow: 3 cm/s 'CT-optimal'; or fast: 30 cm/s) and tapping (random or fixed spatial order) stimulations were delivered to the participants' forearm with a brush, for durations of 9 or 60 s. Participants' skin conductance response (SCR) and level (SCL), as well as subjective evaluations, were recorded. The results revealed that being stroked (at both the velocities) induced higher SCR and SCL than being tapped. Moreover, while higher SCR was elicited by CT-suboptimal stroking compared to CT-optimal stroking, SCL was not affected differently by CT-optimal touch. No differences were found between the effects of 9 and 60 s stimulations. Slow stroking was evaluated as the most pleasant, relaxing and 'social' type of touch compared to the other tactile stimulations. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychophysiological responses to stroking (including CT-optimal touch) and tapping, and contribute to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hedonic tactile perception.

  20. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of the effect of pregnancy on muscle fibers of the rectus abdominis muscle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, W D

    1979-11-01

    Samples of the rectus abdominis muscle were taken from Sprague-Dawley rats at 0, 3, 6, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days of pregnancy, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days of postpartum. Sections were incubated for actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase activity following preincubation at a basic pH. Muscle fibers within a unit area of each sample were identified as to fiber type according to their enzyme activity, and the population of each type counted. The proportion of each fiber type was calculated and the diameter of 24 fibers of each type measured. No changes were noted in the muscle fiber proportions through the course of the experiment. Differential changes in muscle fiber diameters were noted in each of the three muscle fiber types. Slow oxidative fibers underwent an increase in diameter through the last half of pregnancy. The diameter was further increased as stretch of the muscle was released after birth, and did not decrease in the postpartum period. Fast glycolytic fibers decreased in diameter during the last half of pregnancy, but returned to the prepregnancy diameter in the first postpartum day. The diameter of the fast oxidative glycolytic fibers remained unchanged through the course of pregnacy and in the postpartum period.

  2. Spontaneous bimanual independence during parallel tapping and sawing

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The performance of complex polyrhythms—rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates—is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it. It would follow that consciously matching different stipulated metronome rates with the other hand would result in the spontaneous performance of polyrhythms. Six experimental conditions were randomised: single handed tapping and sawing as well as four bimanual conditions with expected ratios of 1:1 (performed with and without matching a metronome) as well as 3:4 and 4:3 (performed matching a metronome). Results showed that participants executed the saw movement at a consistent cycle duration of 0.44 [0.20] s to 0.51 [0.19] s across single and bimanual conditions, with no significant effect of the condition on the cycle duration (p = 0.315). Similarly, free tapping was executed at a cycle duration of 0.48 [0.22] s. In the bimanual conditions, we found that for a ratio of 4:3 (4 taps against 3 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio of 0.75 were not significantly different (p = 0.369), supporting our hypothesis of the spontaneous adoption of polyrhythms. However, for a ratio of 3:4 (3 taps against 4 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio differed (p = 0.016), with a trend towards synchronisation. Our findings show that bimanual independence when performing complex polyrhythms can in principle be achieved if the movement of one hand can be performed without paying much—if any—attention to it. In this paradigm

  3. Spontaneous bimanual independence during parallel tapping and sawing.

    PubMed

    Starke, Sandra Dorothee; Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The performance of complex polyrhythms-rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates-is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it. It would follow that consciously matching different stipulated metronome rates with the other hand would result in the spontaneous performance of polyrhythms. Six experimental conditions were randomised: single handed tapping and sawing as well as four bimanual conditions with expected ratios of 1:1 (performed with and without matching a metronome) as well as 3:4 and 4:3 (performed matching a metronome). Results showed that participants executed the saw movement at a consistent cycle duration of 0.44 [0.20] s to 0.51 [0.19] s across single and bimanual conditions, with no significant effect of the condition on the cycle duration (p = 0.315). Similarly, free tapping was executed at a cycle duration of 0.48 [0.22] s. In the bimanual conditions, we found that for a ratio of 4:3 (4 taps against 3 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio of 0.75 were not significantly different (p = 0.369), supporting our hypothesis of the spontaneous adoption of polyrhythms. However, for a ratio of 3:4 (3 taps against 4 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio differed (p = 0.016), with a trend towards synchronisation. Our findings show that bimanual independence when performing complex polyrhythms can in principle be achieved if the movement of one hand can be performed without paying much-if any-attention to it. In this paradigm, small

  4. Comparison of antral tap with endoscopically directed nasal culture.

    PubMed

    Casiano, R R; Cohn, S; Villasuso, E; Brown, M; Memari, F; Barquist, E; Namias, N

    2001-08-01

    The diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis continues to generate controversy in critically ill patients. The efficacy of endoscopically directed cultures in these patients is unknown. We compared antral tap (AT) with endoscopic tissue culture (ETC) of the osteomeatal complex in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Twenty patients admitted to a surgical/trauma ICU were evaluated by AT and ENB for the presence of rhinosinusitis. All patients had 1) a fever of unknown origin without resolution on empiric antibiotic therapy for > or =48 hrs; 2) other sources of fever ruled out; 3) computed tomography scan evidence of mucoperiosteal thickening +/- sinus air/fluid levels; and 4) attempt at conservative treatment with topical decongestants and removal of all nasal intubation. Microbiologic data were collected and analyzed for any statistical difference between groups. A total of 29 sides underwent simultaneous tap and endoscopically directed tissue culture. The mean age was 40 years (range, 23-77 y) with 85% being males. Fifteen of 20 (75%) patients in the AT group were culture-positive. Of the 49 isolates from the AT, 55% yielded Gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter sp. 37%) and 45% yielded Gram-positive cocci. The ETC group was culture-positive in 18 of 20 (90%) patients. Of the 52 isolates from the ETC, Gram-negative bacilli were found in 58% (Acinetobacter sp. 33%) and 42% yielded Gram-positive cocci. The ETCs were culture-positive in all but 1 patient with positive taps. There appeared to be a concordance between AT and ETC in 60% of the patients. In five instances (25%), results of the AT or ETC changed ICU management. Two patients ultimately required sinus surgery. Sinus taps and/or endoscopically directed tissue cultures led to a change in ICU care in 25% of ICU patients studied. In patients with fever of unknown origin and computed tomography evidence of sinusitis, an antral tap continues to provide important information concerning maxillary sinusitis

  5. Quantitative assessment of finger tapping characteristics in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roalf, David R; Rupert, Petra; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Brennan, Laura; Duda, John E; Weintraub, Daniel; Trojanowski, John Q; Wolk, David; Moberg, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Fine motor impairments are common in neurodegenerative disorders, yet standardized, quantitative measurements of motor abilities are uncommonly used in neurological practice. Thus, understanding and comparing fine motor abilities across disorders have been limited. The current study compared differences in finger tapping, inter-tap interval, and variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy older adults (HOA). Finger tapping was measured using a highly sensitive light-diode finger tapper. Total number of finger taps, inter-tap interval, and intra-individual variability (IIV) of finger tapping was measured and compared in AD (n = 131), PD (n = 63), MCI (n = 46), and HOA (n = 62), controlling for age and sex. All patient groups had fine motor impairments relative to HOA. AD and MCI groups produced fewer taps with longer inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. The PD group, however, produced more taps with shorter inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. Disease-specific changes in fine motor function occur in the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The findings suggest that alterations in finger tapping patterns are common in AD, MCI, and PD. In addition, the present results underscore the importance of motor dysfunction even in neurodegenerative disorders without primary motor symptoms.

  6. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. Wemore » further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.« less

  7. Computerized measures of finger tapping: effects of hand dominance, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Kerry A; Reed, Bruce; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-06-01

    Computerized measures of digit tapping rate were obtained over 3 successive, 10-sec. periods in the right and left index fingers, from a community sample of 1,519 participants (ages 18 to 65 years; 607 men, 912 women). Differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands were found for tapping rate, movement initiation, and button down times, and the decline in tapping rate over the successive, 10-sec. periods. Declines were found in tapping rate in older participants in association with increased intertap variability. Men had higher tapping rates than women in all age ranges. The computerized finger tapping test is an efficient and precise measure of tapping speed and kinetics of potential utility in research and clinical studies of motor performance.

  8. Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kilvington, Simon; Gray, Trevor; Dart, John; Morlet, Nigel; Beeching, John R; Frazer, David G; Matheson, Melville

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in the UK is some 15 times that in the United States and seven times that in Holland. To investigate reasons for this higher frequency, a study of the role of domestic tap water as a potential source of AK was undertaken. Tap outlets from the homes of 27 patients with culture-proven AK were sampled and cultured for free-living amoebae (FLA). For all Acanthamoeba isolates, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and cytochrome oxidase (cox 1/2) sequence typing was performed to determine the similarity between corneal and tap water isolates. FLA, including Acanthamoeba, were isolated from 24 (89%) of 27 homes, and the presence within the homes varied significantly with tap water temperature and location: 19 (76%) of 25 bathroom sink cold taps sampled compared with 6 (24%) of 25 hot and 9 (47%) of 19 kitchen cold taps compared with 3 (16%) of 19 of hot kitchen taps. Acanthamoeba were isolated from 8 (30%) of 27 homes (five bathroom sink cold taps, one cloakroom cold tap, one bath, and one bedroom sink mixer [hot/cold] taps). In six cases, identical Acanthamoeba mtDNA profiles were found for the clinical and home tap water isolates. In keeping with UK plumbing practice, 24 of 27 homes had internal roof water storage tanks to supply domestic taps, but the mains fed the kitchen cold tap. Water storage tanks promote colonization of domestic water with FLA, including Acanthamoeba, and hence increase the risk of AK. This accounts for the significantly greater incidence of AK in the UK and supports advice to avoid using tap water in contact lens care routines.

  9. Use of targeted transversus abdominus plane blocks in pediatric patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nizamuddin, Sarah L; Koury, Katharine M; Lau, Mary E; Watt, Lisa D; Gulur, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a commonly overlooked source of chronic abdominal wall pain. A diagnosis of ACNES should be considered in cases of severe, localized abdominal pain that is accentuated by physical activity. Providers should consider diagnosing ACNES once a patient has both a positive result from a Carnett's test and precise localization of pain. We describe the use of transversus abdominus plane (TAP) blocks to treat ACNES in the pediatric patient population. TAP blocks are a treatment modality which have been described less frequently in the management of this syndrome, with rectus sheath blocks being used more commonly. TAP blocks can be used effectively for ACNES by targeting the site of maximal tenderness, which was identified using ultrasound guidance. Moreover, TAP blocks are an attractive procedure option for ACNES as they are less invasive than other commonly used techniques. We present 3 case series reports of pediatric patients evaluated at our institution for severe abdominal pain to describe the clinical manifestations, sequelae, and outcome of ACNES. Though the exact incidence of ACNES in the pediatric population is unknown, this condition has significant implications from chronic pain. Chronic pain can lead to significant emotional and social impacts on these pediatric patients, as well as their on their families. Further, the extensive utilization of health care resources is impacted when children with undiagnosed ACNES undergo invasive treatments when ACNES is not in the early differential. The purpose of this case series report is to prompt better recognition of the condition ACNES, and to highlight the efficacy of TAP blocks as a management strategy.

  10. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  12. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  13. Space-Plane Spreadsheet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Basic Hypersonic Data and Equations (HYPERDATA) spreadsheet computer program provides data gained from three analyses of performance of space plane. Equations used to perform analyses derived from Newton's second law of physics, derivation included. First analysis is parametric study of some basic factors affecting ability of space plane to reach orbit. Second includes calculation of thickness of spherical fuel tank. Third produces ratio between volume of fuel and total mass for each of various aircraft. HYPERDATA intended for use on Macintosh(R) series computers running Microsoft Excel 3.0.

  14. PeakForce Tapping resolves individual microvilli on living cells.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Hermann; Medalsy, Izhar; Hu, Shuiqing; Slade, Andrea L; Shaw, James E

    2016-02-01

    Microvilli are a common structure found on epithelial cells that increase the apical surface thus enhancing the transmembrane transport capacity and also serve as one of the cell's mechanosensors. These structures are composed of microfilaments and cytoplasm, covered by plasma membrane. Epithelial cell function is usually coupled to the density of microvilli and its individual size illustrated by diseases, in which microvilli degradation causes malabsorption and diarrhea. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to study the topography and morphology of living cells. Visualizing soft and flexible structures such as microvilli on the apical surface of a live cell has been very challenging because the native microvilli structures are displaced and deformed by the interaction with the probe. PeakForce Tapping® is an AFM imaging mode, which allows reducing tip-sample interactions in time (microseconds) and controlling force in the low pico-Newton range. Data acquisition of this mode was optimized by using a newly developed PeakForce QNM-Live Cell probe, having a short cantilever with a 17-µm-long tip that minimizes hydrodynamic effects between the cantilever and the sample surface. In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time the visualization of the microvilli on living kidney cells with AFM using PeakForce Tapping. The structures observed display a force dependence representing either the whole microvilli or just the tips of the microvilli layer. Together, PeakForce Tapping allows force control in the low pico-Newton range and enables the visualization of very soft and flexible structures on living cells under physiological conditions. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Molecular Recognition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Anthropogenic contamination of tap water, beer, and sea salt

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Plastic pollution has been well documented in natural environments, including the open waters and sediments within lakes and rivers, the open ocean and even the air, but less attention has been paid to synthetic polymers in human consumables. Since multiple toxicity studies indicate risks to human health when plastic particles are ingested, more needs to be known about the presence and abundance of anthropogenic particles in human foods and beverages. This study investigates the presence of anthropogenic particles in 159 samples of globally sourced tap water, 12 brands of Laurentian Great Lakes beer, and 12 brands of commercial sea salt. Of the tap water samples analyzed, 81% were found to contain anthropogenic particles. The majority of these particles were fibers (98.3%) between 0.1–5 mm in length. The range was 0 to 61 particles/L, with an overall mean of 5.45 particles/L. Anthropogenic debris was found in each brand of beer and salt. Of the extracted particles, over 99% were fibers. After adjusting for particles found in lab blanks for both salt and beer, the average number of particles found in beer was 4.05 particles/L with a range of 0 to 14.3 particles/L and the average number of particles found in each brand of salt was 212 particles/kg with a range of 46.7 to 806 particles/kg. Based on consumer guidelines, our results indicate the average person ingests over 5,800 particles of synthetic debris from these three sources annually, with the largest contribution coming from tap water (88%). PMID:29641556

  16. What is the risk of infecting a cerebrospinal fluid-diverting shunt with percutaneous tapping?

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Lindsey; Asija, Richa; Da Silva, Stephanie L; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Most CSF-diverting shunt systems have an access port that can be percutaneously tapped. Tapping the shunt can yield valuable information as to its function and whether an infection is present. The fear of causing a shunt infection by tapping may limit the physician's willingness to do so. The authors of this study investigate the risk of infecting a shunt secondary to percutaneous tapping. Following institutional review board approval, CSF specimens obtained from tapping an indwelling CSF-diverting shunt during the 2011 and 2012 calendar years were identified and matched with clinical information. A culture-positive CSF sample was defined as an infection. If results were equivocal, such as a broth-only-positive culture, a repeat CSF specimen was examined. The CSF was obtained by tapping the shunt access port with a 25-gauge butterfly needle after prepping the unshaven skin with chlorhexidine. During the study period, 266 children underwent 542 shunt taps. With 541 taps, no clinical evidence of a subsequent shunt infection was found. One child's CSF went from sterile to infected 11 days later; however, this patient had redness along the shunt tract at the time of the initial sterile tap. The risk of infection from tapping a shunt is remote if the procedure is done correctly.

  17. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  18. Bimanual tapping of a syncopated rhythm reveals hemispheric preferences for relative movement frequencies.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Anja; Gompf, Florian; Kell, Christian Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In bimanual multifrequency tapping, right-handers commonly use the right hand to tap the relatively higher rate and the left hand to tap the relatively lower rate. This could be due to hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative frequencies. An extension of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory to motor control proposes a left hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively high and a right hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively low tapping rates. We investigated timing variability and rhythmic accentuation in right handers tapping mono- and multifrequent bimanual rhythms to test the predictions of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory. Yet, hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative tapping rates could be masked by a left hemispheric dominance for the control of known sequences. Tapping was thus either performed in an overlearned quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the first auditory beat) or in a syncopated quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the fourth auditory beat). Independent of syncopation, the right hand outperformed the left hand in timing accuracy for fast tapping. A left hand timing benefit for slow tapping rates as predicted by the double-filtering-by-frequency theory was only found in the syncopated tapping group. This suggests a right hemisphere preference for the control of slow tapping rates when rhythms are not overlearned. Error rates indicate that overlearned rhythms represent hierarchically structured meters that are controlled by a single timer that could potentially reside in the left hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Variants in TAP Are Associated with High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Mark H.; Leanza, Suzanne; Chiu, Lydia G.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Steinberg, Bettie M.; Burk, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is essential in assembling MHC-I proteins. Human papillomavirus (HPV) evades immune recognition by decreasing class I MHC cell surface expression through down-regulation of TAP1 levels. Consistent with heterogeneity in MHC expression is the individual variability in clearing detectable HPV infections. Genetic polymorphisms in TAP genes may affect protein structure, function, and the ability to clear HPV infection. Experimental Design Case-control study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III (n = 114) and women without high-grade CIN (n = 366). Five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TAP1 and TAP2 were genotyped using DNA collected in cervicovaginal lavage samples using microsphere array technology (Luminex ×MAP). HPV typing was done using a PCR-based system with MY09/MY11 primers. TAP1 and TAP2 SNPs were validated by direct sequencing. Results Differences in allele distribution between women with high-grade cervical neoplasia and women without was seen for TAP1 I333V (P = 0.02) and TAP1 D637G (p = 0.01).The odds ratios (OR) for CIN III were significantly lower among carriers of the TAP1 I333V polymorphism (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8), and TAP1 D637G polymorphism (OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.7). These associations remained significant even after restricting the evaluation to women who were positive for high-risk HPV types. Conclusions In addition to the down-regulation of MHC-1 by oncogenic HPV, HPV pathogenesis might be facilitated by polymorphisms in the TAP proteins. Identifying TAP polymorphisms may potentially be used to identify women less susceptible to progression to high-grade CIN and cervical cancer. PMID:19188174

  20. The double polarization program of CBELSA/TAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Annika

    2014-06-01

    The excitation spectrum of the proton consists of resonances with substancial width which are often strongly overlapping and are therefore difficult to disentangle. To determine the exact contributions and identify these resonances, a partial wave analysis solution has to be found. For a complete experiment, which leads to an unambiguous solution, several single and double polarization observables are needed. With the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA, the measurement of double polarization observables in different reactions is possible by using a circularly or linearly polarized photon beam on a transversely or longitudinally polarized butanol target.

  1. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  2. Changes in Transversus Abdominis Muscle Thickness after Lumbo-Pelvic Core Stabilization Training among Chronic Low Back Pain Individuals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J H; Paungmali, A; Sitilertpisan, P; Pirunsan, U; Uthaikhup, S

    2015-01-01

    Lumbo-pelvic core stabilization training (LPST) is one of the therapeutic exercises common in practice for rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. This study was carried out to examine the therapeutic effects of LPST on the muscle thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest and during contraction among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. A total of 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic non-specific low back pain participated in a within-subject, repeated measures, double-blinded, placebo-controlled comparisons trial. The participants received three different types of experimental therapeutic training conditions which includes the lumbo-pelvic core stabilization training (LPST), the placebo treatment with passive cycling (PC) and a controlled intervention with rest (CI). The interventions were carried out by randomization with 48 hours between the sessions. The effectiveness of interventions was studied by measuring the changes in muscle thickness of TrA at rest and during contraction using a real time ultrasonography. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that the LPST provided significant therapeutic benefits as measured by an increase in the muscle thickness of the TrA at rest (p<0.05) and during contraction (p<0.01). The percentage change of the muscle thickness observed during LPST was significantly higher (p<0.01) when compared to the other two experimental training conditions. The findings indicated that the LPST might provide therapeutic benefits by increasing the muscle thickness and function of TrA. Therefore, it is suggested that LPST technique should be considered as part of management program for treatment of low back pain.

