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Sample records for abdominis ra external

  1. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.01) and internal oblique (p<0.01) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. Furthermore, at 20% and 30% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) and the internal oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. At 10% PEmax, no significant differences were observed in muscle activity. Although we observed no significant difference between 10% and 20% PEmax, activity during 30% PEmax was significantly greater than during 20% PEmax (external oblique: p<0.05; internal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance.

  2. Electromyography analysis of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles of children 8 to 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A C; Bankoff, A D; Pellegrinotti, L L; Moreira, Z W; Galdi, E H

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study through in the electromyography the upper and lower umbilical rectus abdominis and the anterior and posterior parts of the external oblique muscles of children 8 to 10 years old. The children studied practice artistic and rhythmical gymnastic sports at the training and learning level and the study was made during abdominal exercise in the dorsal decubitus position on the ground and on a board. The children were divided into 2 groups: Group I - ten already trained children; Group II - nineteen learners. The participants in Group I practiced an average of 5 times a week and those in Group II practiced 2 times a week. The exercises analyzed were: on the ground, lifting the legs 30, 20 and 10 cm high with the knees flexed 90 degrees; flexing the trunk while maintaining the legs elevated and the knees flexed; flexing the trunk with homo and heterolateral rotation of the trunk while maintaining the legs elevated and the knees flexed. On the board, flexing the trunk with the knees flexed 90 degrees on top of the board inclined 30, 20 and 10 cm; flexing the trunk with rotation of the trunk homo and heterolateral with the knees flexed on the board inclined 30, 20 and 10 cm. The results showed that the superior umbilical part of the rectus abdominis muscle presented more intense action potential than the inferior-umbilical part; the more intense action potential occurred at the flexing of the trunk and at the flexing of the trunk with homo and heterolateral rotation. The anterior part of the external oblique muscle presented more intense action potential than the posterior part; the more intense action potential occurred at the flexing of the trunk and at the flexing of the trunk with heterolateral rotation. In both of the muscles the more intense action potential occurred between 45 and 60 degrees of flexing the trunk; the children in Group I presented more intense action potential than those in Group II; the exercise of lifting the

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  4. Large Asymmetric Hypertrophy of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001). Conclusions Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury. PMID:21209832

  5. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non‐dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis‐specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  6. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  7. Abdominal wall injuries: rectus abdominis strains, oblique strains, rectus sheath hematoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rob

    2006-04-01

    Abdominal wall injuries are reported to be less common than actually perceived by sports medicine practitioners. National Collegiate Athletic Association injury statistics for 2004-2005 cite a high of 0.71 abdominal muscle injuries per 1000 player-hours in wrestling competition to a low of 0.01 injuries per 1000 player-hours in autumn football practices. British professional soccer clubs reported an incidence of "torso" injuries of up to 7% of all injuries over the course of several seasons. Injury definition is most likely the explanation for this discrepancy. The abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, and transverse abdominis) are injured by direct blows to the abdomen or by sudden or repetitive trunk movement, either rotation or flexion/extension. With the exception of the rare rectus sheath hematoma that does not self-tamponade, the treatment for these problems is nonoperative with symptoms guiding rehabilitation and return to play decisions.

  8. Association Between Rectus Abdominis Denervation and Ventilation Dysfunction in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Gang; Zhang, Shuo; Xu, Ying-Sheng; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous potentials in electromyography (EMG) of paraspinal muscles are associated with diaphragm denervation and, therefore, poor respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is understandable. EMG changes in the rectus abdominis (RA) display an effect similar to those in paraspinal muscles with respect to the function of lower motor neurons in the thoracic spinal cord. The RA denervation was examined to determine its association with ventilation dysfunction in ALS. Methods: We collected the clinical data of 128 patients with sporadic ALS in Department of Neurology of Peking University Third Hospital from 2009 to 2013. EMG, Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were performed in all patients and the differences in the EMG changes in RA between those with and without FVC ≥ 80% were analysed. Results: The mean FVC value was 83.4% ± 17.1% (range: 45%–131%) of the predicted value. A total of 79 patients displayed FVC ≥80%, and 49 patients displayed FVC <80%. Compared with the patients displaying a normal FVC (60/79, 75.9%), spontaneous activity in RA was significantly different among those patients displaying an FVC <80% (47/49, 95.9%). In addition, spontaneous potentials in RA were more frequently detected in patients exhibiting dyspnea (32/33, 97.0%) than in patients without dyspnea (75/95, 78.9%). Conclusion: Spontaneous potentials in RA are associated with ventilation dysfunction and dyspnea in ALS patients. PMID:27569232

  9. A panel data set on harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Wen Yue; Hu, Zhi Qian; Turner, Neill J.; Zhang, Li; Wang, Qiang; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    In this dataset, we particularly depicted the harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis (RA), accompanied with displaying of the retained vascular trees within the perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle matrix (pM-ECM) using vascular corrosion casting. In addition, several important tips for successful pM-ECM preparation were emphasized, which including using anatomically isolated skeletal muscle as tissue source with all main feeding and draining vessels perfused, preserving the internal microcirculation availability, aseptic technique and pyrogen free in all steps, sequential perfusion via artery or vein, and longtime washing after decellularization. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of pM-ECM as a clinically relevant scale, three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template for tissue-specific regeneration, “Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template” Zhang et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27158653

  10. Intractable pain due to rectus abdominis intramuscular haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Scozzari, G; Reddavid, R; Conti, L; Trombetta, F; Toppino, M; Sandrucci, S

    2014-08-01

    Haemangiomas are tumours of vascular origin accounting for approximately 7 % of all benign tumours. Three types of haemangioma have been described according to the vessel type involved: capillary, cavernous and mixed. Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are infrequent, accounting for less than 1 % of all haemangiomas and are mostly located in the extremities and the trunk. Intramuscular haemangiomas of the rectus abdominis muscle are extremely rare, with only one previous case reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we present the case of a patient with intractable pain related to IMHs of the rectus abdominis and we analyse diagnostic assessment and surgical management of the condition.

  11. SPLIT rectus abdominis myocutaneous double free flap for extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Holzer, Paul W; Helm, Douglas L; Maman, Daniel Y; Winograd, Jonathan M; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2014-01-01

    A Mathes and Nahai type III muscle, such as the rectus abdominis muscle, can be utilized to cover two separate wounds simultaneously utilizing its dual blood supply thereby minimizing donor site morbidity and operative time. We report a case for treatment of bilateral Gustillo type IIIB lower extremity injuries treated with a single rectus abdominis muscle split into two free flaps, with one based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels and one on the superior epigastric vessels to cover the contralateral wound. In our patient, both lower extremity wounds were covered with muscle flaps from the same donor site in a single operation, salvaging both limbs with progression to unassisted ambulatory status. We show in this case report that the utilization of the vascular anatomy of the rectus muscle allows for division of the flap into two flaps, permitting preservation of the contralateral abdominal wall integrity and coverage of two wounds with a single muscle.

  12. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis after cesarean section--case report.

    PubMed

    Dordević, Momcilo; Jovanović, Bozidar; Mitrović, Slobodanka; Dordević, Gordana; Radovanović, Dragce; Sazdanović, Predrag

    2009-09-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus, where it is normally located. Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic entities affecting 8%-18% of menstrual women. Endometriosis can occur at intra- and extrapelvic localizations. The most common intrapelvic localizations are those involving the ovaries, Douglas' area, pelvic peritoneum, uterus, bladder and rectum. Abdominal endometriosis is the most common localization of extrapelvic endometriosis and usually develops in connective tissue. Extra-pelvic implantation of endometrial tissue may develop in any organ including the skin, lungs, liver, extremities, brain and stomach. Three years after cesarean section, a 35-year-old female was operated on for suspected anterior abdominal hernia at the site of previous section. An egg-sized tumor was removed from the rectus abdominis muscle and referred for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. The results showed endometriosis of the muscle with positive estrogen and progesterone receptors. A year after the procedure, treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was continued due to recurrent pain in the scar area, along with ultrasonography and biochemical marker (carbohydrate antigen 125) follow-up. Clinical diagnosis of scar endometriosis can be made by thorough history and physical, ultrasonography and biochemical examinations. Scar endometriosis should always be considered when the symptoms occur in a cyclic and hormone-dependent pattern, mostly after gynecologic operations, and worsening during menstruation. Definitive diagnosis is based on histopathologic analysis. PMID:20405641

  13. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Nikolajsen, Lone; Bendtsen, Thomas Fichtner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10) at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48) mg (median, IQR) within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery. PMID:22666242

  14. Transversus abdominis block: clinical uses, side effects, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Sinclair, Alexander; Raffa, Robert B; Aldington, Dominic; Plavin, Stanford; Apfel, Christian C

    2013-04-01

    Poorly controlled acute pain during the postoperative setting after abdominal surgery can be detrimental to the patient. Current pain management practices for the postoperative abdominal surgery patient rely heavily on opioids, which are associated with many unwanted side effects. Recently, interest surrounding regional anesthesia has been growing owing to its demonstrated efficacy and safety outcomes. More specifically, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block procedure has attracted attention owing to its ability to successfully block peripheral pain signaling in the abdomen, its ease of use, few complications, and its greater acceptability. A majority of the studies published has demonstrated the successful reduction in pain in many abdominal surgical procedures using local anesthetics during the TAP block. However, the short duration of the pain block causes the patient to still rely on other analgesics throughout the additional postoperative days. Preliminary studies using continuous infusion catheters placed in the TAP has been one of the ways to prolong the nerve block in the abdomen; however, technical and operational issues currently limit the widespread adoption of this method. In this review, current studies will be presented and summarized to update the field on the potential benefits of the TAP block procedure, in addition to providing insight into the future direction of the drugs that could be used for TAP block.

  15. Reliability of ultrasound imaging of the transversus abdominis muscle in asymptomatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sin Ho; You, Young Youl

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess intra-rater and inter-rater procedural reliability of ultrasound imaging measurements of transversus abdominis thickness. [Subjects] Thirty therapists who attended the B Hospital in Hwaseong participated in the study. [Methods] Two examiners assessed transverse abdominis thickness at rest and during contraction. Intra-class correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval and, standard error of measurement were calculated. [Results] The intra-rater procedural reliability of ultrasound imaging measurements of transverse abdominis thickness, assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient, was 0.65–0.86 (within-day, 0.65–0.86; between-day, 0.77–0.85). The inter-rater procedural reliability of ultrasound imaging measurements of transverse abdominis thickness, assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient, was 0.72–0.86 (within-day, 0.72–0.86; between-day, 0.82–0.83). [Conclusion] Ultrasound imaging can be used as a reliable method for measurements of transverse abdominis thickness. PMID:26157222

  16. Reliability of ultrasound elastography for the quantification of transversus abdominis elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Ryota; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background The transversus abdominis (TrA), which is considered to be involved in controlling spinal stability, is covered by two muscles (i.e. the external and internal oblique muscles) as well as subcutaneous fat. Therefore, there were doubts about whether it was possible to perform highly reliable measurements of muscle elasticity. Purpose To investigate the reliability of ultrasound elastography for the quantification of elasticity of the TrA. Material and Methods A skilled and an unskilled operator of ultrasound elastography measured TrA elasticity in 10 healthy men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 172.0 ± 5.2 cm; weight, 72.3 ± 12.0 kg) in the supine position. The tests were repeated six times; of the six measured values, a group of four measurements showing the lowest coefficient of variation (CV) was adopted and the mean values were used for further analysis. This procedure was repeated twice on each participant on two different days. Results The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between days for skilled and unskilled operators were 0.86 (P < 0.00) and 0.59 (P = 0.02), respectively, and the CVs were 8.7% and 13.8%, respectively. The ICCs between operators and CVs were in the range of 0.56–0.57 (P = 0.02–0.03) and 13.5–15.5%, respectively. No systematic error was found for any comparison. Conclusion The reliabilities of the skilled and unskilled operators were high and moderate, respectively. PMID:26413315

  17. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Transverse Abdominis in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Dong; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi Ja; Kim, Jong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare transverse abdominis (TrA) contractility in stroke patients with hemiparesis and healthy adults using musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Methods Forty-seven stroke patients with hemiparesis and 25 age-matched healthy control subjects participated in this study. Stroke patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their degree of ambulation. Group A consisted of 9 patients with wheelchair ambulation, group B of 23 patients with assisted ambulation, and group C of 15 patients with independent ambulation. Inter-rater reliability regarding ultrasonographic measurement of abdominal muscle thickness in the control group was assessed by two examiners. The TrA contraction ratio (TrA contracted thickness/TrA resting thickness) was measured during abdominal drawing-in maneuver and was compared between the patients and the control group and between the ambulation groups. Results The inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.900 to 0.947. The TrA contraction ratio was higher in the non-paretic side than in the paretic side (1.40±0.62 vs. 1.14±0.35, p<0.01). The TrA contraction ratio of the patient group was lower in the non-paretic side as well as in the paretic side than that of the control group (right 1.85±0.29, left 1.92±0.42; p<0.001). No difference was found between the ambulation regarding the TrA contraction ratio. Conclusion The TrA contractility in hemiparetic stroke patients is significantly decreased in the non-paretic side as well as in the paretic side compared with that of healthy adults. Ultrasonographic measurement can be clinically used in the evaluation of deep abdominal muscles in stroke patients. PMID:25024954

  18. Abdominal Closure after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction with Transversus Abdominis Muscle Release and Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:27757337

  19. Martin RA-30 Baltimore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Martin RA-30 Baltimore: The Martin RA-30 Baltimore was a light bomber ordered by the Royal Air Force. Some examples were retained in the United States as part of a 'Reverse Lend-Lease.' This example was flown by the NACA from June 1943 until March 1944.

  20. Transneuronal tracing of neural pathways controlling an abdominal muscle, rectus abdominis, in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Billig, I; Foris, J M; Card, J P; Yates, B J

    1999-02-27

    Abdominal muscles participate in generating a large number of behaviors and reflex responses, including expiration, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, postural control, production of speech, straining, facilitation of venous return to the heart, and reaction to vestibular stimulation. However, the only premotor neurons that have been conclusively shown to influence abdominal motoneurons are located in nucleus retroambiguus, the expiratory region of the caudal ventral respiratory group. In the present study, the neural circuitry controlling the activity of one abdominal muscle, rectus abdominis, was mapped using the transneuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) in the ferret. Injections of PRV into rectus abdominis labeled large presumed motoneurons in the ventral horn of T12-L4, and smaller presumed interneurons that were scattered in laminae VII, VIII, IX, and X of T4-L4. In addition, neurons in several areas of the medulla and caudal pons, including the retroambigual nucleus, medial and ventromedial reticular formation, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, vestibular nuclei, and raphe nuclei, were infected by transynaptic passage of PRV from rectus abdominis motoneurons. Thus, the multifunctional roles of abdominal muscles appear to be coordinated by premotor neurons located in both the spinal cord and several regions of the brainstem. PMID:10023028

  1. Measuring the radium quartet (228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra) in seawater samples using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Reyss, J-L

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes are widely used in marine studies (eg. to trace water masses, to quantify mixing processes or to study submarine groundwater discharge). While 228Ra and 226Ra are usually measured using gamma spectrometry, short-lived Ra isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) are usually measured using a Radium Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC). Here we show that the four radium isotopes can be analyzed using gamma spectrometry. We report 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra activities measured using low-background gamma spectrometry in standard samples, in water samples collected in the vicinity of our laboratory (La Palme and Vaccarès lagoons, France) but also in seawater samples collected in the plume of the Amazon river, off French Guyana (AMANDES project). The 223Ra and 224Ra activities determined in these samples using gamma spectrometry were compared to the activities determined using RaDeCC. Activities determined using the two techniques are in good agreement. Uncertainties associated with the 224Ra activities are similar for the two techniques. RaDeCC is more sensitive for the detection of low 223Ra activities. Gamma spectrometry thus constitutes an alternate method for the determination of short-lived Ra isotopes.

  2. Cocontraction of Ankle Dorsiflexors and Transversus Abdominis Function in Patients With Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung-Chul; You, Joshua H.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Context The abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) with cocontraction has been shown to be a more effective method of activating the transversus abdominis (TrA) in healthy adults than the ADIM alone. Whether such an augmented core stabilization exercise is effective in managing low back pain (LBP) remains uncertain. Objective To determine the effect of 2 weeks of ADIM and cocontraction training on abdominal muscle thickness and activation timing and to monitor pain and function in patients with LBP. Design Case-control study. Setting Local orthopaedic clinic and research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty patients with mechanical LBP (age = 27.20 ± 6.46 years, height = 166.25 ± 8.70 cm, mass = 58.10 ± 11.81 kg) and 20 healthy, age-matched people (age = 24.25 ± 1.59 years, height = 168.00 ± 8.89 cm, mass = 60.65 ± 11.99 kg) volunteered for the study. Intervention(s) Both the LBP and control groups received ten 30-minute sessions of ADIM and cocontraction training of the tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s) A separate, mixed-model analysis of variance was computed for the thicknesses of the TrA, internal oblique (IO), and external oblique muscles. The differences in mean and peak electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes, onset time, and latency were compared between the groups. The visual analog pain scale, Pain Disability Index, and LBP rating scale were used to assess pain in the LBP group before and after the intervention. Results We found an interaction between the LBP and control groups and a main effect from pretest to posttest for only TrA muscle thickness change (F1,38 = 6.57, P = .01). Reductions in all pain measures were observed after training (P < .05). Group differences in peak and mean EMG amplitudes and onset time values for TrA/IO and TA were achieved (P < .05). The RF peak (t38 = −3.12, P = .003) and mean (t38 = −4.12, P = .001) EMG amplitudes were different, but no group

  3. Electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis during a traditional crunch and the basic jackknife exercise with the Ab Lounge™.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gail A; Bent-Forsythe, Denise A; Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella C

    2012-06-01

    The use of nontraditional exercise devices such as the Ab Lounge™ has been promoted as being as effective as the traditional abdominal crunch in strengthening the abdominal musculature. Evidence for this is lacking, however. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominis using electromyography (EMG) during a traditional crunch with the basic jackknife using the Ab Lounge™. Twenty-two subjects (6 men and 16 women) were randomly selected from the student population at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus). The mean age of the participants was 20.5 ± 1.5 years, height 166.4 ± 6.2 cm, weight 64 ± 10.3 kg, and waist-hip ratio 0.7 ± 0.1. Surface EMG was used to assess the muscle activity from the upper and lower rectus abdominis while each exercise was performed. The EMG data were full-wave rectified and normalized using a mathematical model that was set up in Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using a univariate analysis of variance with gender as a covariate. Significance was determined by p < 0.05. The mean EMG data recorded for the upper rectus abdominis was significantly higher with the traditional crunch when compared with the basic jackknife performed on the Ab Lounge™ (F = 4.39, p = 0.04). The traditional crunch produced a higher level of activity in the lower rectus abdominis when compared with the basic jackknife, but this was not statistically significant (F = 0.249, p = 0.62). There was no significant interaction between gender and the effect of the type of exercise on upper and lower rectus abdominis activation. These results suggest that the traditional abdominal crunch is more effective than the basic jackknife is in activating the rectus abdominis musculature.

  4. A new technique of closing a gastroatmospheric fistula with a rectus abdominis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rahul; Singh, Harjeet; Talukder, Shibojit; Verma, Ganga Ram

    2015-03-27

    Proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae are difficult to manage and carry high mortality from sepsis and electrolyte imbalances. Conservative management with total parenteral nutrition, exclusion of fistula, resection and anastomosis are conventional methods of treatment with low success rate. Providing muscle cover to manage an enteroatmospheric fistula is a noble concept. A postoperative high-output gastroatmospheric fistula (GAF) was repaired by superior epigastric artery-based rectus abdominis muscle flap (RAMF). Postoperative recovery was uneventful. This technique may be useful for closure of proximal enteroatmospheric fistulae that fail to heal through medical and conventional surgical management.

  5. Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Rajendra Kumar; Nair, Abhijit S

    2015-10-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is one the most common cause of chronic abdominal wall pain. The syndrome is mostly misdiagnosed, treated wrongly and inadequately. If diagnosed correctly by history, examination and a positive carnett test, the suffering of the patient can be relieved by addressing the cause i.e. local anaesthetic with steroid injection at the entrapment site. Conventionally, the injection is done by landmark technique. In this report, we have described 2 patients who were diagnosed with ACNES who were offered ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane (TAP) injection who got significant pain relief for a long duration of time. PMID:26495084

  6. Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and redescription of C. abdominis Huang and C. furviflagellatus Huang from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are described from China, Coccobius bimaculatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Coccobius jinshanensis Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Coccobius leptocerus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Coccobius abdominis Huang 1994 and Coccobius furviflagellatus Huang 1994, originally described in Chinese, are redescribed in English and illustrated by macrophotography based on newly collected material. All five species were reared from Diaspididae (Hemiptera) scale insects on bamboo. Both the male of C. furviflagellatus and the diaspidid host association of C. abdominis and C. furviflagellatus are recorded for the first time.

  7. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. )

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  8. An RA Big Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Readers' advisory (RA) librarians use appeal to translate between readers and books, to make connections between readers and myriad other title possibilities based on the effects of the story. Appeal addresses the elements of books that readers respond to, the features that "draw a reader into a book" and help shape a particular reading…

  9. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durecová, A.; Durec, F.; Bursová, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97% on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated.

  10. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  11. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  12. Reconstruction of concomitant total loss of the upper and lower lips with a free vertical rectus abdominis flap.

    PubMed

    Jallali, Navid; Malata, Charles M

    2005-01-01

    Total loss of both lips is fortunately rare as reconstruction of such defects poses an enormous challenge. We present a case of concomitant loss of both lips as a result of fulminant pneumococcal septicemia, which was reconstructed with a free vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap due to lack of traditional donor sites. PMID:15696515

  13. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  14. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  15. Pain relief after transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal surgery in children: a service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bergmans, Elonka; Jacobs, Alet; Desai, Rachel; Masters, Oliver W; Thies, Karl C

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a prospective service evaluation of the quality of pain control after preoperative transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block in 100 children undergoing abdominal surgery. Data were collected on type of procedure, age, weight, level of the block, local anesthetic used, additional analgesia, and hourly pain scores. Of the 100 patients, 87 were included in the evaluation, 77% of who were less than 1 year old. Adequate pain relief was achieved in 93% of all patients. Almost half (47%) of our patients did not require intravenous (IV) opioids in the postoperative period and 27% did not need any IV opioids at all. Our results confirm the good quality of perioperative analgesia achieved with a TAP block as part of a multimodal approach in children undergoing abdominal surgery. Depending on the patient’s age and the type of procedure, a TAP block may eliminate the need for IV opioids. PMID:25897261

  16. Useful Points of Geometry and Topography of the Lumbar Triangle for Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    PubMed Central

    Ziętek, Zbigniew; Starczewski, Kamil; Sulikowski, Tadeusz; Iwan-Ziętek, Iza; Żukowski, Maciej; Kamiński, Marek; Ziętek-Czeszak, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Background A new look at the topography of the lumbar triangle becomes a challenge for modern anesthesia. The aim of this study was to redefine the topography of the lumbar triangle for transverse abdominis plane block. Material/Methods We explored 74 lumbar regions in 37 preserved cadavers (17 F and 20 M). Results The lumbar triangle was identified in 66 (89%) out of all explored cadavers’ lumbar regions. The predominant triangle was the acute-angled shaped. It was identified in 39 (59%) out of all explored lumbar regions. The second type of dissected triangles had the obtuse-angled shaped. Most triangles of acute-angled shaped and obtuse-angled shaped (36) had medium surface (range from 3 cm2 to 6 cm2), which accounted for 55% of all dissected lumbar triangles. The mean surface of the lumbar triangle was 3.6±2.2 cm2. Based on other measurements, we demonstrated that the majority of the lumbar triangles (62 triangles) were beyond the posterior axillary line. Conclusions According to the obtained results, the randomized searching for lumbar triangle should be limited to the area situated beyond of the posterior axillary line. The region situated anteriorly to the midaxillary line was defined in the study as the critical area for finding the lumbar triangle. Outcomes from the study revealed that the size and the location of the lumbar triangle as the gate for the transverse abdominal plane block may be responsible for difficulties encountered by anesthetists. Thus, establishing the area with the highest probability of localization of the lumbar triangle can improve both safety and efficiency of transversus abdominis plane block. PMID:26714659

  17. Ra-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Chia, C.

    2004-05-01

    We report for the first time the surface water distributions of Ra-228 and Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and vertical profiles in the central deep basin of the SCS. Being a marginal sea, the SCS displays activities of both nuclides much higher than the open oceans. The surface water Ra-228 varies between 22 and 33 dpm/100L with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. The surface water Ra-226 varies from 10 to 15 dpm/100L with a distribution pattern similar to that of Ra-228. The Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio is fairly constant at about 2 or slightly higher. Ra-228 decreases rapidly from a surface maximum of about 22 dpm/100L to about 12 dpm/100L at and below 300m depth in the deep central basin. The deep water values are much higher than those of the open oceans. Ra-226, on the other hand, shows a surface activity of 14 dpm/100L, decreases to 10 dpm/100L at 200m, and then increases monotonically with depth to about 35 dpm/100L at and below 3000m. This distribution pattern is similar to that observed in the western North Pacific but the activity is higher by about 5 dpm/100L for the entire water column. The resulting Ra-228/Ra-226 is greater than one above 250m and becomes less than one below this depth with the ratio decreasing to about 0.35 in the deep water below 3000m. This ratio remains much greater than that in the open oceans, implying a strong Ra-228 input relative to Ra-226 into the SCS deep water.