  3. The Impact of Perioperative Hormonal Therapy for Breast Cancer on Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Abdominal Complications.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katherine M; Clayman, Eric; Kumar, Ambuj; Smith, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a reliable reconstructive option in breast cancer patients; however, it carries known risk of donor site hernia formation. Some hormonal therapy drugs have been associated with hernia formation in animal models. Minimal data exist concerning impact of hormonal therapy for breast cancer on abdominal donor site complications after breast reconstruction. Patients who underwent TRAM flap for breast cancer or high-risk status at a single institution by the senior author from 2003 to 2015 were identified. Charts were reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, treatments, and abdominal complications were recorded. Patients were divided into groups based on use of hormonal therapy as well as exposure to specific drugs. Statistical analyses were performed. A total of 358 patients were included. Overall hernia rate was 5.9%. About 231 (64.5%) patients had hormonal therapy, whereas 127 (35.5%) did not. Difference in hernia formation was not statistically significant between the hormonal therapy group (6.9%) and the no hormonal therapy group (3.9%; P = 0.359). Patients exposed to tamoxifen and those exposed to anastrozole had no significant difference in complication rates compared with the no hormonal therapy group, whereas patients exposed to letrozole had increased rate of hernia (13.5%; P = 0.037) and infection (21.6%; P = 0.013) compared with the no hormonal therapy group (3.9% and 7.1%, respectively). Hormonal therapy is a useful adjunct for chemoprevention in breast cancer; however, use of letrozole in patients undergoing reconstruction with pedicled TRAM can lead to increase in certain complication rates.

  4. Phantom rectal sensations following abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APER) and vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap perineal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gould, Charlotte R; Branagan, Graham

    2016-11-01

    Phantom rectum is the sensation of an intact and/or functioning rectum, despite excision at surgery. Abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APER) may be complemented by reconstructive operations and recently it was reported that patients undergoing APER and vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap reconstruction are more prone to develop phantom sensations at an earlier timeframe and have more persistent symptoms than those who do not have perineal repairs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of phantom rectal sensations in a cohort of these patients. Patients who underwent APER and VRAM flap reconstruction for anorectal carcinomas were identified from May 2008 to July 2012. Patients completed a questionnaire evaluating their experience of rectal symptoms post-surgery. Thirty-four of 47 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. PR sensations were experienced by 50 % of patients, the majority of which (65 %) were present for >1 year. The commonest sensation reported was the feeling of faeces in a normal rectum (24 %). Disturbances in quality of life were apparent in 44 %; notably, sleep was affected, patients expressed increased feelings of stress/sadness, heightened levels of anxiety and limitation of daily activities as consequences of PR symptoms. Few patients sought medical advice. Fifty percent of patients experience PR sensations post-surgery, comparable with reported data for patients who have undergone APER alone. The addition of VRAM reconstruction does not significantly alter the prevalence of PR symptoms. This paper provides further evidence that phantom rectum occurs frequently and thus all patients undergoing excision of the rectum should be counselled appropriately.

  5. The Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator and Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap in Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shane; Yek, Jacklyn; Ong, Wei Chen; Hing, Chor Hoong; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2013-01-01

    Background Our objective was to compare the complication rates of two common breast reconstruction techniques performed at our hospital and the cost-effectiveness for each test group. Methods All patients who underwent deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap by the same surgeon were selected and matched according to age and mastectomy with or without axillary clearance. Patients from each resultant group were selected, with the patients matched chronologically. The remainder were matched for by co-morbidities. Sixteen patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flaps and 16 patients with DIEP flaps from 1999 to 2006 were accrued. The average total hospitalisation cost, length of hospitalisation, and complications in the 2 year duration after surgery for each group were compared. Results Complications arising from both the pedicled TRAM flaps and DIEP flaps included fat necrosis (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 4/16) and other minor complications (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 1/16). The mean hospital stay was 7.13 days (range, 4 to 12 days) for the pedicled TRAM group and 7.56 (range, 5 to 10 days) for the DIEP group. Neither the difference in complication rates nor in hospital stay duration were statistically significant. The total hospitalisation cost for the DIEP group was significantly higher than that of the pedicled TRAM group (P<0.001). Conclusions Based on our study, the pedicled TRAM flap remains a cost-effective technique in breast reconstruction when compared to the newer, more expensive and tedious DIEP flap. PMID:23730591

  6. Effects of exercise on diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle in the antenatal and postnatal periods: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, D R; van de Water, A T M; Peiris, C L

    2014-03-01

    Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbopelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for conservative management, but little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies. To determine if non-surgical interventions (such as exercise) prevent or reduce DRAM. EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, PUBMED, AMED and PEDro were searched. Studies of all designs that included any non-surgical interventions to manage DRAM during the ante- and postnatal periods were included. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model to calculate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate. Eight studies totalling 336 women during the ante- and/or postnatal period were included. The study design ranged from case study to randomised controlled trial. All interventions included some form of exercise, mainly targeted abdominal/core strengthening. The available evidence showed that exercise during the antenatal period reduced the presence of DRAM by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.92), and suggested that DRAM width may be reduced by exercising during the ante- and postnatal periods. The papers reviewed were of poor quality as there is very little high-quality literature on the subject. Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, non-specific exercise may or may not help to prevent or reduce DRAM during the ante- and postnatal periods. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transversus abdominal plane block for postoperative analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Brogi, Etrusca; Kazan, Roy; Cyr, Shantale; Giunta, Francesco; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2016-10-01

    The transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has been described as an effective pain control technique after abdominal surgery. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to account for the increasing number of TAP block studies appearing in the literature. The primary outcome we examined was the effect of TAP block on the postoperative pain score at six, 12, and 24 hr. The secondary outcome was 24-hr morphine consumption. We searched the United States National Library of Medicine database, the Excerpta Medica database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Studies and identified RCTs focusing on the analgesic efficacy of TAP block compared with a control group [i.e., placebo, epidural analgesia, intrathecal morphine (ITM), and ilioinguinal nerve block after abdominal surgery]. Meta-analyses were performed on postoperative pain scores at rest at six, 12, and 24 hr (visual analogue scale, 0-10) and on 24-hr opioid consumption. In the 51 trials identified, compared with placebo, TAP block reduced the VAS for pain at six hours by 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.9 to -0.8; P < 0.001), at 12 hr by 2.0 (95% CI, -2.7 to -1.4; P < 0.001), and at 24 hr by 1.2 (95% CI, -1.6 to -0.8; P < 0.001). Similarly, compared with placebo, TAP block reduced morphine consumption at 24 hr after surgery (mean difference, -14.7 mg; 95% CI, -18.4 to -11.0; P < 0.001). We observed this reduction in pain scores and morphine consumption in the TAP block group after gynecological surgery, appendectomy, inguinal surgery, bariatric surgery, and urological surgery. Nevertheless, separate analysis of the studies comparing ITM with TAP block revealed that ITM seemed to have a greater analgesic efficacy. The TAP block can play an important role in the management of pain after abdominal surgery by reducing both pain scores and 24-hr morphine consumption. It may have particular utility when neuraxial techniques or opioids are

  8. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-Dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  9. Tapping and listening: a new approach to bolt looseness monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Song, Gangbing

    2018-07-01

    Bolted joints are among the most common building blocks used across different types of structures, and are often the key components that sew all other structural parts together. Monitoring and assessment of looseness in bolted structures is one of the most attractive topics in mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. This paper presents a new percussion-based non-destructive approach to determine the health condition of bolted joints with the help of machine learning. The proposed method is very similar to the percussive diagnostic techniques used in clinical examinations to diagnose the health of patients. Due to the different interfacial properties among the bolts, nuts and the host structure, bolted joints can generate unique sounds when it is excited by impacts, such as from tapping. Power spectrum density, as a signal feature, was used to recognize and classify recorded tapping data. A machine learning model using the decision tree method was employed to identify the bolt looseness level. Experiments demonstrated that the newly proposed method for bolt looseness detection is very easy to implement by ‘listening to tapping’ and the monitoring accuracy is very high. With the rapid in robotics, the proposed approach has great potential to be implemented with intimately weaving robotics and machine learning to produce a cyber-physical system that can automatically inspect and determine the health of a structure.

  10. Determination of uranium in tap water by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    El Himri, M; Pastor, A; de la Guardia, M

    2000-05-01

    A fast and accurate procedure has been developed for the determination of uranium at microg L(-1) level in tap and mineral water. The method is based on the direct introduction of samples, without any chemical pre-treatment, into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Uranium was determined at the mass number 238 using Rh as internal standard. The method provides a limit of detection of 2 ng L(-1) and a good repeatability with relative standard deviation values (RSD) about 3% for five independent analyses of samples containing 73 microg L(-1) of uranium. Recovery percentage values found for the determination of uranium in spiked natural samples varied between 91% and 106%. Results obtained are comparable with those found by radiochemical methods for natural samples and of the same order for the certified content of a reference material, thus indicating the accuracy of the ICP-MS procedure without the need of using isotope dilution. A series of mineral and tap waters from different parts of Spain and Morocco were analysed.

  11. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  12. The ability to tap to a beat relates to cognitive, linguistic, and perceptual skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship between motor output and auditory input, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would perform better on attention tests. Second, since auditory-motor synchronization requires fine temporal precision within the auditory system for the extraction of a sound’s onset time, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would be less affected by backward masking, a measure of temporal precision within the auditory system. As predicted, tapping performance related to reading, attention, and backward masking. These results motivate future research investigating whether beat synchronization training can improve not only reading ability, but potentially executive function and basic auditory processing as well. PMID:23400117

  13. Impact analysis of tap switch out of step for converter transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-yue, ZHANG; Zhen-hua, ZHANG; Zhang-xue, XIONG; Gao-wang, YU

    2017-06-01

    AC transformer load regulation is mainly used to adjust the load side voltage level, improve the quality of power supply, the voltage range is relatively narrow. In DC system, converter transformer is the core equipment of AC and DC power converter and inverter. converter transformer tap adjustment can maintain the normal operation of the converter in small angle range control, the absorption of reactive power, economic operation, valve less stress, valve damping circuit loss, AC / DC harmonic component is also smaller. In this way, the tap switch action is more frequent, and a large range of the tap switch adjustment is required. Converter transformer with a more load voltage regulation switch, the voltage regulation range of the switch is generally 20~30%, the adjustment of each file is 1%~2%. Recently it is often found that the tap switch of Converter Transformers is out of step in Converter station. In this paper, it is analyzed in detail the impact of tap switch out of step for differential protection, overexcitation protection and zero sequence over current protection. Analysis results show that: the tap switch out of step has no effect on the differential protection and the overexcitation protection including the tap switch. But the tap switch out of step has effect on zero sequence overcurrent protection of out of step star-angle converter transformer. The zero sequence overcurrent protection will trip when the tap switch out of step is greater than 3 for out of step star-angle converter transformer.

  14. On-line tool breakage monitoring of vibration tapping using spindle motor current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangjun; Lu, Huimin; Liu, Gang

    2008-10-01

    Input current of driving motor has been employed successfully as monitoring the cutting state in manufacturing processes for more than a decade. In vibration tapping, however, the method of on-line monitoring motor electric current has not been reported. In this paper, a tap failure prediction method is proposed to monitor the vibration tapping process using the electrical current signal of the spindle motor. The process of vibration tapping is firstly described. Then the relationship between the torque of vibration tapping and the electric current of motor is investigated by theoretic deducing and experimental measurement. According to those results, a monitoring method of tool's breakage is proposed through monitoring the ratio of the current amplitudes during adjacent vibration tapping periods. Finally, a low frequency vibration tapping system with motor current monitoring is built up using a servo motor B-106B and its driver CR06. The proposed method has been demonstrated with experiment data of vibration tapping in titanic alloys. The result of experiments shows that the method, which can avoid the tool breakage and giving a few error alarms when the threshold of amplitude ratio is 1.2 and there is at least 2 times overrun among 50 adjacent periods, is feasible for tool breakage monitoring in the process of vibration tapping small thread holes.

  15. A statistical characterization of the finger tapping test: modeling, estimation, and applications.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel; McNames, James; Klein, Krystal; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2015-03-01

    Sensory-motor performance is indicative of both cognitive and physical function. The Halstead-Reitan finger tapping test is a measure of sensory-motor speed commonly used to assess function as part of a neuropsychological evaluation. Despite the widespread use of this test, the underlying motor and cognitive processes driving tapping behavior during the test are not well characterized or understood. This lack of understanding may make clinical inferences from test results about health or disease state less accurate because important aspects of the task such as variability or fatigue are unmeasured. To overcome these limitations, we enhanced the tapper with a sensor that enables us to more fully characterize all the aspects of tapping. This modification enabled us to decompose the tapping performance into six component phases and represent each phase with a set of parameters having clear functional interpretation. This results in a set of 29 total parameters for each trial, including change in tapping over time, and trial-to-trial and tap-to-tap variability. These parameters can be used to more precisely link different aspects of cognition or motor function to tapping behavior. We demonstrate the benefits of this new instrument with a simple hypothesis-driven trial comparing single and dual-task tapping.

  16. Synchronized tapping facilitates learning sound sequences as indexed by the P300.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Keiko S; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether and how single finger tapping in synchrony with sound sequences contributed to the auditory processing of them. The participants learned two unfamiliar sound sequences via different methods. In the tapping condition, they learned an auditory sequence while they tapped in synchrony with each sound onset. In the no tapping condition, they learned another sequence while they kept pressing a key until the sequence ended. After these learning sessions, we presented the two melodies again and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). During the ERP recordings, 10% of the tones within each melody deviated from the original tones. An analysis of the grand average ERPs showed that deviant stimuli elicited a significant P300 in the tapping but not in the no-tapping condition. In addition, the significance of the P300 effect in the tapping condition increased as the participants showed highly synchronized tapping behavior during the learning sessions. These results indicated that single finger tapping promoted the conscious detection and evaluation of deviants within the learned sequences. The effect was related to individuals' musical ability to coordinate their finger movements along with external auditory events.

  17. Synchronized tapping facilitates learning sound sequences as indexed by the P300

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Keiko S.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether and how single finger tapping in synchrony with sound sequences contributed to the auditory processing of them. The participants learned two unfamiliar sound sequences via different methods. In the tapping condition, they learned an auditory sequence while they tapped in synchrony with each sound onset. In the no tapping condition, they learned another sequence while they kept pressing a key until the sequence ended. After these learning sessions, we presented the two melodies again and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). During the ERP recordings, 10% of the tones within each melody deviated from the original tones. An analysis of the grand average ERPs showed that deviant stimuli elicited a significant P300 in the tapping but not in the no-tapping condition. In addition, the significance of the P300 effect in the tapping condition increased as the participants showed highly synchronized tapping behavior during the learning sessions. These results indicated that single finger tapping promoted the conscious detection and evaluation of deviants within the learned sequences. The effect was related to individuals’ musical ability to coordinate their finger movements along with external auditory events. PMID:25400564

  18. Type IIB Colliding Plane Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutperle, M.; Pioline, B.

    2003-09-01

    Four-dimensional colliding plane wave (CPW) solutions have played an important role in understanding the classical non-linearities of Einstein's equations. In this note, we investigate CPW solutions in 2n+2-dimensional Einstein gravity with a n+1-form flux. By using an isomorphism with the four-dimensional problem, we construct exact solutions analogous to the Szekeres vacuum solution in four dimensions. The higher-dimensional versions of the Khan-Penrose and Bell-Szekeres CPW solutions are studied perturbatively in the vicinity of the light-cone. We find that under small perturbations, a curvature singularity is generically produced, leading to both space-like and time-like singularities. For n = 4, our results pertain to the collision of two ten-dimensional type-IIB Blau-Figueroa o'Farrill-Hull-Papadopoulos plane waves.

  19. Passage through the Ring Plane

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-03

    The path that lies ahead for the Cassini-Huygens mission is indicated in this image which illustrates where the spacecraft will be just 27 days from now, when it arrives at Saturn and crosses the ring plane 33 minutes before performing its critical orbital insertion maneuver. The X indicates the point where Cassini will pierce the ring plane on June 30, 2004, going from south to north of the ring plane, 33 minutes before the main engine fires to begin orbital insertion. The indicated point is between the narrow F-ring on the left and Saturn's tenuous G-ring which is too faint to be seen in this exposure. The image was taken on May 11, 2004 when the spacecraft was 26.3 million kilometers (16.3 million miles) from Saturn. Image scale is 158 kilometers (98 miles) per pixel. Moons visible in this image: Janus (181 kilometers or 113 miles across), one of the co-orbital moons; Pandora (84 kilometers or 52 miles across), one of the F ring shepherding moons; and Enceladus (499 kilometers or 310 miles across), a moon which may be heated from within and thus have a liquid sub-surface ocean. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06061

  20. Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several years. SLI, part of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November of 2002 to focus the overall theme of safer, more afford-able space transportation along two paths - the Orbital Space Plane Program and the Next Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane Program has the goal of providing rescue capability from the International Space Station by 2008 and transfer capability for crew (and limited cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3rd Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system definition level of maturity by December of 2003. This paper and presentation will update the international community on the progress of the' OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin's role in enabling the vision of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space.

  1. Complete resection of a rectus abdominis muscle invaded by desmoid tumors and subsequent management with an abdominal binder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2018-02-07

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is characterized by desmoid tumors, which are benign soft tissue tumors that can be locally aggressive but typically do not metastasize. Desmoid tumors can manifest anywhere in the body, and those in the abdominal cavity account for approximately 30 to 50% of all such tumors. Complete resection with free margins has been the standard treatment, but non-surgical therapies have been implemented recently. However, if tumors are strongly invasive and/or persistently recur, radical surgical resection with free margins remains the primary treatment. Unfortunately, radical resection may cause large abdominal defects and hinder reconstruction. Several reports and recommendations have addressed this issue; however, to the best of our knowledge, few reports have described complete resection and the subsequent reconstruction of the rectus abdominis muscle. A 35-year-old Asian woman presented at our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. She had abdominal desmoid tumors that required complete resection of her rectus abdominis muscle. Due to necrosis in her own reconstructed tissue, we failed to cover her anterior abdominal wall; thus, we used an abdominal binder as a substitute material to avoid exacerbating the incisional hernia and help her generate intra-abdominal pressure. This case report may be informative and helpful for the treatment of patients with desmoid tumors, as managing desmoid-type fibromatosis is difficult.

  2. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  3. The effects of bridge exercise on an unstable base of support on lumbar stability and the thickness of the transversus abdominis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Misuk; Jeon, Hyewon

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effects of an abdominal drawing-in bridge exercise using a pressure biofeedback unit on different bases on the thickness of trunk and abdominal muscles, and lumbar stability. [Subjects] Thirty healthy young adults (2 males, 28 females) took part in this study. The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to a stable bridge exercise group and an unstable bridge exercise group. [Methods] The subjects performed bridge exercises using an abdominal drawing-in method on a stable base and on an unstable base, and changes in their abdominal muscle thickness and on the stable and on unstable bases lumbar stability were evaluated. [Results] After the intervention, the stable bridge exercise group showed a statistically significantly increased muscle thickness in the transversus abdominis, and the unstable bridge exercise group showed significantly increased muscle thicknesses of the transversus abdominis and internal obliques in static and dynamic lumbar stability. The unstable bridge exercise group showed significant increase after performing the exercise. [Conclusion] Lumbar stability exercise, with the compensation of the lumbar spine minimized, using an abdominal drawing-in method on an unstable support of base is effective and efforts to prevent the compensation may induce a greater exercise effect.

  4. Microbiological tap water profile of a medium-sized building and effect of water stagnation.

    PubMed

    Lipphaus, Patrick; Hammes, Frederik; Kötzsch, Stefan; Green, James; Gillespie, Simon; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Whereas microbiological quality of drinking water in water distribution systems is routinely monitored for reasons of legal compliance, microbial numbers in tap water are grossly understudied. Motivated by gross differences in water from private households, we applied in this study flow cytometry as a rapid analytical method to quantify microbial concentrations in water sampled at diverse taps in a medium size research building receiving chlorinated water. Taps differed considerably in frequency of usage and were located in laboratories, bathrooms, and a coffee kitchen. Substantial differences were observed between taps with concentrations (per mL) in the range from 6.29 x 10(3) to 7.74 x 10(5) for total cells and from 1.66 x 10(3) to 4.31 x 10(5) for intact cells. The percentage of intact cells varied between 7% and 96%. Water from taps with very infrequent use showed the highest bacterial numbers and the highest proportions of intact cells. Stagnation tended to increase microbial numbers in water from those taps which were otherwise frequently used. Microbial numbers in other taps that were rarely opened were not affected by stagnation as their water is probably mostly stagnant. For cold water taps, microbial numbers and the percentage of intact cells tended to decline with flushing with the greatest decline for taps used least frequently whereas microbial concentrations in water from hot water taps tended to be somewhat more stable. We conclude that microbiological water quality is mainly determined by building-specific parameters. Tap water profiling can provide valuable insight into plumbing system hygiene and maintenance.