  18. Occurrence of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, gross alpha, and uranium in California groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, Shiyamalie R; Liu, Yun-Gang; Perera, S Kusum

    2005-12-01

    One hundred and twelve groundwater wells sampled from all the major aquifers in California were analyzed for 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, gross alpha, and uranium. The results showed that radium is found in relatively low concentration, 1.56 x 10(-2)-1.23 Bq L(-1) (0.42-33 pCi L(-1)) for 224Ra, 2.2 x 10(-3)-0.81 Bq L(-1) (0.06-22 pCi L(-1)) for 226Ra, and 8.5 x 10(-3)-1.31 Bq L(-1) (0.23-35 pCi L(-1)) for 228Ra in California groundwater. Uranium was found at the highest concentration on both mass and activity basis and was correlated with the gross alpha measurement. Short-lived radioisotopes showed no significant contribution to gross alpha measurements. There was a strong correlation between 224Ra and 228Ra activities, suggesting the latter to be an indicator for the occurrence of the former. Comparison of 226Ra to 238U, 224Ra to 226Ra, and 226Ra to 228Ra showed scattered data indicating no correlation between each of these isotope pairs. Approximately 4% of the wells were found to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established maximum contaminant level for total radium of 0.185 Bq L(-1) (5 pCi L(-1)). Analysis of 228Ra by gamma-ray spectroscopy was in good agreement with the U.S. EPA-approved procedure.

  19. 226Ra and 228Ra in Iowa drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kriege, L B; Hahne, R M

    1982-10-01

    The University Hygienic Laboratory has been performing radiochemical analyses on drinking water in the state of Iowa for over 20 yr. Approximately one half of the 1250 community water supplies that exist in Iowa have been sampled roughly once every 3 yr for the past decade. Originally, raw and finished waters that showed a gross alpha activity of greater than or equal to 3.0 pCi/L were analyzed for 226Ra, but starting in July 1976, finished waters were analyzed for both 226Ra and 228Ra if the gross alpha activity was greater than or equal to 2.0 pCi/L. As of 10 June 1981, 604 community water supplies had submitted composited samples that have been analyzed for gross alpha, 226Ra, and 228Ra concentrations in compliance with the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (Public Law 93-523). Approximately 10% of these supplies were found to exceed the EPA-established maximum contaminant level (MCL) for 226Ra plus 228Ra of 5 pCi/L. The results revealed, consistent with several other investigators (Mc81; Mi80; Mic80), that some supplies had higher concentrations of 228Ra than of 226Ra. It was also concluded, in agreement with McCurdy and Mellor (Mc81), that some ground water samples cannot be accurately measured for gross alpha activity due to their high dissolved solids content. PMID:7152914

  20. Delayed postural contraction of transversus abdominis in low back pain associated with movement of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P W; Richardson, C A

    1998-02-01

    The temporal parameters of the response of the trunk muscles associated with movement of the lower limb were investigated in people with and without low back pain (LBP). The weight shift component of the task was completed voluntarily prior to a stimulus to move to allow investigation of the movement component of the response. In the control subjects the onset of electromyographic (EMG) activity of all trunk muscles preceded that of the muscle responsible for limb movement, thus contributing to the feed-forward postural response. The EMG onset of transversus abdominis was delayed in the LBP subjects with movement in each direction, while the EMG onsets of rectus abdominis, erector spinae, and oblique abdominal muscles were delayed with specific movement directions. This result provides evidence of a change in the postural control of the trunk in people with LBP.

  1. Radium isotope ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thais H; de Oliveira, Joselene; Sanders, Christian J; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M; Machado, Eunice C; Sá, Fabian

    2016-10-15

    This work investigates the (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, (223)Ra/(224)Ra and (223)Ra/(228)Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11days.

  2. Radium isotope ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra) distribution near Brazil's largest port, Paranaguá Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thais H; de Oliveira, Joselene; Sanders, Christian J; Carvalho, Franciane; Sanders, Luciana M; Machado, Eunice C; Sá, Fabian

    2016-10-15

    This work investigates the (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra isotope distribution in river, estuarine waters and sediments of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC). The stratification of the Ra isotopes along water columns indicate differing natural sources. In sediments, the radium isotope activities was inversely proportional to the particle size. The highest concentrations of (223)Ra, (224)Ra, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the water column were found in the bottom more saline waters and towards the inner of the estuary. These relatively high concentrations towards the bottom of the estuary may be attributed to the influence of tidally driven groundwater source and desorption from particles at the maximum turbidity zone. The apparent river water ages from the radium isotope ratios, (223)Ra/(224)Ra and (223)Ra/(228)Ra, indicate that the principal rivers that flow into the estuary have residence times from between 6 and 11days. PMID:27422485

  3. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Gadsden, Jeffrey; Ayad, Sabry; Gonzales, Jeffrey J; Mehta, Jaideep; Boublik, Jan; Hutchins, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site. PMID:26677342

  4. Efficacy of laparoscopic transversus abdominis plane block for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Tihan, Deniz; Totoz, Tolga; Tokocin, Merve; Ercan, Gulcin; Calikoglu, Tugba Koc; Vartanoglu, Talar; Celebi, Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique seems to offer one of the most efficient methods for a local pain control. Our aim is to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of TAP block for post-operative pain control under laparoscopic vision in elderly patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients aged more than 65 years old, who had cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholelithiasis, were retrospectively evaluated. The patients that were operated under general anesthesia + laparoscopic TAP block and those who were operated only under only general anesthesia were compared according to their’ age and gender, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and length of stay in the hospital. Median (±interquartile range) values of post-operative 24th-hour-VAS for pain was found consecutively 2 (±1-3) in TAP block + group and 3 (±2-5) in TAP block - group. The median post-operative 24th-hour-VAS value in overall patients was three. Patients’ VAS values were higher in the TAP block – group with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found for other parameters in two groups. The laparoscopic-guided TAP block can easily be performed and has potential for lower visceral injury risk and shorter operational time. Efficacy, safety and other advantages (analgesic requirements, etc.) make it an ideal abdominal field block in elderly patients. PMID:26773187

  5. Complications and oncologic outcomes of pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562

  6. Ultrasound-guided continuous transverse abdominis plane block for abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rao V; Field, J B

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new regional analgesic technique for postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. Its efficacy is not clear, and thus it needs to be explored for its regular utilisation on prolonged period. The objective was to study the continuous local anaesthetic infusion effect on postoperative analgesia. Continuous use of TAP block as an analgesic technique has not been evaluated prospectively in clinical trials. This study evaluates the efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in comparison with PCA fentanyl in major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients in the study, allocated to TAP and control groups. The parameters measured were pain scores on a numerical rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 at various time intervals and the amount of fentanyl used as rescue analgesia. Patient satisfaction scores were recorded in the TAP block group and along with any complications related to the block. Results: The postoperative median pain scores on coughing on day one were 6.0 for control group and 2.0 for the TAP group (P = 0.02); on day two, the equivalent scores were 7.0 and 2.0 (P = 0.01). The fentanyl requirement at one hour was 203 μ for the control group and 78 μg for the TAP group (P = 0.03); at day one, the control and TAP requirements were 1237 μg and 664 μg respectively (P = 0.01). Three TAP patients rated their satisfaction as ‘excellent’, four as ‘satisfied, and two as ‘poor’. Conclusion: TAP block is a promising technique for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgeries. Our study demonstrated lower pain scores in the TAP group with reduced fentanyl requirement. Further, a large scale study is needed to establish the efficacy of TAP block in this setting. PMID:21897502

  7. Transversus Abdominis Plane Versus Ilioinguinal and Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks for Analgesia Following Open Inguinal Herniorrhaphy*

    PubMed Central

    Stav, Anatoli; Reytman, Leonid; Stav, Michael-Yohay; Troitsa, Anton; Kirshon, Mark; Alfici, Ricardo; Dudkiewicz, Mickey; Sternberg, Ahud

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that preoperative (pre-op) ultrasound (US)-guided posterior transversus abdominis plane block (TAP) and US-guided ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block (ILI+IHG) will produce a comparable analgesia after Lichtenstein patch tension-free method of open inguinal hernia repair in adult men. The genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve will be blocked separately. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded clinical study. A total of 166 adult men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a pre-op TAP group, a pre-op ILI+IHG group, and a control group. An intraoperative block of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve was performed in all patients in all three groups, followed by postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine. The pain intensity and morphine consumption immediately after surgery and during the 24 hours after surgery were compared between the groups. Results A total of 149 patients completed the study protocol. The intensity of pain immediately after surgery and morphine consumption were similar in the two “block” groups; however, they were significantly decreased compared with the control group. During the 24 hours after surgery, morphine consumption in the ILI+IHG group decreased compared with the TAP group, as well as in each “block” group versus the control group. Twenty-four hours after surgery, all evaluated parameters were similar. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided ILI+IHG provided better pain control than US-guided posterior TAP following the Lichtenstein patch tension-free method of open inguinal hernia repair in men during 24 hours after surgery. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01429480.) PMID:27487311

  8. Transversus abdominis plane infiltration for laparoscopic gastric banding: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Gildasio S De Oliveira; Fitzgerald, Paul; Ahmad, Shireen; Kim, John; Rahangdale, Rohit; McCarthy, Robert

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To estimate an effect size for the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration on quality of recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric band surgery. METHODS: The pilot study was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial. Patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric band surgery were randomized to receive a bilateral TAP infiltration with 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine or saline. The evaluated outcomes included quality of recovery-40 (QoR-40) at 24 h, postoperative opioid consumption and pain. Data was examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects were recruited. There was a positive trend favoring the TAP infiltration group in global QoR-40 scores at 24 h after surgery, median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 175.5 (170-189) compared to 170 (160-175) in the control group (P = 0.06). There also a positive trend toward a lower cumulative opioid consumption in the TAP infiltration group, median (IQR) of 7.5 (2.5-11.5) mg iv morphine equivalents compared to 13 (7-21.5) in the control group (P = 0.07). Correlation analysis (Spearman’s Rho) demonstrated an inverse relationship between 24 h cumulative opioid consumption and global QoR-40 scores, -0.49 (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The use of multimodal analgesic techniques to reduce opioid related side effects is particularly desirable in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric reduction surgery. The TAP infiltration seems to have a clinically important effect in reducing postoperative opioid consumption and improve quality of recovery after laparoscopic gastric band surgery in morbid obese patients. Future studies to confirm the beneficial effects of the TAP infiltration in these patients are warranted. PMID:24600508

  9. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap in reconstruction of epispadias/exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Horton, C E; Sadove, R C; Jordan, G H; Sagher, U

    1988-07-01

    Inferiorly based rectus abdominis muscle flaps and fascial flaps have been used to construct a firm abdominal wall without hernias and to provide coverage of the bladder, bladder neck, and proximal urethra in the secondary reconstruction of patients with epispadias/exstrophy complex. They have also been used to produce an elevation of the mons area, which is lacking in the typical exstrophy patient. Rectus fascial flaps have been the mainstay of abdominal closure when wide diastasis of the rectal muscles is present and when the lower abdomen lacks fascial support. We are pleased with the results of utilizing either the rectus muscle or rectus fascia in this complex condition. We have been using fascial flaps for over 10 years in our epispadias/exstrophy closures and abdominal wall strengthening procedures. We have been using bone grafts and the rectus muscle for the construction of a mons for the past 5 years. Although the rectus muscle procedure to cover the bladder and the bladder neck has been in use for only 2 years, we have seen patients with incontinence restored to a continent state; these patients have not been plagued with fistula problems when a neourethra has to be constructed to elongate the phallus. Previous attempts at urethral repair in this area have been successful in the main, but an occasional fistula at the junction between the penile skin and the abdominopubic skin has resulted. Since using the rectus muscle to cover the bladder and bladder neck area, we have not had this problem. Patients with epispadias/exstrophy remain such difficult problems that every advance in technique should be used to improve results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3391008

  10. Is transverse abdominis plane block effective following local anesthetic infiltration in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mun Gyu; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Se-Jin; Park, Sun Young; Yoo, Jae-Hwa; Cho, Ana; Hur, Kyung Yul; Kim, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block can be recommended as a multimodal method to reduce postoperative pain in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, it is unclear whether TAP block following local anesthetic infiltration is effective. We planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of the latter technique in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP). Methods We randomly divided patients into two groups: the control group (n = 37) and TAP group (n = 37). Following the induction of general anesthesia, as a preemptive method, all of the patients were subjected to local anesthetic infiltration at the trocar sites, and the TAP group was subjected to ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 30 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine in addition before TEP. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and post-surgery at 4, 8, and 24 h. Additionally, during the postoperative 24 h, the total injected dose of analgesics and incidence of nausea were recorded. Results: On arrival in the recovery room, the pain score of the TAP group (4.33 ± 1.83) was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (5.73 ± 2.04). However, the pain score was not significantly different between the TAP group and control group at 4, 8, and 24 h post-surgery. The total amounts of analgesics used in the TAP group were significantly less than in the control group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of nausea between the two groups. Conclusions TAP block following local infiltration had a clinical advantage only in the recovery room. PMID:25558340

  11. Vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for vaginal reconstruction after radical pelvic surgery for Stage II vaginal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tapisiz, O L; Gungor, T; Demiralp, C O; Demirseren, M E; Yalcin, H; Mollamahmutoglu, L

    2011-01-01

    Primary carcinomas of the vagina are uncommon, occurring only 2-3% of all gynecological malignancies. In women with early stage of disease, primary surgery, consisting of radical vaginectomy (plus hysterectomy in patients with tumors involving the upper vagina) and systematic dissection of lymphatic drainage of tumor, is a valid option. In these patients, a rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flap may be favorably used for vaginal reconstruction during radical pelvic surgery. Here we describe a case of Stage II vaginal carcinoma treated with radical pelvic surgery and vertical-RAM (V-RAM) flap reconstruction.

  12. Radium content and the 226Ra /228Ra activity ratio in groundwater from bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Matti

    1981-08-01

    The relative abundance of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined in the groundwater from 125 drilled wells containing from < 0.1 to 51.3 pCi/l of 226Ra. The determination of 228Ra was carried out with a liquid scintillation counter by measuring only the weakly energetic β particles emitted from 228Ra. Thus the interference from the daughter nuclides of 226Ra was avoided, without specific separation of 228Ac. The direct measurement of 228Ra made the method decisively simpler and faster in terms of the chemistry involved. The concentration of 228Ra was found to be independent of the amount of 226Ra present in the samples. The concentrations of 228Ra were nearly the same over the whole range of 226Ra concentrations and the average sol 226Ra /228Ra ratio sharply increased as the 226Ra content of water increased. The 226Ra /228Ra ratio in the drilled wells varied from 0.3 to 26. Abnormally high 226Ra /228Ra ratios were found in areas with known uranium deposits as well as in several drilled wells at other locations. The abnormally high 226Ra /228Ra ratios present in groundwater suggest that the radioactivity anomaly is caused by uranium deposits and not by common rocks. In samples with a low radioactivity level the average 226Ra /228Ra ratio was slightly below unity, corresponding to the typical U/ Th ratio of granite, the most common kind of rock in the study area. The samples from the rapakivi area proved to be exceptional in that they had a low 226Ra /228Ra ratio independent of the concentration of 226Ra.

  13. Effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles and lumbar stabilization exercise on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Da-yeon; Shim, Jae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles (SEDA) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain. They were equally and randomly assigned to a SEDA group and a LSE group. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured using ultrasound imaging during rest and drawing-in. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured when subjects raised their right and left legs while lying on a Swiss ball. [Results] Initially, there were no differences between the two groups. After the intervention, significant differences were observed in all parameters. A significant interaction between group and period was not found for any parameters. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both SEDA and LSE thickened the transversus abdominis, which is a deep abdominal muscle, thereby adjusting posture, and stabilizing the trunk. These exercises increased the thickness of the deep abdominal muscles. They are important exercises for improving the stability of athletes or patients who need postural adjustment. PMID:25729169

  14. Effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles and lumbar stabilization exercise on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Da-Yeon; Shim, Jae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles (SEDA) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain. They were equally and randomly assigned to a SEDA group and a LSE group. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured using ultrasound imaging during rest and drawing-in. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured when subjects raised their right and left legs while lying on a Swiss ball. [Results] Initially, there were no differences between the two groups. After the intervention, significant differences were observed in all parameters. A significant interaction between group and period was not found for any parameters. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both SEDA and LSE thickened the transversus abdominis, which is a deep abdominal muscle, thereby adjusting posture, and stabilizing the trunk. These exercises increased the thickness of the deep abdominal muscles. They are important exercises for improving the stability of athletes or patients who need postural adjustment.

  15. Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Ellström-Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as a separation of the 2 muscle bellies of rectus abdominis. To date there is scant knowledge on prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the condition. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DRA during pregnancy and post partum, presence of possible risk factors, and the occurrence of lumbopelvic pain among women with and without DRA. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 300 first-time pregnant women from pregnancy till 12 months post partum. Data were collected by electronic questionnaire and clinical examinations. DRA was defined as a palpated separation of ≥2 fingerbreadths either 4.5 cm above, at or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. Women with and without DRA were compared with independent samples Student's t-test and χ2/Fisher exact test, and OR with significance level >0.05. Results Prevalence of DRA was 33.1%, 60.0%, 45.4%, and 32.6% at gestation week 21, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post partum, respectively. No difference in risk factors was found when comparing women with and without DRA. OR showed a greater likelihood for DRA among women reporting heavy lifting ≥20 times weekly (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.05 to 4.52). There was no difference in reported lumbopelvic pain (p=0.10) in women with and without DRA. Conclusions Prevalence of mild DRA was high both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Women with and without DRA reported the same amount of lumbopelvic pain 12 months post partum. PMID:27324871

  16. VELoCiRaPTORS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, J.; Esham, B.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V.

    2007-11-01

    The Venting and Exhausting of Low Level Air Contaminants in the Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (VELoCiRaPTORS) system is constructed to transport radioactive materials quickly and safely at the NIF. A radioactive sample will be placed inside a carrier that is transported via an airflow system produced by controlled differential pressure. Midway through the transportation process, the carrier will be stopped and vented by a powered exhaust blower which will remove radioactive gases within the transport carrier. A Geiger counter will monitor the activity of the exhaust gas to ensure that it is below acceptable levels. If the radiation level is sufficient, the carrier will pass through the remainder of the system, pneumatically braking at the counting station. The complete design will run manually or automatically with control software. Tests were performed using an inactive carrier to determine possible transportation problems. The system underwent many consecutive trials without failure. VELoCiRaPTORS is a prototype of a system that could be installed at both the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL.

  17. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Methods: A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. Results: According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice. PMID:26550226

  18. Do various baseline characteristics of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Funabashi, Martha; Stanton, Tasha R; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2013-12-01

    Although individual reports suggest that baseline morphometry or activity of transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP), a related systematic review is unavailable. Therefore, this review summarized evidence regarding the predictive value of these muscular characteristics. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic medical databases. After review, 5 cohort studies were included. Although this review intended to encompass studies using different muscle assessment methods, all included studies coincidentally used ultrasound imaging. No research investigated the relation between static morphometry and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis showed limited evidence supporting poor baseline transversus abdominis contraction thickness ratio as a treatment effect modifier favoring motor control exercise. Limited evidence supported that high baseline transversus abdominis lateral slide was associated with higher pain intensity after various exercise interventions at 1-year follow-up. However, there was limited evidence for the absence of relation between the contraction thickness ratio of transversus abdominis or anticipatory onset of lateral abdominal muscles at baseline and the short- or long-term LBP intensity after exercise interventions. There was conflicting evidence for a relation between baseline percent thickness change of lumbar multifidus during contraction and the clinical outcomes of patients after various conservative treatments. Given study heterogeneity, the small number of included studies and the inability of conventional greyscale B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure muscle activity, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale prospective studies that use appropriate technology (ie, electromyography to assess muscle activity) should be conducted to investigate the predictive value of morphometry or activity of these muscles with respect to LBP-related outcomes measures.

  19. Preparation of (228)Ra standard solution.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    For the preparation of a standard solution of (228)Ra, (228)Ra was isolated from (232)Th salt. Two simple methods were developed for Th-Ra separation. Both are based on a very good solubility of thorium nitrate in organic solvents. The first one used Ra co-precipitation with Pb in the form of Pb(NO3)2 from acetic acid solution. The second method was based on solvent extraction, remaining Th in the organic phase, while Ra was concentrated in the aqueous phase. The activity of (228)Ra (up to 20kBq) in the standard solution was related to the (232)Th standard by means of gamma ray spectrometry measurement. The obtained uncertainty was less than 0.7% (k=1). The standard solution was free of (232)Th and contained the carrier in the usual concentration (1gL(-1) BaCl2, 10gL(-1) HCl). PMID:26651171

  20. Reflection asymmetric shape in sup 221 Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Briancon, C. ); Sheline, R.K. )

    1990-04-20

    This paper reports on mass separated sources of {sup 225}Th used to study the level structure of {sup 221}Ra following alpha decay. Fluorination techniques were used to obtain the selectivity in atomic number. The low lying levels in {sup 221}Ra are interpreted in terms of K = 5/2 {sup {plus minus}} and 3/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally from reflection asymmetric models. The anomalous spin sequences in the K = 3/2{sup {plus minus}} bands of {sup 221}Ra are interpreted in terms of their Coriolis coupling with K = 1/2{sup {plus minus}} bands with large decoupling parameters. The low-lying parity doublet bands in {sup 221}Ra, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ra, and particularly the Coriolis coupling of their K = 3/2{sup {plus minus}} bands, are compared and contrasted.

  1. Phosphoproteome and Transcriptome of RA-Responsive and RA-Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marilyn; Joint, Mathilde; Lutzing, Régis; Page, Adeline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A metabolite, controls multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation through genomic programs and kinase cascades activation. Due to these properties, RA has proven anti-cancer capacity. Several breast cancer cells respond to the antiproliferative effects of RA, while others are RA-resistant. However, the overall signaling and transcriptional pathways that are altered in such cells have not been elucidated. Here, in a large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteins and in a genome-wide analysis of the RA-regulated genes, we compared two human breast cancer cell lines, a RA-responsive one, the MCF7 cell line, and a RA-resistant one, the BT474 cell line, which depicts several alterations of the "kinome". Using high-resolution nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry associated to phosphopeptide enrichment, we found that several proteins involved in signaling and in transcription, are differentially phosphorylated before and after RA addition. The paradigm of these proteins is the RA receptor α (RARα), which was phosphorylated in MCF7 cells but not in BT474 cells after RA addition. The panel of the RA-regulated genes was also different. Overall our results indicate that RA resistance might correlate with the deregulation of the phosphoproteome with consequences on gene expression.

  2. Phosphoproteome and Transcriptome of RA-Responsive and RA-Resistant Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Marilyn; Joint, Mathilde; Lutzing, Régis; Page, Adeline; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the main active vitamin A metabolite, controls multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation through genomic programs and kinase cascades activation. Due to these properties, RA has proven anti-cancer capacity. Several breast cancer cells respond to the antiproliferative effects of RA, while others are RA-resistant. However, the overall signaling and transcriptional pathways that are altered in such cells have not been elucidated. Here, in a large-scale analysis of the phosphoproteins and in a genome-wide analysis of the RA-regulated genes, we compared two human breast cancer cell lines, a RA-responsive one, the MCF7 cell line, and a RA-resistant one, the BT474 cell line, which depicts several alterations of the “kinome”. Using high-resolution nano-LC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry associated to phosphopeptide enrichment, we found that several proteins involved in signaling and in transcription, are differentially phosphorylated before and after RA addition. The paradigm of these proteins is the RA receptor α (RARα), which was phosphorylated in MCF7 cells but not in BT474 cells after RA addition. The panel of the RA-regulated genes was also different. Overall our results indicate that RA resistance might correlate with the deregulation of the phosphoproteome with consequences on gene expression. PMID:27362937

  3. Successful return to high-level sports following early surgical repair of combined adductor complex and rectus abdominis avulsion.

    PubMed

    Tansey, R J; Benjamin-Laing, H; Jassim, S; Liekens, K; Shankar, A; Haddad, F S

    2015-11-01

    Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity. Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport.

  4. A study of the effect of pregnancy on muscle fibers of the rectus abdominis muscle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, W D

    1979-11-01

    Samples of the rectus abdominis muscle were taken from Sprague-Dawley rats at 0, 3, 6, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days of pregnancy, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days of postpartum. Sections were incubated for actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase activity following preincubation at a basic pH. Muscle fibers within a unit area of each sample were identified as to fiber type according to their enzyme activity, and the population of each type counted. The proportion of each fiber type was calculated and the diameter of 24 fibers of each type measured. No changes were noted in the muscle fiber proportions through the course of the experiment. Differential changes in muscle fiber diameters were noted in each of the three muscle fiber types. Slow oxidative fibers underwent an increase in diameter through the last half of pregnancy. The diameter was further increased as stretch of the muscle was released after birth, and did not decrease in the postpartum period. Fast glycolytic fibers decreased in diameter during the last half of pregnancy, but returned to the prepregnancy diameter in the first postpartum day. The diameter of the fast oxidative glycolytic fibers remained unchanged through the course of pregnacy and in the postpartum period.