  5. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to lateral skull taps are dependent on two different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Westin, Magnus; Löfqvist, Lennart; Verrecchia, Luca; Tribukait, Arne

    2009-05-01

    To explore the mechanisms for skull tap induced vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). The muscular responses were recorded over both sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles using skin electrodes. A skull tapper which provided a constant stimulus intensity was used to test cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to lateral skull taps in healthy subjects (n=10) and in patients with severe unilateral loss of vestibular function (n=10). Skull taps applied approximately 2 cm above the outer ear canal caused highly reproducible VEMP. There were differences in VEMP in both normals and patients depending on side of tapping. In normals, there was a positive-negative ("normal") VEMP on the side contra-lateral to the skull tapping, but no significant VEMP ipsi-laterally. In patients, skull taps above the lesioned ear caused a contra-lateral positive-negative VEMP (as it did in the normals), in addition there was an ipsi-lateral negative-positive ("inverted") VEMP. When skull taps were presented above the healthy ear there was only a small contra-lateral positive-negative VEMP but, similar to the normals, no VEMP ipsi-laterally. The present data, in conjunction with earlier findings, support a theory that skull-tap VEMP responses are mediated by two different mechanisms. It is suggested that skull tapping causes both a purely ipsi-lateral stimulus side independent SCM response and a bilateral and of opposite polarity SCM response that is stimulus side dependent. Possibly, the skull tap induced VEMP responses are the sum of a stimulation of two species of vestibular receptors, one excited by vibration (which is rather stimulus site independent) and one excited by translation (which is more stimulus site dependent). Skull-tap VEMP probably have two different mechanisms. Separation of the two components might reveal the status of different labyrinthine functions.

  6. Channel erosion surveys along the TAPS route, Alaska, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loeffler, Robert M.; Childers, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Channel surveys were made along the trans-Alaska pipeline system (TAPS) route during 1977 at the same 28 sites that were studied in 1976. In addition, a new site at pipeline mile 22 near Deadhorse (alignment No 134) along the Sagavanirktok River was put under surveillance. Except for changes wrought by the completion of construction, most of the sites showed very little change. Significant events include virtual completion of all construction activities along the pipeline, the pipeline startup , and the breakup flood along the Sagavanirktok River which breached many river-training structures. In general, 1977 saw heavy flooding on streams draining the north and south slopes of the Brooks Range and only moderate flooding on streams further south. Aerial photogrammetric surveys were used again in 1977 on the same seven sites as in 1976. Results document the applicability of the method for channel erosion studies. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Landmine detection using two-tapped joint orthogonal matching pursuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Sean; Glenn, Taylor; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Joint Orthogonal Matching Pursuits (JOMP) is used here in the context of landmine detection using data obtained from an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor. The response from an object containing metal can be decomposed into a discrete spectrum of relaxation frequencies (DSRF) from which we construct a dictionary. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed for computing successive residuals of a signal by subtracting away the highest matching dictionary element at each step. The nal condence of a particular signal is a combination of the reciprocal of this residual and the mean of the complex component. A two-tap approach comparing signals on opposite sides of the geometric location of the sensor is examined and found to produce better classication. It is found that using only a single pursuit does a comparable job, reducing complexity and allowing for real-time implementation in automated target recognition systems. JOMP is particularly highlighted in comparison with a previous EMI detection algorithm known as String Match.

  8. Channel erosion surveys along TAPS route, Alaska, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph; Jones, Stanley H.

    1975-01-01

    Repeated site surveys and aerial photographs at 26 stream crossings along the trans-Alaska pipeline system (TAPS) route during the period 1969-74 provide chronologie records of channel changes that predate pipeline-related construction at the sites. The 1974 surveys and photographs show some of the channel changes wrought by construction of the haul road from the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay and by construction of camps and working pads all along the pipeline route. No pipeline crossings were constructed before 1975. These records of channel changes together with flood and icing measurements are part of the United States Department of the lnterior's continuing surveillance program to document the hydrologic aspects of the trans-Alaska pipeline and its environmental impacts.

  9. Mineral water or tap water? An endless debate.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Lovero, G; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of mineral water has been increasing because of the frequent and unjustified reports of the water supply contamination. However some authors have shown that bottled waters are not always better than tap water. Mineral waters are more palatable for organoleptic characteristic because, being pure at source, they do not undergo disinfection treatments and are sometimes enriched with CO2. In fact, they are characterized by their microbial facies subject to changes during the production cycle which can contribute to their contamination. It is necessary to provide people with the tools necessary to operate a critical choice of the type of water to be consumed not exclusively for their organoleptic characteristics or marketing strategies.

  10. Astronomy on Tap as a Professional Development Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily; Burtnyk, Kimberly; Silverman, Jeffrey; Popinchalk, Mark; Constellation of Astronomy On Tap Host Stars

    2018-01-01

    We lured scientists, educators, and other astronomy enthusiasts into bars around the world with promises of fun public outreach, but we secretly provided them with networking opportunities and taught them how to be better communicators! Astronomy on Tap (AoT) events began in New York City in 2013, and since then nearly 400 events (featuring 1-6 presenters each) have been organized by over 100 people in over 30 locations across the U.S. and around the world. Implicit in the design of typical AoT events are opportunities for professional development in several areas, most prominently in networking and science communication. We surveyed organizers and presenters to assess the extent to which they have benefited from these opportunities. We report results from that survey and present plans for codifying professional development aspects of AoT events for future implementation.

  11. Towards metering tap water by Lorentz force velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Suren; Ebert, Reschad; Weidner, Markus; Rivero, Michel; Halbedel, Bernd; Resagk, Christian; Fröhlich, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present enhanced flow rate measurement by applying the contactless Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV) technique. Particularly, we show that the LFV is a feasible technique for metering the flow rate of salt water in a rectangular channel. The measurements of the Lorentz forces as a function of the flow rate are presented for different electrical conductivities of the salt water. The smallest value of conductivity is achieved at 0.06 S·m-1, which corresponds to the typical value of tap water. In comparison with previous results, the performance of LFV is improved by approximately 2 orders of magnitude by means of a high-precision differential force measurement setup. Furthermore, the sensitivity curve and the calibration factor of the flowmeter are provided based on extensive measurements for the flow velocities ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 m·s-1 and conductivities ranging from 0.06 to 10 S·m-1.

  12. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  13. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  14. Tap water iontophoresis in the treatment of pediatric hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dagash, Haitham; McCaffrey, Sinead; Mellor, Katie; Roycroft, Agnes; Helbling, Ingrid

    2017-02-01

    The treatment options for localized hyperhidrosis include antiperspirants, anticholinergics, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin and surgery. Tap water iontophoresis (TWI) involves immersing the affected area in tap water and passing a small electrical current through the area. Our aim was to assess the success of this therapy in a pediatric cohort. Retrospective case note review of all patients younger than 18years who underwent TWI between 2002 and 2015. Demographic data, number of treatment sessions, side effects and overall success were analyzed. Individuals undergo 7 treatments over 4weeks. A positive outcome was determined as an improvement in symptoms. Pre- and posttreatment hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) was measured. Data are presented as mean (range). Statistical analysis was by paired t-test. A P value of <0.05 was regarded as significant. There were 43 patients (30 females) with a mean age of 15 (8-17) years. Palmar and/or plantar hyperhidrosis (PPH) was present in 39/43 (91%) patients. Axillary hyperhidrosis (AH) was present in 19/43 (44%) patients. All patients (with the exception of one) underwent 7 sessions (5-7). Side effects included paresthesia (88%), pruritus (26%), pain (26%), erythema (14%), dryness (12%) as well as vesicle formation and abrasions in one patient (2%). A positive outcome was found in 84% (36/43) of patients. There was a significant reduction in mean HDSS (pre 3.5 vs. post 2; P=0.0001). TWI is a safe and effective modality of treatment for both PPH and AH in the pediatric population, with minimal side effects. Pediatric surgeons should offer this treatment option before considering more invasive surgical procedures. IV: Retrospective study. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in tap water in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummins, E; Kennedy, R; Cormican, M

    2010-01-15

    Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites associated with gastro-intestinal illness. Following a number of high profile outbreaks worldwide, it has emerged as a parasite of major public health concern. A quantitative Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to evaluate the annual risk of infection from Cryptosporidium in tap water in Ireland. The assessment considers the potential initial contamination levels in raw water, oocyst removal and decontamination events following various process stages, including coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. A number of scenarios were analysed to represent potential risks from public water supplies, group water schemes and private wells. Where surface water is used additional physical and chemical water treatment is important in terms of reducing the risk to consumers. The simulated annual risk of illness for immunocompetent individuals was below 1 x 10(-4) per year (as set by the US EPA) except under extreme contamination events. The risk for immunocompromised individuals was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater for the scenarios analysed. The model indicates a reduced risk of infection from tap water that has undergone microfiltration, as this treatment is more robust in the event of high contamination loads. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of watershed protection and the importance of adequate coagulation/flocculation in conventional treatment. The frequency of failure of the treatment process is the most important parameter influencing human risk in conventional treatment. The model developed in this study may be useful for local authorities, government agencies and other stakeholders to evaluate the likely risk of infection given some basic input data on source water and treatment processes used. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. RoboTAP: Target priorities for robotic microlensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundertmark, M.; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Ranc, C.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Steele, I. A.; Mao, S.; Ment, K.; Menzies, J.; Li, Z.; Cross, S.; Maoz, D.; Shvartzvald, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The ability to automatically select scientifically-important transient events from an alert stream of many such events, and to conduct follow-up observations in response, will become increasingly important in astronomy. With wide-angle time domain surveys pushing to fainter limiting magnitudes, the capability to follow-up on transient alerts far exceeds our follow-up telescope resources, and effective target prioritization becomes essential. The RoboNet-II microlensing program is a pathfinder project, which has developed an automated target selection process (RoboTAP) for gravitational microlensing events, which are observed in real time using the Las Cumbres Observatory telescope network. Aims: Follow-up telescopes typically have a much smaller field of view compared to surveys, therefore the most promising microlensing events must be automatically selected at any given time from an annual sample exceeding 2000 events. The main challenge is to select between events with a high planet detection sensitivity, with the aim of detecting many planets and characterizing planetary anomalies. Methods: Our target selection algorithm is a hybrid system based on estimates of the planet detection zones around a microlens. It follows automatic anomaly alerts and respects the expected survey coverage of specific events. Results: We introduce the RoboTAP algorithm, whose purpose is to select and prioritize microlensing events with high sensitivity to planetary companions. In this work, we determine the planet sensitivity of the RoboNet follow-up program and provide a working example of how a broker can be designed for a real-life transient science program conducting follow-up observations in response to alerts; we explore the issues that will confront similar programs being developed for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other time domain surveys.

  17. Perineal tap water burns in the elderly: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Potter, Michael D E; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter J; Goltsman, David

    2017-11-01

    Burn injuries are expensive to treat. Burn injuries have been found to be difficult to treat in elderly patients than their younger counterparts. This is likely to result in higher financial burden on the healthcare system; however, no population-specific study has been conducted to ascertain the inpatient treatment costs of elderly patients with hot tap water burns. Six elderly patients (75-92 years) were admitted for tap water burns at Concord Hospital during 2010. All costs incurred during their hospitalization were followed prospectively, and were apportioned into 'direct' and 'indirect' costs. Direct costs encompassed directly measurable costs, such as consumables used on the ward or in theatres, and indirect costs included hospital overheads, such as bed and theatre costs. Three males and three females admitted with burns to the buttocks, legs or feet. Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranged from 9-21% (mean 12.8%). Length of stay ranged from 26-98 days (mean 46 days). One patient died, and four required surgical management or grafting. Total inpatient costs ranged from $69 782.33 to $254 652.70 per patient (mean $122 800.20, standard deviation $67 484.46). TBSA was directly correlated with length of stay (P < 0.01) and total cost (P < 0.01). Hot water burns among the elderly are associated with high treatment costs, which are proportional to the size of the burn. The cost of treating this cohort is higher than previously reported in a general Australian burn cohort. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Survey and significance of filamentous fungi from tap water.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana B; Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2006-05-01

    Fungi in drinking water are involved in the production of tastes and odours in water. Health problems are possible, originating from mycotoxins, animal pathogens and allergies. This report concerns the surveillance of mesophilic fungi in tap water and assessment of their potential for causing problems. The methods for the determination of the filamentous fungi (ff) were filtering, swabbing and baiting. Tap water, half-strength corn meal, neopeptone-glucose rose Bengal aureomycin (NGRBA) and oomycete selective agars for the enumeration of colony forming units (cfu) were used. Samples were taken consecutively over 16 months. Filtration and NGRBA gave the highest ff counts. A total of 340 taxa were isolated. There appeared to be a negative correlation between bacterial and yeast (b/y) and ff counts. Highest counts were found in winter months for ff and in the warmer months for b/y. Penicillium (40.6%) and Acremonium (38.8%) were the most frequently isolated ff. There was a difference in the pattern of isolation of the key taxa with season: penicillia predominated in early summer and Acremonium in winter. P. expansum was isolated in high numbers in May 2004. This species is associated with the production of the mycotoxin patulin and the odour secondary metabolite geosmin. P. brevicompactum was detected throughout the sampling period and is known to produce the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid. Acremonium is associated with ocentol production which is responsible for bad tastes and flavours. The remaining taxa were Phialophora sp. (4.1%), Cladosporium sp. (3.5%), Rhizopus stolonifer (2.9%), Chaetomium sp. (0.6%), Alternaria sp. (0.3%), Aspergillus sp. (0.3%), mycelia sterilia (2.6%) and unidentified (6.2%). It is emphasised that few Aspergillus and no Fusarium strains were isolated. Rhizopus stolonifer was obtained. However, none of the fungi isolated at mesophilic temperature used could be described as being involved with pathogenicity per se.

  19. Role of Plastid Protein Phosphatase TAP38 in LHCII Dephosphorylation and Thylakoid Electron Flow

    PubMed Central

    Pribil, Mathias; Pesaresi, Paolo; Hertle, Alexander; Barbato, Roberto; Leister, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Short-term changes in illumination elicit alterations in thylakoid protein phosphorylation and reorganization of the photosynthetic machinery. Phosphorylation of LHCII, the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II, facilitates its relocation to photosystem I and permits excitation energy redistribution between the photosystems (state transitions). The protein kinase STN7 is required for LHCII phosphorylation and state transitions in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. LHCII phosphorylation is reversible, but extensive efforts to identify the protein phosphatase(s) that dephosphorylate LHCII have been unsuccessful. Here, we show that the thylakoid-associated phosphatase TAP38 is required for LHCII dephosphorylation and for the transition from state 2 to state 1 in A. thaliana. In tap38 mutants, thylakoid electron flow is enhanced, resulting in more rapid growth under constant low-light regimes. TAP38 gene overexpression markedly decreases LHCII phosphorylation and inhibits state 1→2 transition, thus mimicking the stn7 phenotype. Furthermore, the recombinant TAP38 protein is able, in an in vitro assay, to directly dephosphorylate LHCII. The dependence of LHCII dephosphorylation upon TAP38 dosage, together with the in vitro TAP38-mediated dephosphorylation of LHCII, suggests that TAP38 directly acts on LHCII. Although reversible phosphorylation of LHCII and state transitions are crucial for plant fitness under natural light conditions, LHCII hyperphosphorylation associated with an arrest of photosynthesis in state 2 due to inactivation of TAP38 improves photosynthetic performance and plant growth under state 2-favoring light conditions. PMID:20126264

  20. 7 CFR 760.102 - Administration of ELAP, LFP, LIP, SURE, and TAP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of ELAP, LFP, LIP, SURE, and TAP. 760.102 Section 760.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE... TAP. (a) The programs in subparts C through H of this part will be administered under the general...

  1. Quantifying Parkinson's disease finger-tapping severity by extracting and synthesizing finger motion properties.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel index of Parkinson's disease (PD) finger-tapping severity, called "PDFTsi," for quantifying the severity of symptoms related to the finger tapping of PD patients with high accuracy. To validate the efficacy of PDFTsi, the finger-tapping movements of normal controls and PD patients were measured by using magnetic sensors, and 21 characteristics were extracted from the finger-tapping waveforms. To distinguish motor deterioration due to PD from that due to aging, the aging effect on finger tapping was removed from these characteristics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the age-normalized characteristics, and principal components that represented the motion properties of finger tapping were calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR) with stepwise variable selection was applied to the principal components, and PDFTsi was calculated. The calculated PDFTsi indicates that PDFTsi has a high estimation ability, namely a mean square error of 0.45. The estimation ability of PDFTsi is higher than that of the alternative method, MLR with stepwise regression selection without PCA, namely a mean square error of 1.30. This result suggests that PDFTsi can quantify PD finger-tapping severity accurately. Furthermore, the result of interpreting a model for calculating PDFTsi indicated that motion wideness and rhythm disorder are important for estimating PD finger-tapping severity.

  2. Finger tapping and pre-attentive sensorimotor timing in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Valera, Eve M

    2017-12-01

    Sensorimotor timing deficits are considered central to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the tasks establishing timing impairments often involve interconnected processes, including low-level sensorimotor timing and higher level executive processes such as attention. Thus, the source of timing deficits in ADHD remains unclear. Low-level sensorimotor timing can be isolated from higher level processes in a finger-tapping task that examines the motor response to unexpected shifts of metronome onsets. In this study, adults with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms (n = 25) and controls (n = 26) performed two finger-tapping tasks. The first assessed tapping variability in a standard tapping task (metronome-paced and unpaced). In the other task, participants tapped along with a metronome that contained unexpected shifts (±15, 50 ms); the timing adjustment on the tap following the shift captures pre-attentive sensorimotor timing (i.e., phase correction) and thus should be free of potential higher order confounds (e.g., attention). In the standard tapping task, as expected, the ADHD group had higher timing variability in both paced and unpaced tappings. However, in the pre-attentive task, performance did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. Together, results suggest that low-level sensorimotor timing and phase correction are largely preserved in ADHD and that some timing impairments observed in ADHD may stem from higher level factors (such as sustained attention).

  3. Persistent suppression of subthalamic beta-band activity during rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The function of synchronous oscillatory activity at beta band (15-30Hz) frequencies within the basal ganglia is unclear. Here we sought support for the hypothesis that beta activity has a global function within the basal ganglia and is not directly involved in the coding of specific biomechanical parameters of movement. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nuclei of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease during a synchronized tapping task at three different externally cued rates. Beta activity was suppressed during tapping, reaching a minimum that differed little across the different tapping rates despite an increase in velocity of finger movements. Thus beta power suppression was independent of specific motor parameters. Moreover, although beta oscillations remained suppressed during all tapping rates, periods of resynchronization between taps were markedly attenuated during high rate tapping. As such, a beta rebound above baseline between taps at the lower rates was absent at the high rate. Our results demonstrate that beta desynchronization in the region of the subthalamic nucleus is independent of motor parameters and that the beta resynchronization is differentially modulated by rate of finger tapping, These findings implicate consistent beta suppression in the facilitation of continuous movement sequences. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lumber value loss associated with tapping sugar maples for sap production

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Sendak; Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1982-01-01

    Tapping sugar maples for sap production yields an annual income, but there is a loss in timber quality if the tree is cut for factory lumber products. We estimate an average loss per tree of $2.87 based on a sample of 90 trees in Vermont that were formerly tapped.