  5. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Mankikar, Maitreyi Gajanan; Sardesai, Shalini Pravin; Ghodki, Poonam Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a fascial plane block providing post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing surgery with infra-umbilical incisions. We evaluated analgesic efficacy of TAP block with ropivacaine for 24 h after caesarean section through a Pfannenstiel incision. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomised to undergo TAP block with ropivacaine (n = 30) versus control group (n = 30) with normal saline, in addition to standard analgesia with intravenous paracetamol and tramadol. At the end of the surgery, ultrasound-guided TAP plane block was given bilaterally using ropivacaine or normal saline (15 ml on either side). Each patient was assessed post-operatively by a blinded investigator at regular intervals up to 24 h for visual analogue score (VAS) and requirement of analgesia. SPSS version 18.0 software was used. Demographic data were analysed using Student's t-test and the other parameters using paired t-test. Results: TAP block with ropivacaine compared with normal saline reduced post-operative VAS at 24 h (P = 0.004918). Time for rescue analgesia in the study group was prolonged from 4.1 to 9.53 h (P = 0.01631). Mean requirement of tramadol in the first 24 h was reduced in the study group. Conclusion: US guided TAP block after caesarean section reduces the analgesic requirement in the first 24 h. PMID:27141108

  6. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ömür, Dilek; Oğuzalp, Hüseyin; Kiraz, Hasan A.; Ekin, Serpil; Alan, Cabir; Ersay, Ahmet R.; Hancı, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the analgesic effect of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block administered before varicocele surgery. Methods: This study was completed at the Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey, between January 2011 and April 2013. In a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study, 40 male patients scheduled for elective varicocele operations were randomized to group T (treatment group) or group C (controls). After receiving general anesthesia, group T received a TAP block using 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine on the operation side, whereas group C received a control block using 20 mL 0.9% Sodium chloride. During the first 24 hours after surgery, the patient pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and while coughing. Postoperative patient controlled analgesia morphine consumption, VAS scores, and side effects were recorded. Results: Of 34 patients, Group T (n=18) had significantly lower VAS pain scores than Group C (n=16) both at rest and while coughing. The total morphine consumed was lower (7.7 ± 4.0) versus 21.6 ± 12.4 mg, p<0.001) in the 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion: As part of a multimodal analgesic regime after varicocelectomy surgery, morphine consumption and VAS pain scores were significantly lower among those receiving 20 mL 0.25% bupivacaine administered for a TAP block than among controls. PMID:27279511

  7. Unilateral versus bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks during ureteric shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Shabana, Waleed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for intra- and post-operative analgesia during abdominal operations and for ureteric shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as well. Aim: This study aimed at comparing ultrasound-guided unilateral versus bilateral TAP blocks as analgesic techniques for unilateral ureteric SWL. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized comparative study. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for unilateral ureteric SWL were randomly allocated into two groups: Group (U) received unilateral TAP block in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg), and Group (B) received bilateral TAP blocks in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg) on each side. Statistical Analysis: This was performed using SPSS program version 19 ((IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and EP 16 program. Results: The mean values of intra- and post-procedural visual analog scale at different time intervals were around (30), which was statistically insignificant between groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups regarding cardiopulmonary stability, postanesthesia care unit time, the total amount of rescue fentanyl and patient satisfaction scores (P > 0.05). There were no significant side effects in both groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block is as safe and effective analgesic technique as bilateral TAP blocks during unilateral ureteric SWL. It can be used as the sole analgesic technique during ureteric SWL. PMID:27453645

  8. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Rajagopalan; Abhinaya, Ranganathan Jothi; Sakthivel, Ayyanar; Sivarajan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our study was to gauge the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Materials and methods Sixty patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were selected for the study. At the end of the surgical procedure, they were randomly divided into two groups. Ultrasound-guided TAP block was performed with 20 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% (group A) or normal saline (group B). Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were used to assess pain. Paracetamol was given if VAS > 3 and tramadol was used when VAS > 6. Patients were monitored for VAS scores and total analgesic consumption for the 24-hour period. Results The TAP block with ropivacaine (group A) reduced VAS scores at 4, 6, and 12 hours. There was no distinction in VAS scores at 0, 2, and 24 hours between the two groups. The duration of analgesia for TAP block with ropivacaine lasted for 390 minutes. Total analgesics consumption was also significantly reduced in group A than group B. No complication was reported to TAP block in both the groups. Conclusion The ultrasound-guided TAP block provides good postoperative analgesia, reduces analgesic requirements, and provides good VAS scores with fewer complications following inguinal hernia surgery. PMID:26848274

  9. Occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T; Yang, X

    2001-01-01

    222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U were determined in a total of 552 groundwater samples collected throughout Fujian Province of China. The geometric mean concentrations of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and total U in the groundwater were 147.8 kBq m-3, 12.7 Bq m-3, 30.2 Bq m-3 and 0.54 microgram kg-1, respectively. High groundwater 222Rn was explained by the predominantly granitic rock aquifers in Fujian. A lifetime risk of 1.7 x 10(-3) was estimated for the ingestion of groundwater 222Rn. High ratios of 228Ra to 226Ra contents (geometric mean of 2.4) and their disproportion suggest that 228Ra should also be measured in the assessment of population doses from drinking water in the regions of high rock or soil 232Th. No significant correlation between the 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and air was found.

  10. Cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with RA compared to matched non-RA patients

    PubMed Central

    Cawston, Helene; Bourhis, Francois; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Liao, Katherine P.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. RA is associated with a 50–60% increase in risk of cardiovascular (CV) death. This study aimed to compare management of CV risk factors in RA and matched non-RA patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using UK clinical practice data. Patients presenting with an incident RA diagnosis were matched 1:4 to non-RA patients based on a propensity score for RA, entry year, CV risk category and treatment received at index date (date of RA diagnosis). Patients tested and treated for CV risk factors as well as those attaining CV risk factor management goals were evaluated in both groups. Results. Between 1987 and 2010, 24 859 RA patients were identified and matched to 87 304 non-RA patients. At index date, groups had similar baseline characteristics. Annual blood pressure, lipids and diabetes-related testing were similar in both groups, although CRP and ESR were higher in RA patients at diagnosis and decreased over time. RA patients prescribed antihypertensives increased from 38.2% at diagnosis to 45.7% at 5 years, from 14.0 to 20.6% for lipid-lowering treatments and from 5.1 to 6.4% for antidiabetics. Similar treatment percentages were observed in non-RA patients, although slightly lower for antihypertensives. Modest (2%) but significantly lower attainment of lipid and diabetes goals at 1 year was observed in RA patients. Conclusion. There were no differences between groups in the frequency of testing and treatment of CV risk factors. Higher CV risk in RA patients seems unlikely to be driven by differences in traditional CV risk factor management. PMID:26705329

  11. Nuclear Structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L.M.; Borge, M.J.G.; Aas, A.J.; Fogelberg, B.; Garcia-Raffi, L.M.; Grant, I.S.; Gulda, K.; Hagebo, E.; Kurcewicz, W.; Lopez-Jimenez, M.J.; Lovhoiden, G.; Mach, H.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Teijeiro, A.G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.

    1999-12-31

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr - Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  12. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Boutami, R.; Fraile, L. M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Lopez-Jimenez, M. J.; Teijeiro, A. G.; Aas, A. J.; Hageboe, E.; Fogelberg, B.; Mach, H.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J. L.; Grant, I. S.; Gulda, K.; Kurcewicz, W.; Loevhoeiden, G.; Tengblad, O.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.

    1999-11-16

    The study of the upper border of the octupole deformation region near A=225, where the octupole deformation vanishes in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field, is of great relevance in order to understand the interplay of octupole and quadrupole collectivities. Within the IS322 collaboration at CERN we carry out a systematic investigation of the heavy Fr-Th nuclei that presently includes {sup 227}Fr, {sup 227,228,229}Ra, {sup 229}Ac and {sup 229,231}Th. The heaviest Ra isotope we have studied so far and in which the fast timing {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been applied is {sup 231}Ra.

  13. Surface water mixing estimated from 228Ra and 226Ra in the northwestern North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hajime; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the horizontal distributions of (228)Ra and (226)Ra in surface waters of the northwestern North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea. Ratios of (228)Ra/(226)Ra were relatively large in the Tsugaru Current (0.6-0.8) and Okhotsk Sea (0.4-0.5), and small in the Western Subarctic Gyre (<0.2) and the Oyashio (0.25-0.3). (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in western Subarctic Water (SAW) rose slightly upon mixing with Okhotsk Water (OKW), before becoming the Oyashio Water (OYW). Also, ratios in the OYW increased during mixing with Tsugaru Current Water (TCW). Estimating from (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios and (226)Ra activities with a simple two-end members-mixing model, we assumed that approximately 23% of the OYW originated from the OKW and the coastal region off northern Honshu (Japan) was strongly influenced by the TCW. From a diagram of (228)Ra activities against salinity, we could roughly divide surface seawater in the study area into the five water masses, which were SAW, OYW, OKW, TCW, and Subtropical Water (STW).

  14. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; P<.001), but LA distortion increased (mean U-point between-task difference, 0.018; 95% CI: 0.0003, 0.041; P = .046 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0

  15. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; P<.001), but LA distortion increased (mean U-point between-task difference, 0.018; 95% CI: 0.0003, 0.041; P = .046 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; P<.001 and mean UX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0

  16. Individuals with chronic low back pain do not modulate the level of transversus abdominis muscle contraction across different postures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takuya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Ukishiro, Kengo; Tohyama, Harukazu; Saito, Hiroshi; Samukawa, Mina; Kobayashi, Takumi; Ino, Takumi; Takeda, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle in three basic postures in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Subjects were classified into a chronic low back pain group (n = 27) and a healthy control group (n = 23). The thickness of the TrA muscle was measured at rest and during the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in supine, sitting and standing postures using B-mode ultrasound imaging. Contraction ratio (TrA thickness during the ADIM/TrA thickness at rest) was calculated for each posture. At rest, the TrA thickness in the sitting and standing postures was significantly greater than in the supine posture (p < 0.017) in the control group, but similar in all three postures in the low back pain group. TrA thickness was similar in the low back pain and control group in all three postures. During the ADIM, TrA thickness was significantly greater in the control group than in the chronic low back pain group in all three postures. The contraction ratio was also significantly higher in the control group than in the chronic low back pain group in all three postures. These results indicate that the automatic postural contraction of the TrA observed in the control subjects in the sitting and standing postures was not demonstrated in subjects with chronic low back pain. The present study revealed the one aspect of different response of the TrA muscle to changing posture between two groups.

  17. Interrelationships between meat quality traits, texture measurements and physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    PubMed

    Oury, M P; Picard, B; Briand, M; Blanquet, J P; Dumont, R

    2009-10-01

    Ninety-nine Charolais heifers were used to study the variability of meat quality traits in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis. The heifers of the same trade class were slaughtered at 33months of age (±4months) and 381kg carcass weight (±31kg). Muscle and bone development scores were evaluated before slaughter. Carcass weight, slaughter age and life average daily gain were recorded. Shear force measurements and meat quality traits were evaluated after 14days of aging. Some physicochemical characteristics were measured 24h post-slaughter. Tenderness was correlated with slaughter age (r=-0.31), bone development (r=-0.22) and life average daily gain (r=+0.37). Tenderness was significantly related to total collagen content (r=-0.24), lipid content (r=+0.27) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.24). Juiciness was positively correlated with lipid content (r=+0.31) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.20). Flavor intensity was correlated with lipid content (r=+0.26) and mean fiber area (r=+0.24). Shear force was correlated with total collagen, lipid and 27K proteasome sub-unit contents. Taking animal characteristics and muscle properties together in a multiple regression analysis increased the explained tenderness variability to 33%. The independent variables listed in order of importance were life average daily gain, total collagen content, bone development, lipid content, I myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, shear force of broiled meat and slaughter age. PMID:20416732

  18. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Amany S.; Mahmoud, Khaled M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30) or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone “8 mg” (dexamethasone group, n=30). The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA), morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01), 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01) and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02). Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002), with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003) and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03). No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23162395

  19. SoRa first flight. Summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, S.; Flamini, E.

    The SoRa (Sounding Radar) experiment was successfully launched from Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway) during the summer 2009 campaign managed by the Italian/Norwegian "Nobile Amundsen / Stratospheric Balloon Centre" (NA/SBC). SoRa is part of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) programs for Long Duration Balloon Flights. Carried by the biggest balloon (800.000 m3) ever launched in polar regions, SoRa main experiment and its three piggyback payloads (DUSTER, ISA and SIDERALE) performed a nominal flight of almost 4 days over the North Sea and Greenland, until the separation, landing and recovery in Baffin Island (Canada). Despite the final destructive event that compromise the scientific main goal of SoRa, the 2009 ASI balloon campaign can be considered an important milestone, because of the obtained scientific and technical results but also for the lesson learned by the science, engineering and managerial teams looking at the future ASI scientific balloon-born activities.

  20. Laser trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 and progress towards an electric dipole moment measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.

    2006-10-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are signatures of Time (T)-and Parity (P)-violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search around laser-cooled and trapped Ra-225 (t1/2 = 15 d). Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, Ra-225 is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than Hg-199, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss our progress, including the successful laser cooling and trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms. We have demonstrated transverse cooling, Zeeman slowing, and capture of Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). By driving a second atomic transition, we have extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds and performed necessary spectroscopic measurements.

  1. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture.

  2. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture. PMID:25464043

  3. Ra-226 and Pb-210/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi-Ju, L.; Yu-Chia, C.; Tsung-En, W.

    2004-05-01

    The surface water distributions and vertical profiles of Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have been measured. Surface water Ra-226 varies between 10 and 16 dpm/100 kg with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. Each Ra-226 profile shows an increase from the surface toward the bottom. Above 1000m depth Ra-226 is systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher in the northern South China Sea than in the western North Pacific. This difference may be attributed to a strong Ra-226 source from the shelf and slope area of the SCS. Below this depth Ra-226 displays large variation within some of the profiles with lower limits being comparable to the activities of the western North Pacific but higher limits being systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher. These high Ra-226 activities may reflect effects of the longer isolation time for the deep water in the SCS basin and strong Ra input from the underlying sediments. The Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 1.4 and 2.7 in the surface water with higher activity ratio at the station closer to the Luzon Strait. The Pb-210 in excess over Ra-226 in the surface water due to atmospheric input may penetrate to a depth of about 200 to 500m. Below this depth, Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 because Pb-210 is scavenged by settling particulates. Box model calculations within a mixed layer of 50m in the area yield a mean residence time of about 1 yr for Pb-210 if an atmospheric Pb-210 flux of 1 dpm/cm2/y is adopted. The activity ratio of about 0.5 to 0.7 in the deep water corresponds to a Pb-210 mean residence time of about 30 to 70 yrs with respect to particulate scavenging.

  4. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen “drawn-in” and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA. PMID:25642048

  5. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA. PMID:25642048

  6. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  7. The Effects of Bridge Exercise on an Unstable Base of Support on Lumbar Stability and the Thickness of the Transversus Abdominis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk; Jeon, Hyewon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effects of an abdominal drawing-in bridge exercise using a pressure biofeedback unit on different bases on the thickness of trunk and abdominal muscles, and lumbar stability. [Subjects] Thirty healthy young adults (2 males, 28 females) took part in this study. The subjects were randomly and equally assigned to a stable bridge exercise group and an unstable bridge exercise group. [Methods] The subjects performed bridge exercises using an abdominal drawing-in method on a stable base and on an unstable base, and changes in their abdominal muscle thickness and on the stable and on unstable bases lumbar stability were evaluated. [Results] After the intervention, the stable bridge exercise group showed a statistically significantly increased muscle thickness in the transversus abdominis, and the unstable bridge exercise group showed significantly increased muscle thicknesses of the transversus abdominis and internal obliques in static and dynamic lumbar stability. The unstable bridge exercise group showed significant increase after performing the exercise. [Conclusion] Lumbar stability exercise, with the compensation of the lumbar spine minimized, using an abdominal drawing-in method on an unstable support of base is effective and efforts to prevent the compensation may induce a greater exercise effect. PMID:24259841

  8. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA.

  9. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  10. Investigations On The EnviSAT RA2 Tropospheric Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarel, F.; Legresy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Center for the Topography of Oceans and the Hydrosphere (CTOH), the Altimeter Data Service of the LEGOS laboratory pursue an effort to validate and improve ENVISAT RA2 altimetry. We investigate the stability and reliability of different corrections for the altimetric measurements. With the one before last ENVISAT RA2 processing (v1.0), the ICE Validation chain of the CTOH detected some issues with the Dry Tropospheric Correction (DTC) over the Cryosphere. Here we present the validation of the latest reprocessing (v2.1) of ENVISAT data. We observe the limitation of this re-processed DTC, especially the jump observed at cycle 44 over Antarctica which causes significant local trend and suspect changes in the variability of this correction over time. We investigated a solution and re- compute this correction all over the globe with the ERA Interim ECMWF pressure fields and using directly the altimetric range measurement rather than any external digital elevation model (DEM). We present the results of this investigation, the statistics of previous (DTC_v2.1) and new corrections (DTC_ctoh) and in the context of different surfaces. The improvement is significant, and we discuss the aspects and impacts of this improvement, in terms of meteorological-fields, procedure, and location.

  11. The Sophomore RA Experience: An Examination of Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions, and RA Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt Brecheisen, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this national, quantitative study was to (1) provide psychometrics for the ACUHO-I/EBI RA Survey, a joint project between between Educational Benchmarking, Inc (EBI) and The Association of College and University Housing Officers--International (ACUHO-I), and (2) explore the sophomore resident assistant (RA) experience. This study…

  12. Comparison of Transversus Abdominis Plane Infiltration with Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Continuous Epidural Analgesia versus Intravenous Opioid Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ayad, Sabry; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Nadar, Vinayak; Lokhande, Chetan; Makarova, Natalya; Khanna, Rashi; Sessler, Daniel I.; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is considered the standard of care but cannot be provided to all patients Liposomal bupivacaine has been approved for field blocks such as transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks but has not been clinically compared against other modalities. In this retrospective propensity matched cohort study we thus tested the primary hypothesis that TAP infiltration are noninferior (not worse) to continuous epidural analgesia and superior (better) to intravenous opioid analgesia in patients recovering from major lower abdominal surgery. 318 patients were propensity matched on 18 potential factors among three groups (106 per group): 1) TAP infiltration with bupivacaine liposome; 2) continuous Epidural analgesia with plain bupivacaine; and; 3) intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA). We claimed TAP noninferior (not worse) over Epidural if TAP was noninferior (not worse) on total morphine-equivalent opioid and time-weighted average pain score (10-point scale) within first 72 hours after surgery with noninferiority deltas of 1 (10-point scale) for pain and an increase less of 20% in the mean morphine equivalent opioid consumption. We claimed TAP or Epidural groups superior (better) over IV PCA if TAP or Epidural was superior on opioid consumption and at least noninferior on pain outcome. Multivariable linear regressions within the propensity-matched cohorts were used to model total morphine-equivalent opioid dose and time-weighted average pain score within first 72 hours after surgery; joint hypothesis framework was used for formal testing. TAP infiltration were noninferior to Epidural on both primary outcomes (p<0.001). TAP infiltration were noninferior to IV PCA on pain scores (p = 0.001) but we did not find superiority on opioid consumption (p = 0.37). We did not find noninferiority of Epidural over IV PCA on pain scores (P = 0.13) and nor did we find superiority on opioid consumption (P = 0.98). TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine and

  13. Infiltration of liposome bupivacaine into the transversus abdominis plane for postsurgical analgesia in robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sternlicht, Andrew; Shapiro, Max; Robelen, Gary; Vellayappan, Usha; Tuerk, Ingolf A

    2014-01-01

    Background Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration has been increasingly used for postsurgical analgesia in abdominal/pelvic procedures; however, duration/extent of analgesia with standard local anesthetics is limited. This pilot study assessed the preliminary efficacy and safety of two volumes of liposome bupivacaine administered via TAP infiltration in patients undergoing robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy. Methods In this single-center, open-label, prospective study, patients older than 18 years received TAP infiltration with liposome bupivacaine immediately after surgery. The first 12 patients received a total volume of 20 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg); the next 12 received 40 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg). The liposome bupivacaine was diluted with 0.9% normal saline. The primary efficacy measure was duration of analgesia, measured by time to first opioid administration. Secondary outcome measures included patient-assessed pain scores, opioid use, and opioid-related adverse events (AEs). Results Twenty-four patients received liposome bupivacaine (20 mL, n=12; 40 mL, n=12) and were included in the primary analysis. Three refused participation in a 10-day follow-up visit and did not complete the study. Median time to first opioid administration after surgery was 23 and 26 minutes for the 20 and 40 mL groups, respectively. Mean total amount of postsurgical opioids ranged from 25.4 to 27.3 mg; after hospital discharge to day 10, both groups required a mean of 0.7 oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets/day. Mean pain scores of 4.4 and 5.3 were reported at 1 hour and 3.1 and 3.9 at 2 hours postsurgery, with 20 and 40 mL doses, respectively. Neither group had mean scores higher than 3.0 at any further assessments. No opioid-related or treatment-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusion Median time to first opioid administration did not differ between the two groups. No differences in secondary outcomes were observed on the basis of volume administered. These

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block versus Continuous Wound Infusion for Post-Caesarean Analgesia: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chandon, Michel; Bonnet, Agnès; Burg, Yannick; Barnichon, Carole; DesMesnards-Smaja, Véronique; Sitbon, Brigitte; Foiret, Christine; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Rahmani, Jamil; Laloë, Pierre-Antoine; Fischler, Marc; Le Guen, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block versus Continuous Wound Infusion (CWI) with levobupivacaine after caesarean delivery. Methods We recruited parturients undergoing elective caesareans for this multicenter study. Following written informed consent, they received a spinal anaesthetic without intrathecal morphine for their caesarean section. The postoperative analgesia was randomized to either a bilateral ultrasound guided TAP block (levobupivicaine = 150 mg) or a CWI through an elastomeric pump for 48 hours (levobupivacaine = 150 mg the first day and 12.5 mg/h thereafter). Every woman received regular analgesics along with oral morphine if required. The primary outcome was comparison of the 48-hour area under the curve (AUC) pain scores. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, adverse events, and persistent pain one month postoperatively. Results Recruitment of 120 women was planned but the study was prematurely terminated due to the occurrence of generalized seizures in one patient of the TAP group. By then, 36 patients with TAP and 29 with CWI had completed the study. AUC of pain at rest and during mobilization were not significantly different: 50 [22.5–80] in TAP versus 50 [27.5–130] in CWI (P = 0.4) and 190 [130–240] versus 160 [112.5–247.5] (P = 0.5), respectively. Morphine consumption (0 [0–20] mg in the TAP group and 10 [0–32.5] mg in the CWI group (P = 0.09)) and persistent pain at one month were similar in both groups (respectively 29.6% and 26.6% (P = 0.73)). Conclusion In cases of morphine-free spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, no difference between TAP block and CWI for postoperative analgesia was suggested. TAP block may induce seizures in this specific context. Consequently, such a technique after a caesarean section cannot be recommended. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151943 PMID:25093663

  15. 228Ra/ 226Ra and 226Ra/Ba ratios in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Barite formation and transport in the water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, P.; Sternberg, E.; Reyss, J.-L.; Souhaut, M.; Robin, E.; Jeandel, C.

    2009-08-01

    226Ra, 228Ra and Ba distributions as well as 228Ra/ 226Ra and 226Ra/Ba ratios were measured in seawater, suspended and sinking particles at the DYFAMED station in the Western Mediterranean Sea at different seasons of year 2003 in order to track the build-up and fate of barite through time. The study of the 228Ra ex/ 226Ra ex ratios (Ra ex = Ra activities corrected for the lithogenic Ra) of suspended particles suggests that Ba ex (Ba ex = Ba concentrations corrected for the lithogenic Ba, mostly barite) formation takes place not only in the upper 500 m of the water column but also deeper (i.e. throughout the mesopelagic layer). Temporal changes in the 228Ra ex/ 226Ra ex ratios of sinking particles collected at 1000 m depth likely reflect changes in the relative proportion of barite originating from the upper water column (with a high 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio) and formed in the mesopelagic layer (with a low 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio). 228Ra ex/ 226Ra ex ratios measured in sinking particles collected in the 1000 m-trap in April and May suggest that barite predominantly formed in the upper water column during that period, while barite found outside the phytoplankton bloom period (February and June) appears to form deeper in the water column. Combining ratios of both the suspended and sinking particles provides information on aggregation/disaggregation processes. High 226Ra ex/Ba ex ratios were also found in suspended particles collected in the upper 500 m of the water column. Because celestite is expected to be enriched in Ra [Bernstein R. E., Byrne R. H. and Schijf J. (1998) Acantharians: a missing link in the oceanic biogeochemistry of barium. Deep-Sea Res. II45, 491-505], acantharian skeletons may contribute to these high ratios in shallow waters. The formation of both acantharian skeletons and barite enriched in 226Ra may thus contribute to the decrease in the dissolved 226Ra activity and 226Ra/Ba ratios of surface waters observed between February and June 2003 at the DYFAMED

  16. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  17. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  18. Discovery of radioactive decay of /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra by /sup 14/C emission

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B.; Stevenson, J.D.; Barwick, S.W.; Ravn, H.L.

    1985-01-28

    Using the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator at CERN to produce sources of /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra, /sup 222/Ra, /sup 223/Ra, and /sup 224/Ra, and using polycarbonate track-recording films sensitive to energetic carbon nuclei but not to alpha particles, we have discovered two new cases of the rare /sup 14/C decay mode: in /sup 222/Ra and /sup 224/Ra. Our results for branching ratios, B, relative to alpha decay are for /sup 221/Fr and /sup 221/Ra, B<4.4 x 10/sup -12/; for /sup 222/Ra, B = (3.7 +- 0.6) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 223/Ra, B = (6.1 +- 1.0) x 10/sup -10/; for /sup 224/Ra, B = (4.3 +- 1.2) x 10/sup -11/. .AE

  19. Fine structure in sup 14 C emission from sup 223 Ra and sup 224 Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Hourani, E.; Rosier, L.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Elayi, A.; Mueller, A.C.; Rappenecker, G.; Rotbard, G.; Renou, G.; Liebe, A.; Stab, L. ); Ravn, H.L. )

    1991-10-01

    The measurement of the energy spectrum of {sup 14}C nuclei emitted in the spontaneous radioactivity of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 224}Ra has been carried out, using thin and intense sources (480 MBq for {sup 223}Ra and 3550 MBq for {sup 224}Ra). The sources were obtained by implanting mass-separated beams into Al and vitreous C catchers. The measurement was performed with a superconducting solenoidal spectrometer. Our discovery, previously reported, of fine structure in the energy spectrum of {sup 14}C emission from {sup 223}Ra, which is analogous to the one known for {alpha} emission, is confirmed. Only 13% of the branching ratio in {sup 14}C decay leads to the ground state of the residual nucleus, while 81% to the first excited state. For {sup 14}C emission from {sup 224}Ra, a lower limit of 2 for the hindrance factor has been measured for the transition to the first excited state in the residual nucleus. Also, a precise identification in {ital Z} with an {ital E}{times}{Delta}{ital E} telescope has been performed for the radiation from the {sup 223}Ra source. Our measurements of fine structure in {sup 14}C emissions open this field to nuclear structure studies.

  20. Rapid Method for Ra-226 and Ra-228 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III

    2006-02-10

    The measurement of radium isotopes in natural waters is important for oceanographic studies and for public health reasons. Ra-226 (1620 year half-life) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in natural waters can be tedious and time-consuming. Different sample preparation methods are often required to prepare Ra-226 and Ra-228 for separate analyses. A rapid method has been developed at the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory that effectively separates both Ra-226 and Ra-228 (via Ac-228) for assay. This method uses MnO{sub 2} Resin from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) to preconcentrate Ra-226 and Ra-228 rapidly from water samples, along with Ba-133 tracer. DGA Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) and Ln-Resin{reg_sign} (Eichrom) are employed in tandem to prepare Ra-226 for assay by alpha spectrometry and to determine Ra-228 via the measurement of Ac-228 by gas proportional counting. After preconcentration, the manganese dioxide is dissolved from the resin and passed through stacked Ln-Resin-DGA Resin cartridges that remove uranium and thorium interferences and retain Ac-228 on DGA Resin. The eluate that passed through this column is evaporated, redissolved in a lower acidity and passed through Ln-Resin again to further remove interferences before performing a barium sulfate microprecipitation. The Ac-228 is stripped from the resin, collected using cerium fluoride microprecipitation and counted by gas proportional counting. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  1. Neutron Resonance Parameters for Ra-226 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Ra-226 (Radium).

  2. An improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in water, soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The naturally occurring concentrations of radium (/sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra) in public and private water supplies have been studied for many years. Both general surveys ad local studies have established the geographical regions where well waters exceed 3 pCi/L (1-17). In general, the /sup 226/Ra was determined by the emanation method, while the /sup 228/Ra was determined from the beta activity of the /sup 228/Ac daughter. In a recent review (18) of the methods used ''a number of approved analytic methods can bear improvement, especially the method for 228Ra.'' The purpose of the work described here was to develop an improved method for the simultaneous determination of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Surgical resection of invasive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland and wound closure using a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap.

    PubMed

    Andrade, João Paulo; Figueiredo, Sergio; Matias, Julio; Almeida, Ana Catarina

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of recurrent conjunctivitis. He was evaluated by an ophthalmologist and submitted to a CT scan that revealed an intraconic mass with invasion of the lateral orbital wall. He was operated, the mass was completely removed (with preservation of the intraorbital structures) and the lateral orbital wall rebuilt. The histopathological analysis revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. 4 months later a painful recurrence of the lesion was diagnosed with invasion of the orbital roof and eyelids. After a multidisciplinary discussion and request from the patient, an exenteration of the orbit and removal of the lateral and superior orbital wall and dura mater was performed with the objective of a total resection. The wound and orbit were closed with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap to ensure closure. PMID:27646316

  4. (228)Ra and (226)Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Martin, Paul; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David

    2014-10-14

    One of the most commonly-used methods for determination of (226)Ra, particularly in water samples, utilises co-precipitation of Ra with BaSO4, followed by microfiltration to produce a source for alpha counting. This paper describes two extensions to BaSO4 co-precipitation methods which enable determination of (228)Ra using the same source. The adaptations presented here do not introduce any contaminants that will affect the separation of radium or alpha counting for (226)Ra, and can be used for re-analysis of already existing sources prepared by BaSO4 co-precipitation. The first adaptation uses detection of (228)Ac on the source by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency is high, allowing analysis of water samples at sufficiently low activity to be suitable in testing for compliance with drinking water quality standards. As (228)Ac grows in quickly, taking less than 2 days to reach equilibrium with the (228)Ra parent, this can also be useful in radiological emergency response situations. The second adaptation incorporates a method for the digestion of BaSO4 sources, allowing separation of thorium and subsequent determination of (228)Th activity. Although ingrowth periods for (228)Th can be lengthy, very low detection limits for (228)Ra can be achieved with this technique.

  5. (228)Ra and (226)Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Martin, Paul; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David

    2014-10-14

    One of the most commonly-used methods for determination of (226)Ra, particularly in water samples, utilises co-precipitation of Ra with BaSO4, followed by microfiltration to produce a source for alpha counting. This paper describes two extensions to BaSO4 co-precipitation methods which enable determination of (228)Ra using the same source. The adaptations presented here do not introduce any contaminants that will affect the separation of radium or alpha counting for (226)Ra, and can be used for re-analysis of already existing sources prepared by BaSO4 co-precipitation. The first adaptation uses detection of (228)Ac on the source by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency is high, allowing analysis of water samples at sufficiently low activity to be suitable in testing for compliance with drinking water quality standards. As (228)Ac grows in quickly, taking less than 2 days to reach equilibrium with the (228)Ra parent, this can also be useful in radiological emergency response situations. The second adaptation incorporates a method for the digestion of BaSO4 sources, allowing separation of thorium and subsequent determination of (228)Th activity. Although ingrowth periods for (228)Th can be lengthy, very low detection limits for (228)Ra can be achieved with this technique. PMID:25464199

  6. Genetics of RA susceptibility, what comes next?

    PubMed Central

    Ding, James; Eyre, Stephen; Worthington, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to great effect to identify genetic susceptibility loci for complex disease. A series of GWAS and meta-analyses have informed the discovery of over 100 loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In common with findings in other autoimmune diseases the lead signals for the majority of these loci do not map to known gene sequences. In order to realise the benefit of investment in GWAS studies it is vital we determine how disease associated alleles function to influence disease processes. This is leading to rapid development in our knowledge as to the function of non-coding regions of the genome. Here we consider possible functional mechanisms for intergenic RA-associated variants which lie within lncRNA sequences. PMID:26509058

  7. Error-control and processes optimization of (223/224)Ra measurement using Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Cheng; Lixin, Yi; Lingling, Liu; Guoqiang, Tang; Zhidong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    RaDeCC has proved to be a precise and standard way to measure (224)Ra and (223)Ra in water samples and successfully made radium a tracer of several environmental processes. In this paper, the relative errors of (224)Ra and (223)Ra measurement in water samples via a Radium Delayed Coincidence Count system are analyzed through performing coincidence correction calculations and error propagation. The calculated relative errors range of 2.6% ∼ 10.6% for (224)Ra and 9.6% ∼ 14.2% for (223)Ra. For different radium activities, effects of decay days and counting time on final radium relative errors are evaluated and the results show that these relative errors can decrease by adjusting the two measurement factors. Finally, to minimize propagated errors in Radium activity, a set of optimized RaDeCC measurement parameters are proposed.

  8. Error-control and processes optimization of (223/224)Ra measurement using Delayed Coincidence Counter (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Cheng; Lixin, Yi; Lingling, Liu; Guoqiang, Tang; Zhidong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    RaDeCC has proved to be a precise and standard way to measure (224)Ra and (223)Ra in water samples and successfully made radium a tracer of several environmental processes. In this paper, the relative errors of (224)Ra and (223)Ra measurement in water samples via a Radium Delayed Coincidence Count system are analyzed through performing coincidence correction calculations and error propagation. The calculated relative errors range of 2.6% ∼ 10.6% for (224)Ra and 9.6% ∼ 14.2% for (223)Ra. For different radium activities, effects of decay days and counting time on final radium relative errors are evaluated and the results show that these relative errors can decrease by adjusting the two measurement factors. Finally, to minimize propagated errors in Radium activity, a set of optimized RaDeCC measurement parameters are proposed. PMID:26233651

  9. A rapid and inexpensive method for 226Ra and 228Ra measurements of high TDS groundwaters.

    PubMed

    El-Shrakawy, A; Ebaid, Y Y; Burnett, W C; Aldaihan, Soaad K

    2013-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale studies was conducted by preconcentrating (226)Ra from spiked water test samples using Purolite ion-exchange resin to evaluate the adsorption efficiency of the resin under varying conditions. After removing the resin from the columns, it was sealed in gas-tight containers and measured via gamma spectrometry. The Purolite resin showed high radium uptake and retention from natural waters in the presence of high iron and total dissolved solids (TDS). This procedure allowed us to process a large number of high TDS samples at a typical rate of 15 samples/day using three germanium detectors. Quality assurance and method validation have been achieved by analyzing selected groundwater samples, with different (226)Ra activities and high TDS values, and comparing the results to those using alpha spectrometry with a (133)Ba yield tracer. There was very good agreement between the obtained (226)Ra activities by both methods.

  10. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  11. sup 222 Rn, sup 226 Ra, and sup 228 Ra as tracers for the evolution of warm core rings

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Naturally occurring levels of {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 222}Rn were measured in and around warm core rings to enhance interpretation provided by conventional conservative tracers. Surplus {sup 222}Rn was found in warm core ring 82B, thereby indicating penetration of rapidly advecting shelf water (transit time {le} 16 days). An in situ pumping system has been developed to rapidly extract {sup 228}Ra from seawater. This instrument may also simplify large-volume sampling for other trace species in seawater. Coincidence counting ({beta}-{gamma}) has been applied to analysis of oceanic {sup 228}Ra, providing precise, low-level determinations shortly after sampling with relatively high counting efficiency (5.3%), low background (0.0054 cpm) and reasonable ease of analytical processing. Results show, {sup 228}Ra activity within ring 82B increased with ring age, marking infiltration of surrounding waters. Also {sup 228}Ra must have been lost from ring 82B before it was 2 months old, an interpretation supported by physical evolution models of ring 82B and distributions of particulate Mn and {sup 228}Ra. Because {sup 226}Ra is not similarly lost, {sup 228}Ra could not have been scavenged. Particulate Mn is the only species found to correlate with {sup 228}Ra. Loss of both species in young ring 82B is attributed to their incorporation into rapidly sinking fecal material. Latter, enhanced zooplankton activity indirectly facilitated solubilization of adsorbed {sup 228}Ra; particles subsequently lost were deficient in {sup 228}Ra. Like warm core rings, the Gulf Stream loses {sup 228}Ra at a rate 60 times faster than explainable by radioactive decay, without corresponding loss of {sup 226}Ra or particulate Ba. Evaluation of counting methods reveals a fivefold sensitivity jump is feasible for {sup 228}Ra.

  12. High-Speed RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  13. Ra-224 and Ra-226: A New Method for Measuring Groundwater Seepage in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. R.; Buyan, A. C.; Waples, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Radium isotopes have been used to estimate groundwater discharge (GWD) in coastal marine waters for decades, but this technique has never before been used in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we used a RAD7 radon-in-air monitor to measure naturally-occurring radium isotopes Ra-224 (half-life= 3.64 d) and Ra-226 (half-life = 1600 a) in groundwater and three shallow water sites along Lake Michigan's Wisconsin coastline. Radium-224 activities in groundwater ranged from 1153 dpm m-3 in a deep aquifer (New Berlin well no.7) to 31 dpm m-3 in a shallow aquifer (Pryor well). Nearshore Lake Michigan measurements of Ra-224 were lowest at Red Arrow Beach (0.2 dpm m-3), higher in the Milwaukee harbor (GLWI slip, 1.1 dpm m-3) and highest at Harrington Beach (4.1 dpm m-3) and correspond well with groundwater seepage estimates made by Cherkauer et al. (1990) using alternate methods (i.e., where higher radium activity is indicative of higher GWD). These Ra-224 measurements are the first ever made in Lake Michigan (and presumably any of the Great Lakes) and we conclude that, by sampling offshore radium activity gradients, this RAD7 technique is a viable method for directly measuring GWD in Lake Michigan and other freshwater systems.

  14. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  15. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time.

    PubMed

    Taeger, Christian D; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research. PMID:26145230

  16. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeger, Christian D.; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I.; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E.; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-07-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research.

  17. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Taeger, Christian D.; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I.; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E.; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research. PMID:26145230

  18. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  19. Ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine for patients undergoing robotic assisted hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Jacob; Delaney, Daniel; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Ghebre, Rahel G.; Downs, Levi S.; Carson, Linda; Mullany, Sally; Teoh, Deanna; Geller, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimal pain control after major surgery contributes to a patient’s recovery and satisfaction. The use of liposomal bupivacaine in subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for postoperative pain control after robot assisted abdominal surgery has yet to be studied. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled observer-blinded study comparing bilateral subcostal TAP blocks with bupivacaine to bilateral subcostal TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine. These were performed prior to the patient undergoing robot assisted hysterectomy. The patients’ pain scores, opioid use, side effects, and satisfaction were followed for 72 h after injection. Results Total opioid use in the first 72 h after injection was significantly decreased in the group that received liposomal bupivacaine compared to bupivacaine. Patients in the liposomal bupivacaine group had significantly lower maximal pain scores at all time periods studied as well as decreased incidence of nausea/vomiting. There was a trend toward decreased length of stay in the liposomal bupivacaine group. Conclusion Subcostal TAP blocks with liposomal bupivacaine decreased the total opioid requirement for the first 72 h after robot assisted hysterectomy when compared to subcostal TAP blocks with bupivacaine. PMID:26056753

  20. Addition of transversus abdominis plane block to patient controlled analgesia for laparoscopic high anterior resection improves analgesia, reduces opioid requirement and expedites recovery of bowel function

    PubMed Central

    Ris, F; Findlay, JM; Hompes, R; Rashid, A; Warwick, J; Cunningham, C; Jones, O; Crabtree, N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid sparing in postoperative pain management appears key in colorectal enhanced recovery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks offer such an effect. This study aimed to quantify this effect on pain, opioid use and recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic high anterior resection. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospective data on 68 patients. Patients received an epidural (n=24), intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA, n=22) or TAP blocks plus PCA (n=22) determined by anaesthetist preference. Outcome measures were numerical pain scores (0–3), cumulative intravenous morphine dose and time to recovery of bowel function (passage of flatus or stool). Results There were no differences in patient characteristics, complications or extraction site. The TAP block group had lower pain scores (0.7 vs 1.36, p<0.001) and morphine requirements (8mg vs 15mg, p=0.01) than the group receiving PCA alone at 12 hours and 24 hours. Earlier passage of flatus (2.0 vs 2.7 vs 3.4 days, p=0.002), stool (3.1 vs 4.1 vs 5.5 days, p=0.04) and earlier discharge (4 vs 5 vs 6 days, p=0.02) were also seen. Conclusions Use of TAP blocks was found to reduce pain and morphine use compared with PCA, expedite recovery of bowel function compared with PCA and epidural, and expedite hospital discharge compared with epidural. PMID:25350178

  1. Preparing concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Volynskii, L.D.; Garbuzov, V.M.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1988-05-01

    A scheme has been devised for processing large amounts of old thorium salts to obtain concentrated carrier-free /sup 228/Ra preparations. The process includes simple regeneration of the original thorium salt. The main stages in concentrating the /sup 228/Ra are precipitation and separation of thorium peroxide, isolating the radium with a carrier, ion-exchange separation of the radium from the carrier, and final purification by electrolysis. The /sup 228/Ra recovery is 70%.

  2. CMS calls a temporary halt to the RA program.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The Recovery Auditors (RA) have been prohibited from issuing new post-payment Additional Document Requests since February but can conduct automated reviews until June 1. CMS is revamping the RA program and will award new contracts to auditors at an undetermined point in the future. Contract changes include fewer records requests for hospitals with low denial rates and postponing RA fees until the second level of appeal. Meanwhile, hospitals still have to comply with records requests issued before February.

  3. High-Linear Energy Transfer Irradiation Targeted to Skeletal Metastases by the Alpha Emitter Ra-223: Adjuvant or Alternative to Conventional Modalities?

    SciTech Connect

    Bruland, Oyvind S.; Nilsson, Sten; Fisher, Darrell R.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-10-15

    The bone-seeking, alpha-particle emitting radiopharmaceutical Alpharadin, 223RaCl2 (t1/2 = 11.4 days) is under clinical development as a novel treatment for skeletal metastases from breast and prostate cancer. This paper summarizes the current status of preclinical and clinical research on 223RaCl2. Potential advantages of 223Ra to that of external beam irradiation or registered beta-emitting bone-seekers are discussed. Published data of 223Ra dosimetry in mice and a therapeutic study in a skeletal metastases model in nude rats have indicated significant therapeutic potential of bone-seeking alpha-emitters. This paper provides short-term and long-term results from the first clinical single dosage trial. We present data from a repeated dosage study of five consecutive injections of 50 kBq/kg bodyweight, once every third week, or two injections of 125 kBq/kg bodyweight, six weeks apart. Furthermore, preliminary results are given for a randomized phase II trial involving 64 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and painful skeletal metastases who received four monthly injections of 223Ra or saline as an adjuvant to external beam radiotherapy. Also presented are preliminary dose estimates for 223Ra in humans. Results indicate that repeated dosing is feasible and that opportunities are available for combined treatment strategies.

  4. Response to 223Ra-dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Montserrat Estorch; Rey, Pablo Maroto; Carrió, Ignasi; Montes, Alberto; López, Diego Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Painful bone metastases are common in prostate cancer, with current treatments including non-steroidal analgesics and opiates, surgery, external beam radiotherapy and bone-targeting β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The α-emitting isotope 223Ra-dichloride (Ra-223) has been associated with improved overall survival and increased time to first skeletal-related events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) presenting with symptomatic bone metastases. The current study reports the case of a 70-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1999 upon presentation with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and painful bone metastases in the context of CRPC. In November 2010, subsequent to undergoing hormonal blockage, the patient was treated with ketoconazole (200 mg/8 h) followed by 10 cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). Following disease progression, the patient received 6 doses of Ra-223 (50 kBq/kg; 1 dose/4 weeks). During this treatment period, an improvement in the patient's symptoms, and levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and PSA were noted. Furthermore, Ra-223 was well-tolerated without any relevant bone marrow toxicity. However, 2 months after the administration of the final dose of Ra-223, PSA and BAP levels increased again, and bone pain deteriorated. A bone scan showed stable disease in the previously observed metastatic lesions; however, new lesions simultaneously appeared in different locations, indicating progressive disease. PMID:27446432

  5. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  6. 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra in potential sources and sinks of land-derived material in the German Bight of the North Sea: implications for the use of radium as a tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Caroline; Hanfland, Claudia; Regnier, Pierre; van Cappellen, Philippe; Schlüter, Michael; Knauthe, Ulrich; Stimac, Ingrid; Geibert, Walter

    2011-08-01

    Activities of the naturally occurring radium nuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra were determined in waters of the open German Bight and adjacent nearshore areas in the North Sea, in order to explore the potential use of radium isotopes as natural tracers of land-ocean interaction in an environment characterised by extensive tidal flats, as well as riverine and groundwater influx. Data collected at various tidal phases from the Weser Estuary (228Ra: 46.3 ± 4.6; 226Ra: 17.1 ± 1.1; 224Ra: 26.1 ± 8.2 to 36.5 ± 6.1; 223Ra: 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.0 ± 0.4), tidal flats near Sahlenburg (228Ra: 39.3 ± 3.8 to 46.0 ± 4.5; 226Ra: 15.5 ± 1.5 to 16.5 ± 1.7; 224Ra: 34.3 ± 2.2 to 85.3 ± 6.3; 223Ra: 3.6 ± 0.5 to 8.0 ± 1.2), freshwater seeps on tidal flats near Sahlenburg (228Ra: 42.1 ± 4.1; 226Ra: 21.3 ± 2.2; 224Ra: 5.1 ± 0.9; 223Ra: 2.6 ± 1.3) and also in permanently inundated parts of the North Sea (228Ra: 23.0 ± 2.3 to 28.2 ± 2.8; 226Ra: 8.2 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.2; 224Ra: 3.1 ± 1.0 to 10.1 ± 0.9; 223Ra: 0.1 ± 0.02 to 0.9 ± 0.05; units: disintegrations per minute per 100 kg water sample) reveal that, except for the fresh groundwater, the potential end-members of nearshore water mass mixing have quite similar radium signatures, excluding a simple discrimination between the sources. However, the decreasing activities of the short-lived 224Ra and 223Ra isotopes recorded towards the island of Helgoland in the central German Bight show a potential to constrain fluxes of land-derived material to the open North Sea. The largest source for all radium isotopes is generally found on the vast tidal flats and in the Weser Estuary. Future work could meaningfully combine this so-called radium quartet approach with investigations of radon activity. Indeed, preliminary data from a tidal flat site with fresh groundwater seepage reveal a 222Rn signal that is clearly lower in seawater.

  7. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, D M

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  8. Determination of the four natural Ra isotopes in thermal waters by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Condomines, M; Rihs, S; Lloret, E; Seidel, J L

    2010-02-01

    Our method for the simultaneous determination of the four natural Ra isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (224)Ra and (223)Ra) in thermal waters involves a separation of Ra on a selective filter (3M EMPORE Radium Rad disk), and a single counting using a broad-energy HPGe detector (BE Ge manufactured by CANBERRA). The calculation of (223)Ra and (228)Ra activities requires interference and cascade summing corrections. The (226)Ra activities in CO(2)-rich thermal waters of the Lodève Basin (South of France) range from 530 to 2240mBq/l. The low ((228)Ra/(226)Ra) activity ratios (0.19-0.29) suggest that Ra is mostly derived from the aquifer carbonates. The short-lived (224)Ra and (223)Ra are probably added to the water through recoil or desorption processes from Th-enriched coatings on the fracture walls.

  9. Paraprofessional Staff in Transition: The Sophomore RA Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt Brecheisen, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    The sophomore resident assistant (RA) experience exists at the point where the sophomore experience and the RA position intersect. Sophomore students contend with specific transition struggles and challenges unique to their class standing as they make decisions about their sense of purpose and future career, and those who choose to become RAs face…

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, David N; Armstrong, Michelle E; Cooke, Gordon; Dodd, Jonathan D; Veale, Douglas J; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  11. Activity concentrations of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K radionuclides in refinery products and the additional radiation dose originated from oil residues in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Parmaksiz, A; Agus, Y; Bulgurlu, F; Bulur, E; Yildiz, Ç; Öncü, T

    2013-10-01

    A total of 56 crude oil, refinery product, waste water, sludge and scale samples collected from three refineries were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Except for nine samples, all refinery product samples were found to have activity concentrations below the minimum detectable activity (MDA) values. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in crude oil and refinery product samples were measured as 11.7 ± 4.5, 14.9 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 4.5, 248.5 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in scale, sludge and water samples were measured as 343.7 ± 11.8, 809.2 ± 29.0, 302.5 ± 21.6, 623.0 ± 80.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities of the residue samples were calculated up to 1241.8 ± 42.4 Bq kg(-1). The maximum activity concentration index and the alpha index were found to be 4.2 and 4.0, respectively. The annual effective doses of residue samples were calculated below the permitted dose rate for the public, i.e. 1 mSv y(-1).

  12. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC.