  5. Tap to Togetherness: An Innovative Family Relationship Program Reaches Ghana, Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Tap to Togetherness is a unique program designed to build and enhance family relationships through tap dance steps. Kansas State University researchers from the School of Music, Theatre and Dance and the College of Human Ecology, led by Julie L. Pentz, Associate Professor of Dance, Director of the K-State Dance Program, developed the program.…

  6. An Evaluation of the Chicago Teacher Advancement Program (Chicago TAP) after Four Years. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Seifullah, Allison

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began piloting its version of a schoolwide reform model called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP). Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and take on increased responsibilities through promotion (to mentor…

  7. An Evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year Two Impact Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Seifullah, Allison

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began implementing a schoolwide reform called the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) using funds from the federal Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) and private foundations. Under the TAP model, teachers can earn extra pay and responsibilities through promotion to mentor or master teacher as well as annual…

  8. Tapping but not massage enhances vasodilation and improves venous palpation of cutaneous veins.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Mika; Sasaki, Shinsuke; Mori, Masaharu; Ogino, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated whether tapping on the median cubital vein or massaging the forearm was more effective in obtaining better venous palpation for venipuncture. Forty healthy volunteers in their twenties were subjected to tapping (10 times in 5 sec) or massage (10 strokes in 20 sec from the wrist to the cubital fossa) under tourniquet inflation on the upper arm. Venous palpation was assessed using the venous palpation score (0-6, with 0 being impalpable). Three venous factors-venous depth, cross-sectional area, and elevation-were also measured using ultrasonography. The venous palpation score increased significantly by tapping but not by massage. Moreover, all 3 venous measurements changed significantly by tapping, while only the depth decreased significantly by massage. The three venous measurements correlated significantly with the venous palpation score, indicating that they are useful objective indicators for evaluating vasodilation. We suggest that tapping is an effective vasodilation technique.

  9. Association between finger tapping, attention, memory, and cognitive diagnosis in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Israel; Lavner, Yizhar

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the association between spontaneous finger tapping and cognitive function, with a detailed analysis of the two main phases of finger tapping, the touch-phase and the off-phase. 170 elderly patients (83 men, 87 women; M age = 82.1 yr., SD = 6.2) underwent cognitive assessment including the Mini-Mental State Examination, a forward digit span test, and 15 sec. of finger tapping. Results indicated a significant increase in the length and variability of the finger-touch phase among participants with mild cognitive impairment or dementia compared to participants with no cognitive impairment, suggesting a relationship between finger tapping and attention, short-term memory, and cognitive diagnosis. Pattern classification analyses on the finger tapping parameters indicated a specificity of 0.91 and sensitivity of 0.52 for ruling out cognitive impairment.

  10. Rhythmic motor entrainment in children with speech and language impairments: tapping to the beat.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Goswami, Usha

    2009-01-01

    In prior work (Corriveau et al., 2007), we showed that children with speech and language impairments (SLI) were significantly less sensitive than controls to two auditory cues to rhythmic timing, amplitude envelope rise time and duration. Here we explore whether rhythmic problems extend to rhythmic motor entrainment. Tapping in synchrony with a beat has been described as the simplest rhythmic act that humans perform. We explored whether tapping to a beat would be impaired in children for whom auditory rhythmic timing is impaired. Children with SLI were indeed found to be impaired in a range of measures of paced rhythmic tapping, but were not equally impaired in tapping in an unpaced control condition requiring an internally-generated rhythm. The severity of impairment in paced tapping was linked to language and literacy outcomes.

  11. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  12. Tap Arduino: An Arduino microcontroller for low-latency auditory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization experiments.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Benjamin G; van Vugt, Floris T

    2016-12-01

    Timing abilities are often measured by having participants tap their finger along with a metronome and presenting tap-triggered auditory feedback. These experiments predominantly use electronic percussion pads combined with software (e.g., FTAP or Max/MSP) that records responses and delivers auditory feedback. However, these setups involve unknown latencies between tap onset and auditory feedback and can sometimes miss responses or record multiple, superfluous responses for a single tap. These issues may distort measurements of tapping performance or affect the performance of the individual. We present an alternative setup using an Arduino microcontroller that addresses these issues and delivers low-latency auditory feedback. We validated our setup by having participants (N = 6) tap on a force-sensitive resistor pad connected to the Arduino and on an electronic percussion pad with various levels of force and tempi. The Arduino delivered auditory feedback through a pulse-width modulation (PWM) pin connected to a headphone jack or a wave shield component. The Arduino's PWM (M = 0.6 ms, SD = 0.3) and wave shield (M = 2.6 ms, SD = 0.3) demonstrated significantly lower auditory feedback latencies than the percussion pad (M = 9.1 ms, SD = 2.0), FTAP (M = 14.6 ms, SD = 2.8), and Max/MSP (M = 15.8 ms, SD = 3.4). The PWM and wave shield latencies were also significantly less variable than those from FTAP and Max/MSP. The Arduino missed significantly fewer taps, and recorded fewer superfluous responses, than the percussion pad. The Arduino captured all responses, whereas at lower tapping forces, the percussion pad missed more taps. Regardless of tapping force, the Arduino outperformed the percussion pad. Overall, the Arduino is a high-precision, low-latency, portable, and affordable tool for auditory experiments.

  13. Ventricular shunt tap as a predictor of proximal shunt malfunction in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rocque, Brandon G; Lapsiwala, Samir; Iskandar, Bermans J

    2008-06-01

    The clinical diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt malfunction can be challenging. In this prospective study, the authors evaluated a common method of interrogating shunts: the shunt tap; specifically, its ability to predict proximal malfunction. The authors performed standardized shunt taps in a consecutive series of cases involving children with suspected or proven shunt malfunction, assessing flow and, when possible, opening pressure. Data were collected prospectively, and results analyzed in light of surgical findings. A shunt tap was performed prior to 68 operative explorations in 51 patients. Of the 68 taps, 28 yielded poor or no CSF flow on aspiration. After 26 of these 28 procedures, proximal catheter obstruction was identified. After 28 taps with good CSF return and normal or low opening pressure, 18 shunts were found to have a proximal obstruction, 8 had no obstruction, and 2 had a distal obstruction. Another 12 taps with good CSF flow had high opening pressure; subsequent surgery showed distal obstruction in 11 of the shunts, and proximal obstruction in 1. The positive predictive value of poor flow was 93%, while good flow on shunt tap predicted adequate proximal catheter function in only 55% of cases. Poor flow of CSF on shunt tap is highly predictive of obstruction of the proximal catheter. Because not all patients with good flow on shunt tap underwent surgical shunt exploration, the specificity of this test cannot be determined. Nonetheless, a shunt tap that reveals good flow with a normal opening pressure can be misleading, and management of such cases should be based on clinical judgment.

  14. Effectiveness of dry needling of rectus abdominis trigger points for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Gaubeca-Gilarranz, Alberto; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Medina-Torres, José Raúl; Seoane-Ruiz, José M; Company-Palonés, Aurelio; Cleland, Joshua A; Arias-Buría, Jose L

    2018-05-02

    To compare the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) versus placebo needling, relative to an untreated control group, on pain and quality of life in primary dysmenorrhoea. In this randomised, single blind, parallel-group trial, 56 females with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to TrP-DN (n=19), placebo needling (n=18) or no treatment (n=19). Patients in both groups were asked to undertake a stretching exercise of the rectus abdominis daily. The needling group received a single session of TrP-DN to trigger points (TrPs) in the rectus abdominis, and the placebo group received placebo needling. The primary outcome was pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the number of days with pain, and self-perceived improvement, measured using a Global Rate of Change. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 1 and 2 months after the treatment. Females receiving TrP-DN exhibited greater decreases (P<0.001) in pain than those receiving placebo (1 month: Δ-19.8 mm, 25.9 to -13.7; 2 months: Δ-26.0 mm, -33.1 to -18.9) or assigned to the untreated control group (1 month: Δ-26.0mm, -32.5 to -19.5; 2 months: Δ-20.1 mm, -26.4 to -13.8). Females in the TrP-DN group also exhibited a greater decrease in the amount of medications (P<0.001). No differences in the number of days with pain or quality of life were found (all P>0.1). This trial suggests that a single session of TrP-DN of the rectus abdominis combined with stretching was more effective than placebo needling and stretching alone at reducing pain and the amount of medication used in primary dysmenorrhoea. ACTRN12616000170426. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Postcard from the Ring Plane

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-07

    On March 13, 2006 Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured this look at Saturn and its rings, seen here nearly edge on. The frame also features Mimas and tiny Janus (above the rings), and Tethys (below the rings). "Above" and "below" the rings is mostly a matter of perspective here. All three moons and the rings orbit Saturn in roughly the same plane. The night side of Mimas is gently illuminated by "Saturnshine," sunlight reflected from the planet's cloud tops. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural color view, taken at a distance of approximately 1.7 million miles (2.7 million kilometers) from Saturn. The Cassini spacecraft ended its mission on Sept. 15, 2017. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18323

  16. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  17. Tapping into tongue motion to substitute or augment upper limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghovanloo, Maysam; Sahadat, M. Nazmus; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Kong, Fanpeng; Sebkhi, Nordine

    2017-05-01

    Assistive technologies (AT) play an important role in the lives of people with disabilities. Most importantly, they allow individuals with severe physical disabilities become more independence. Inherent abilities of the human tongue originated from its strong representation in the motor cortex, its direct connection to the brain through well-protected cranial nerves, and easy access without a surgery have resulted in development of a series of tongue-operated ATs that tap into the dexterous, intuitive, rapid, precise, and tireless motion of the tongue. These ATs not only help people with tetraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury or degenerative neurological diseases to access computers/smartphones, drive wheelchairs, and interact with their environments but also have the potential to enhance rehabilitation paradigms for stroke survivors. In this paper, various types of tongue operated ATs are discussed based on their working principles and task based performances. Comparisons are drawn based on widely accepted and standardized quantitative measures, such as throughput, information transfer rate, typing speed/accuracy, tracking error, navigation period, and navigation accuracy as well as qualitative measures, such as user feedback. Finally, the prospects of using variations of these versatile devices to enhance human performance in environments that limit hand and finger movements, such as space exploration or underwater operations are discussed.

  18. Barometric fluctuations in wells tapping deep unconfined aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, Edwin P.

    1979-01-01

    Water levels in wells screened only below the water table in unconfined aquifers fluctuate in response to atmospheric pressure changes. These fluctuations occur because the materials composing the unsaturated zone resist air movement and have capacity to store air with a change in pressure. Consequently, the translation of any pressure change at land surface is slowed as it moves through the unsaturated zone to the water table, but it reaches the water surface in the well instantaneously. Thus a pressure imbalance is created that results in a water level fluctuation. Barometric effects on water levels in unconfined aquifers can be computed by solution of the differential equation governing the flow of gas in the unsaturated zone subject to the appropriate boundary conditions. Solutions to this equation for two sets of boundary conditions were applied to compute water level response in a well tapping the Ogallala Formation near Lubbock, Texas from simultaneous microbarograph records. One set of computations, based on the step function unit response solution and convolution, resulted in a very good match between computed and measured water levels. A second set of computations, based on analysis of the amplitude ratios of simultaneous cyclic microbarograph and water level fluctuations, gave inconsistent results in terms of the unsaturated zone pneumatic properties but provided useful insights on the nature of unconfined-aquifer water level fluctuations.

  19. A Spine Loading Model of Women in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Table 1.8. Left erector spinae anatomical cross-sectional areas ..................................... 42 Table 1.9. Right rectus abdominis anatomical...cross-sectional areas ................................ 43 Table 1.10. Left rectus abdominis anatomical cross-sectional areas...Right rectus abdominis coronal plane moment-arms ....................................... 59 Table 1.26. Left rectus abdominis coronal plane moment-arms

  20. Automatic and Objective Assessment of Alternating Tapping Performance in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Memedi, Mevludin; Khan, Taha; Grenholm, Peter; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions (‘speed’, ‘accuracy’, ‘fatigue’ and ‘arrhythmia’) and a global tapping severity (GTS). Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping. PMID:24351667

  1. Automatic and objective assessment of alternating tapping performance in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Mevludin; Khan, Taha; Grenholm, Peter; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker

    2013-12-09

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions ('speed', 'accuracy', 'fatigue' and 'arrhythmia') and a global tapping severity (GTS). Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping.

  2. X-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of rods under tapping.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yang; Xi, Yan; Cao, Yixin; Wang, Yujie

    2012-05-01

    We present an x-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of cylindrical rods under tapping. The process is monitored by measuring the evolution of the orientational order parameter, local, and overall packing densities as a function of the tapping number for different tapping intensities. The slow relaxation dynamics of the orientational order parameter can be well fitted with a stretched-exponential law with stretching exponents ranging from 0.9 to 1.6. The corresponding relaxation time versus tapping intensity follows an Arrhenius behavior which is reminiscent of the slow dynamics in thermal glassy systems. We also investigated the boundary effect on the ordering process and found that boundary rods order faster than interior ones. In searching for the underlying mechanism of the slow dynamics, we estimated the initial random velocities of the rods under tapping and found that the ordering process is compatible with a diffusion mechanism. The average coordination number as a function of the tapping number at different tapping intensities has also been measured, which spans a range from 6 to 8.

  3. Effectiveness of Modal Decomposition for Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy Microcantilevers in Liquid Environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Kwang; Lee, Soo Il

    2016-05-01

    The modal decomposition of tapping mode atomic force microscopy microcantilevers in liquid environments was studied experimentally. Microcantilevers with different lengths and stiffnesses and two sample surfaces with different elastic moduli were used in the experiment. The response modes of the microcantilevers were extracted as proper orthogonal modes through proper orthogonal decomposition. Smooth orthogonal decomposition was used to estimate the resonance frequency directly. The effects of the tapping setpoint and the elastic modulus of the sample under test were examined in terms of their multi-mode responses with proper orthogonal modes, proper orthogonal values, smooth orthogonal modes and smooth orthogonal values. Regardless of the stiffness of the microcantilever under test, the first mode was dominant in tapping mode atomic force microscopy under normal operating conditions. However, at lower tapping setpoints, the flexible microcantilever showed modal distortion and noise near the tip when tapping on a hard sample. The stiff microcantilever had a higher mode effect on a soft sample at lower tapping setpoints. Modal decomposition for tapping mode atomic force microscopy can thus be used to estimate the characteristics of samples in liquid environments.

  4. TAp63 is a master transcriptional regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohua; Gi, Young Jin; Chakravarti, Deepavali; Chan, Io Long; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Flores, Elsa R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY TAp63 prevents premature aging suggesting a link to genes that regulate longevity. Further characterization of TAp63−/− mice revealed that these mice develop obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, similar to those seen in mice lacking two key metabolic regulators, Silent information regulator T1 (Sirt1) and AMPK. While the roles of Sirt1 and AMPK in metabolism have been well studied, their upstream regulators are not well understood. We found that TAp63 is important in regulating energy metabolism by accumulating in response to metabolic stress and transcriptionally activating Sirt1, AMPKα2, and LKB1 resulting in increased fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, we found that TAp63 lowers blood glucose levels in response to metformin. Restoration of Sirt1, AMPKα2, and LKB1 in TAp63−/− mice rescued some of the metabolic defects of the TAp63−/− mice. Our study defines a role for TAp63 in metabolism and weight control. PMID:23040072

  5. The relationship of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus activation and prognostic factors for clinical success with a stabilization exercise program: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Magel, John S; Fritz, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Hebert JJ, Koppenhaver SL, Magel JS, Fritz JM. The relationship of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus activation and prognostic factors for clinical success with a stabilization exercise program: a cross-sectional study. To examine the relationship between prognostic factors for clinical success with a stabilization exercise program and lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activation assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient physical therapy clinic. Volunteers with current low back pain (N=40). Not applicable. We examined the relationship between prognostic factors associated with clinical success with a stabilization exercise program (positive prone instability test, age <40y, aberrant movements, straight leg raise >91 degrees , presence of lumbar hypermobility) and degree of TrA and LM muscle activation assessed by RUSI. Significant univariate relationships were identified between LM muscle activation and the number of prognostic factors present (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] =-.558, P=.001), as well as the individual factors of a positive prone instability test (point biserial correlation coefficient [r(pbis)]=.376, P=.018) and segmental hypermobility (r(pbis)=.358, P=.025). The multivariate analyses indicated that after controlling for other variables, the addition of the variable "number of prognostic factors present" resulted in a significant increase in R(2) (P=.006). No significant univariate or multivariate relationships were observed between the prognostic factors and TrA muscle activation. Decreased LM muscle activation, but not TrA muscle activation, is associated with the presence of factors predictive of clinical success with a stabilization exercise program. Our findings provide researchers and clinicians with evidence regarding the construct validity of the prognostic factors examined in this study, as well as the potential clinical importance of the LM muscle

  6. Dynamic Article: Tandem Robotic Technique of Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision and Rectus Abdominis Muscle Harvest for Immediate Closure of the Pelvic Floor Defect.

    PubMed

    Singh, Puneet; Teng, Edward; Cannon, Lisa M; Bello, Brian L; Song, David H; Umanskiy, Konstantin

    2015-09-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision for distal rectal cancers involves cylindrical excision of the mesorectum with wide division of the levator ani muscles. Although this technique has been shown to decrease local cancer recurrence and improve survival, it leaves the patient with a considerable pelvic floor defect that may require reconstruction. We developed an innovative technique of robotic extralevator abdominoperineal excision combined with robotic harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle flap for immediate reconstruction of the pelvic floor defect. This was a retrospective review pilot study. This study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center. Three patients who underwent robotic extralevator abdominoperineal excision with robotic rectus abdominis flap harvest for distal rectal adenocarcinoma were included. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative complications, length of hospital stay, wound complications, incidence of perineal hernia, persistent pain, and functional limitations. Three patients underwent this procedure. The median operative time was 522 minutes with median hospital stay of 6 days. One patient experienced perineal wound complication requiring limited incision and drainage followed by complete healing of the wound by secondary intention. The other 2 patients did not experience any wound complications. Longest follow-up was 16 months. None of the patients developed perineal hernias during this time period. The small sample size and retrospective nature were limitations. This technique confers multiple advantages including improved visualization and dexterity within the pelvis and accurate wide margins at the pelvic floor. An incisionless robotic flap harvest with preservation of the anterior rectus sheath obviates the risk of ventral hernia while providing robust tissue closure of the radiated abdominoperineal excision wound. This technique may result in faster postoperative recovery, decreased

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of the pressure profilometry of vesicocutaneous continent catheterizable conduits between patients with and without rectus abdominis neosphincter (Yachia principle).

    PubMed

    Rondon, Atila; Leslie, Bruno; Arcuri, Leonardo Javier; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether crossing rectus abdominis muscle strips, as proposed by Yachia, would change urinary catheterizable conduit's pressure profilometry, in static and dynamic conditions. Non-randomized selection of 20 continent patients that underwent Macedo's ileum-based reservoir, 10 including Yachia's technique (Study Group) and 10 without this mechanism of continence (Control Group). Demographics and cystometric data were assessed. Conduit's pressure profilometry was obtained by infusing saline through a multichannel catheter, at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. We assessed the pressure: (a) in the bladder; (b) in conduit's proximal segment; and (c) in conduit's distal segment, which is presumably the abdominal wall and crossed muscle strips site. Mean age at surgery was 6.1 years in the Control Group and 7.7 years in the Study Group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding maximum cystometric bladder capacity and leakage point pressure. At rest, the pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in all segments analyzed. During Valsalva maneuver, pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in bladder and conduit's proximal segment pressure. In this condition, conduit's distal segment pressure in the Study Group (Mean = 72.9 and Peak = 128.7 cmH2 O) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than conduit's distal segment pressure in the Control Group (Mean = 48.3 and Peak = 65.1 cmH2 O). Crossing muscle strips over the conduit significantly increases the pressure in its distal segment during contraction of the rectus abdominis muscle, which can be important in moments of sudden increase in abdominal pressure in order to keep continence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  10. Factors associated with drinking and being satisfied with tap water in Indigenous communities in Saskatchewan, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have described concerns regarding tap water in Indigenous communities, yet there is little information on participants who report drinking their tap water and being satisfied with its quality. This study undertaken with members of 8 Indigenous communities in Saskatchewan, Canada, and identified factors associated with both the decision to drink tap water at home and being satisfied with its quality. We examined the importance of factors such as individual attributes, experiences, attitudes, household and community-based variables. Less than one-quarter of participants (23.4%) drank tap water and were satisfied with its quality. Individuals who did not boil tap water (odds ratio [OR] = 5.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68–19.8), those who did not experience tap water odour (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.26–4.50) and participants living in communities away from urban centres (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.63–4.51) were more likely to drink and be satisfied with their tap water. Concerns about the environment had the most impact on community members aged 55+ years. Those not reporting concerns about environmental problems affecting water (OR = 11.4, 95% CI = 3.10–42.2) were much more likely to drink and be satisfied with their tap water. Programmes to improve water quality, reduce the need for boil water advisories and increase community confidence in the environment could improve tap water satisfaction and consumption. PMID:29697009

  11. Bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water in Dharan municipality, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Poudyal, Nimesh; Bhattacharya, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-06-07

    Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap water samples, 55.3 % were positive for total coliforms, compared with 25 % of the bottled water. No bottled water samples were positive for fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, in contrast to 21.1 % and 14.5 % of the tap water samples being contaminated with fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, respectively. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 54.2 % of the bottled water samples had pH in the acceptable range. All of the municipal tap water samples and most of the bottled drinking water samples distributed in Dharan municipality were found to be contaminated with one or more than one type of indicator organisms. On the basis of our findings, we may conclude that comparatively, the bottled drinking water may have been safer (than tap water) to drink.