  13. Decay of sup 226 Ra by sup 14 C emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weselka, D.; Hille, P.; Chalupka, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Previous observation of heavy-ion emission from {sup 226}Ra has been confirmed. Charge and energy of the emitted fragment were measured using thin {sup 226}Ra sources and polycarbonate track-recording films. Decay by {sup 14}C emission could be identified unambiguously. The track-detector was calibrated with tandem-accelerated {sup 14}C and {sup 16}O ions and tested by observing the {sup 14}C emission from {sup 223}Ra yielding a branching ratio of (5.0{plus minus}1.0){times}10{sup {minus}10}. In the case of {sup 226}Ra our result for the {sup 14}C/{alpha} ratio is (2.3{plus minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}11}. Estimates of partial half-lives of Ra isotopes for {sup 14}C emission are discussed.

  14. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  15. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  16. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  17. Measurement of 224Ra and 225Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, G; Burnett, W C; Dulaiova, H; Swarzenski, P W; Moore, W S

    2001-12-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn 218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  18. Comparison of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with bupivacaine and ropivacaine as adjuncts for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shradha; Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Prasad, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a popular technique for post-operative analgesia in abdominal surgeries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of bupivacaine versus ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia using ultrasound-guided TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods: Sixty adults undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to receive ultrasound-guided TAP block at the end of the surgical procedure with either 0.25% bupivacaine (Group I, n = 30) or 0.375% ropivacaine (Group II, n = 30). All patients were assessed for post-operative pain and rescue analgesic consumption at 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h time points. Means for normally distributed data were compared using Student's t-test, and proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test whichever was applicable. Results: Patients receiving ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine (Group II) had significantly lower pain scores when compared to patients who received the block with bupivacaine (Group I) at 10 min, 30 min and 1 h. However, both the drugs were equivalent for post-operative analgesia and 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement (median [interquartile range]) (75.00 [75.00–75.00] in Group I vs. 75.00 [75.00–93.75] in Group II, P = 0.366). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine provides effective analgesia in the immediate post-operative period up to 1 h as compared to bupivacaine. However, both the drugs are similar in terms of 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement. PMID:27141110

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of bFGF, TGF-beta1 and catalase in rectus abdominis muscle from cattle foetuses at 180 and 260 days post-conception.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, A; Gajkowska, B; Wojewódzka, U; Cassar-Malek, I; Picard, B; Hocquette, J F

    2002-12-01

    The potential for muscle growth depends on myoblast proliferation, which occurs essentially during the first two thirds of the foetal period in cattle. Thereafter, myofibres acquire their contractile and metabolic properties. Proliferation is regulated by molecular growth factors and by the tissue oxidative activity. The aim of this study was the quantification by immunochemistry of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and also of enzyme catalase (CAT) activity in rectus abdominis muscle. Samples were collected from cattle foetuses of different growth potential at 180 and 260 days post-conception (dpc). One major conclusion from this work is that protein contents of the muscle tissue bFGF and, to a lower extent, CAT activity decreased with increasing age during the foetal life. No differences were found between the different genotypes of cattle. However, the CAT to bFGF ratio tended to be lower in fast-growing cattle and increased with foetal age. TGF-beta1 did not change with age and was localised mostly at the vascular bed. CAT was detected in smooth and rough reticulum in striated muscles at 180dpc, and additionally in mitochondria at 260dpc. In conclusion, the balance between intracellular growth factors (bFGF and TGF-beta1) and the activity of antioxidant enzyme CAT may participate in the regulation of the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation. Thus, increased ratio of CAT to bFGF might be a good index indicating initiation of muscle maturation in cattle foetus prior to birth.

  20. Postmastectomy reconstruction: comparative analysis of the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap versus breast implant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cederna, P S; Yates, W R; Chang, P; Cram, A E; Ricciardelli, E J

    1995-11-01

    Over 40,000 postmastectomy breast reconstructions are performed annually. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap versus breast implant reconstruction. Thirty-three women who had undergone postmastectomy breast reconstruction were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-two women completed the self-assessment questionnaires regarding their quality of life, psychological symptoms, functional status, body image, and global satisfaction. The TRAM and implant groups contained 8 and 14 patients, respectively. The groups were well matched for age, employment status, marital status, race, religion, and severity of medical and surgical illnesses. The average follow-up was 36 months. Statistical analysis of the responses revealed that women who had undergone TRAM flap reconstruction were more satisfied with how their reconstructed breast felt to the touch (p = .01), and there was a trend toward greater satisfaction with the appearance of their reconstructed breast (p = .08). However, these same patients identified more difficulties as far as functioning at work or school, performing vigorous physical activities, participating in community or religious activities, visiting with relatives, and interacting with male friends (p < .04). There were no statistically significant differences in body image or overall satisfaction. In this small cohort study, both the TRAM flap group and the implant group were satisfied with the results of their breast reconstruction, but the TRAM flap group was more satisfied with how their breast felt and tended to be more satisfied with the cosmetic result. The TRAM flap group reported greater psychological, social, and physical impairments as a result of their reconstruction. PMID:8579262

  1. A comparison of analgesic efficacy between oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block and intravenous morphine for laparascopic cholecystectomy. A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peter Chee Seong; Phui, Vui Eng; Teo, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background The ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block provides a wider area of sensory block to the anterior abdominal wall than the classical posterior approach. We compared the intra-operative analgesic efficacy of OSTAP block with conventional intravenous (IV) morphine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Forty adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under standard general anesthesia, were randomly assigned for either bilateral OSTAP block using 1.5 mg/kg ropivacaine on each side (n = 20) or IV morphine 0.1 mg/kg (n = 20). The intra-operative pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure were monitored every five minutes. Repetitive boluses of IV fentanyl 0.5 µg/kg were given as rescue analgesia when any of the above-mentioned parameters rose more than 15% from the baseline values. Time to extubation was documented. Additional boluses of IV morphine 0.05 mg/kg were administered in the recovery room if the recorded visual analogue score (VAS) was more than 4. Nausea and vomiting score, as well as sedation score were recorded. Results The morphine group required more rescue fentanyl as compared to the OSTAP block group but the difference was not significant statistically. Time to extubation was significantly shorter in the OSTAP block group (mean [SD] 10.4 [2.60] vs 12.4 [2.54] min; P = 0.021). Both methods provided excellent analgesia and did not differ in postoperative morphine requirements. No between-group differences in sedation score and incidence of nausea and vomiting were demonstrated. Conclusions Ultrasound-guided OSTAP block has an important role as part of balanced anesthesia. It is as efficacious as IV morphine in providing effective analgesia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:23814651

  2. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration into the transversus abdominis plane for postsurgical analgesia in open abdominal umbilical hernia repair: results from a cohort of 13 patients

    PubMed Central

    Feierman, Dennis E; Kronenfeld, Mark; Gupta, Piyush M; Younger, Natalie; Logvinskiy, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Background Achieving adequate control of postsurgical pain remains a challenge in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration has been shown to provide postsurgical analgesia following lower abdominal surgery. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of the local anesthetic bupivacaine administered via infiltration into the TAP in a cohort of patients undergoing open abdominal umbilical hernia repair. Methods Patients included in the study were 18–75 years of age, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical classification status 1–3, and underwent open abdominal umbilical hernia repair with ultrasound-guided TAP infiltration immediately after surgery using an equal-volume bilateral infusion of liposomal bupivacaine 266 mg (diluted to 30 mL in normal saline). Outcome measures included patient-reported pain intensity (11-point numeric rating scale), satisfaction with postsurgical analgesia (5-point Likert scale), incidence of opioid-related adverse events, and time to first use of supplemental rescue analgesia. Results Thirteen patients underwent surgery and received bilateral TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine; TAP infiltration failed in the first patient. Mean numeric rating scale pain scores were 0.6 immediately before TAP infiltration and remained ≤2.3 through 120 hours after infiltration; mean scores at 120 hours and 10 days were 0.9 and 0.4, respectively. Ten patients (77%) required supplemental analgesia; median time to first use was 11 hours. At discharge and day 10, 54% and 62% of patients, respectively, were “extremely satisfied” with postsurgical analgesia (Likert score 5). There were no opioid-related or other adverse events. Conclusion Although the current study was limited by both its lack of a control group and its small size, to our knowledge, it is the first published report on use of liposomal bupivacaine for TAP infiltration. In this cohort

  3. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block versus local anesthetic infiltration in adult patients undergoing single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Ejas P.; Ramachandran, Rashmi; Rewari, Vimi; Chandralekha; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Trikha, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia with single incision laparoscopic (SIL) bariatric and gynecological surgery with mixed results. Its efficacy in providing analgesia for SIL cholecystectomy (SILC) via the same approach remains unexplored. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of bilateral TAP block with local anesthetic infiltration for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing SILC. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial performed in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients undergoing SILC were randomized to receive either ultrasound-guided (USG) bilateral mid-axillary TAP blocks with 0.375% ropivacaine or local anesthetic infiltration of the port site. The primary outcome measure was the requirement of morphine in the first 24 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using t-test, Mann–Whitney test or Chi-square test. Results: The 24 h morphine requirement (mean ± standard deviation) was 34.57 ± 14.64 mg in TAP group and 32.76 ± 14.34 mg in local infiltration group (P = 0.688). The number of patients requiring intraoperative supplemental fentanyl in TAP group was 8 and in local infiltration group was 16 (P = 0.028). The visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were significantly higher in the local infiltration group in the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.034 and P = 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: USG bilateral TAP blocks were not effective in decreasing 24 h morphine requirement as compared to local anesthetic infiltration in patients undergoing SILC although it provided some analgesic benefit intraoperatively and in the initial 4 h postoperatively. Hence, the benefits of TAP blocks are not worth the effort and time spent for administering them for this surgery. PMID:27746552

  4. Initial experience with the use of porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) for abdominal wall reinforcement after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cicilioni, Orlando; Araujo, Gerson; Mimbs, Nancy; Cox, Matthew D

    2012-03-01

    Reestablishing anterior rectus fascial integrity remains a clinical challenge after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction. The main concerns include herniation and bulging due to abdominal weakness. Mesh-assisted closure of the fascial defect has improved bulging and herniation rates but infection, extrusion, and encapsulation are serious concerns with mesh use. Biologic tissue matrices may overcome some of these mesh-related complications. The initial experience of using Strattice for fascial closure after TRAM flap procedure is described in this article. Strattice was in-lain and sutured between the anterior and posterior layers of the rectus fascia, at the rectus muscle donor site. The abdominal wall was closed with progressive tension sutures. Postoperative complications at the donor site were assessed. A total of 16 unilateral and 9 bilateral reconstructions were performed in 25 patients. Length of hospital stay was 2 to 3 days which is shorter than with mesh repair (typically 4-5 days). During a mean follow-up period of 14.0 months, complications occurred in 7 patients (28%): seroma formation (2), minor skin separation (2), superficial skin infection (2), and superficial wound dehiscence (1). Complications were not directly related to Strattice and all, except one (superficial skin infection), were resolved without surgical intervention. In all patients, routine abdominal functions were restored 4 months postoperatively. Strattice is a safe, alternative option to synthetic mesh for fascial repair following TRAM flap breast reconstruction. When used in conjunction with progressive tension suture closure of the abdominal wall, dynamic reconstruction of the abdominal wall with resumption of abdominal function is possible with Strattice.

  5. Current (1984) status of the study of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Tanaka, K; Watanabe, S; Kofuji, H; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background gamma-spectrometry was used to determine the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio. These measured variations in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan.

  7. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  8. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  9. Progress toward an EDM measurement in {sup225}Ra.

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R. J.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Graner, B.; Greene, J. P.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sulai, I. A.; Trimble, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are a signature of time-reversal and parity violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped {sup 225}Ra atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, {sup 225}Ra is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than {sup 199}Hg, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss progress toward realizing a first EDM measurement for {sup 225}Ra.

  10. The Role of Retinoic Acid (RA) in Spermatogonial Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Busada, Jonathan T; Geyer, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) directs the sequential, but distinct, programs of spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic differentiation that are both essential for the generation of functional spermatozoa. These processes are functionally and temporally decoupled, as they occur in distinct cell types that arise over a week apart, both in the neonatal and adult testis. However, our understanding is limited in terms of what cellular and molecular changes occur downstream of RA exposure that prepare differentiating spermatogonia for meiotic initiation. In this review, we describe the process of spermatogonial differentiation and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding RA signaling in spermatogonia. PMID:26559678

  11. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  12. Concurrent determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 212Pb in a single analysis for drinking water and wastewater: dissolved and suspended fractions.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail

    2004-02-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 2t2Pb concurrently in a single analysis. The procedure can be applied to both drinking water and wastewater, including the dissolved and suspended fractions of a sample. For drinking water samples, using 3-L aliquots, the radium isotopes are isolated by a fast PbSO4 co-precipitation and then quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The radium isotopes 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb (and/or 214Bi), and 228Ac, respectively. Because of the short half-life of 224Ra (T1/2 = 3.66 d), the precipitate should be counted within 4 d of the sample collection date. In case the measurement of unsupported 212Pb (T1/2 = 10.64 h) is required, the gamma-ray analysis should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably on the same day of collection. The counting is repeated after about 21 d to ensure the 226Ra progeny are in equilibrium with their parent. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with its 228Ra parent is already established. In the case of samples containing suspended materials, an aliquot of sample is filtered and then the filtrate is treated as described above for drinking water samples. The suspended fraction of sample, collected on the filter, is directly analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with no further chemical separation. Aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with various radium standards were analyzed to check the accuracy and precision of the method. In addition, analysis results of actual samples using this method were compared with the ones performed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved procedures, and the measured values were in close agreement. This method simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces the labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection concentration requirements of EPA's Regulations.

  13. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  14. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An early "Atkins' Diet": RA Fisher analyses a medical "experiment".

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen

    2006-04-01

    A study on vitamin absorption which RA Fisher analysed for WRG Atkins and co-authored with him is critically examined. The historical background as well as correspondence between Atkins and Fisher is presented.

  16. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  17. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Miller, S C; Lloyd, R D

    1991-06-01

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90Sr (P = 0.041). Bone tumor induction was clearly elevated in dogs injected with 239Pu and 228Th. When the effect of these bone tumors on survival

  18. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoishi; Ueno, Kaoru; Hinoide, Moriyo; Ohkubo, Yoshiteru

    1994-11-01

    {sup 226}Ra concentrations in human teeth from several cities, mainly Tokyo, Japan, were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 226}Ra by alpha-ray spectrometry following chemical separation. No appreciable differences in {sup 226}Ra concentration were found among various permanent teeth samples of different age groups in Tokyo. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration for Tokyo was 0.51 {+-} 0.06 mBq (g CA){sup -1}. {sup 226}Ra concentration [mean: 0.67 {+-} 0.11 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in teeth in western regions of the country was statistically higher than that [mean: 0.48 {+-} 0.09 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in eastern ones. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration [0.51 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] in teeth from Tokyo was less than the concentration [1.11 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] reported for vertebral bone samples of this city. 27 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  20. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  1. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  2. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  3. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  4. HLA-D region genes and rheumatoid arthritis (RA): importance of DR and DQ genes in conferring susceptibility to RA.

    PubMed Central

    Singal, D P; Green, D; Reid, B; Gladman, D D; Buchanan, W W

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of HLA-D region antigens was studied in three groups (I, IIa, and IIb) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA): group I comprised 43 patients with mild, non-progressive RA, controlled by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs without progression or erosions; group II comprised 94 patients with severe disease, who had earlier been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and all had incomplete response requiring treatment with gold (sodium aurothiomalate). Of these, 46 patients (group IIa) responded to gold and the disease was well controlled, and the remaining 48 patients (group IIb) did not respond to gold and developed gold induced toxic reactions, including thrombocytopenia or proteinuria, or both. HLA-D region antigens were defined by serological and molecular (Southern blot analysis and oligonucleotide typing) techniques. The results show that DR4 was significantly increased in all three groups of patients. The prevalence of DR1, or DR1 in DR4 negative patients, and DR3 and DR4 associated DQw7 specificities, however, showed differences in these three groups of patients. The prevalence of DR1 and of DR1 in DR4 negative patients was increased only in patients with mild (group I) RA, but not in patients with severe (groups IIa and IIb) disease. On the other hand, the prevalence of DR4 associated DQw7 was significantly increased in patients with severe disease, but not in patients with mild RA. In addition, DR3 was significantly increased only in patients with severe disease who developed gold induced toxic reactions (group IIb). These data suggest that the HLA-D region genes which cause susceptibility to mild RA may be different from those causing susceptibility to severe RA. The results suggest that both DR and DQ (A, B) genes may be important in conferring susceptibility to RA: DR in mild disease and DQ in severe RA. Images PMID:1371662

  5. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed.

  6. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed. PMID:25113929

  7. A simple differential diffusion model to account for the discrepancy between 223Ra- and 224Ra-based eddy diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachelhaus, Scott L.; Moran, S. Bradley

    2012-03-01

    A series of 223Ra (t1/2 = 11.4 d) and 224Ra (t1/2 = 3.66 d) measurements made in the Mid-Atlantic Bight yield eddy diffusivity (K) estimates of 1.2 ± 0.3 × 102 m2 s-1 and 1.4 ± 0.2 × 102 m2 s-1, respectively. These results fall in line with previous studies from multiple locations throughout the ocean, in which 224Ra-based eddy diffusivities invariably exceed those determined using 223Ra. Such a pattern conflicts with the Fickian model for eddy diffusivity, in which K is constant. Moreover, this trend runs counter to the length scale-dependent view of eddy diffusion, which suggests that K values estimated using 223Ra should exceed those of 224Ra, because the length scale of the former is greater than that of the latter. A finite mixing-length model based on the concept of differential diffusion is used to provide an explanation for this discrepancy.

  8. Ra-226 and Ra-226/Ba Signatures of Intermediate and Deep Water Masses of the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons-Branchu, E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2004-05-01

    The Labrador sea plays an important role in the formation of intermediate North Atlantic water, (cf. Labrador Sea Water -LSW) and subsequently, in the general thermohaline circulation of the ocean. In addition, water masses originating from the Norwegian and Greenland seas are present below the LSW, in the deeper part of the basin. Investigations on the geochemistry of radium have been undertaken as a mean to document these deep and intermediate circulation processes. The vertical distribution of Ra-226 and Ba contents has been established for 8 stations located along 2 sections from 48°44 N; 52°58W to 52°23 N 45°17W and from 53.59°N to 60.34°N, 48.13°W. Thermo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry coupled with a new radium extraction and purification technique permitted the measurement of Ra-226 using 200 ml samples (i.e., appr. 10 femtograms of Ra). In parallel, Ba contents were determined using M-C-ICP-MS in order to normalize Ra-226 concentrations, since Ba is often seen as a subrogate stable isotope of Ra, due to their almost similar geochemical behaviour. Large variations in Ra-226 concentrations are observed. They range from 51 fg/g in intermediate and deep water samples to 31 fg/g in surface waters. When normalised to a salinity of 35 or to the Ba contents large discrepancies are still observed. They suggest a specific Ra-signature for each of the major water masses present in the basin. Particular attention has been paid to Ra-226 contents in the LSW in relation to its production rate as well as to the influence of the Western Boundary Under Current (WBUC), which carries the North Atlantic Deep water masses into their gyre along the lower slopes of the Labrador sea. Based on the presently available data set, a peak in Ra-226 and Ba contents seems to characterise the high velocity axis of the WBUC. These data suggest moreover a lower Ra-226 content for the LSW than for the deeper water masses.

  9. The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background. The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect. The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 211, 212, 213. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. These are: (1) The "RA" Expeditions: The Archaeological and Anthropological Background; (2) The "RA" Expeditions: The Coriolis Effect; and (3) The "RA" Expeditions: The Papyrus Reed. Each of the three units are designed for students in grades 6-12. Each unit contains teacher…

  10. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2005-01-01

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The (228)Ra and (226)Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of (228)Ra (0.5-2Bq/kg-fresh) and (226)Ra (0.5-1.2Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June ((228)Ra/(226)Ra= approximately 1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in (228)Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area.

  11. An efficient and simple method for measuring (226)Ra using the scintillation cell in a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC).

    PubMed

    Waska, Hannelore; Kim, Seolwon; Kim, Guebuem; Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C

    2008-12-01

    A delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC), developed to determine ultra-low levels of (223)Ra (half life = 11.1 days) and (224)Ra (half life = 3.6 days) in seawater, was adapted to measure (226)Ra (half life = 1622 years). After pre-concentration of Ra from seawater onto MnO(2)-coated fiber we show in this study that the (226)Ra activity can be determined using the RaDeCC's ability to record alpha decay of its daughters as total counts. For sufficient ingrowth of (222)Rn, the Mn-fiber is hermetically sealed in a column for a few days. Then, the ingrown (222)Rn is circulated through the RaDeCC air-loop system followed by shutting down of the pump and closure of the scintillation cell for equilibration. Counting may be completed within a few hours for seawater samples. Sample measurements with this method agreed well with data obtained using gamma-ray spectrometry. This proves that a set of Ra isotopes ((223)Ra, (224)Ra, and (226)Ra), commonly used for geophysical studies such as mixing rates of different water masses and submarine groundwater discharge, can be efficiently and rapidly measured using the RaDeCC.

  12. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  13. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    DOE PAGES

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; Rondinone, A. J.; Castano, C. H.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs)more » were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.« less

  15. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  16. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  17. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  18. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  19. Process waste assessment: Color print processing (RA-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Catlett, P.

    1994-05-01

    The Kodak RA-4 process is used to develop prints and overhead transparencies from photographic negatives. The assessment was based on usage, effluent discharge, and final disposition of waste generated by the process. Two options explored were bleach-fix regeneration and the conversion to a digital image processing system. The RA-4 process is process is environmentally sound and generates a relatively small amount of waste. The bleach-fix option would provide only a small effluent reduction. The digital imaging conversion option, if fully implemented, could greatly reduce waste generated in the photo lab.

  20. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  1. Feasibility and Domain Validation of RA Flare Core Domain Set: A Report of the OMERACT 2014 RA Flare Group Plenary

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Susan J.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Cooksey, Roxanne; Choy, Ernest H.; Alten, Rieke; Christensen, Robin; Furst, Daniel E.; Guillemin, Francis; Halls, Serena; Hewlett, Sarah; Leong, Amye L.; Lyddiatt, Anne; March, Lyn; Montie, Pamela; Orbai, Ana Maria; Pohl, Christoph; Voshaar, Marieke Scholte; Woodworth, Thasia G.; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The OMERACT RA Flare Group was established to develop an approach to identify and measure rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flares. Here, we provide an overview of our OMERACT 2014 plenary. Methods Feasibility and validity of flare domains endorsed at OMERACT 11 (2012) were described based on initial data from three international studies collected using a common set of questions specific to RA flare. Mean flare frequency, severity, and duration data were presented, and domain scores were compared by flare status to examine known-groups validity. Breakout groups provided input for stiffness, self-management, contextual factors, and measurement considerations. Results Flare data from 501 patients in a observational study indicated 39% were in a flare, with mean (SD) severity of 6.0 (2.6) and 55% lasting > 14 days. Pain, physical function, fatigue, participation and stiffness scores averaged ≥ 2 times higher (2 of 11 points) in flaring individuals. Correlations between flare domains and corresponding legacy instruments were r’s from 0.46 to 0.93. A combined definition (patient-report of flare and DAS28 increase) was evaluated in two other trials with similar results. Breakout groups debated specific measurement issues. Conclusion These data contribute initial evidence of feasibility and content validation of the OMERACT RA Flare Core Domain Set. Our research agenda for OMERACT 2016 includes establishing duration/intensity criteria and developing criteria to identify RA flares using existing disease activity measures. Ongoing work will also address discordance between patients and physician ratings, facilitate applications to clinical care, elucidate the role of self-management and help finalize recommendations for RA flare measurement. PMID:25684764

  2. Diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layers at the continental slopes off Peru and Mauritania based on 224Ra/223Ra-ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, P.; Scholten, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Miquel, J. C.; Gasser, B.; Liebetrau, V.; Sommer, S.; Dengler, M.; Bryant, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Marine sediments may act as sources and/or sinks of nutrients in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) where solute fluxes between sediments and the above water column are believed to be an important component for the bioproductivity in the mixed layer. However, solute fluxes between sediments and the water column above are difficult to obtain. We determined the diapycnal nutrient fluxes across the benthic boundary layer at the OMZs off Peru and Mauritania using nutrient concentration profiles and vertical diffusion coefficients derived from 224Ra/223Ra isotope ratios. The radium isotopes 223Ra (half-life: 11.4 days) and 224Ra (half-life: 3.66 days) are produced in sediments by radioactive decay of 227Th and 228Th ,respectively: Diffusion of radium out of the sediments results in gradients of 224Ra/223Ra above the sediments; and these gradients may be used to estimate vertical diffusion coefficients. We determined 224Ra/223Ra along two transects at the continental slopes off Peru (12° S) and off Mauritania (18° N) in water depths between 65m - 1000mand 53m - 1100m, respectively. For the 223Ra/224Ra sampling we used acrylic fibers/cartridges coated with MnO2. The Mn-fibers were attached to benthic landers (moored for ~ 24 hours at the sea floor) and the Mn-cartridges were placed in series on several in-situ filtration pumps (Challenger Oceanic and McLane pumps). 223Ra and 224Ra were measured on-board using a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). In our presentation we will present the 224Ra/223Ra distribution along these transects investigated and we will compare the diapycnal radium-derived nutrient fluxes with those determined using benthic chambers and microstructure measurements.