  12. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R., E-mail: silas@physics.unh.edu

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-planemore » description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.« less

  13. CSF tapping also improves mental imagery of gait in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Marques, Bruno; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Assal, Frédéric; Allali, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to compare the changes of Timed Up and Go (TUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) after CSF tapping between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and its mimics. TUG and iTUG were performed before and 24 h after CSF tapping in 117 patients (75.8 ± 6.9 years; 35% female) with suspicion of iNPH (68 iNPH and 49 mimics). Mental imagery of locomotion was modified after CSF tapping in iNPH patients, but not in the mimics.

  14. Comparison of local stiffness of composite honeycomb sandwich structures measured by tap test and mechanical test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, John J.; Nielsen, Zachary A.; Hsu, David K.

    2001-04-01

    This paper shows that the local spring stiffness of composite honeycomb sandwiches, such as those used in aircraft flight control structures, can be obtained with a tap test. A simple spring model is invoked for converting the time of contact measured in a tap test to the local stiffness. The validity of the model is verified using test results obtained on aircraft components. The stiffness obtained from the tap test is compared with that measured in a static loading test. Good agreements are obtained for a variety of composite sandwiches with and without defects.

  15. P32/TAP, a cellular protein that interacts with EBNA-1 of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Finan, J E; Middeldorp, J M; Hayward, S D

    1997-09-15

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-1 protein has a central role in the maintenance of a latent EBV infection and is the only virus-encoded protein expressed in all EBV-associated tumors. EBNA-1 is required for replication of the episomal form of the latent viral genome and transactivates the latency C and LMP-1 promoters. The mechanisms by which EBNA-1 performs these functions are not known. Here we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of a cellular protein, P32/TAP, which strongly interacts with EBNA-1. We show that P32/TAP is expressed at high levels in Raji cells and is synthesized as a proprotein of 282 amino acids (aa) that is posttranslationally processed by a two-step cleavage process to yield a mature protein of 209 aa. It has been previously reported that P32/TAP is expressed on the cell surface. Our transient expression assays detected full-length P32/TAP (1-282 aa) in the cytoplasm while mature P32/TAP protein localized to the nucleus. Three lines of evidence support P32/TAP interaction with EBNA-1. First, in the yeast two-hybrid system we mapped two interactive N-terminal regions of EBNA-1, aa 40-60 and aa 325-376, each of which contains arginine-glycine repeats. These regions interact with the C-terminal half of P32/TAP. Second, the full-length cytoplasmic P32/TAP protein can translocate nuclear EBNA-1 into the cytoplasm. Third, P32/TAP co-immunoprecipitated with EBNA-1. We have confirmed that a Gal4 fusion protein containing the C-terminal region of P32/TAP (aa 244-282) transactivates expression from a reporter containing upstream Gal4-binding sites. Deletion of the P32/TAP interactive regions of EBNA-1 severely diminished EBNA-1 transactivation of FRTKCAT in transient expression assays. Our data suggest that interaction with P32/TAP may contribute to EBNA-1-mediated transactivation. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  16. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in tap water - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecka, Agata

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a review of the occurrence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in tap water. The aim of this study was also to compare the applied methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) investigations in tap water. As the concentration of ARGs in treated, drinking water is expected to be very low and may cause problems in a standard isolation procedure, the special emphasis is placed on the applied procedures of DNA extraction and their efficiency. The study presents the first attempts to obtain DNA directly from tap water. Further efforts must be put to determine the final amount of obtained DNA and the presence of chosen ARGs among the molecules.

  17. Navigation and Image Injection for Control of Bone Removal and Osteotomy Planes in Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kosterhon, Michael; Gutenberg, Angelika; Kantelhardt, Sven Rainer; Archavlis, Elefterios; Giese, Alf

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to cranial interventions, neuronavigation in spinal surgery is used in few applications, not tapping into its full technological potential. We have developed a method to preoperatively create virtual resection planes and volumes for spinal osteotomies and export 3-D operation plans to a navigation system controlling intraoperative visualization using a surgical microscope's head-up display. The method was developed using a Sawbone ® model of the lumbar spine, demonstrating feasibility with high precision. Computer tomographic and magnetic resonance image data were imported into Amira ® , a 3-D visualization software. Resection planes were positioned, and resection volumes representing intraoperative bone removal were defined. Fused to the original Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data, the osteotomy planes were exported to the cranial version of a Brainlab ® navigation system. A navigated surgical microscope with video connection to the navigation system allowed intraoperative image injection to visualize the preplanned resection planes. The workflow was applied to a patient presenting with a congenital hemivertebra of the thoracolumbar spine. Dorsal instrumentation with pedicle screws and rods was followed by resection of the deformed vertebra guided by the in-view image injection of the preplanned resection planes into the optical path of a surgical microscope. Postoperatively, the patient showed no neurological deficits, and the spine was found to be restored in near physiological posture. The intraoperative visualization of resection planes in a microscope's head-up display was found to assist the surgeon during the resection of a complex-shaped bone wedge and may help to further increase accuracy and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. Rectus abdominis diastasis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-06-01

    Because of the lack of agreement on when rectus diastasis (RD) is pathologic, the aim was to investigate indications for surgical repair. This study presents classifications of RD, current knowledge on the relation to pregnancy, and conservative and surgical management. A systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl revealed 437 studies. Inclusion criteria were applied according to the above mentioned subjects of interest. In total 28 studies were included, representing 3725 patients, 11 of these by assessing reference lists of included studies. Only one RCT was found; most studies were case-series lacking statistical analysis. RD was common in post-partum women. Antepartum activity level may have a protective effect on RD and exercise may improve post-partum symptoms of RD. Repair was done during abdominoplasty or laparoscopically. The patient-satisfaction was high and long-term recurrence was reported by one study, while five reported no recurrence. Overall major complications were few, while minor complications were primarily seroma and wound complications. RD is by itself not a true hernia and, therefore, not associated with the risk of strangulation. Repair is mostly done due to cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed.

  19. Out-of-plane properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes three areas of research which were performed to characterize out-of-plane properties of composite materials. In the first investigation, a series of tests was run to characterize the through-the-thickness tensile strength for a variety of composites that included 2D braids, 2D and 3D weaves, and prepreg tapes. A new test method based on a curved beam was evaluated. Failures were significantly different between the 2D materials and the 3D weaves. The 2D materials delaminated between layers due to out-of-plane tensile stresses while the 3D weaves failed due to the formation of radial cracks between the surface plies caused by high circumferential stresses along the inner radius. The strength of the 2D textile composites did not increase relative to the tapes. Final failure in the 3D weaves was caused by a circumferential crack similar to the 2D materials and occurred at a lower bending moment than in other materials. The early failures in the 3D weaves were caused by radial crack formation rather than a low through-the-thickness strength. The second investigation focused on the development of a standard impact test method to measure impact damage resistance. The only impact tests that currently exist are compression after impact (CAI) tests which incorporate elements of both damage resistance and damage tolerance. A new impact test method is under development which uses a quasi-static indentation (QSI) test to directly measure damage resistance. Damage resistance is quantified in terms of the contact force to produce a unit of damage where a metric for damage may be area in C-scan, depth of residual dent , penetration, damage growth, etc. A final draft of an impact standard that uses a QSI test method will be presented to the ASTM Impact Task Group on impact. In the third investigation, the impact damage resistance behavior of a variety of textile materials was studied using the QSI test method. In this study, the force where large damage

  20. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  1. Primary stability of a hybrid self-tapping implant compared to a cylindrical non-self-tapping implant with respect to drilling protocols in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Takeshi; Wagner, Wilfried; Klein, Marcus Oliver; Stender, Elmar; Wieland, Marco; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2011-03-01

    Modifications of implant design have been intending to improve primary stability. However, little is known about investigation of a hybrid self-tapping implant on primary stability. The aims of this study were to evaluate the primary stability of two hybrid self-tapping implants compared to one cylindrical non-self-tapping implant, and to elucidate the relevance of drilling protocols on primary stability in an ex vivo model. Two types of hybrid self-tapping implants (Straumann® Bone Level implant [BL], Straumann® Tapered Effect implant [TE]) and one type of cylindrical non-self-tapping implant (Straumann® Standard Plus implant [SP]) were investigated in the study. In porcine iliac cancellous bones, 10 implants each were inserted either using standard drilling or under-dimensioned drilling protocol. The evaluation of implant-bone interface stability was carried out by records of maximum insertion torque, the Periotest® (Siemens, Bensheim, Germany), the resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and the push-out test. In each drilling group, the maximum insertion torque values of BL and TE were significantly higher than SP (p=.014 and p=.047, respectively). In each group, the Periotest values of TE were significantly lower than SP (p=.036 and p=.033, respectively). The Periotest values of BL and TE were significantly lower in the group of under-dimensioned drilling than standard drilling (p=.002 and p=.02, respectively). In the RFA, no statistical significances were found in implants between two groups and between implants in each group. In each group, the push-out values of BL and TE were significantly higher than SP (p=.006 and p=.049, respectively). Hybrid self-tapping implants could achieve a high primary stability which predicts them for use in low-density bone. However, there is still a debate to clarify the influence of under-dimensioned drilling on primary stability. © 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. On plane submerged laminar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio L.

    2016-11-01

    We address the laminar flow generated when a developed stream of liquid of kinematic viscosity ν flowing along channel of width 2 h discharges into an open space bounded by two symmetric plane walls departing from the channel rim with an angle α 1 . Attention is focused on values of the jet volume flux 2 Q such that the associated Reynolds number Re = Qh / ν is of order unity. The formulation requires specification of the boundary conditions far from the channel exit. If the flow is driven by the volume flux, then the far-field solution corresponds to Jeffery-Hamel self-similar flow. However, as noted by Fraenkel (1962), such solutions exist only for α <129o in a limited range of Reynolds numbers 0 <=Re <=Rec (α) (e.g. Rec = 1 . 43 for α = π / 2). It is reasoned that an alternative solution, driven by a fraction of the momentum flux of the feed stream, may also exist for all values of Re and α, including a near-centerline Bickley jet, a surrounding Taylor potential flow driven by the jet entrainment, and a Falkner-Skan near-wall boundary layer. Numerical integrations of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to ascertain the existence of these different solutions.

  3. Galactic plane gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tumer, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the SAS 2 data together with the COS B results shows that the distribution of galactic gamma-radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The radiation is primarily confined to a thin disc which exhibits offsets from b = 0 degrees similar to warping at radio frequencies. The principal distinction of the gamma-radiation is a stronger contrast in intensity between the region from 310 to 45 degrees in longitude and the regions away from the center that can be attributed to a variation in cosmic-ray density as a function of position in Galaxy. The diffuse galactic gamma-ray energy spectrum shows no significant variation in direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that for the galactic component of the gamma-radiation at high altitudes. The uniformity of the galactic gamma-ray spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of altitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma-ray sources at high altitudes indicate a diffuse origin for bulk of the galactic gamma-radiation rather than a collection of localized sources.

  4. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  5. Reflections on the Hyperbolic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2013-12-01

    The most general solution to the Einstein equations in 4 = 3 + 1 dimensions in the asymptotic limit close to the cosmological singularity under the BKL (Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) hypothesis can be visualized by the behavior of a billiard ball in a triangular domain on the Upper Poincaré Half Plane (UPHP). The billiard system (named "big billiard") can be schematized by dividing the successions of trajectories according to Poincaré return map on the sides of the billiard table, according to the paradigms implemented by the BKL investigation and by the CB-LKSKS (Chernoff-Barrow-Lifshitz-Khalatnikov-Sinai-Khanin-Shchur) one. Different maps are obtained, according to different symmetry-quotienting mechanisms used to analyze the dynamics. In the inhomogeneous case, new structures have been uncovered, such that, in this framework, the billiard table (named "small billiard") consists of 1/6 of the previous one. The connections between the symmetry-quotienting mechanisms are further investigated on the UPHP. The relation between the complete billiard and the small billiard are also further explained according to the role of Weyl reflections. The quantum properties of the system are sketched as well, and the physical interpretation of the wave function is further developed. In particular, a physical interpretation for the symmetry-quotienting maps is proposed.

  6. Fast and controlled fabrication of porous graphene oxide: application of AFM tapping for mechano-chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liangyong; Korobko, Alexander V; Bus, Marcel; Boshuizen, Bart; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Besseling, Nicolaas A M

    2018-05-04

    This paper describes a novel method to fabricate porous graphene oxide (PGO) from GO by exposure to oxygen plasma. Compared to other methods to fabricate PGO described so far, e.g. the thermal and steam etching methods, oxygen plasma etching method is much faster. We studied the development of the porosity with exposure time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the development of PGO upon oxygen-plasma exposure can be controlled by tapping mode AFM scanning using a Si tip. AFM tapping stalls the growth of pores upon further plasma exposure at a level that coincides with the fraction of sp 2 carbons in the GO starting material. We suggest that AFM tapping procedure changes the bond structure of the intermediate PGO structure, and these stabilized PGO structures cannot be further etched by oxygen plasma. This constitutes the first report of tapping AFM as a tool for local mechano-chemistry.

  7. EFFECT OF PILOT HOLE TAPPING ON PULLOUT STRENGTH AND INSERTION TORQUE OF DUAL CORE PEDICLE SCREWS.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; Silva, Patrícia; Falcai, Maurício José; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of pilot hole tapping on pullout resistance and insertion torque of pedicle screws with a conical core. Mechanical tests using a universal testing machine were performed on pedicle screws with a conical core that were inserted into pedicles in the fifth lumbar vertebra of calves. The insertion torque was measured using a torque meter with a capacity of 10 Nm, which was considered to be the highest torque value. The pilot holes were prepared using a probe of external diameter 3.8 mm and tapping of the same dimensions and thread characteristics as the screw. Decreased insertion torque and pullout resistance were observed in the group with prior tapping of the pilot hole. Pilot hole tapping reduced the insertion torque and pullout resistance of pedicle screws with a conical core that had been inserted into the pedicle of the fifth lumbar vertebra of calves.

  8. Title V Operating Permit: XTO Energy, Inc. - Tap 5 Compressor Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Initial Title V Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000018-2007.00) and the Administrative Permit Record for the XTO Energy, Inc., Tap 5 Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation.

  9. Fast and controlled fabrication of porous graphene oxide: application of AFM tapping for mechano-chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Liangyong; Korobko, Alexander V.; Bus, Marcel; Boshuizen, Bart; Sudhölter, Ernst J. R.; Besseling, Nicolaas A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a novel method to fabricate porous graphene oxide (PGO) from GO by exposure to oxygen plasma. Compared to other methods to fabricate PGO described so far, e.g. the thermal and steam etching methods, oxygen plasma etching method is much faster. We studied the development of the porosity with exposure time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the development of PGO upon oxygen-plasma exposure can be controlled by tapping mode AFM scanning using a Si tip. AFM tapping stalls the growth of pores upon further plasma exposure at a level that coincides with the fraction of sp2 carbons in the GO starting material. We suggest that AFM tapping procedure changes the bond structure of the intermediate PGO structure, and these stabilized PGO structures cannot be further etched by oxygen plasma. This constitutes the first report of tapping AFM as a tool for local mechano-chemistry.

  10. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  11. FPGA Based "Intelligent Tap" Device for Real-Time Ethernet Network Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupek, Rafał; Piękoś, Piotr; Poczobutt, Marcin; Ziębiński, Adam

    This paper describes an "Intelligent Tap" - hardware device dedicated to support real-time Ethernet networks monitoring. Presented solution was created as a student project realized in Institute of Informatics, Silesian University of Technology with support from Softing A.G company. Authors provide description of realized FPGA based "Intelligent Tap" architecture dedicated for Real-Time Ethernet network monitoring systems. The practical device realization and feasibility study conclusions are presented also.

  12. JPRS Report. East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 12, December 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-17

    Vietnamese No 12 , Dec 89 pp 33-36 [Article by Nguyen Van Truong, high-level economic specialist ] [Text] Implementing the resolutions of the CPV [Com...Approved far public release; IJifttributioa Unlimited East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 12 , December 1989 KHC QUALITY...TAP CHI CONG SAN No 12 , December 1989 JPRS-ATC-90-006 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 [This report is a translation of the table of contents and selected

  13. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    AU/ACSC/BROWN, S/AY10 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Bottled Water Mania: America’s Misguided...Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water by Seiho P. Brown, LCDR, U.S. Navy A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In...iii Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyze the tendency for American people to drink bottled water over tap water even though it costs

  14. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  15. Antibacterial TAP-mimic electrospun polymer scaffold: effects on P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maria Tereza P; Evans, Joshua D; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to investigate, in vitro, the effects of a recently developed triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic polymer nanofibrous scaffold against Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3)) were prepared from human canines. The specimens were sterilized, inoculated with P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), and incubated for 1 week to allow for biofilm formation. Infected dentin specimens were exposed for 3 days to the following treatments: antibiotic-free polydioxanone scaffold (PDS, control), PDS + 25 wt% TAP [25 mg of each antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) per mL of the PDS polymer solution], or a saturated TAP-based solution (50 mg of each antibiotic per mL of saline solution). In order to serve as the negative control, infected dentin specimens were left untreated (bacteria only). To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the TAP-mimic scaffold, a colony-forming unit (CFU) per milliliter (n = 10/group) measurement was performed. Furthermore, additional specimens (n = 2/group) were prepared to qualitatively study biofilm inhibition via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level. Both the TAP-mimic scaffold and the positive control (TAP solution) led to complete bacterial elimination, differing statistically (p < 0.05) from the negative control group (bacteria only). No statistical differences were observed for CFU per milliliter data between antibiotic-free scaffolds (2.7 log10 CFU/mL) and the negative control (5.9 log10 CFU/mL). The obtained data revealed significant antimicrobial properties of the novel PDS-based TAP-mimic scaffold against an established P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Collectively, the data suggest that the proposed nanofibrous scaffold might be used as an alternative to the advocated clinical gold standard (i.e., TAP) for intracanal disinfection prior to regenerative endodontics.

  16. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  17. Hematological characteristics in neonates with twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS).