  3. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  4. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  5. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  6. On RA Abstracts: From Rhetorical Structure to Thematic Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lores, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of research article (RA) abstracts from linguistics journals from two related angles: rhetorical organisation and thematic structure. Based on a small scale study it reveals two major types of rhetorical organisation, here called the IMRD type and the CARS type. When thematic analysis, in terms of thematic…

  7. Observation of the negative ions: Ra[sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.; Nadeau, M.; Garwan, M.A.; Kilius, L.R.; Litherland, A.E. )

    1993-11-01

    The negative ions of the isotopes [sup 226]Ra, [sup 231]Pa, and [sup 244]Pu have been observed by means of accelerator mass spectrometry and their properties compared with the negative ions of Th and U. The electron affinities of all these elements have been estimated to be similar and greater than 50 meV.

  8. Improved experimental limit on the EDM of 225Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2015-10-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in fundamental and composite particles are sensitive probes of beyond-standard-model symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225Ra (t1/2 = 15d, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its large nuclear octupole deformation, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large atomic mass make 225Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. We have developed an experiment to measure the EDM of 225Ra and demonstrated the first ``proof-of-principle'' measurement, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5E-22 e-cm. After implementing a vacuum upgrade, we have observed nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement over our earlier results - and have lowered the 225Ra EDM limit by over an order of magnitude. Upcoming experimental upgrades have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of osseous metastases, Part 1: α therapy with 223Ra-dichloride.

    PubMed

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Larson, Steven M; Carrasquillo, Jorge A

    2014-02-01

    Metastatic disease to bone is commonly seen in the advanced stages of many cancers. The cardinal symptom, pain, is often the cause of significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Treatment of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates; however, long-term use of these drugs is commonly associated with significant side effects, and tolerance is common. External-beam radiation therapy is effective mainly in localized disease sites. Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals are beneficial in the management of patients with multiple metastatic lesions. This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used agents: the Food and Drug Administration-approved (89)Sr-chloride, (153)Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), and (223)Ra-dichloride. We will discuss the physical characteristics, clinical data, dosage, and administration of these agents, including optimal patient selection and toxicity associated with their use. These radioactive agents have proven efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer and breast cancer. Significant recent advances include use of these agents in combination with chemotherapy and the use of the α emitter (223)Ra-dichloride in prostate cancer, primarily to improve survival and skeletal related events. The review is presented in 2 parts. The first will discuss the characteristics and clinical use of (223)Ra-dichloride, and the second will discuss the β emitters (89)Sr and (153)Sm-EDTMP.

  10. 223Ra and other bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals—the translation of radiation biology into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Osseous metastases are a source of significant morbidity for patients with a variety of cancers. Radiotherapy is well established as an effective means of palliating symptoms associated with such metastases. The role of external beam radiotherapy is limited where sites of metastases are numerous and widespread. Low linear energy transfer (LET) radionuclides have been utilized to allow targeted delivery of radiotherapy to disparate sites of disease, with evidence of palliative benefit. More recently, the bone targeting, high LET radionuclide 223Ra has been shown to not only have a palliative effect but also a survival prolonging effect in metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. This article reviews the different radionuclide-based approaches for targeting bone metastases, with an emphasis on 223Ra, and key elements of the underlying radiobiology of these that will impact their clinical effectiveness. Consideration is given to the remaining unknowns of both the basic radiobiological and applied clinical effects of 223Ra as targets for future research. PMID:25811095

  11. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in soil samples from Garhwal Himalaya, India, and its radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Badoni, Manjari; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Ramachandran, T V

    2008-09-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Natural radionuclides are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and foodstuffs. In the present study, the distribution of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured in soil samples collected from different lithological units of the Thauldhar and Budhakedar regions of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The collected soil samples were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in these soil samples were found to vary from below detection level (BDL) to 131 +/- 18 Bq kg(-1), 9 +/- 6 to 384 +/- 53 Bq kg(-1) and 471 +/- 96 to 1406 +/- 175 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The distribution of radionuclides depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties within the earth. The activity concentrations vary widely depending on the sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose rates due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to vary from 49 to 306 nGy h(-1). The average radium equivalent activity from these soil samples was 300 Bq kg(-1).

  12. Improved limit on the 225Ra electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Parker, Richard H.; Bailey, Kevin G.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Singh, Jaideep T.; Dietrich, Matthew R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Octupole-deformed nuclei, such as that of 225Ra, are expected to amplify observable atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) that arise from time-reversal and parity-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015 we reported the first "proof-of-principle" measurement of the 225Ra atomic EDM. Purpose: This work reports on the first of several experimental upgrades to improve the statistical sensitivity of our 225Ra EDM measurements by orders of magnitude and evaluates systematic effects that contribute to current and future levels of experimental sensitivity. Method: Laser-cooled and trapped 225Ra atoms are held between two high-voltage electrodes in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber at the center of a magnetically-shielded environment. We observe Larmor precession in a uniform magnetic field using nuclear-spin-dependent laser light scattering and look for a phase shift proportional to the applied electric field, which indicates the existence of an EDM. The main improvement to our measurement technique is an order-of-magnitude increase in spin-precession time, which is enabled by an improved vacuum system and a reduction in trap-induced heating. Results: We have measured the 225Ra atomic EDM to be less than 1.4 ×10-23e cm (95 % confidence upper limit), which is a factor of 36 improvement over our previous result. Conclusions: Our evaluation of systematic effects shows that this measurement is completely limited by statistical uncertainty. Combining this measurement technique with planned experimental upgrades, we project a statistical sensitivity at the 1 ×10-28e cm level and a total systematic uncertainty at the 4 ×10-29e cm level.

  13. Factors influencing the distribution of 223Ra and 224Ra in the coastal waters off Tanggu and Qikou in Bohai bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoqiang; Yi, Lixin; Liu, Lingling; Cheng, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    The naturally occurring 223Ra and 224Ra isotopes have become an established tool for investigating water mixing and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this paper, we used the radium delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC) to measure 223Ra and 224Ra activities, the distributions of 223Ra and 224Ra in two coastal waters with different hydrographical conditions and its influence factors were explored in Bohai bay. The results indicated that the Ra concentration was constrained by coastal land use patterns, the type of water and the geochemical environment. The Ra concentrations in groundwater and beach water were generally higher than the Ra concentrations in offshore waters. In the highly urbanized and industrialized Tanggu area, both of 223Ra in coastal water (average 3.74 dpm/100 L) and 224Ra (average 41.3 dpm/100 L) were lower than that in the undeveloped Qikou area (average 9.65 dpm/100 L and 148.9 dpm/100 L for 223Ra and 224Ra, respectively). Urbanization and Marine reclamations have modified local hydrogeological conditions, and then reduced SGD fluxes. Human activities have poured much more contaminants into coastal oceans and changed local aqueous environments, thus resulted all chemical compositions were richer in the urbanized coastal waters. With respect to the relationships between radium and the chemical compositions of the waters, radium was negatively related to salinity, nitrate and sulfate but was positively related to the concentration of cations such as calcium and magnesium. The apparent residence ages and SGD fluxes were also estimated from the radium distributions. There were more SGD fluxes into the coastal water off Qikou (9.88×107 m3/d) than into the water off Tanggu (1.22×107 m3/d).

  14. Th2 Cytokines Augment IL-31/IL-31RA Interactions via STAT6-dependent IL-31RA Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G.; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Dillon, Stacey R.; Madala, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 31 receptor α (IL-31RA) is a novel Type I cytokine receptor that pairs with oncostatin M receptor to mediate IL-31 signaling. Binding of IL-31 to its receptor results in the phosphorylation and activation of STATs, MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. IL-31 plays a pathogenic role in tissue inflammation, particularly in allergic diseases. Recent studies demonstrate IL-31RA expression and signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, but this receptor is poorly studied in immune cells. Macrophages are key immune-effector cells that play a critical role in Th2-cytokine-mediated allergic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are capable of up-regulating IL-31RA expression on both peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice. Our data also demonstrate that IL-4Rα-driven IL-31RA expression is STAT6 dependent in macrophages. Notably, the inflammation-associated genes Fizz1 and serum amyloid A (SAA) are significantly up-regulated in M2 macrophages stimulated with IL-31, but not in IL-4 receptor-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, the absence of Type II IL-4 receptor signaling is sufficient to attenuate the expression of IL-31RA in vivo during allergic asthma induced by soluble egg antigen, which may suggest a role for IL-31 signaling in Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and allergic responses. Our study reveals an important counter-regulatory role between Th2 cytokine and IL-31 signaling involved in allergic diseases. PMID:25847241

  15. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  16. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  17. Enrichment of Vitamin D response elements in RA associated loci supports a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of RA

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Annie; Martin, Paul; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of vitamin-D in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating enrichment of vitamin-D response elements (VDREs) in confirmed RA susceptibility loci and testing variants associated with vitamin-D levels for association with RA. Bioinformatically, VDRE genomic positions were overlaid with non HLA confirmed RA susceptibility regions. The number of VDREs at RA loci was compared to a randomly selected set of genomic loci to calculate an average relative risk (RR). SNPs in the DHCR7/NADSYN1 and CYP2R1 loci, previously associated with circulating vitamin-D levels, were tested in UK RA cases (n = 3870) and controls (n = 8430). Significant enrichment of VDREs was seen at RA loci (p=9.23×10−8) when regions were defined either by gene (RR 5.50) or position (RR 5.86). SNPs in the DHCR7/NADSYN1 locus showed evidence of positive association with RA, rs4944076 (p=0.008, OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03-1.24). The significant enrichment of VDREs at RA associated loci and the modest association of variants in loci controlling levels of circulating vitamin-D, supports the hypothesis that vitamin-D plays a role in the development of RA. PMID:23636220

  18. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  19. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Johan Zoffany RA: Society...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed,''...

  20. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in /sup 225/Ra, /sup 225/Ac, and /sup 227/Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in /sup 225/Ra and /sup 225/Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in /sup 227/Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  1. The biological effects of {sup 224}Ra injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of injected {sup 224}Ra in the dog. Radium-224 is a short-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 3.62 d. When administered parenterally, it deposits on bone surfaces; because of its short half-life, most of its energy is deposited on bone surfaces, in a manner similar to plutonium. The experimental design included a comparison to the exposed human population. Instead of using a single injection of {sup 224}Ra, groups were included in which dogs were injected once, 10 times, or 50 times. This design provided groups that could be compared to the multiple injections often used in people for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  2. An Excess 226Ra Geochronology for Saanich Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, R. P.; Plater, A. J.; Boyle, J. F.; Appleby, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    When examining past environmental and climatic change the ability to date both freshwater and marine sediments is essential. Numerous methods are currently available, however where present techniques fail, novel dating techniques are required to overcome these obstacles. In particular the use of 14C to date sediments over the Holocene period can be severely limited where there are significant hard-water and reservoir effects and where reworking of organic matter occurs. The use of unsupported or excess 226Ra offers a potential dating tool in such depositional contexts over the Holocene time period as a result of its half-life of 1600 years. Indeed, the technique has been applied to a number of environments since first being proposed by Koide et al. (1976). However, numerous question marks still surround the application of the technique, particularly with reference to the dating of sub-aqueous sediment deposits. As part of wider research into the applicability of excess 226Ra to date lake sedimentary environments, deep-sea samples from Saanich Inlet were obtained from the ODP (Leg 169S) in order to validate the dating technique. Saanich Inlet is an anoxic fjord located on the coastline of Vancouver Island, British Colombia, the sediments of which have been shown to be comprised of lamina-scale alternations between diatom-rich and diatom-poor clays and silts representing annual. Using digital sediment colour analysis Nederbragt and Thurow (2001) constructed a varve chronology for the last 6000 years. Alpha-spectrometry was successfully used to measure 226Ra, 230Th and 234U in sediment samples collected from Saanich Inlet during ODP Leg 169S. These activities were used to determine an excess 226Ra geochronology for Saanich Inlet. This radiometric chronology compares well with dates obtained from the varve record, and spans two different phases of sediment accumulation.

  3. An improved limit on the EDM of 225 Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew R.; Greene, John P.; Holt, Roy J.; Kalita, Mukut R.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lemke, Nathan D.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Parker, Richard H.; Rabga, Tenzin; Singh, Jaideep T.

    2016-05-01

    Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) are sensitive probes of symmetry violation that could explain the dominance of matter over anti-matter. The 225 Ra (t1/2 = 15 days, I = 1/2) atom is a particularly attractive system to use for an EDM measurement because its octupole-deformed nucleus, closely spaced ground-state parity doublet, and large nuclear charge make 225 Ra uniquely sensitive to symmetry-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015, we reported the first ``proof of principle'' measurement of the 225 Ra EDM, giving a 95% confidence upper limit of 5* 10-22 e-cm; representing the first EDM measurement using laser-trapped atoms as well as the first EDM measurement of an atom with an octupole-deformed nucleus. After implementing upgrades to our apparatus, we now observe nuclear spin coherence after 20 s of free evolution - a factor of ten improvement. A new EDM measurement based on the upgraded system improved the 95% confidence upper limit by a factor of 36. We also report on the progress of current experimental upgrades that have the potential to further improve our EDM sensitivity by many orders of magnitude, allowing us to test symmetry violation at an unprecedented level. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Search for a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of 225Ra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Mukut Ranjan

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in a non-degenerate system would indicate the violation of discrete symmetries of Time reversal (T) or combined application of Charge (C) and Parity (P) symmetry violation through the CPT theorem. The diamagnetic 225Ra atom with nuclear spin I=1/2 is a favorable candidate for an EDM search. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its high atomic mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. An experimental setup is developed where laser cooled neutral radium atoms are collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The collected atoms are transported 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then the atoms are transferred to a second standing-wave ODT in an experimental chamber. The atoms are then optically polarized and allowed to Larmor precess in parallel and antiparallel electric and magnetic fields. The difference between the Larmor precession frequency for parallel and antiparallel fields is experimentally determined to measure the EDM. This thesis is about the first measurement of the EDM of the 225Ra atom where an upper limit of |d(225Ra)| < 5.0 x 10-22 e·cm (95% confidence) is reached. Keywords: Permanent EDM, CP violation, laser cooling and trapping, rare isotopes, radium.

  5. An evaluation of ²²⁶Ra and ²²⁸Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S G; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem.

  6. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  7. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  9. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  10. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  11. Immunodiagnostic Significance of Anti-RA33 Autoantibodies in Saudi Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the immunodiagnostic significance and utility of anti-RA33 with anti-CCP, RF, and CRP in Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. This was a prospective controlled clinical study conducted at King Abdul Aziz University Tertiary Medical Centre. The sera of 41 RA patients, 31 non-RA patients, and 29 healthy controls were collected. Anti-RA33 and anti-CCP were measured using commercially available ELISA principle kits. RF and CRP were measured using nephelometry. Results. Anti-RA33 antibodies had the lowest positive and negative predictive values and showed a sensitivity of 7.32% with 95.12% specificity. Of the other three markers (including anti-CCP antibodies, CRP, and RF), only anti-CCP showed specificity of 90.46% with sensitivity of 63.41% compared to non-RA patients + healthy control. There was a significant correlation with rheumatoid factor positivity with anti-CCP. With respect to CRP, a notable correlation was seen only with anti-RA33. Conclusion. Compared to rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP antibodies, and C-reactive proteins, the anti-RA33 autoantibodies seem to be not representing as an important additional immunodiagnostic marker in Saudi patients with established RA. RA33 may have more interest in early RA or less severe RA and other systemic connective tissue disorders. PMID:25883991

  12. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  13. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  14. Influence of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism on in vivo synthesis of IL-1Ra and IL-1β after live yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, U T; Erhardt, S; Tschöp, K; Jelinek, T; Endres, S

    2001-01-01

    The inflammatory response in infectious and autoimmune diseases is regulated by the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-1 complex contains polymorphic genes coding for IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1Ra. The IL-1Ra (variable number of tanden repeat) VNTR polymorphism has been shown to influence the capacity to produce IL-1β and IL-1Ra after in vitro stimulation. Allele 2 of this polymorphism is associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. To determine the impact of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on in vivo human cytokine synthesis, we used a yellow fever vaccination model for the induction of cytokine synthesis in healthy volunteers. Two different yellow fever vaccines were used. After administration of the RKI vaccine (34 volunteers), plasma TNF-α concentration increased from 13·4 ± 0·9 pg/ml to 23·3 ± 1·1 pg/ml (P < 0·001), and plasma IL-1Ra concentration increased from 308 ± 25 pg/ml to 1019 ± 111 pg/ml (P < 0·001), on day 2. Using Stamaril® vaccine, no increase in the plasma concentrations of either TNF-α or IL-1Ra could be detected (n = 17). Only the RKI vaccine induced TNF-α synthesis after in vitro stimulation of MNC. Carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra polymorphism had increased baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra (350 ± 32 pg/ml) compared with non-carriers (222 ± 18 pg/ml, P < 0·001), and decreased concentrations of IL-1β (0·9 ± 0·2 pg/ml for carriers versus 2·8 ± 0·7 pg/ml for non-carriers, P = 0·017). After yellow fever vaccination (RKI vaccine), no significant differences in the increase of IL-1Ra plasma levels were detected between carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. This is the first study to examine the influence of this genetic polymorphism on in vivo-induced human IL-1β and IL-1Ra synthesis. Baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra and IL-1β were significantly influenced by the IL-1Ra polymorphism. No influence of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on the in vivo-induced production of IL-1Ra

  15. 226Ra or 226Ra/Ba dating of Holocene volcanic rocks: application to Mt. Etna and Merapi volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, M.; Gauthier, P. J.; Tanguy, J. C.; Gertisser, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Berthommier, P.; Camus, G.

    2005-02-01

    This paper shows how 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria can be used to date Holocene volcanic rocks from some well selected volcanoes. A systematic study of these disequilibria on historical or well-dated volcanic samples is indeed first required to test the applicability of this method. Two examples are described here to illustrate its potential. In the case of Mt. Etna, the good correlation observed between ( 226Ra) 0 activities at the time of eruption and Th contents in lava flows from the last two millennia [M. Condomines, J.C. Tanguy, V. Michaud, Magma dynamics at Mt. Etna: constraints from U-Th-Ra-Pb radioactive disequilibria and Sr isotopes in historical lavas, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 132 (1995) 25-41] is used to infer the ages of several newly analysed lava flows. The calculated ages are in good agreement with those deduced from the archaeomagnetic curve describing the variation of the geomagnetic field direction in southern Italy [J.C. Tanguy, I. Bucur, J.F.C. Thompson, Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mt. Etna, Nature 318 (1985) 453-455, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, C. Principe, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Variation séculaire de la direction du champ géomagnétique enregistrée par les laves de l'Etna et du Vésuve pendant les deux derniers millénaires, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 329 (1999) 557-564, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, C. Principe, S. Arrighi, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Archaeomagnetic dating of Mediterranean volcanics of the last 2100 years: validity and limits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211 (2003) 111-124]. We also present a whole set of new U-series data on historical, recent, and older samples from Merapi (Indonesia), and show that the ( 226Ra)/Ba ratio has probably maintained a quasi-steady state value during at least the past four millennia, and can be used to infer the ( 226Ra) 0/Ba ratio of old volcanics at the time of eruption, and thus their ages. Comparison with

  16. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  17. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766

  18. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-226 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-226 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 226).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-287 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-287 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 287).

  1. Spin of the sup 219 Ra ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, E.D.; Kuehner, J.A.; Waddington, J.C. ); Jones, G.D.

    1989-09-01

    The {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,3{ital n}){sup 223}Th reaction at 83 MeV bombarding energy was used to populate the alpha-radioactive nucleus {sup 223}Th. Out-of-beam alpha-gamma coincidences were recorded at correlation angles of 90{degree} and 180{degree}. The {ital a}{sub 2} angular correlation coefficient was extracted for an alpha-gamma cascade to the {sup 215}Rn ground state via the 0.316 MeV excited state. This limited the assignment of the ground-state spin of {sup 219}Ra to ((7/2, 11) / 2 ){sup +}. .AE

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-223 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-223 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 223).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-186 (Radium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-186 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 186).

  4. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  5. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents in water samples in part of central deserts in Iran and their potential radiological risk to human population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The radiological quality of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some samples of water resources collected in Anarak-Khour a desertic area, Iran has been measured by direct gamma ray spectroscopy using high purity germanium detector in this paper. Result The concentration ranged from ≤0.5 to 9701 mBq/L for 226Ra; ≤0.2 to 28215 mBq/L for 232Th and < MDA to 10332 mBq/L for 40K. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370Bq/L. The calculated external hazard indices were found to be less than 1 which shows a low dose. Conclusion These results can be contributed to the database of this area because it may be used as disposal sites of nuclear waste in future. PMID:24883192

  6. Improved perioperative analgesia with ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve or transversus abdominis plane block for open inguinal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Wu, Tao; Terry, Marisa J.; Eldrige, Jason S.; Tong, Qiang; Erwin, Patricia J.; Wang, Zhen; Qu, Wenchun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (II/IH) nerve and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been increasingly utilized in patients for perioperative analgesia. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound-guided II/IH nerve or TAP blocks for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open inguinal surgery. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic search was conducted of 7 databases from the inception to March 5, 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical efficacy of ultrasound-guided vs. landmark-based techniques to perform II/IH nerve and TAP blocks in patients with open inguinal surgery were included. We constructed random effects models to pool the standardized mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes and the odds ratio (OR) for dichotomized outcomes. [Results] Ultrasound-guided II/IH nerve or TAP blocks were associated with a reduced use of intraoperative additional analgesia and a significant reduction of pain scores during day-stay. The use of rescue drugs was also significantly lower in the ultrasound-guided group. [Conclusion] The use of ultrasound-guidance to perform an II/IH nerve or a TAP block was associated with improved perioperative analgesia in patients following open inguinal surgery compared to landmark-based methods. PMID:27134411

  7. The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, J.E.; Taschner, J.C.; Courtright, C.C.

    1996-04-01

    LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.

  8. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  9. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  10. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  11. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  12. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  13. Prolong Exposure of NSAID in Patients With RA Will Decrease the Risk of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung Y.; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Liu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder, primarily affects joints. Several studies have indicated that early inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and depression in patients were associated with a considerably increased risk of dementia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used for treating RA. NSAIDs facilitate alleviating RA-associated chronic pain, inflammation, and swelling. Therefore, we conducted this nationwide study for evaluating the association between the dementia risk and NSAID treatment in patients with RA. The RA cohort comprised patients aged 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011, with data obtained from the Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Patients without RA were frequency matched with the RA cohort at a 1:4 ratio according to age, sex, and year of RA diagnosis. The relative risks of dementia were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. The risk of dementia in the RA cohort was not significantly higher than that in the non-RA cohort (adjusted HR [hazard ratio] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87–1.02). Regarding the duration of NSAID treatment, the risk of dementia was significantly lower when the RA cohort used NSAIDs for >2191 days (HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.45–0.68). A longer duration of NSAID treatment possibly reduces the risk of dementia. Additional studies are warranted for verifying the association of dementia risk with NSAID treatment in patients with RA. PMID:26962833

  14. Laser-trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Physics; Enrico Fermi Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-02-27

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  15. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  16. Production of Ra225 precursor for Ac225/Bi213 generators. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    Russian subcontractors shipped two small deliveries of Ra225 to PNNL for evaluation. The activity was close to the requisite amount in the subcontract. The first labeled properly; the second did not. This showed that the Russians could supply Ra225 to the US; however they proved unable to meet future demands for larger amounts of activity. The US DOE attempts to get Ra225 from Russian should be terminated; the Russians, under Rosatom, are not interested in this business.

  17. Flow rates and reaction rates in the Galapagos Rise spreading center hydrothermal system as inferred from 228Ra/226Ra in vesicomyid clam shells

    PubMed Central

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    1986-01-01

    The 228Ra/226Ra ratios in a previously dated vesicomyid clam shell were used to determine that seawater was in contact with mid-oceanic-ridge basalt glass for 22-45 years prior to arrival to the surface at 350°C at the Galapagos Rise Spreading Center. The minimum rate of reaction for the 45-year sojourn time, based on a water/rock ratio of 2.8 derived from 226Ra concentrations, is 8 g of basalt altered per kg of seawater per year. PMID:16593746

  18. Ra-2 In-flight - Verification and Calibration Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, M.; Laxon, S.; Martini, A.; Celani, C.; Zelli, C.; Francis, R.; Jackson, H.; Levrini, G.

    The EnviSat-1 satellite embarks an innovative radar altimeter, the RA-2, which rep- resents a new generation of radar altimeters compared the earlier ERS altimeters and TOPEX/Poseidon. This is due to its integration of many advanced features such as au- tonomous resolution selection a robust Smodel freeT tracker and its ability to telemeter & cedil;individual echo samples. Before the measurements from the RA-2 may be exploited the instrument and the data processing system have to be commissioned and a verification activity has to be performed. During this activity the correctness of the instrument in-flight operation is verified and its functionality optimised. In this paper we will outline the strategy and procedures adopted to tune the parameters used on-board. We will describe the algo- rithms and identify the those on-board parameters which play a key role in controlling the tracking and resolution selection. The strategy and procedures adopted to tune on- board parameters and hence maximise scientific return from the instrument will then be outlined. We will show results before and after the optimisation activities as well as comparison with pre-flight simulations. Also, we will show the RA-2 measurement performance of range and sigma-0 as well as the performance of its tracker. In par- ticular the tuning of the autonomous range resolution selection logic is a challenging task and we will show the results of this activity. The measurement performance of the instrument and the overall system are also evaluated, including verification of the instrument auxiliary data retrieval and correct usage of these data in the ground pro- cessing algorithms. Finally, these data is ready to be used for calibration purposes, as the Absolute Range and Sigma-0 Calibrations: The RA-2 altimeter is intended to continue an uninterrupted series of measurements of sea-level and ice-sheet elevation started by ERS-1 in 1991. To fully exploit these measurements, an absolute reference in

  19. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  20. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    PubMed

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  1. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  2. External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.

    2012-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR. PMID:23440476

  3. U, Ra and Ba incorporation during precipitation of hydrothermal carbonates: Implications for {sup 226}Ra-Ba dating of impure travertines

    SciTech Connect

    Rihs, S.; Condomines, M.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2000-02-01

    The authors studied U, Ra and Ba incorporation in calcite in a natural CO{sub 2}-rich hydrothermal area from the French Massif Central. Along the western border of the Limagne graben, several springs are exploited for the petrification of various artifacts with calcite. These sites offer the opportunity to sample the water and the calcite layers downflow from the spring, and thus to follow the evolution of their U, Ra and Ba contents as precipitation proceeds. Results show that the apparent partition coefficients of U, Ra and Ba between water and calcite decrease during precipitation for the three elements. The authors found no direct relation between this variation and the main factors able to influence the partition coefficient, such as precipitation rate, which suggests that the incorporation of these trace elements could result from a composite process of adsorption and coprecipitation. Ra and Ba have a similar behavior, with an apparent partition coefficient decreasing from 0.80 to 0.47 for Ra and 0.96 to 0.68 for Ba, resulting in a small ({le}10%) variation of the Ra/Ba ratio. The apparent partition coefficient of U decreases from 0.38 to 0.20. These apparent coefficients are much higher than equilibrium values but might be applicable to natural systems with high precipitation rates. The authors also investigated the possibility of using the decay of the {sup 226}Ra-excess, or the decrease of the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba ratio to date older deposits. Whereas the {sup 226}Ra initial activity at the time of deposition has not remained constant, and cannot be used for dating, the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba method gives better results, when appropriate corrections for detrital contamination in Ba are made. Mixing diagrams using Th as an indicator of contamination allow calculation of the ({sup 226}Ra)/Ba ratio of the pure carbonate component. The calculated ages of five travertine layers range from 330 to 800 years, suggesting a mean deposition rate of about 1 cm/yr. The

  4. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  5. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  6. Distribution of (223)Ra and (224)Ra in the Bo Sea embayment in Tianjin and its implication of submarine groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Yi, Lixin; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. In this study, in order to analyze the distribution of naturally occurring short-lived radium isotopes and the relative SGD effect in Bo Sea embayment, (223)Ra and (224)Ra were measured in three parts of the embayment with the radium-delayed coincidence counting (RaDeCC) system. Subsequently, the mixing process was studied by the calculation of diffusion coefficients (Kx and Kz) and advection velocities (Vx and Vz) based on the 2D advection-diffusion model. Additionally, the apparent residence ages and SGD flux were quantified based on the (224)Ra and (223)Ra activities. The results showed that the Ra activities exponentially decreased with the distance offshore, and both the Kx and Vx took the order of northern part > southern part > middle part. In vertical direction, there was the maximum value of Vz and minimum Kz in middle part and the maximum Kz and minimum Vz in southern part. The average ages for the northern, middle and southern parts were 4.28, 7.38 and 3.73 days, respectively. The final SGD flux yielded by (224)Ra was 0.09, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in the northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The SGD flux yielded by (223)Ra was 0.08, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The result indicates that there is the fastest exchange rate and the biggest SGD flux in the southern part in Bo Sea embayment.

  7. Distribution of (223)Ra and (224)Ra in the Bo Sea embayment in Tianjin and its implication of submarine groundwater discharge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Yi, Lixin; Cheng, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. In this study, in order to analyze the distribution of naturally occurring short-lived radium isotopes and the relative SGD effect in Bo Sea embayment, (223)Ra and (224)Ra were measured in three parts of the embayment with the radium-delayed coincidence counting (RaDeCC) system. Subsequently, the mixing process was studied by the calculation of diffusion coefficients (Kx and Kz) and advection velocities (Vx and Vz) based on the 2D advection-diffusion model. Additionally, the apparent residence ages and SGD flux were quantified based on the (224)Ra and (223)Ra activities. The results showed that the Ra activities exponentially decreased with the distance offshore, and both the Kx and Vx took the order of northern part > southern part > middle part. In vertical direction, there was the maximum value of Vz and minimum Kz in middle part and the maximum Kz and minimum Vz in southern part. The average ages for the northern, middle and southern parts were 4.28, 7.38 and 3.73 days, respectively. The final SGD flux yielded by (224)Ra was 0.09, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in the northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The SGD flux yielded by (223)Ra was 0.08, 0.01 and 0.03 m d(-1) in northern, middle and southern parts, respectively. The result indicates that there is the fastest exchange rate and the biggest SGD flux in the southern part in Bo Sea embayment. PMID:26318773

  8. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public.

  9. 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th in scale and sludge samples from the Campos Basin oilfield E&P activities.

    PubMed

    Matta, L E; Godoy, J M; Reis, M C

    2002-01-01

    More than 40 scale and sludge samples from the Campos Basin oilfield were analysed in terms of 226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th. Although the exact origin of the samples was not known, scale samples derived from production pipes and sludge samples from water-oil separation units. Reported values ranged from 0.13 to 331 kBq.kg(-1) for 226Ra, from 0.10 to 245 kBq.kg(-1) for 228Ra and <0.10 to 272 kBq.kg(-1) for 228Th in sludge samples. The concentrations in scales were much more regular than in sludges and ranged from 16.2 to 93.2 kBq.kg(-1) for 226Ra, from 4.0 to 36.9 kBq.kg(-1) for 228Ra and from 4.5 to 18.5 kBq.kg(-1) for 228Th. Based on the Basic Safety Standards recommendations and on the derived results, these activities cannot be regarded as exempted and specific procedures should be designed for their radiological control.

  10. Analysis of the distribution characteristics of 226Ra and 228Ra and their sources in the western part of Qinghai Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fancui; Sha, Zhanjiang; Du, Jinzhou; Su, Weigang; Yu, Chenguang; Zhao, Shunli; Hu, Jufang; Ye, Mei

    2015-11-01

    The 226Ra and 228Ra activities of Qinghai Lake surface water, groundwater, river water, suspended particles, and bottom sediments were measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer. The sources of 226Ra and 228Ra were discussed according to their distribution characteristics. 226Ra and 228Ra activities (dpm/(100 L)) ranged from 14.13±0.22 to 19.22±0.42 and 17.72±0.66 to 30.96±1.47 in the surface water of the North Bay, respectively, and from 7.88±0.24 to 33.80±0.47 and 15.73±0.74 to 57.31±1.44, respectively, in the South Bay. The surface water near the estuary had a lower salinity and had a higher concentration of radium isotopes than the samples collected further away. The farther offshore the sample, the higher the salinity was, and the lower the radium isotope activity. The distribution of radium activities in the western part of Qinghai Lake is controlled by several factors, including Buha River runoff, desorption from suspended particles derived from the river, groundwater discharge, and a small amount of diffusion from the sediment.

  11. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public. PMID:26926376

  12. A correlation between soil descriptions and {sup 226}Ra concentrations in Florida soils

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1992-12-31

    The soil radium content in Florida is highly variable. The range in radium concentrations, where the samples involved in this study are concerned, is from 0.1 pCi/g to 18.5 pCi/g. Low {sup 226}Ra concentrations (0.1 to 5 pCi/g) are evidenced in sands, moderate concentrations (5 to 11 pCi/g) are found in silt and gravel, and high {sup 226}Ra concentrations (>11 pCi/g) are found in soil horizons with shell, clay, and strata with phosphate. Strata containing phosphate yields a high concentration of {sup 226}Ra. The information obtained in this study, soil descriptions with their corresponding {sup 226}Ra concentrations, comes from geological cores drilled by geotechnical consultants with gamma spectrometry analysis performed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Concentration; of {sup 226}Ra generally increase with depth. These cores are usually terminated at 20 feet deep, with some cores being shallower than this due to hitting bedrock or encountering the water table. These frequency distributions give the core-logging geologist an approximate concentration of {sup 226}Ra based on the description of the soil. Since the correlation of {sup 226}Ra and soil descriptions can be used as a tool in assigning indoor radon potential, this study is of importance to land managers, contractors, developers, and regulating agencies who are attempting to place standards on tracts of land with {sup 226}Ra concentration used as a criterion.

  13. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  14. IL-1Ra and its delivery strategies: inserting the association in perspective.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory antagonist of interleukin-1 family of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The broad spectrum anti-inflammatory effects of IL-1Ra have been investigated against various auto-immune diseases such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis. Despite of its outstanding broad spectrum anti-inflammatory effects, IL-1Ra has short biological half-life (4-6 h) and to cope with this problem, up till now, many delivery strategies have been applied either to extend the half-life and/or prolong the steady-state sustained release of IL-1Ra from its target site. Here in our present paper, we have provided an overview of all approaches attempted to prolong the duration of therapeutic effects of IL-1Ra either by fusing IL-1Ra using fusion protein technology to extend the half-life and/or development of new dosage forms using various biodegradable polymers to prolong its steady-state sustained release at the site of administration. These approaches have been characterized by their intended impact on either in vitro release characteristics and/or pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of IL-1Ra. We have also compared these delivery strategies with each other on the basis of bioactivity of IL-1Ra after fusion with fusion protein partner and/or encapsulation with biodegradable polymer. PMID:23794040

  15. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  16. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  17. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is known to be the largest high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, a bloom which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the shelves. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the polar front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales on the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the polar front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of the Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra data set suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shelves of the Kerguelen Islands may contribute to fueling the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the polar front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  18. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Southern Ocean is known as the largest High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the margins. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 223Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the Polar Front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales in the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the Polar Front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra dataset suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shallow sediments of the Kerguelen margins may contribute to fuel the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the Polar Front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process, but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  19. atRA-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells involves activation of MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zengli . E-mail: yuzengli@263.net; Xing Ying . E-mail: xingy@zzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    Our previous studies have shown that atRA treatment resulted in cell-cycle block and growth inhibition in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM). In the current study, gestation day (GD) 13 MEPM cells were used to test the hypothesis that the growth inhibition by atRA is due to apoptosis. The effects of atRA on apoptosis were assessed by performing MTT assay, Cell Death Detection ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Data analysis confirmed that atRA treatment induced apoptosis-like cell death, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased fragmented DNA and sub-G1 fraction. atRA-induced apoptosis was associated with upregulation of bcl-2, translocation of bax protein to the mitochondria from the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release into cytosol. atRA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, and z-VAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the atRA-induced cell death of MEPM cells occurs through the cytochrome c- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. In addition, atRA treatment caused a strong and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), as well as an early but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, atRA-induced DNA fragmentation and capase-3 activation were prevented by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitor (U0126). From these results, we suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways is involved in the atRA-induced apoptosis of MEPM cells.

  20. The CpxRA two-component system is essential for Citrobacter rodentium virulence.

    PubMed

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Giannakopoulou, Natalia; Zhu, Lei; Gross, Jeremy; Salmon, Kristiana; Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Daigle, France; Le Moual, Hervé; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a murine intestinal pathogen used as a model for the foodborne human pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. During infection, these pathogens use two-component signal transduction systems to detect and adapt to changing environmental conditions. In E. coli, the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system responds to envelope stress by modulating the expression of a myriad of genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that cpxRA was expressed in the colon of C57BL/6J mice infected with C. rodentium. To determine whether CpxRA plays a role during C. rodentium infection, a cpxRA deletion strain was generated and found to have a colonization defect during infection. This defect was independent of an altered growth rate or a defective type III secretion system, and single-copy chromosomal complementation of cpxRA restored virulence. The C. rodentium strains were then tested in C3H/HeJ mice, a lethal intestinal infection model. Mice infected with the ΔcpxRA strain survived infection, whereas mice infected with the wild-type or complemented strains succumbed to infection. Furthermore, we found that the cpxRA expression level was higher during early infection than at a later time point. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the CpxRA two-component signal transduction system is essential for the in vivo virulence of C. rodentium. In addition, these data suggest that fine-tuned cpxRA expression is important for infection. This is the first study that identifies a C. rodentium two-component transduction system required for pathogenesis. This study further indicates that CpxRA is an interesting target for therapeutics against enteric pathogens.

  1. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-RA) in middle ear cholesteatoma: an analysis of protein production and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Bujía, J; Kim, C; Ostos, P; Sudhoff, H; Kastenbauer, E; Hültner, L

    1996-01-01

    Cytokine networks are now presumed to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma. Of the factors identified in cholesteatoma, interleukin-I (IL-1)-alpha appears to be especially important because of its stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation as well induction of bone resorption. To further characterize the possible role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma, we quantified the levels of IL-1 and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-RA) present using the bicinchonic acid protein assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on tissue extracts from 20 cholesteatoma specimens. The presence of biologically active IL-1 was also analyzed, using the cell line LBRM-33 and an ELISA for the detection of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Human skin obtained from the external ear canal was used as control. The amounts of IL-1-alpha in cholesteatoma (34.9 +/- 19.5) were higher than in human skin (6.7 +/- 2.8). The observed differences were statistically significant by Student's t-test (P < 0.01). Skin samples showed elevated concentrations of IL-1-RA (248.3 +/- 30.2) in comparison to that in the cholesteatoma (80.8 +/- 13.5). This was also statistically significant (P < 0.01). Whereas IL-1 activity was not detected in skin samples, all cholesteatoma specimens studied showed a stimulation effect on the production of IL-2 when incubated with the cell line LBRM-33. The results point to an over-expression of IL-1 concurrent with a decreased secretion of IL-1-RA in middle ear cholesteatoma. Furthermore IL-1-RA production is deficient relative to total IL-1 production, resulting in the presence of active IL-1.

  2. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  3. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  4. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J. V.; Woodward, J. D.; Chen, N.; Rondinone, A. J.; Castano, C. H.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2015-03-19

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.

  5. De-repression of RaRF-mediated RAR repression by adenovirus E1A in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Um, Soo-Jong; Youn, Hye Sook; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2014-02-21

    Transcriptional activity of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is regulated by diverse binding partners, including classical corepressors and coactivators, in response to its ligand retinoic acid (RA). Recently, we identified a novel corepressor of RAR called the retinoic acid resistance factor (RaRF) (manuscript submitted). Here, we report how adenovirus E1A stimulates RAR activity by associating with RaRF. Based on immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, E1A interacts with RaRF through the conserved region 2 (CR2), which is also responsible for pRb binding. The first coiled-coil domain of RaRF was sufficient for this interaction. An in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay was used to confirm the direct interaction between E1A and RaRF. Further fluorescence microscopy indicated that E1A and RaRF were located in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, respectively. However, RaRF overexpression promoted nucleolar translocation of E1A from the nucleoplasm. Both the RA-dependent interaction of RAR with RaRF and RAR translocation to the nucleolus were disrupted by E1A. RaRF-mediated RAR repression was impaired by wild-type E1A, but not by the RaRF binding-defective E1A mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that E1A is sequestered to the nucleolus by RaRF through a specific interaction, thereby leaving RAR in the nucleoplasm for transcriptional activation.

  6. Determination of (210)Pb and (226)Ra/(228)Ra in continental water using HIDEX 300SL LS-spectrometer with TDCR efficiency tracing and optimized α/β-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Jäggi, M

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for determination of (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (228)Ra is presented based on adsorption on 3M Empore RadDiscs, and measurement applying liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) after elution. The LSC measurement was performed with optimized α/β-discrimination and isotope standardization using the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR). The consistency of measurement results between radioactive parent-daughter pairs (210)Pb/(210)Bi, (226)Ra/(222)Rn and (228)Ra/(228)Ac was checked in long-term counting experiments and the influence ofinterference of in-growing daughters from (226)Ra into the β-spectrum of (228)Ra+(228)Ac was studied as well. Recommendations for optimized LSC (228)Ra measurement besides presence of (226)Ra are given.

  7. Determination of (210)Pb and (226)Ra/(228)Ra in continental water using HIDEX 300SL LS-spectrometer with TDCR efficiency tracing and optimized α/β-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Jäggi, M

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for determination of (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (228)Ra is presented based on adsorption on 3M Empore RadDiscs, and measurement applying liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) after elution. The LSC measurement was performed with optimized α/β-discrimination and isotope standardization using the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR). The consistency of measurement results between radioactive parent-daughter pairs (210)Pb/(210)Bi, (226)Ra/(222)Rn and (228)Ra/(228)Ac was checked in long-term counting experiments and the influence ofinterference of in-growing daughters from (226)Ra into the β-spectrum of (228)Ra+(228)Ac was studied as well. Recommendations for optimized LSC (228)Ra measurement besides presence of (226)Ra are given. PMID:24637085

  8. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  9. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  10. Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 variations in the water columns and the surface water plankton in the Luzon Strait and northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, P.; Su, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Profiles of Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 were measured in the Luzon Strait (LS) and northern South China Sea (SCS) areas to delineate the exchanges between the western Philippine Sea (WPS) and the northern SCS waters across the LS. Plankton samples were also collected for Po-210 and Pb-210 measurements to assess the balance between the Po-210 excess over Pb-210 in the plankton and the deficit in the surface water. Profiles of Ra-228 and Ra-226 seem to indicate the out flow of the SCS water below the salinity minimum and above around 1500m depth, below which the WPS water flows into the SCS through the LS above a sill depth of about 2600m. This is consistent with previous studies conducted in the area. All the Pb-210 profiles show a strong subsurface maximum with higher activity in the LS area. This maximum is in large excess over its parent, Ra-226 due to atmospheric input. Po-210 profiles generally follow the associated Pb-210 profiles but with lower activities, showing Po-210 deficiency. Po-210 is strongly enriched over Pb-210 in the plankton samples with an activity ratio generally over 10 and up to 40. Both nuclides in the plankton are higher in the LS area, a trend similar to the surface water. The Po-210 excess in the plankton can account for at least 70 percent of the surface water deficit, part of which may be removed by sinking particles.

  11. Metrological Determination of Natural Radioactive Isotopes {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by Means of Ge Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Maria Candida M. de; Delgado, Jose U.; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Silva, Ronaldo L. da

    2008-08-07

    A metrological method to determine the activity per mass unity (activity concentration) of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb ({sup 238}U decay series) and {sup 228}Ra ({sup 232}Th series) by gamma-ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure coaxial germanium detector was developed. In the soil the {sup 22}Ra (half-life = 1600 years) exhibits the same level of radioactivity as {sup 238}U (half-life 4.5x10{sup 9} years) because of a natural phenomenon called secular equilibrium. {sup 226}Ra decays into {sup 222}Rn (half-life = 3.8 days), a radioactive inert gas. After several days, the {sup 222}Rn naturally decays to {sup 218}Po (half-life = 3 minutes), where finally {sup 210}Pb (half-life = 22 years) is produced. The metrological capability of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is showed, with emphasis on the use of 2 mL standard sources volume in a glass ampoule. Source preparation and calibration procedures are described. Radionuclide standards in an activity range of 10 to 250 Bq/g were produced which can be applied in a variety of environmental sample analysis (water, plant material, sediment, etc.). Uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb around 3% (k = 1) were obtained.

  12. U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria in volcanics: A new insight into melting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Allegre, Claude J.

    1994-08-01

    Using new mass spectrometry techniques developed for the analysis of Ra isotopes, we present U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria data from a variety of volcanic settings, and compare them with previously published data. Two correlations are observed with alkali volcanic data, one between (Th-230/U-238) and (Th-230/Ra-226) and another between the intensity of the disequilibria and the buoyancy flux of the underlying plume. These two correlations prove that partial melting is the major cause of U-Th-Ra fractionations in this volcanic context. The U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria then place new constraints on some parameters of the classical melting models (batch melting and dynamic melting). The comparison of U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria in alkali volcanics, carbonatites and subduction zones shows a clear parallel between the disequilibria value and the type of volcanic context. Such a parallel reflects the diversity of the conditions of magma generation, and shows that the U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria systematics are very dependent on the chemical composition of liquids produced during magmatic processes. A systematic difference is observed between disequilibria in MORB and in alkali volcanics, which could indicate that the melting processes in these two volcanic contexts are very different.

  13. The CpxRA two-component system contributes to Legionella pneumophila virulence.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jennifer R; Li, Laam; Faucher, Sébastien P; Brassinga, Ann Karen C

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Legionella pneumophila is capable of intracellular replication within freshwater protozoa as well as human macrophages, the latter of which results in the serious pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. A primary factor involved in these host cell interactions is the Dot/Icm Type IV secretion system responsible for translocating effector proteins needed to establish and maintain the bacterial replicative niche. Several regulatory factors have been identified to control the expression of the Dot/Icm system and effectors, one of which is the CpxRA two-component system, suggesting essentiality for virulence. In this study, we generated cpxR, cpxA and cpxRA in-frame null mutant strains to further delineate the role of the CpxRA system in bacterial survival and virulence. We found that cpxR is essential for intracellular replication within Acanthamoeba castellanii, but not in U937-derived macrophages. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CpxRA regulates a large number of virulence-associated proteins including Dot/Icm effectors as well as Type II secreted substrates. Furthermore, the cpxR and cpxRA mutant strains were more sodium resistant than the parental strain Lp02, and cpxRA expression reaches maximal levels during postexponential phase. Taken together, our findings suggest the CpxRA system is a key contributor to L. pneumophila virulence in protozoa via virulence factor regulation. PMID:26934669

  14. Radium Ra 223 dichloride injection: U.S. Food and Drug Administration drug approval summary.

    PubMed

    Kluetz, Paul G; Pierce, William; Maher, V Ellen; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Shenghui; Song, Pengfei; Liu, Qi; Haber, Martin T; Leutzinger, Eldon E; Al-Hakim, Ali; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd; Alebachew, Elleni; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Ibrahim, Amna; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2014-01-01

    On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium Ra 223 dichloride (Ra-223; Xofigo injection; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.) for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), symptomatic bone metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease. The FDA review was based on clinical trial BC1-06, which randomly allocated patients (2:1) to either Ra-223 plus best standard of care (BSoC) or placebo plus BSoC. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) with a key secondary endpoint of time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE). A statistically significant improvement in OS was demonstrated [HR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88, P = 0.0019]. At the prespecified interim analysis, the median OS durations were 14.0 and 11.2 months in the Ra-223 and placebo arms, respectively. The improvement in OS was supported by a delay in time to first SSE favoring the Ra-223 arm. The most common (>10%) adverse reactions in patients receiving Ra-223 were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and peripheral edema. The most common (>10%) hematologic laboratory abnormalities were anemia, lymphocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Ra-223 is the first α-emitting radiotherapeutic and the first radiopharmaceutical to demonstrate an OS advantage in metastatic prostate cancer.

  15. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  16. Behavior of /sup 226/Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Scott, M.R.

    1986-12-15

    The behavior of /sup 226/Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongy nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate. The /sup 226/Ra desorption maximum occurs at a salinity of 5.0, much lower than the 18 to 28 salinity values for the maxima of the other three rivers. High concentrations of dissolved /sup 226/Ra (up to 82 dpm per 100 L) and the low salinity values for the desorption maximum in the Mississippi River result from three major factors. Suspended sediments include a large fraction of montmorillonite, which gives the sediment a high cation exchange capacity. 0.54 meq/g. The average suspended sediment load is large, about 510 mg/L, and contains 1.9 dpm g desorbable /sup 226/Ra. The dissolved /sup 226/Ra river water end-member (9.6 dpm per 100 L) is higher than in surface seawater. The annual contribution of /sup 226/Ra to the ocean from the Mississippi River is 3.7 x 10/sup 14/ dmp/yr based on data from three cruises. Evidence of flux of /sup 226/Ra from estuarine and shelf sediments is common in vertical profile sampling of the deltaic waters but is not reflected in calculations made with an ''apparent'' river water Ra value extrapolated to zero salinity.

  17. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  18. A shared HLA-DRB1 sequence confers RA susceptibility in Greeks.