    PubMed

    Lopriore, E; Slaghekke, F; Oepkes, D; Middeldorp, J M; Vandenbussche, F P H A; Walther, F J

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the neonatal hematological features of monochorionic twins with twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) and to determine the additional diagnostic value of reticulocyte count measurement. A cohort of consecutive monochorionic twins with TAPS (n = 19) was included in the study and each twin pair was compared with two monochorionic twin pairs (n = 38) unaffected by TAPS or twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), matched for gestational age at birth. We measured full blood counts on day 1 and determined the incidence of anemia, polycythemia, reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Median inter-twin hemoglobin (Hb) difference in monochorionic twins with and without TAPS was 13.7 g/dL and 2.4 g/dL, respectively (p < 0.01). Median inter-twin reticulocyte count ratio in twins with and without TAPS was 3.1 and 1.0, respectively (p < 0.01). Thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L) occurred more often in the TAPS group than in the control group, 45% (17/38) versus 11% (11/38), respectively (p < 0.01). In the TAPS group, mean platelet count was significantly lower in recipients than in donors, 133 x 10(9)/L versus 218 x 10(9)/L, respectively (p < 0.01). TAPS twins have a large inter-twin Hb difference in combination with a large inter-twin reticulocyte count ratio. Recipients are more often thrombocytopenic than donors, probably due to polycythemia. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Functional Analysis of the Accessory Protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis Amyloid Fiber Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor defects in biofilm formation. Mutating sequences in the C-terminal half had no effect on biofilm formation. However, we identified a sequence of 8 amino acids in the N terminus that is key for TasA fiber formation. Strains expressing TapA lacking these 8 residues were completely defective in biofilm formation. In addition, this TapA mutant protein exhibited a dominant negative effect on TasA fiber formation. Even in the presence of wild-type TapA, the mutant protein inhibited fiber assembly in vitro and delayed biofilm formation in vivo. We propose that this 8-residue sequence is crucial for the formation of amyloid-like fibers on the cell surface, perhaps by mediating the interaction between TapA or TapA and TasA molecules. PMID:24488317

  19. Functional analysis of the accessory protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis amyloid fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor defects in biofilm formation. Mutating sequences in the C-terminal half had no effect on biofilm formation. However, we identified a sequence of 8 amino acids in the N terminus that is key for TasA fiber formation. Strains expressing TapA lacking these 8 residues were completely defective in biofilm formation. In addition, this TapA mutant protein exhibited a dominant negative effect on TasA fiber formation. Even in the presence of wild-type TapA, the mutant protein inhibited fiber assembly in vitro and delayed biofilm formation in vivo. We propose that this 8-residue sequence is crucial for the formation of amyloid-like fibers on the cell surface, perhaps by mediating the interaction between TapA or TapA and TasA molecules.

  20. TAPRegExt: a VOResource Schema Extension for Describing TAP Services Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, Markus; Dowler, Patrick; Plante, Ray; Rixon, Guy; Taylor, Mark; Demleitner, Markus

    2012-08-01

    This document describes an XML encoding standard for metadata about services implementing the table access protocol TAP [TAP], referred to as TAPRegExt. Instance documents are part of the service's registry record or can be obtained from the service itself. They deliver information to both humans and software on the languages, output formats, and upload methods supported by the service, as well as data models implemented by the exposed tables, optional language features, and certain limits enforced by the service.

  1. Surveying the Local Supercluster Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashibadze, O. G.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the distribution and velocity field of galaxies situated in a band of 100 by 20 degrees centered on M87 and oriented along the Local supercluster plane. Our sample amounts 2158 galaxies with radial velocities less than 2000 km s-1. Of them, 1119 galaxies (52%) have distance and peculiar velocity estimates. About 3/4 of early-type galaxies are concentrated within the Virgo cluster core, most of the late-type galaxies in the band locate outside the virial radius. Distribution of gas-rich dwarfs with M HI > M * looks to be insensitive to the Virgo cluster presence. Among 50 galaxy groups in the equatorial supercluster band 6 groups have peculiar velocities about 500-1000 km s-1 comparable with virial motions in rich clusters. The most cryptic case is a flock of nearly 30 galaxies around NGC4278 (Coma I cloud), moving to us with the mean peculiar velocity of -840 km s-1. This cloud (or filament?) resides at a distance of 16.1 Mpc from us and approximately 5 Mpc away from the Virgo center. Galaxies around Virgo cluster exhibit Virgocentric infall with an amplitude of about 500 km s-1. Assuming the spherically symmetric radial infall, we estimate the radius of the zero-velocity surface to be R 0 = (7.0±0.3) Mpc that yields the total mass of Virgo cluster to be (7.4 ± 0.9)× 1014M⊙ in tight agreement with its virial mass estimates. We conclude that the Virgo outskirts does not contain significant amounts of dark mater beyond its virial core.

  2. Modality-dependent effect of motion information in sensory-motor synchronised tapping.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro

    2018-05-14

    Synchronised action is important for everyday life. Generally, the auditory domain is more sensitive for coding temporal information, and previous studies have shown that auditory-motor synchronisation is much more precise than visuo-motor synchronisation. Interestingly, adding motion information improves synchronisation with visual stimuli and the advantage of the auditory modality seems to diminish. However, whether adding motion information also improves auditory-motor synchronisation remains unknown. This study compared tapping accuracy with a stationary or moving stimulus in both auditory and visual modalities. Participants were instructed to tap in synchrony with the onset of a sound or flash in the stationary condition, while these stimuli were perceived as moving from side to side in the motion condition. The results demonstrated that synchronised tapping with a moving visual stimulus was significantly more accurate than tapping with a stationary visual stimulus, as previous studies have shown. However, tapping with a moving auditory stimulus was significantly poorer than tapping with a stationary auditory stimulus. Although motion information impaired audio-motor synchronisation, an advantage of auditory modality compared to visual modality still existed. These findings are likely the result of higher temporal resolution in the auditory domain, which is likely due to the physiological and structural differences in the auditory and visual pathways in the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient multichannel acoustic echo cancellation using constrained tap selection schemes in the subband domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiraju, Naveen Kumar; Doclo, Simon; Wolff, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) is a key speech enhancement technology in speech communication and voice-enabled devices. AEC systems employ adaptive filters to estimate the acoustic echo paths between the loudspeakers and the microphone(s). In applications involving surround sound, the computational complexity of an AEC system may become demanding due to the multiple loudspeaker channels and the necessity of using long filters in reverberant environments. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the approach of partially updating the AEC filters is considered in this paper. In particular, we investigate tap selection schemes which exploit the sparsity present in the loudspeaker channels for partially updating subband AEC filters. The potential for exploiting signal sparsity across three dimensions, namely time, frequency, and channels, is analyzed. A thorough analysis of different state-of-the-art tap selection schemes is performed and insights about their limitations are gained. A novel tap selection scheme is proposed which overcomes these limitations by exploiting signal sparsity while not ignoring any filters for update in the different subbands and channels. Extensive simulation results using both artificial as well as real-world multichannel signals show that the proposed tap selection scheme outperforms state-of-the-art tap selection schemes in terms of echo cancellation performance. In addition, it yields almost identical echo cancellation performance as compared to updating all filter taps at a significantly reduced computational cost.

  4. A comparison of damage profiling of automated tap testers on aircraft CFRP panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Aris, K. D.; Shariff, M. F.; Abd Latif, B. R.; Mohd Haris, M. Y.; Baidzawi, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The use of composite materials nevertheless is getting more prominent. The combination of reinforcing fibers and matrices will produce the desired strength orientation, tailorability and not to mention the complex shape that is hard to form on metallic structure. The weight percentage of composite materials used in aerospace, civil, marine etc. has increased tremendously. Since composite are stacked together, the possibility of delamination and/disbond defects are highly present either in the monolithic or sandwich structures. Tap test is the cheapest form of nondestructive test to identify the presence of this damage. However, its inconsistency and wide area of coverage can reduce its effectivity since it is carried out manually. The indigenous automated tap tester known as KETOK was used to detect the damage due to trapped voids and air pockets. The mechanism of detection is through controlling the tapping on the surface automatically at a constant rate. Another manual tap tester RD-3 from Wichitech Industries Inc. was used as reference. The acquired data was translated into damage profiling and both results were compared. The results have shown that the indigenous automated tester can profile the damage better when compared with the existing tap tester. As a conclusion, the indigenous automated tap tester has a potential to be used as an IN-SITU damage detection tool to detect delamination and disbond damage on composite panel. However, more conclusive tests need to be done in order to make the unit available to conventional users.

  5. Weber (slope) analyses of timing variability in tapping and drawing tasks.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca M C; Zelaznik, Howard N

    2003-12-01

    Timing variability in continuous drawing tasks has not been found to be correlated with timing variability in repetitive finger tapping in recent studies (S. D. Robertson et al., 1999; H. N. Zelaznik, R. M. C. Spencer, & R. B. Ivry, 2002). Furthermore, the central component of timing variability, as measured by the slope of the timing variance versus the square of the timed interval, differed for tapping and drawing tasks. On the basis of those results, the authors posited that timing in tapping is explicit and as such uses a central representation of the interval to be timed, whereas timing in drawing tasks is implicit, that is, the temporal component is an emergent property of the trajectory produced. The authors examined that hypothesis in the present study by determining the linear relationship between timing variance and squared duration for tapping, circle-drawing, and line-drawing tasks. Participants (N = 50) performed 1 of 5 tasks: finger tapping, line drawing in the x dimension, line drawing in the y dimension, continuous circle drawing timed in the x dimension, or continuous circle drawing timed in the y dimension. The slopes differed significantly between finger tapping, line drawing, and circle drawing, suggesting separable sources of timing variability. The slopes of the 2 circle-drawing tasks did not differ from one another, nor did the slopes of the 2 line-drawing tasks differ significantly, suggesting a shared timing process within those tasks. Those results are evidence of a high degree of specificity in timing processes.

  6. p53 and TAp63 Promote Keratinocyte Proliferation and Differentiation in Breeding Tubercles of the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Boris; Metzger, Manuel; Richardson, Rebecca; Knyphausen, Philipp; Ramezani, Thomas; Franzen, Rainer; Schmelzer, Elmon; Bloch, Wilhelm; Carney, Thomas J.; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    p63 is a multi-isoform member of the p53 family of transcription factors. There is compelling genetic evidence that ΔNp63 isoforms are needed for keratinocyte proliferation and stemness in the developing vertebrate epidermis. However, the role of TAp63 isoforms is not fully understood, and TAp63 knockout mice display normal epidermal development. Here, we show that zebrafish mutants specifically lacking TAp63 isoforms, or p53, display compromised development of breeding tubercles, epidermal appendages which according to our analyses display more advanced stratification and keratinization than regular epidermis, including continuous desquamation and renewal of superficial cells by derivatives of basal keratinocytes. Defects are further enhanced in TAp63/p53 double mutants, pointing to partially redundant roles of the two related factors. Molecular analyses, treatments with chemical inhibitors and epistasis studies further reveal the existence of a linear TAp63/p53->Notch->caspase 3 pathway required both for enhanced proliferation of keratinocytes at the base of the tubercles and their subsequent differentiation in upper layers. Together, these studies identify the zebrafish breeding tubercles as specific epidermal structures sharing crucial features with the cornified mammalian epidermis. In addition, they unravel essential roles of TAp63 and p53 to promote both keratinocyte proliferation and their terminal differentiation by promoting Notch signalling and caspase 3 activity, ensuring formation and proper homeostasis of this self-renewing stratified epithelium. PMID:24415949

  7. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  8. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2018-01-16

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  9. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  10. Aero-space plane figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The design environment of the aerospace plane is variable rich, intricately networked and sensitivity intensive. To achieve a viable design necessitates addressing three principal elements: knowledge of the 'figures of merit' and their relationships, the synthesis procedure, and the synergistic integration of advanced technologies across the discipline spectrum. This paper focuses on the 'figures of merit' that create the design of an aerospace plane.

  11. Influence of residual bone thickness on primary stability of hybrid self-tapping and cylindric non-self-tapping implants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Divac, Marija; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Sahrmann, Philipp; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the primary stability of a hybrid self-tapping implant and a cylindric non-self-tapping implant in an in vitro test model using polyurethane foam. Eighty standardized blocks of cellular rigid polyurethane foam, 2 cm long and 1 cm wide, with different thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 9 mm (n = 10 per group) were cut. Two implant systems--a hybrid self-tapping (Tapered Effect [TE], Straumann) and a cylindric non-self-tapping (Standard Plus [SP] Wide Neck, Straumann) were placed in the block specimens. Subsequently, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed. The RFA measurements were made in triplicate on four aspects of each implant (mesial, distal, buccal, and oral), and the mean RFA value was calculated. Subsequently, the tensile load of the implants was determined by pull-out tests. The data were analyzed using one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc Scheffe test and a t test (α = .05). Additionally, the simple linear correlation between the RFA and tensile load values was evaluated. No statistically significant differences were found between TE and SP in terms of RFA at different bone thicknesses. Starting from a bone thickness of 4 mm, TE implants showed significantly higher tensile load compared to SP implants (P = .016 to .040). A correlation was found between the RFA measurements and tensile load. Mechanically stable placement is possible with TE and SP implants in a trabecular bone model. RFA and tensile load increased with greater bone thickness.

  12. A Wide Dynamic Range Tapped Linear Array Image Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Prince, N. Daryl

    1988-08-01

    magnitide are obtained. To achieve the short integration times necessary in acousto-optic applications. t he wide dynamic range detector has been implemented into a tapped array architecture with eight outputs and 256 photoelements. Operation of each 01)1,1)111 at 16 MHz yields detector integration times of 2 micro-seconds. Buried channel two phase CCD shift register technology is utilized to minimize image sensor noise improve video output rates and increase ease of operation.

  13. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation

  14. Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.

  15. Coherent field propagation between tilted planes.

    PubMed

    Stock, Johannes; Worku, Norman Girma; Gross, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    Propagating electromagnetic light fields between nonparallel planes is of special importance, e.g., within the design of novel computer-generated holograms or the simulation of optical systems. In contrast to the extensively discussed evaluation between parallel planes, the diffraction-based propagation of light onto a tilted plane is more burdensome, since discrete fast Fourier transforms cannot be applied directly. In this work, we propose a quasi-fast algorithm (O(N 3  log N)) that deals with this problem. Based on a proper decomposition into three rotations, the vectorial field distribution is calculated on a tilted plane using the spectrum of plane waves. The algorithm works on equidistant grids, so neither nonuniform Fourier transforms nor an explicit complex interpolation is necessary. The proposed algorithm is discussed in detail and applied to several examples of practical interest.

  16. A computer vision framework for finger-tapping evaluation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taha; Nyholm, Dag; Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The rapid finger-tapping test (RFT) is an important method for clinical evaluation of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In clinical practice, the naked-eye evaluation of RFT results in a coarse judgment of symptom scores. We introduce a novel computer-vision (CV) method for quantification of tapping symptoms through motion analysis of index-fingers. The method is unique as it utilizes facial features to calibrate tapping amplitude for normalization of distance variation between the camera and subject. The study involved 387 video footages of RFT recorded from 13 patients diagnosed with advanced PD. Tapping performance in these videos was rated by two clinicians between the symptom severity levels ('0: normal' to '3: severe') using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor examination of finger-tapping (UPDRS-FT). Another set of recordings in this study consisted of 84 videos of RFT recorded from 6 healthy controls. These videos were processed by a CV algorithm that tracks the index-finger motion between the video-frames to produce a tapping time-series. Different features were computed from this time series to estimate speed, amplitude, rhythm and fatigue in tapping. The features were trained in a support vector machine (1) to categorize the patient group between UPDRS-FT symptom severity levels, and (2) to discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. A new representative feature of tapping rhythm, 'cross-correlation between the normalized peaks' showed strong Guttman correlation (μ2=-0.80) with the clinical ratings. The classification of tapping features using the support vector machine classifier and 10-fold cross validation categorized the patient samples between UPDRS-FT levels with an accuracy of 88%. The same classification scheme discriminated between RFT samples of healthy controls and PD patients with an accuracy of 95%. The work supports the feasibility of the approach, which is presumed suitable for PD monitoring

  17. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  18. Laser-Printed In-Plane Micro-Supercapacitors: From Symmetric to Asymmetric Structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Li, Na; Du, Yi; Feng, Qing-Ping; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Wu, Xing-Hua; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-01-10

    Here, we propose and demonstrate a complete solution for efficiently fabricating in-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) from a symmetric to asymmetric structure. By using an original laser printing process, symmetric MSC with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/silver nanowire (Ag-NW) hybrid electrodes was facilely fabricated and a high areal capacitance of 5.5 mF cm -2 was achieved, which reaches the best reports on graphene-based MSCs. More importantly, a "print-and-fold" method has been creatively proposed that enabled the rapid manufacturing of asymmetric in-plane MSCs beyond the traditional cumbersome technologies. α-Ni(OH) 2 particles with high tapping density were successfully synthesized and employed as the pseudocapacitive material. Consequently, an improved supply voltage of 1.5 V was obtained and an areal capacitance as high as 8.6 mF cm -2 has been realized. Moreover, a demonstration of a miniaturized MSC pack was performed by multiply-folding the serial Ag-NW-connected MSC units. As a result, a compact MSC pack with a high supply voltage of 3 V was obtained, which can be utilized to power a light-emitting diode light. These presented technologies may pave the way for the efficiently producing high performance in-plane MSCs, meanwhile offering a solution for the achievement of practical power supply packs integrated in limited spaces.

  19. Stable isotope ratios of tap water in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel J.; Ehleringer, James R.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Stange, Erik; Cerling, Thure E.

    2007-03-01

    Understanding links between water consumers and climatological (precipitation) sources is essential for developing strategies to ensure the long-term sustainability of water supplies. In pursing this understanding a need exists for tools to study and monitor complex human-hydrological systems that involve high levels of spatial connectivity and supply problems that are regional, rather than local, in nature. Here we report the first national-level survey of stable isotope ratios in tap water, including spatially and temporally explicit samples from a large number of cities and towns across the contiguous United States. We show that intra-annual ranges of tap water isotope ratios are relatively small (e.g., <10‰ for δ2H) at most sites. In contrast, spatial variation in tap water isotope ratios is very large, spanning ranges of 163‰ for δ2H and 23.6‰ for δ18O. The spatial distribution of tap water isotope ratios at the national level is similar to that of stable isotope ratios of precipitation. At the regional level, however, pervasive differences between tap water and precipitation isotope ratios can be attributed to hydrological factors in the water source to consumer chain. These patterns highlight the potential for monitoring of tap water isotope ratios to contribute to the study of regional water supply stability and provide warning signals for impending water resource changes. We present the first published maps of predicted tap water isotope ratios for the contiguous United States, which will be useful in guiding future research on human-hydrological systems and as a tool for applied forensics and traceability studies.

  20. Arrhythmokinesis is evident during unimanual not bimanual finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Trager, Megan H; Velisar, Anca; Koop, Mandy Miller; Shreve, Lauren; Quinn, Emma; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmokinesis, the variability in repetitive movements, is a fundamental feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that unimanual repetitive alternating finger tapping (AFT) would reveal more arrhythmokinesis compared to bimanual single finger alternating hand tapping (SFT), in PD. The variability of inter-strike interval (CVISI) and of amplitude (CVAMP) during AFT and SFT were measured on an engineered, MRI-compatible keyboard in sixteen PD subjects off medication and in twenty-four age-matched controls. The CVISI and CVAMP of the more affected (MA) and less affected (LA) sides in PD subjects were greater during AFT than SFT (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference between AFT and SFT for controls. Both CVISI and CVAMP were greater in the MA and LA hands of PD subjects versus controls during AFT (P < 0.01). The CVISI and CVAMP of the MA, but not the LA hand, were greater in PDs versus controls during SFT (P < 0.05). Also, AFT, but not SFT, detected a difference between the MA and LA hands of PDs (P < 0.01). Unimanual, repetitive alternating finger tapping brings out more arrhythmokinesis compared to bimanual, single finger tapping in PDs but not in controls. Arrhythmokinesis during unimanual, alternating finger tapping captured a significant difference between both the MA and LA hands of PD subjects and controls, whereas that during a bimanual, single finger tapping task only distinguished between the MA hand and controls. Arrhythmokinesis underlies freezing of gait and may also underlie the freezing behavior documented in fine motor control if studied using a unimanual alternating finger tapping task.

  1. Timing at peak force may be the hidden target controlled in continuation and synchronization tapping.

    PubMed

    Du, Yue; Clark, Jane E; Whitall, Jill

    2017-05-01

    Timing control, such as producing movements at a given rate or synchronizing movements to an external event, has been studied through a finger-tapping task where timing is measured at the initial contact between finger and tapping surface or the point when a key is pressed. However, the point of peak force is after the time registered at the tapping surface and thus is a less obvious but still an important event during finger tapping. Here, we compared the time at initial contact with the time at peak force as participants tapped their finger on a force sensor at a given rate after the metronome was turned off (continuation task) or in synchrony with the metronome (sensorimotor synchronization task). We found that, in the continuation task, timing was comparably accurate between initial contact and peak force. These two timing events also exhibited similar trial-by-trial statistical dependence (i.e., lag-one autocorrelation). However, the central clock variability was lower at the peak force than the initial contact. In the synchronization task, timing control at peak force appeared to be less variable and more accurate than that at initial contact. In addition to lower central clock variability, the mean SE magnitude at peak force (SEP) was around zero while SE at initial contact (SEC) was negative. Although SEC and SEP demonstrated the same trial-by-trial statistical dependence, we found that participants adjusted the time of tapping to correct SEP, but not SEC, toward zero. These results suggest that timing at peak force is a meaningful target of timing control, particularly in synchronization tapping. This result may explain the fact that SE at initial contact is typically negative as widely observed in the preexisting literature.

  2. Cross-cultural influences on rhythm processing: reproduction, discrimination, and beat tapping.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Daniel J; Bentley, Jocelyn; Grahn, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to entrain movement to musical rhythm occurs in virtually all individuals across cultures. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on perception, production, and beat tapping for rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were the same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced by the culture of the participant and the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant's ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than for unfamiliar rhythms. Moreover, there were differences between the two participant groups, and between the two types of rhythms, in the metrical level selected for beat tapping. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  3. The 3-Second Rule in Hereditary Pure Cerebellar Ataxia: A Synchronized Tapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Shunichi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Terao, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The ‘3-second rule’ has been proposed based on miscellaneous observations that a time period of around 3 seconds constitutes the fundamental unit of time related to the neuro-cognitive machinery in normal humans. The aim of paper was to investigate the temporal processing in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and SCA31, pure cerebellar types of spinocerebellar degeneration, using a synchronized tapping task. Seventeen SCA patients (11 SCA6, 6 SCA31) and 17 normal age-matched volunteers participated. The task required subjects to tap a keyboard in synchrony with sequences of auditory stimuli presented at fixed interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between 200 and 4800 ms. In this task, the subjects required non-motor components to estimate the time of forthcoming tone in addition to motor components to tap. Normal subjects synchronized their taps to the presented tones at shorter ISIs, whereas as the ISI became longer, the normal subjects displayed greater latency between the tone and the tapping (transition zone). After the transition zone, normal subjects pressed the button delayed relative to the tone. On the other hand, SCA patients could not synchronize their tapping with the tone even at shorter ISIs, although they pressed the button delayed relative to the tone earlier than normal subjects did. The earliest time of delayed tapping appearance after the transition zone was 4800 ms in normal subjects but 1800 ms in SCA patients. The span of temporal integration in SCA patients is shortened compared to that in normal subjects. This could represent non-motor cerebellar dysfunction in SCA patients. PMID:25706752

  4. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural influences on rhythm processing: reproduction, discrimination, and beat tapping

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Daniel J.; Bentley, Jocelyn; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to entrain movement to musical rhythm occurs in virtually all individuals across cultures. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on perception, production, and beat tapping for rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were the same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced by the culture of the participant and the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant’s ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than for unfamiliar rhythms. Moreover, there were differences between the two participant groups, and between the two types of rhythms, in the metrical level selected for beat tapping. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion

  7. Identifying substance misuse in primary care: TAPS Tool compared to the WHO ASSIST.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R P; McNeely, J; Wu, L T; Sharma, G; Wahle, A; Cushing, C; Nordeck, C D; Sharma, A; O'Grady, K E; Gryczynski, J; Mitchell, S G; Ali, R L; Marsden, J; Subramaniam, G A

    2017-05-01

    There is a need for screening and brief assessment instruments to identify primary care patients with substance use problems. This study's aim was to examine the performance of a two-step screening and brief assessment instrument, the TAPS Tool, compared to the WHO ASSIST. Two thousand adult primary care patients recruited from five primary care clinics in four Eastern US states completed the TAPS Tool followed by the ASSIST. The ability of the TAPS Tool to identify moderate- and high-risk use scores on the ASSIST was examined using sensitivity and specificity analyses. The interviewer and self-administered computer tablet versions of the TAPS Tool generated similar results. The interviewer-administered version (at cut-off of 2), had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for high-risk tobacco (0.90 and 0.77) and alcohol (0.87 and 0.80) use. For illicit drugs, sensitivities were >0.82 and specificities >0.92. The TAPS (at a cut-off of 1) had good sensitivity and specificity for moderate-risk tobacco use (0.83 and 0.97) and alcohol (0.83 and 0.74). Among illicit drugs, sensitivity was acceptable for moderate-risk of marijuana (0.71), while it was low for all other illicit drugs and non-medical use of prescription medications. Specificities were 0.97 or higher for all illicit drugs and prescription medications. The TAPS Tool identified adult primary care patients with high-risk ASSIST scores for all substances as well moderate-risk users of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana, although it did not perform well in identifying patients with moderate-risk use of other drugs or non-medical use of prescription medications. The advantages of the TAPS Tool over the ASSIST are its more limited number of items and focus solely on substance use in the past 3months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for hue plane preserving color correction.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Michal; Andersen, Casper F; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-11-01

    Hue plane preserving color correction (HPPCC), introduced by Andersen and Hardeberg [Proceedings of the 13th Color and Imaging Conference (CIC) (2005), pp. 141-146], maps device-dependent color values (RGB) to colorimetric color values (XYZ) using a set of linear transforms, realized by white point preserving 3×3 matrices, where each transform is learned and applied in a subregion of color space, defined by two adjacent hue planes. The hue plane delimited subregions of camera RGB values are mapped to corresponding hue plane delimited subregions of estimated colorimetric XYZ values. Hue planes are geometrical half-planes, where each is defined by the neutral axis and a chromatic color in a linear color space. The key advantage of the HPPCC method is that, while offering an estimation accuracy of higher order methods, it maintains the linear colorimetric relations of colors in hue planes. As a significant result, it therefore also renders the colorimetric estimates invariant to exposure and shading of object reflection. In this paper, we present a new flexible and robust version of HPPCC using constrained least squares in the optimization, where the subregions can be chosen freely in number and position in order to optimize the results while constraining transform continuity at the subregion boundaries. The method is compared to a selection of other state-of-the-art characterization methods, and the results show that it outperforms the original HPPCC method.

  9. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SURGICAL SKIN PLANING

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Samuel; Wilson, J. Walter; Luikart, Ralph

    1958-01-01

    In surgical skin planing steel wire brushes have been largely replaced by the less hazardous diamond chip burs or “fraises” and serrated steel wheels. In addition to acne pits and wrinkling, multiple actinic (senile) keratoses are an important indication for planing. Planing provides a nonscarring method for the treatment of existing keratoses, as well as a prophylaxis against skin cancer by replacing the sun-damaged, precancerous epidermis with new epidermal cells derived from the cutaneous adnexa (pilosebaceous and sweat gland units). There are clinical landmarks indicating the depth of planing which can serve as a guide to the operator and can be correlated with microscopic findings. The results of experiments on the comparative effects of refrigerants on animal and human skin indicate that human facial skin can tolerate considerable freezing with ethyl chloride or dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) but that mixtures containing large proportions of the much colder dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) may be undesirable. Refreezing an area of the skin in order to perform a more adequate planing is not considered hazardous. The regeneration of the skin following planing has three components: Epidermal, adnexal and dermal. The cells of the epidermis and the adnexa are equipotential. A knowledge of the anatomy of the acne pit enables the operator to decide which pits can be benefited by planing and which should be excised before planing. The successful treatment of acne pits of the face by planing in patients having keloids elsewhere on the body is reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:13500217

  10. Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.

    PubMed

    Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p <0.05. There is correlation between TVP and NB line (NB) (0.8614), Frankfort mandibular incisor angle (FMIA) (0.8894), IMPA (0.6351), Apo line (Apo) (0.609), IMPACOM (0.8895) and McHorris angle (MH) (0.7769). ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the means for the 7 variables with 95% confidence level, P=0.0001. The multiple range test showed no significant difference among means: APoNB (0.88), IMPAMH (0.36), IMPANB (0.65), FMIAIMPACOM (0.01), FMIATVP (0.18), TVPIMPACOM (0.17). There was correlation among all reference planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. The lateral plane delivers higher dose than the frontal plane in biplane cardiac catheterization systems.

    PubMed

    Aldoss, Osamah; Patel, Sonali; Harris, Kyle; Divekar, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to compare radiation dose between the frontal and lateral planes in a biplane cardiac catheterization laboratory. Tube angulation progressively increases patient and operator radiation dose in single-plane cardiac catheterization laboratories. This retrospective study captured biplane radiation dose in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory between April 2010 and January 2014. Raw and time-indexed fluoroscopic, cineangiographic and total (fluoroscopic + cineangiographic) air kerma (AK, mGy) and kerma area product (PKA, µGym(2)/Kg) for each plane were compared. Data for 716 patients were analyzed: 408 (56.98 %) were male, the median age was 4.86 years, and the median weight was 17.35 kg. Although median beam-on time (minutes) was 4.2 times greater in the frontal plane, there was no difference in raw median total PKA between the two planes. However, when indexed to beam-on time, the lateral plane had a higher median-indexed fluoroscopic (0.75 vs. 1.70), cineangiographic (16.03 vs. 24.92), and total (1.43 vs. 5.15) PKA (p < 0.0001). The median time-indexed total PKA in the lateral plane is 3.6 times the frontal plane. This is the first report showing that the lateral plane delivers a higher dose than the frontal plane per unit time. Operators should consciously reduce the lateral plane beam-on time and incorporate this practice in radiation reduction protocols.

  12. A Flying Qualities Study of Longitudinal Long-Term Dynamics of Hypersonic Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Timothy H.; Sachs, G.; Knoll, A.; Stich, R.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and the Technical University of Munich are cooperating in a research program to assess the impact of unstable long-term dynamics on the flying qualities of planes in hypersonic flight. These flying qualities issues are being investigated with a dedicated flight simulator for hypersonic vehicles located at NASA Dryden. Several NASA research pilots have flown the simulator through well defined steady-level turns with varying phugoid and height mode instabilities. The data collected include Pilot ratings and comments, performance measurements, and Pilot workload measurements. The results presented in this paper include design guidelines for height and Phugoid mode instabilities, an evaluation of the tapping method used to measure pilot workload, a discussion of techniques developed by the pilots to control large instabilities, and a discussion of how flying qualities of unstable long-term dynamics influence control Power design requirements.

  13. A flying qualities study of longitudinal long-term dynamics of hypersonic planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, T.; Sachs, G.; Knoll, A.; Stich, R.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and the Technical University of Munich are cooperating in a research program to assess the impact of unstable long-term dynamics on the flying qualities of planes in hypersonic flight. These flying qualities issues are being investigated with a dedicated flight simulator for hypersonic vehicles located at NASA Dryden. Several NASA research pilots have flown the simulator through well-defined steady-level turns with varying phugoid and height mode instabilities. Th data collected include pilot ratings and comments, performance measurements, and pilot workload measurements. The results presented in this paper include design guidelines for height and phugoid mode instabilities, an evaluation of the tapping method used to measure pilot workload, a discussion of techniques developed by the pilots to control large instabilities, and a discussion of how flying qualities of unstable long-term dynamics influence control power design requirements.

  14. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  15. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Beverage Intake of Children Who Drink Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anisha I.; Shapiro, Daniel J.; Wang, Y. Claire; Cabana, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tap water provides a calorie-free, no-cost, environmentally friendly beverage option, yet only some youth drink it. Purpose To examine sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, and beverage intake of those aged 1–19 years who drink tap water. Methods National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005–2010) were used to examine factors associated with tap water consumption. A comparison was made of beverage intake among tap water consumers and nonconsumers, by age, race/ethnicity, and income. Results Tap water consumption was more prevalent among school-aged children (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.47, 2.33, for those aged 6–11 years; OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.32, 2.59, for those aged 12–19 years) as compared to those aged 1–2 years. Tap water intake was less prevalent among girls/women (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64, 0.89); Mexican Americans (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.23, 0.45); non-Hispanic blacks (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34, 0.67); and others (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.36, 0.68) as compared to whites; Spanish speakers (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55, 0.95); and among referents with a lower than Grade-9 education (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.31, 0.88); Grade 9–11 education (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.77); and high school/General Educational Development test completion (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.33, 0.76), as compared to college graduates. Tap water consumers drank more fluid (52.5 vs 48.0 ounces, p<0.01); more plain water (20.1 vs 15.2 ounces, p<0.01); and less juice (3.6 vs 5.2 ounces, p<0.01) than nonconsumers. Conclusions One in six children/adolescents does not drink tap water, and this finding is more pronounced among minorities. Sociodemographic disparities in tap water consumption may contribute to disparities in health outcomes. Improvements in drinking water infrastructure and culturally relevant promotion may help to address these issues. PMID:23790991

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lumbar Tapping Utilization for Suspected Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Under-Drainage Malfunctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Beom; Ahn, Ho-Young; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yang, Ji-Ho; Yi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Il-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of shunt malfunction can be challenging since neuroimaging results are not always correlated with clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a simple, minimally invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lumbar tapping test that predicts shunt under-drainage in hydrocephalus patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 48 patients who underwent routine CSF lumbar tapping after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) operation using a programmable shunting device. We compared shunt valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure to check under-drainage. The mean pressure difference between valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure of all patients were 2.21±24.57 mmH 2 O. The frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.06±1.26 times. Eighty five times lumbar tapping of 41 patients showed that their VPS function was normal which was consistent with clinical improvement and decreased ventricle size on computed tomography scan. The mean pressure difference in these patients was -3.69±19.20 mmH 2 O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.07±1.25 times. Fourteen cases of 10 patients revealed suspected VPS malfunction which were consistent with radiological results and clinical symptoms, defined as changes in ventricle size and no clinical improvement. The mean pressure difference was 38.07±23.58 mmH 2 O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 1.44±1.01 times. Pressure difference greater than 35 mmH 2 O was shown in 2.35% of the normal VPS function group (2 of 85) whereas it was shown in 64.29% of the suspected VPS malfunction group (9 of 14). The difference was statistically significant ( p =0.000001). Among 10 patients with under-drainage, 5 patients underwent shunt revision. The causes of the shunt malfunction included 3 cases of proximal occlusion and 2 cases of distal obstruction and valve malfunction. Under-drainage of CSF should be suspected if CSF lumbar tapping

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lumbar Tapping Utilization for Suspected Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Under-Drainage Malfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Beom; Ahn, Ho-Young; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yang, Ji-Ho; Yi, Jin-Seok; Lee, Il-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis of shunt malfunction can be challenging since neuroimaging results are not always correlated with clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a simple, minimally invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lumbar tapping test that predicts shunt under-drainage in hydrocephalus patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 48 patients who underwent routine CSF lumbar tapping after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) operation using a programmable shunting device. We compared shunt valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure to check under-drainage. Results The mean pressure difference between valve opening pressure and CSF lumbar tapping pressure of all patients were 2.21±24.57 mmH2O. The frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.06±1.26 times. Eighty five times lumbar tapping of 41 patients showed that their VPS function was normal which was consistent with clinical improvement and decreased ventricle size on computed tomography scan. The mean pressure difference in these patients was −3.69±19.20 mmH2O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 2.07±1.25 times. Fourteen cases of 10 patients revealed suspected VPS malfunction which were consistent with radiological results and clinical symptoms, defined as changes in ventricle size and no clinical improvement. The mean pressure difference was 38.07±23.58 mmH2O. The mean frequency of CSF lumbar tapping was 1.44±1.01 times. Pressure difference greater than 35 mmH2O was shown in 2.35% of the normal VPS function group (2 of 85) whereas it was shown in 64.29% of the suspected VPS malfunction group (9 of 14). The difference was statistically significant (p=0.000001). Among 10 patients with under-drainage, 5 patients underwent shunt revision. The causes of the shunt malfunction included 3 cases of proximal occlusion and 2 cases of distal obstruction and valve malfunction. Conclusion Under-drainage of CSF should be

  18. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  19. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-06-12

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption.

  20. Tapping mode imaging and measurements with an inverted atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sandra S F; Green, John-Bruce D

    2006-07-18

    This report demonstrates the successful use of the inverted atomic force microscope (i-AFM) for tapping mode AFM imaging of cantilever-supported samples. i-AFM is a mode of AFM operation in which a sample supported on a tipless cantilever is imaged by one of many tips in a microfabricated tip array. Tapping mode is an intermittent contact mode whereby the cantilever is oscillated at or near its resonance frequency, and the amplitude and/or phase are used to image the sample. In the process of demonstrating that tapping mode images could be obtained in the i-AFM design, it was observed that the amplitude of the cantilever oscillation decreased markedly as the cantilever and tip array were approached. The source of this damping of the cantilever oscillations was identified to be the well-known "squeeze film damping", and the extent of damping was a direct consequence of the relatively shorter tip heights for the tip arrays, as compared to those of commercially available tapping mode cantilevers with integrated tips. The functional form for the distance dependence of the damping coefficient is in excellent agreement with previously published models for squeeze film damping, and the values for the fitting parameters make physical sense. Although the severe damping reduces the cantilever free amplitude substantially, we found that we were still able to access the low-amplitude regime of oscillation necessary for attractive tapping mode imaging of fragile molecules.

  1. An fMRI study comparing rhythmic finger tapping in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    De Guio, François; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared brain activations during unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in 12-year old children with those of adults. The subject pressed a button at a pace initially indicated by a metronome (12 consecutive tones) and then continued for 16 seconds of unpaced tapping to provide an assessment of his/her ability to maintain a steady rhythm. In particular, the analyses focused on the superior vermis of the cerebellum, which is known to play a key role in timing. 12 adults and 12 children performed this rhythmic finger tapping task in a 3T scanner. Whole-brain analyses were performed in Brain Voyager with a random effects analysis of variance using the general linear model. A dedicated cerebellar atlas was used to localise cerebellar activations. As in adults, unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in children showed activations in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and cerebellum. However, overall activation was different in that adults showed much more deactivation in response to the task, particularly in the occipital and frontal cortex. The other main differences were additional recruitment of motor and premotor areas in children compared to adults along with increased activity in the vermal region of the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the timing component of the unpaced rhythmic finger tapping task is less efficient and automatic in children, who needed to recruit the superior vermis more intensively to maintain the rhythm, even though they performed somewhat more poorly than the adults. PMID:22264703

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study comparing rhythmic finger tapping in children and adults.

    PubMed

    De Guio, François; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2012-02-01

    This study compared brain activation during unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in 12-year-old children with that of adults. Subjects pressed a button at a pace initially indicated by a metronome (12 consecutive tones), and then continued for 16 seconds of unpaced tapping to provide an assessment of their ability to maintain a steady rhythm. These analyses focused on the superior vermis of the cerebellum, which is known to play a key role in timing. Twelve adults and 12 children performed this rhythmic finger tapping task in a 3 T scanner. Whole-brain analyses were performed in Brain Voyager, with a random-effects analysis of variance using a general linear model. A dedicated cerebellar atlas was used to localize cerebellar activations. As in adults, unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in children demonstrated activations in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and cerebellum. However, overall activation was different, in that adults demonstrated much more deactivation in response to the task, particularly in the occipital and frontal cortices. The other main differences involved the additional recruitment of motor and premotor areas in children compared with adults, and increased activity in the vermal region of the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the timing component of the unpaced rhythmic finger tapping task is less efficient and automatic in children, who need to recruit the superior vermis more intensively to maintain the rhythm, although they performed somewhat more poorly than adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A level change in mutagenicity of Japanese tap water over the past 12 yr.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Hirokazu; Kishida, Misako; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Ohki, Akira; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-05-01

    A relative comparison study of mutagenicity in Japanese tap water was conducted for 1993 and 2005 surveys. It intended to assess the effects of advanced water treatment installations to water works, improvement of raw water quality and improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling. Sampling points (taps) were the same in both surveys. The results of 245 samples obtained by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) were analyzed. The Ames tests were conducted by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without exogenous activation (S9). With the exception of TA100-S9, the other conditions needed no discussion as a factor in the mutagenicity level change. The average mutagenicity in 1993 and 2005 under the conditions of TA100-S9 were 2600 and 1100 net revertantL(-1), respectively. This indicated that the mutagenicity level of Japanese tap water decreased during the 12-yr period. Particularly a remarkable decrease in mutagenicity was observed in the water works where the advanced water treatments were installed during the 12-yr period. The advanced water treatments were effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Mutagenicity also decreased in the water works with conventional water treatments; the improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling was also considered to be effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  5. Predictive rhythmic tapping to isochronous and tempo changing metronomes in the nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Jorge; Yc, Karyna; Ayala, Yaneri A; Dotov, Dobromir; Prado, Luis; Merchant, Hugo

    2018-04-30

    Beat entrainment is the ability to entrain one's movements to a perceived periodic stimulus, such as a metronome or a pulse in music. Humans have a capacity to predictively respond to a periodic pulse and to dynamically adjust their movement timing to match the varying music tempos. Previous studies have shown that monkeys share some of the human capabilities for rhythmic entrainment, such as tapping regularly at the period of isochronous stimuli. However, it is still unknown whether monkeys can predictively entrain to dynamic tempo changes like humans. To address this question, we trained monkeys in three tapping tasks and compared their rhythmic entrainment abilities with those of humans. We found that, when immediate feedback about the timing of each movement is provided, monkeys can predictively entrain to an isochronous beat, generating tapping movements in anticipation of the metronome pulse. This ability also generalized to a novel untrained tempo. Notably, macaques can modify their tapping tempo by predicting the beat changes of accelerating and decelerating visual metronomes in a manner similar to humans. Our findings support the notion that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability of temporal anticipation during tapping to isochronous and smoothly changing sequences of stimuli. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Interactional synchrony in chimpanzees: Examination through a finger-tapping experiment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2015-05-11

    Humans often unconsciously coordinate behaviour with that of others in daily life. This interpersonal coordination, including mimicry and interactional synchrony, has been suggested to play a fundamental role in social interaction. If this coordinative behavior is socially adaptive, it may be shared with other highly social animal species. The current study targeted chimpanzees, which phylogenetically are the closest living relatives of humans and live in complex social groups, and examined whether interactional synchrony would emerge in pairs of chimpanzees when auditory information about a partner's movement was provided. A finger-tapping task was introduced via touch panels to elicit repetitive and rhythmic movement from each chimpanzee. We found that one of four chimpanzees produced significant changes in both tapping tempo and timing of the tapping relative to its partner's tap when auditory sounds were provided. Although the current results may have limitations in generalizing to chimpanzees as a species, we suggest that a finger-tapping task is one potential method to investigate interactional synchrony in chimpanzees under a laboratory setup.

  7. Tapping insertional torque allows prediction for better pedicle screw fixation and optimal screw size selection.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Dmitriev, Anton E; Luhmann, Scott J

    2013-08-01

    There is currently no reliable technique for intraoperative assessment of pedicle screw fixation strength and optimal screw size. Several studies have evaluated pedicle screw insertional torque (IT) and its direct correlation with pullout strength. However, there is limited clinical application with pedicle screw IT as it must be measured during screw placement and rarely causes the spine surgeon to change screw size. To date, no study has evaluated tapping IT, which precedes screw insertion, and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength. The objective of this study was to investigate tapping IT and its ability to predict pedicle screw pullout strength and optimal screw size. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric thoracic vertebral levels were prepared and dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry scanned for bone mineral density (BMD). All specimens were osteoporotic with a mean BMD of 0.60 ± 0.07 g/cm(2). Five specimens (n=10) were used to perform a pilot study, as there were no previously established values for optimal tapping IT. Each pedicle during the pilot study was measured using a digital caliper as well as computed tomography measurements, and the optimal screw size was determined to be equal to or the first size smaller than the pedicle diameter. The optimal tap size was then selected as the tap diameter 1 mm smaller than the optimal screw size. During optimal tap size insertion, all peak tapping IT values were found to be between 2 in-lbs and 3 in-lbs. Therefore, the threshold tapping IT value for optimal pedicle screw and tap size was determined to be 2.5 in-lbs, and a comparison tapping IT value of 1.5 in-lbs was selected. Next, 15 test specimens (n=30) were measured with digital calipers, probed, tapped, and instrumented using a paired comparison between the two threshold tapping IT values (Group 1: 1.5 in-lbs; Group 2: 2.5 in-lbs), randomly assigned to the left or right pedicle on each

  8. A Direct-Learning Approach to Acquiring a Bimanual Tapping Skill.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Claire F; Gomes, Thábata V B; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2017-01-01

    The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles. Computer-screen feedback informed of errors in both period and phase for each pair of taps. Participants differed dramatically in their success. Learning was assessed by identifying the succession of attractors capturing tapping over the experiment. A few participants' attractors migrated from antiphase to 90° with an appropriate period; others became attracted to a fixed right-left interval, rather than phase, with or without attraction to period. Changes in attractor loci were explained with mixed success by direct learning, inviting elaboration of the theory. The transition to interval attractors was understood as a change in intention, and was remarkable for its indifference to typical bimanual interactions.

  9. Polyphasic Temporal Behavior of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Measure of Motor Skills and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Leyla; Kiziltan, Erhan; Gundogan, Nimet Unay

    2016-01-01

    Successive voluntary motor movement involves a number of physiological mechanisms and may reflect motor skill development and neuromuscular fatigue. In this study, the temporal behavior of finger tapping was investigated in relation to motor skills and fatigue by using a long-term computer-based test. The finger-tapping performances of 29 healthy male volunteers were analyzed using linear and nonlinear regression models established for inter-tapping interval. The results suggest that finger-tapping performance exhibits a polyphasic nature, and has several characteristic time points, which may be directly related to muscle dynamics and energy consumption. In conclusion, we believe that future studies evaluating the polyphasic nature of the maximal voluntary movement will lead to the definition of objective scales that can be used in the follow up of some neuromuscular diseases, as well as, the determination of motor skills, individual ability, and peripheral fatigue through the use of a low cost, easy-to-use computer-based finger-tapping test.

  10. Comparison of timing and force control of foot tapping between elderly and young subjects.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Koji; Takebayashi, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Kenzo; Takuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Shoko; Okabe, Takao; Okuda, Takahiro; Kaba, Hideto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To examine the ability of young and elderly individuals to control the timing and force of periodic sequential foot tapping. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were 10 young (age, 22.1 ± 4.3 years) and 10 elderly individuals (74.8 ± 6.7 years) who were healthy and active. The foot tapping task consisted of practice (stimulus-synchronized tapping with visual feedback) and recall trials (self-paced tapping without visual feedback), periodically performed in this order, at 500-, 1,000-, and 2,000-ms target interstimulus-onset intervals, with a target force of 20% maximum voluntary contraction of the ankle plantar-flexor muscle. [Results] The coefficients of variation of force and intertap interval, used for quantifying the steadiness of the trials, were significantly greater in the elderly than in the young individuals. At the 500-ms interstimulus-onset interval, age-related effects were observed on the normalized mean absolute error of force, which was used to quantify the accuracy of the trials. The coefficients of variation of intertap interval for elderly individuals were significantly greater in the practice than in the recall trials at the 500- and 1,000-ms interstimulus-onset intervals. [Conclusion] The elderly individuals exhibited greater force and timing variability than the young individuals and showed impaired visuomotor processing during foot tapping sequences.

  11. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    PubMed

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  12. An fMRI study of musicians with focal dystonia during tapping tasks.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Sekiguchi, Hirofumi; Kohno, Yutaka; Amako, Masatoshi; Arino, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Koichi; Sakai, Naotaka

    2010-07-01

    Musician's dystonia is a type of task specific dystonia for which the pathophysiology is not clear. In this study, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the motor-related brain activity associated with musician's dystonia. We compared brain activities measured from subjects with focal hand dystonia and normal (control) musicians during right-hand, left-hand, and both-hands tapping tasks. We found activations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia during the tapping tasks in the control group but not in the dystonia group. For both groups, we detected significant activations in the contralateral sensorimotor areas, including the premotor area and cerebellum, during each tapping task. Moreover, direct comparison between the dystonia and control groups showed that the dystonia group had greater activity in the ipsilateral premotor area during the right-hand tapping task and less activity in the left cerebellum during the both-hands tapping task. Thus, the dystonic musicians showed irregular activation patterns in the motor-association system. We suggest that irregular neural activity patterns in dystonic subjects reflect dystonic neural malfunction and consequent compensatory activity to maintain appropriate voluntary movements.

  13. Longitudinal and Source-to-Tap New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. Drinking Water Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Hull, Natalie M; Holinger, Eric P; Ross, Kimberly A; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R

    2017-04-18

    The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. were sampled to compare the microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system. Longitudinal samples indicated microbiology to have stability both spatially and temporally, and between treatment plants and distribution systems. Disinfection had the greatest impact on microbial composition, which was further refined by filtration and influenced by distribution and premise plumbing. Actinobacteria spp. exhibited trends with treatment. In particular, Mycobacterium spp., very low in finished waters, occurred idiosyncratically at high levels in some tap waters, indicating distribution and/or premise plumbing as main contributors of mycobacteria. Legionella spp., another genus containing potential opportunistic pathogens, also occurred ubiquitously. Source water microbiology was most divergent from tap water, and each step of treatment brought samples more closely similar to tap waters.

  14. TAp73 is essential for germ cell adhesion and maturation in testis

    PubMed Central

    Holembowski, Lena; Kramer, Daniela; Riedel, Dietmar; Sordella, Raffaella; Nemajerova, Alice; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A core evolutionary function of the p53 family is to protect the genomic integrity of gametes. However, the role of p73 in the male germ line is unknown. Here, we reveal that TAp73 unexpectedly functions as an adhesion and maturation factor of the seminiferous epithelium orchestrating spermiogenesis. TAp73 knockout (TAp73KO) and p73KO mice, but not ΔNp73KO mice, display a “near-empty seminiferous tubule” phenotype due to massive premature loss of immature germ cells. The cellular basis of this phenotype is defective cell–cell adhesions of developing germ cells to Sertoli nurse cells, with likely secondary degeneration of Sertoli cells, including the blood–testis barrier, which leads to disruption of the adhesive integrity and maturation of the germ epithelium. At the molecular level, TAp73, which is produced in germ cells, controls a coordinated transcriptional program of adhesion- and migration-related proteins including peptidase inhibitors, proteases, receptors, and integrins required for germ–Sertoli cell adhesion and dynamic junctional restructuring. Thus, we propose the testis as a unique organ with strict division of labor among all family members: p63 and p53 safeguard germ line fidelity, whereas TAp73 ensures fertility by enabling sperm maturation. PMID:24662569

  15. Physical basis of tap test as a quantitative imaging tool for composite structures on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Peters, John J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2000-05-01

    Tap test is a simple but effective way for finding flaws in composite and honeycomb sandwich structures; it has been practiced in aircraft inspection for decades. The mechanics of tap test was extensively researched by P. Cawley et al., and several versions of instrumented tap test have emerged in recent years. This paper describes a quantitative study of the impact duration as a function of the mass, radius, velocity, and material property of the impactor. The impact response is compared to the predictions of Hertzian-type contact theory and a simple spring model. The electronically measured impact duration, τ, is used for generating images of the tapped region. Using the spring model, the images are converted into images of a spring constant, k, which is a measure of the local contact stiffness. The images of k, largely independent of tapper mass and impact velocity, reveal the size, shape and severity (cf. Percent stiffness reduction) of defects and damages, as well as the presence of substructures and the associated stiffness increase. The studies are carried out on a variety of real aircraft components and the results serve to guide the development of a fieldable tap test imaging system for aircraft inspection.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  16. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  17. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, E. H. T.; Kalish, R.; Kulik, J.

    2011-03-21

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphiticmore » planes under different conditions.« less

  18. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving ground planes were evaluated. The three methods evaluated were: relative integral parameter method; relative power law method; and modified law of the wall method.

  19. Single plane angiography: Current applications and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falsetti, H. L.; Carroll, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical errors in measurement of one plane cineangiography are identified. Examples of angiographic estimates of left ventricular geometry are given. These estimates of contractility are useful in evaluating myocardial performance.

  20. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  1. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  2. Associations among Protein Biomarkers and pH and Color Traits in Longissimus thoracis and Rectus abdominis Muscles in Protected Designation of Origin Maine-Anjou Cull Cows.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Couvreur, Sébastien; Le Bec, Guillain; Aminot, Ghislain; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated the relationships among a list of 23 protein biomarkers with CIE-L*a*b* meat color traits and ultimate pH on Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Rectus abdominis (RA) muscles of 48 protected designation of origin Maine-Anjou cows. The technological parameters were correlated with several biomarkers and were in some cases muscle-dependent. More biomarkers were related to pHu in LT than in RA muscle. Some consistencies were found, by the common correlation of pHu with MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. The pHu of the LT muscle was also correlated with other cytoskeletal entities and proteins belonging to metabolism and cellular stress. In contrast to the relationships found between biomarkers and LT pHu, more proteins were related to the instrumental color coordinates in RA than in LT muscle. The regression equations were parameter- and muscle-dependent. Certain of the retained proteins explained more than one color coordinate. Hsp70-Grp75 was positive in the models of L*, a*, b*, and C* of LT and of b* in the RA muscle. Further heat shock proteins were strongly related with the meat color coordinates in both muscles. The involvement of metabolic enzymes and myofibrillar proteins in the meat color development was also verified in this experiment. This study confirmed once again the importance of numerous biological pathways in beef color.

  3. Pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence: report of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue-Min; Zhang, Xin-Ru; Xie, Hong; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Fei, Xiao-Fang

    2014-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is relatively common complication of radical prostatectomy and of posterior urethroplasty following traumatic pelvic fracture. Here, we investigate the use of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling of the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence. Ten patients with acquired urinary incontinence were included in the study. Urinary incontinence was secondary to TURP in three patients and was secondary to posterior urethroplasty performed following traumatic pelvic fracture in seven patients. Pedicled rectus abdominalis muscle and fascial flaps, approximately 2.5 cm wide and 15 cm long, were isolated. The flaps were inserted into a perineal incision through a subcutaneous tunnel. The free end of the flap was sectioned to form two muscle strips, each 3 cm in length, and inserted into the space between bulbar urethra and corpus cavernosa. After adequate sling tension had been achieved, the two strips of muscle were anastomosed around the bulbar urethra using a 2-zero polyglactin suture. The patients were followed up for between 12 and 82 months (mean 42.8 months). Complete continence was achieved with good voiding in seven of the 10 patients. In other three patients achieved good voiding following catheter removal, but incontinence was only moderately improved. A pedicled rectus muscle fascial sling of the bulbar urethra is an effective and safe treatment for male patients with mild to moderate acquired urinary incontinence, but it may not be suitable for severe incontinence or for patients with weak rectus abdominalis muscles.

  4. Intra-abdominal pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap for treatment of high-output enterocutaneous fistulae: case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joseph N; Sheckter, Clifford C; Watt, Andrew J; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in nutritional supplementation, sepsis management, percutaneous drainage and surgical technique, enterocutaneous fistulae remain a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. Use of adjunctive modalities including negative pressure wound therapy and fibrin glue have been shown to improve the rapidity of fistula closure; however, the overall rate of closure remains poor. The challenge of managing chronic, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistulae can be successfully achieved with appropriate medical management and intra-abdominal placement of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flaps. We report two cases of recalcitrant high output enterocutaneous fistulae that were treated successfully with pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps. Indications for pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps include persistent patency despite a reasonable trial of non-operative intervention, failure of traditional operative interventions (serosal patch, Graham patch), and persistent electrolyte and nutritional abnormalities in the setting of a high-output fistula. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of bone-conducted vibration for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: forehead versus mastoid tapping.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-02-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimuli at forehead (Fz) and mastoid sites for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs). Prospective study. University hospital. Twenty healthy subjects underwent oVEMP testing via BCV stimuli at Fz and mastoid sites. Another 50 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease also underwent oVEMP testing. All healthy subjects showed clear oVEMPs via BCV stimulation regardless of the tapping sites. The right oVEMPs stimulated by tapping at the right mastoid had earlier nI and pI latencies and a larger nI-pI amplitude compared with those stimulated by tapping at the Fz and left mastoid. Similar trends were also observed in left oVEMPs. However, the asymmetry ratio did not differ significantly between the ipsilateral mastoid and Fz sites. Clinically, tapping at the Fz revealed absent oVEMPs in 28% of Meniere's ears, which decreased to 16% when tapping at the ipsilesional (hydropic) mastoid site, exhibiting a significant difference. Tapping at the ipsilateral mastoid site elicits earlier oVEMP latencies and larger oVEMP amplitudes when compared with tapping at the Fz site. Thus, tapping at the Fz site is suggested to screen for the otolithic function, whereas tapping at the ipsilesional mastoid site is suitable for evaluating residual otolithic function.

  6. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao; Gasulla, Ivana; Yvind, Kresten; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-06-20

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level.

  7. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  8. Dynamical systems model and discrete element simulations of a tapped granular column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, A. D.; Blackmore, D.; Tricoche, X. M.; Urban, K.; Zuo, L.

    2013-06-01

    We present an approximate dynamical systems model for the mass center trajectory of a tapped column of N uniform, inelastic, spheres (diameter d), in which collisional energy loss is governed by the Walton-Braun linear loading-unloading soft interaction. Rigorous analysis of the model, akin to the equations for the motion of a single bouncing ball on a vibrating plate, reveals a parameter γ≔2aω2(1+e)/g that gauges the dynamical regimes and their transitions. In particular, we find bifurcations from periodic to chaotic dynamics that depend on frequency ω, amplitude a/d of the tap. Dynamics predicted by the model are also qualitatively observed in discrete element simulations carried out over a broad range of the tap parameters.

  9. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    PubMed

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the TAP Free Energy in the Mixed p-Spin Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Kuo; Panchenko, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Thouless et al. (Phys Mag 35(3):593-601, 1977), derived a representation for the free energy of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, called the TAP free energy, written as the difference of the energy and entropy on the extended configuration space of local magnetizations with an Onsager correction term. In the setting of mixed p-spin models with Ising spins, we prove that the free energy can indeed be written as the supremum of the TAP free energy over the space of local magnetizations whose Edwards-Anderson order parameter (self-overlap) is to the right of the support of the Parisi measure. Furthermore, for generic mixed p-spin models, we prove that the free energy is equal to the TAP free energy evaluated on the local magnetization of any pure state.

  11. Balance outcomes following a tap dance program for a child with congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Biricocchi, Charlanne; Drake, JaimeLynn; Svien, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the effects of a 6-week progressive tap dance program on static and dynamic balance for a child with type 1 congenital myotonic muscular dystrophy (congenital MMD1). A 6-year-old girl with congenital MMD1 participated in a 1-hour progressive tap dance program. Classes were held once a week for 6 consecutive weeks and included 3 children with adaptive needs and 1 peer with typical development. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) balance subsection and the Pediatric Balance Scale were completed at the beginning of the first class and the sixth class. The participant's BOT-2 score improved from 3 to 14. Her Pediatric Balance Scale score did not change. Participation in a progressive tap dance class by a child with congenital MMD1 may facilitate improvements in static and dynamic balance.

  12. Study of tapping process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites/AA7075 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Alessio; Mehtedi, Mohamad El; Forcellese, Archimede; Nardinocchi, Alessia; Simoncini, Michela

    2018-05-01

    The present investigation aims at studying the tapping process of a three-layer stack constituted by two CFRP layers and a core plate in AA7075 aluminum alloy. The CFRP laminates were obtained by a pre-impregnated woven sample made up of T700 carbon fibers and a thermoset epoxy matrix. Tapping experiments were performed on a 5-axis machining center instrumented with a dynamometer to measure thrust force generated during process. A high-speed steel tool, coated with nanocomposite TiAlN, was used. According to the tool manufacturer recommendations, rotational speed and feed rate were 800 rpm and 1000 mm/min, respectively. Similar thrust force time history responses were obtained by tapping different holes, even though the vertical force increases with number of threaded holes. Furthermore, a quantitative evaluation of delamination at the periphery of entry holes was carried out. The delamination at the entry hole strongly increases with number of threaded holes.