    PubMed

    Carthy, D; Ollier, W; Papasteriades, C; Pappas, H; Thomson, W

    1993-10-01

    Previous serological studies of Greek rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have failed to demonstrate an association with DR4. Using sequence specific oligonucleotide typing we have identified the DRB1 alleles in panels of Greek RA patients and controls. When patient and control HLA-DRB1 frequencies were compared, significantly higher frequencies of DRB1*0101 (23.3% vs. 7.0%, odds ratio [OR] 4.0, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.4-12.0) and DRB1*1001 (20.9% vs. 5.8%, OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3-13.7) were found in RA patients compared with controls. No association of DRB1*04 with RA was observed (20.9% vs. 14.0% in controls) confirming earlier reports. However DRB1*04 subtyping demonstrated a small but significant increase of DRB1*0405 in patients (14.0% vs. 3.5%, OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.1-18.9). When the frequency of individuals carrying the shared RA susceptibility epitope was compared between patients and controls it was found to be significantly higher in RA patients (60.5% vs. 22.1%, OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.4-12.0). We conclude that the shared epitope is significantly associated with RA in this population, but that it is predominantly accounted for by DRB1*0101 and DRB1*1001. Previous studies of UK RA patients have demonstrated a negative association of DR2 with disease and articular erosions. HLA-DR2 variants, DRB1*1501 and *1502 are not at reduced frequency in Greek RA patients (DRB1*1501, 14.0% in patients vs. 7.0% in controls; DRB1*1502, 7.0% in patients vs. 7.0% in controls). Genes conferring RA resistance may be in linkage disequilibrium with DR2 in UK patients. This does not appear to be the case in Greek RA patients. No association was seen between RA and HLA-DPB1 type.

  19. The evaluation of upper body muscle activity during the performance of external chest compressions in simulated hypogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krygiel, Rebecca G.; Waye, Abigail B.; Baptista, Rafael Reimann; Heidner, Gustavo Sandri; Rehnberg, Lucas; Russomano, Thais

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND: This original study evaluated the electromyograph (EMG) activity of four upper body muscles: triceps brachii, erector spinae, upper rectus abdominis, and pectoralis major, while external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed in simulated Martian hypogravity using a Body Suspension Device, counterweight system, and standard full body cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mannequin. METHOD: 20 young, healthy male subjects were recruited. One hundred compressions divided into four sets, with roughly six seconds between each set to indicate 'ventilation', were performed within approximately a 1.5 minute protocol. Chest compression rate, depth and number were measured along with the subject's heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). RESULTS: All mean values were used in two-tailed t-tests using SPSS to compare +1 Gz values (control) versus simulated hypogravity values. The AHA (2005) compression standards were maintained in hypogravity. RPE and HR increased by 32% (p < 0.001) and 44% (p = 0.002), respectively, when ECCs were performed during Mars simulation, in comparison to +1 Gz. In hypogravity, the triceps brachii showed significantly less activity (p < 0.001) when compared with the other three muscles studied. The comparison of all the other muscles showed no difference at +1 Gz or in hypogravity. CONCLUSIONS: This study was among the first of its kind, however several limitations were faced which hopefully will not exist in future studies. Evaluation of a great number of muscles will allow space crews to focus on specific strengthening exercises within their current training regimes in case of a serious cardiac event in hypogravity.

  20. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  1. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  2. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  3. 210Pb- 226Ra and 228Ra- 232Th systematics in young arc lavas: implications for magma degassing and ascent rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Simon; Black, Stuart; Berlo, Kim

    2004-10-01

    New data show that island arc rocks have ( 210Pb/ 226Ra) o ratios which range from as low as 0.24 up to 2.88. In contrast, ( 228Ra/ 232Th) appears always within error of 1 suggesting that the large 226Ra-excesses observed in arc rocks were generated more than 30 years ago. This places a maximum estimate on melt ascent velocities of around 4000 m/year and provides further confidence that the 226Ra excesses reflect deep (source) processes rather than shallow level alteration or seawater contamination. Conversely, partial melting must have occurred more than 30 years prior to eruption. The 210Pb deficits are most readily explained by protracted magma degassing. Using published numerical models, the data suggest that degassing occurred continuously for periods up to several decades just prior to eruption but no link with eruption periodicity was found. Longer periods are required if degassing is discontinuous, less than 100% efficient or if magma is recharged or stored after degassing. The long durations suggest much of this degassing occurs at depth with implications for the formation of hydrothermal and copper-porphyry systems. A suite of lavas erupted in 1985-1986 from Sangeang Api volcano in the Sunda arc are characterised by deficits of 210Pb relative to 226Ra from which 6-8 years of continuous 222Rn degassing would be inferred from recent numerical models. These data also form a linear ( 210Pb)/Pb-( 226Ra)/Pb array which might be interpreted as a 71-year isochron. However, the array passes through the origin suggesting displacement downwards from the equiline in response to degassing and so the slope of the array is inferred not to have any age significance. Simple modelling shows that the range of ( 226Ra)/Pb ratios requires thousands of years to develop consistent with differentiation occurring in response to cooling at the base of the crust. Thus, degassing post-dated, and was not responsible for magma differentiation. The formation, migration and extraction

  4. Discovery External Tank Connection Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Ken Strite, NASA Quality Control, inspects the connection between Space Shuttle Discovery and the external tank that will be used to launch mission STS-103 in early December. This 10 day mission is designed to replace aging parts on the nine year old Hubble Space Telescope and to upgrade some of its functioning systems. During the flight, the astronaut crew will replace all six of the observatory's gyroscopes, a fine guidance sensor, its main computer, and other equipment.

  5. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  6. Laser-cooled RaF as a promising candidate to measure molecular parity violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, T. A.; Hoekstra, S.; Berger, R.

    2010-11-01

    The parameter Wa, which characterizes nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (PV) in the molecular spin-rotational Hamiltonian, was computed with a quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock approach for radium fluoride (RaF) and found to be one of the largest absolute values predicted so far. The peculiar electronic structure of RaF leads to highly diagonal Franck-Condon matrices between the energetically lowest two electronic states, which qualifies RaF for direct laser cooling. A subset of diatomic molecules with a wide range of internal structures suitable for this cooling technique is also indicated. As trapped cold molecules offer superior coherence times, RaF can be considered promising for high-precision experiments aimed at molecular PV.

  7. 112. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 NOTCHING in STUDS for OLD WINDOW FRAMES, NORTH WALL, ORIGINAL KITCHEN, LOOKING NORTH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  8. 100. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 STUDS & SLOTS for FORMER WINDOW, SOUTH WALL, WEST BAY, 2nd FLOOR LOOKING SOUTH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  9. A Study on Sorption of (226)Ra on Different Clay Matrices.

    PubMed

    Alhajji, E; Al-Masri, M S; Khalily, H; Naoum, B E; Khalil, H S; Nashawati, A

    2016-08-01

    The sorption of radium 226 ((226)Ra) on different clay materials (bentonite, illite and a mixture of bentonite-illite) was studied. Clay materials are used in the construction of disposal pits for technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes (i.e., contaminated soil and sludge) generated by the oil and gas industry operations. Experimental conditions (pH, clay materials quantity, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra) were changed in order to determine the optimal state for adsorption of (226)Ra. The results showed that the concentration of adsorbed (226)Ra on clay materials increased with time to reach an equilibrium state after approximately 5 h. More than 95 % of the radium was adsorbed. The mixture of bentonite-illite (1/9) exhibited the greatest adsorption of radium under all experimental conditions. PMID:27329110

  10. 124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CHAIR RAIL FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  11. 123. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 LOOM STRETCHER FOUND AS HOUSE WAS BEING TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  12. 126. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 REVERSE of BUTTON FOUND BETWEEN SILLS of MAIN HOUSE AND LEAN-TO - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  13. 153. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 CLOSE-UP OF WATTLE FOUND ON OLD CHIMNEY HAUNCH - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  14. 125. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 OBVERSE of BUTTON FOUND BETWEEN SILLS of MAIN HOUSE AND LEAN-TO - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  15. Laser-cooled RaF as a promising candidate to measure molecular parity violation

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, T. A.; Berger, R.; Hoekstra, S.

    2010-11-15

    The parameter W{sub a}, which characterizes nuclear-spin-dependent parity violation (PV) in the molecular spin-rotational Hamiltonian, was computed with a quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock approach for radium fluoride (RaF) and found to be one of the largest absolute values predicted so far. The peculiar electronic structure of RaF leads to highly diagonal Franck-Condon matrices between the energetically lowest two electronic states, which qualifies RaF for direct laser cooling. A subset of diatomic molecules with a wide range of internal structures suitable for this cooling technique is also indicated. As trapped cold molecules offer superior coherence times, RaF can be considered promising for high-precision experiments aimed at molecular PV.

  16. 134. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. WAUGH, Photographer October 1936 ELEVATION 1st. FLOOR WEST FIREPLACE AS IT WAS BEING TORN OUT - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  17. 142. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 LEAN-TO OVENS-SECTION WITH FRONT WALL TORN DOWN - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  18. A Study on Sorption of (226)Ra on Different Clay Matrices.

    PubMed

    Alhajji, E; Al-Masri, M S; Khalily, H; Naoum, B E; Khalil, H S; Nashawati, A

    2016-08-01

    The sorption of radium 226 ((226)Ra) on different clay materials (bentonite, illite and a mixture of bentonite-illite) was studied. Clay materials are used in the construction of disposal pits for technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes (i.e., contaminated soil and sludge) generated by the oil and gas industry operations. Experimental conditions (pH, clay materials quantity, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra) were changed in order to determine the optimal state for adsorption of (226)Ra. The results showed that the concentration of adsorbed (226)Ra on clay materials increased with time to reach an equilibrium state after approximately 5 h. More than 95 % of the radium was adsorbed. The mixture of bentonite-illite (1/9) exhibited the greatest adsorption of radium under all experimental conditions.

  19. 97. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Historic American Buildings Survey R.A. Waugh, Photographer October 1936 FRAMING of SUMMER BEAM INTO SILL ALSO FLOOR TIMBERS INTO SUMMER BEAM - Colonel Paul Wentworth House, Dover Street (moved to MA, Dover), Dover, Strafford County, NH

  20. Release of 226Ra from uranium mill tailings by microbial Fe(III) reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were anaerobically incubated in the presence of H2 with Alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium known to couple the oxidation of H2 and organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of Fe(III) reduction and the accumulation of dissolved 226Ra. In sterile tailings in which Fe(III) was not reduced, there was negligible leaching of 226Ra. The behavior of Ba was similar to that of Ra in inoculated and sterile systems. These results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions, microbial reduction of Fe(III) may result in the release of dissolved 226Ra from uranium mill tailings. ?? 1991.

  1. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed. The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.

  2. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in Icelandic basalts and implications for melt transport time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2003-04-01

    Primitive basalts with radioactive disequilibrium between isotopes of the 238U decay chain may provide constraints on the timescales of mantle melt migration. The disequilibria between 238U, 230Th and 226Ra have been studied in several Recent basalts whereas very few results exist on the 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria. Only basalts significantly younger than 100 years old can be studied for 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria due to the short half-live of 210Pb (22.3 years). Most lavas measured so far show either 210Pb-226Ra equilibria or 210Pb-deficit which have been attributed to the degassing of 222Rn in shallow magma chambers. Icelandic tholeiites from the last century are in radioactive equilibrium with (210Pb/226Ra) equal to unity. These basalts are fed from shallow magma chambers having residence time exceeding 100 years. In contrast, primitive alkaline basalts (MgO =7-12%) from Surtsey island had (210Pb/226Ra) ranging from 0.45±0.04 to 0.82±0.06 at the time of eruption. These large 210Pb deficits are unlikely to result from shallow magma degassing since no magma chamber existed beneath this volcanic island which was born during the 1963-67 eruption. The 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria increase from the beginning towards the end of the eruption when the most primitive basalts were produced, and decreases systematically with increasing Th content. These same basalts show a negative correlation between Pb and Cu abundances which are inconsistent with exsolution of sulfur rich liquid or crystallisation of sulphides as a fractionation mechanism of 210Pb and 226Ra. The large deficit of 210Pb in Surtsey lavas were thus most likely generated during mantle partial melting. In such a case, the time of melt transport from the source region to surface is constrained to be significantly shorter than 100 years.

  3. An easy method for Ra-226 determination in river waters by liquid-scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, H. P.; Vioque, I.; Manjón, G.; García-Tenorio, R.

    1999-01-01

    226Ra activity concentration in river water was determined using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Radium was extracted from the samples as Ra-BaSO4 precipitate which, afterwards, was dissolved with EDTA in ammonia medium. Solution was transferred into a low potassium glass vial and then mixed with a scintillation cocktail. Two different scintillation cocktails were selected for comparison. Efficiency, recovery yield and α/β separation were studied with both liquid scintillation cocktails. One single measurement, made one month after radium separation, allows to calculate the226Ra concentration as well as to assess the presence of alpha contamination of the sample. In the case of negligible interferences,224Ra concentrations can be subsequently evaluated in the same sample by the measurement made just after chemical separation of radium. This method has been applied for the determination of226Ra and224Ra activity concentrations in river water collected from different locations along the Odiel river estuary area (South-west of Spain). The presence of chemical industry, the wastes of which are released into the river, could be connected with radium activity concentration enhancements in the water.

  4. Distribution and retention in bone of /sup 226/Ra and comparison with the ICRP 20 model

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses are presented of the ratios of /sup 226/Ra to calcium in over 650 samples of compact and cancellous bone from 66 female and 26 male subjects who had died from less than one to 60 years after first exposure to radium. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios were normalized to the terminal /sup 226/Ra skeletal content. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios for vertebrae were essentialy identical to those for other cancellous bone for a given subject. Comparisons of the data with predictions of the ICRP model of alkaline earth metabolism show that for female cancellous bone the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios tended to be greater than predicted, while those for female cortical bone (femoral and tibial shaft) tended to be less. The data for males were fitted better by the model. A modification of the model to reduce the amount of radium deposited in soft tissue fitted the data better in some respects. A straight line linear least squares fit to the data appeared to fit as well as, or better than, the models. A radiation effect was suggested in that the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratio for vertebrae relative to the ratio expected increased with skeletal absorbed dose for vertebra. However, no such effect was apparent for compact bone or for the cancellous bone as a whole.

  5. Leaching of 226Ra from U mill tailings by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Landa, E R; Miller, C L; Updegraff, D M

    1986-10-01

    Relatively insoluble sulfate precipitates appear to be a major host for Ra in sulfuric acid-treated, U mill tailings. The dissolution of such precipitates by natural processes, such as metabolism by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), creates the potential for release of Ra to contacting waters. Significant leaching of Ra by SRB was achieved in the laboratory during the anaerobic incubation (1 to 119 days) of U mill tailings with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and mixed cultures containing SRB isolated from the tailings, all grown on a lactate medium at room temperature. While the maximum 226Ra concentration reached in a sterile media control was 0.44 Bq/L (12 pCi/L), that in the SRB systems was 61 Bq/L (1640 pCi/L) or about 20% of the total Ra inventory in the original tailings sample. The leaching of Ra in SRB systems was accompanied by a decrease in soluble sulfate concentration, an increase in total sulfide concentration, and an increase in the number of SRB. The observed leaching effect does not appear to be due to the action of microbial chelates or to binding to cell walls. Potential implications of these findings to the management of U mill tailings and other radioactive wastes are discussed. PMID:3759464

  6. Leaching of /sup 226/Ra from U mill tailings by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, E.R.; Miller, C.L.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1986-10-01

    Relatively insoluble sulfate precipitates appear to be a major host for Ra in sulfuric acid-treated, U mill tailings. The dissolution of such precipitates by natural processes, such as metabolism by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), creates the potential for release of Ra to contacting waters. Significant leaching of Ra by SRB was achieved in the laboratory during the anaerobic incubation (1 to 119 days) of U mill tailings with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and mixed cultures containing SRB isolated from the tailings, all grown on a lactate medium at room temperature. While the maximum /sup 226/Ra concentration reached in a sterile media control was 0.44 Bq/L (12 pCi/L), that in the SRB systems was 61 Bq/L (1640 pCi/L) or about 20% of the total Ra inventory in the original tailings sample. The leaching of Ra in SRB systems was accompanied by a decrease in soluble sulfate concentration, an increase in total sulfide concentration, and an increase in the number of SRB. The observed leaching effect does not appear to be due to the action of microbial chelates or to binding to cell walls. Potential implications of these findings to the management of U mill tailings and other radioactive wastes are discussed.

  7. Determination of (226)Ra in produced water by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Vianna, Lucas M; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; Almeida, Ana Cristina

    2016-08-01

    It is proposed a method for the determination of (226)Ra in offshore platform liquid effluent samples (produced water). The method is based on a two-phase liquid scintillation counting system and allows for the direct and simple determination of (226)Ra content. Samples with high barium content may also have high (226)Ra concentration. Therefore, the sample volume is based on the barium concentration and ranges from 10 mL to 100 mL. Our new method was tested using multiple real samples and was compared with the BaSO4 precipitation method. The results based on the LSC were 30% higher than the precipitation method, which is attributed to the self-absorption of alpha particles in the BaSO4 precipitate. The determination of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the liquid effluent of offshore oil platforms is mandatory in Brazil. Thus, a second method of accurately assessing (228)Ra content remains necessary. PMID:27116402

  8. Argonne-Utah studies of /sup 224/Ra endosteal surface dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Smith, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of /sup 212/Pb relative to /sup 224/Ra and of /sup 222/Rn relative to /sup 226/Ra were measured in bone surface deposits 24 h after radium injection into beagles. The fractional retention of /sup 220/Rn atoms was measured in vitro with hydrated and dehydrated bone samples to determine the effect of water content on the escape of radon from bone surfaces. The experimental data suggest that substantial /sup 224/Ra daughter product disequilibrium exists in bone surface deposits. Estimates for the lower and upper limits on the fractional retention of /sup 220/Rn in vivo are 0.05 and 0.25, respectively. The average bone surface activity of /sup 212/Pb relative to /sup 224/Ra ranged from 0.34 to 0.71 for four dogs, with the majority of the values toward the low end of the range. Only a small portion of the deposited /sup 212/Pb came from lead in the injection solution despite near equilibrium between /sup 224/Ra and its daughters at the time of injection. The retention data indicate that the endosteal tissue dose rate in the dogs at one day was actually one-third to about one-half that which would be calculated assuming equilibrium of /sup 224/Ra daughter products in bone surface deposits. 11 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  9. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  10. Differences in abdominal muscle activation during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the abdominal muscles during coughing between smokers and nonsmokers. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy adults (15 smokers, 15 nonsmokers) participated. [Methods] The percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction values (%MVIC) of the rectus abdominis (RA), external abdominal oblique (EO), and internal abdominal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The %MVIC of the IO and TrA statistically significantly differed and the %MVIC of IO and TrA was found to be higher during coughing in nonsmokers compared with during coughing in smokers. [Conclusion] The activity of the deep abdominal muscles in nonsmokers was also higher than that of smokers during coughing. PMID:27190443

  11. First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-09-13

    Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Estimating Location without External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system. PMID:25356642

  13. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  14. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  15. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  16. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  17. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  18. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  19. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  20. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  1. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  2. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  3. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  4. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  5. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  6. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  7. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  8. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  9. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the residential…

  10. Preliminary data on sulfides from mantle xenoliths from Wilcza Góra and Krzeniów basanites (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukała, Michał; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Wojtulek, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The basanites from Krzeniów (19.57 Ma) and Wilcza Góra (20.07 Ma; K-Ar ages by Birkenmajer et al. 2007 Ann. Soc. Geol. Polon.) in SW Poland belong to the Lower Silesian part of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP). Both basanites are rich in mantle xenoliths, predominantly of harzburgitic composition. The Krzeniów harzburgites are anhydrous, whereas those from Wilcza Góra contain small amounts of amphibole. Sulfides occur in those harzburgites as: (1) rare, small (<15 μm in diameter) singular grains, enclosed in silicate phases. They have mostly composition of pentlandite (Ni 25.2 - 32.5, Fe 20.3 - 27.0 mole %, atomic metal/sulfur ratio = 1,11). Locally, pentlandite is associated with Ni-pyrrhotite (up to 6,76 mole% of Ni) within the same grain. The grains of pentlandite/Ni-pyrrhotite are anhedral, rounded and elongated. Anhedral millerite grains (Fe ~ 2.39 mole %, metal/sulfur ratio = 0.98) are subordinate. (2) small (< 5 μm in diameter) grains enclosed in silicates, forming sulfide inclusion trails located close to grain margins. These sulfides have the composition of pentlandite (21.5 mole% Fe, 30.8 mole% Ni). Grains are anhedral, oval. Only two analyses were not contaminated due to small size of this kind of sulfides. (3) blebs associated with fine-grained intergranular aggregates of silicate minerals. The aggregates carry majority of sulfides. The sulfide blebs are relatively large (up to 300 μm across) and occur as single grains or in aggregates. Their grains are heterogeneous and consist of various phases. In Krzeniów aggregates consist of clinopyroxene+ olivine± spinel± glass± feldspar± sulfides (pentlandite and Ni-pyrrhotite). Pentlandite contains up to 1.25 mole% of Cu. Sulfides occur in the marginal parts of fine-grained aggregates. One of the pentlandite grains exhibits broad variation of Fe (4.6 to 20.3) and Ni (32.5 to 46.0 mole %). In xenoliths from Wilcza Góra,3 kinds of fine-grained intergranular aggregates occur: (A

  11. Mutations in the interleukin receptor IL11RA cause autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Keupp, Katharina; Li, Yun; Vargel, Ibrahim; Hoischen, Alexander; Richardson, Rebecca; Neveling, Kornelia; Alanay, Yasemin; Uz, Elif; Elcioğlu, Nursel; Rachwalski, Martin; Kamaci, Soner; Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Akin, Burcu; Grötzinger, Joachim; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Emin; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Collmann, Hartmut; Roscioli, Tony; Buckley, Michael F; Yigit, Gökhan; Gilissen, Christian; Kress, Wolfram; Veltman, Joris; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Akarsu, Nurten A; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    We have characterized a novel autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis syndrome in a 12-affected member family from Antakya, Turkey, the presenting features of which include: multiple suture synostosis, midface hypoplasia, variable degree of exophthalmos, relative prognathism, a beaked nose, and conductive hearing loss. Homozygosity mapping followed by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a c.479+6T>G mutation in the interleukin 11 receptor alpha gene (IL11RA) on chromosome 9p21. This donor splice-site mutation leads to a high percentage of aberrant IL11RA mRNA transcripts in an affected individual and altered mRNA splicing determined by in vitro exon trapping. An extended IL11RA mutation screen was performed in a cohort of 79 patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome, pansynostosis, or unclassified syndromic craniosynostosis. We identified mutations segregating with the disease in five families: a German patient of Turkish origin and a Turkish family with three affected sibs all of whom were homozygous for the previously identified IL11RA c.479+6T>G mutation; a family with pansynostosis with compound heterozygous missense mutations, p.Pro200Thr and p.Arg237Pro; and two further Turkish families with Crouzon-like syndrome carrying the homozygous nonsense mutations p.Tyr232* and p.Arg292*. Using transient coexpression in HEK293T and COS7 cells, we demonstrated dramatically reduced IL11-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation for all mutations. Immunofluorescence analysis of mouse Il11ra demonstrated specific protein expression in cranial mesenchyme which was localized around the coronal suture tips and in the lambdoidal suture. In situ hybridization analysis of adult zebrafish also detected zfil11ra expression in the coronal suture between the overlapping frontal and parietal plates. This study demonstrates that mutations in the IL11RA gene cause an autosomal recessive Crouzon-like craniosynostosis. PMID:24498618

  12. Study of weathering processes developed on old piedmont surfaces in Western Spain: new contributions to the interpretation of the ``Raña'' profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Ballesteros, E.; Cantano Martín, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Hercynian basement of the Iberian Peninsula was uplifted by the Alpine orogeny during the Tertiary. It gave rise to a set of block mountains and tectonic grabens, one of which is the Ciudad Rodrigo Basin. It is located in Western Spain and forms a westward extension of the great Tertiary Duero Basin. The sediments filling this graben are of continental origin, their ages ranging from Palaeogene to Quaternary. Morphologically, the southern part of this basin forms a set of piedmont surfaces (the "Raña" surfaces) appearing above the terrace system of the present rivers. This paper examines the weathering processes developed over these old piedmont surfaces using micromorphological, XR diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microporosity techniques. The Raña sediments are rich in quartzite pebbles and gravel within a clayey matrix. Once deposited, these materials underwent important in situ weathering processes under somewhat hydromorphic conditions, of which hydrolysis, ferrolysis and xerolysis were the most important. All these processes gave rise to: (1) transformation of most of the clasts of shists and slates into a matrix causing the destruction of the original sedimentary structures and a relative concentration of the resistant lithologies (quartzites and quartz); (2) important changes in the clay fraction, leading to a predominance of kaolinite in the upper levels of the profiles, (3) release of elements from primary minerals, Fe being one of the most important, and (4) redistribution of matter, mainly clay and Fe oxyhydroxides, within the profiles. The coexistence of seasonal periods with pF higher than 4.2 repeated over a long time, together with poor internal and external drainage conditions, are the cause of the special features displayed by Raña deposits.

  13. Radiation Dose and Hazard Assessment of Potential Contamination Events During Use of 223Ra Dichloride in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2015-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the possible dosimetric consequences of various potential contamination events involving 223Ra dichloride (Xofigo), the FDA-approved therapeutic agent used in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Three exposure scenarios are considered: inhalation dose to an individual due to the hypothetical inhalation of 219Rn and its progeny assumed to be released into the air from a liquid spill on the floor, external dose from direct photon exposure of an individual assigned to clean up a spill, and skin dose to an individual should the liquid material come into contact with their skin. Doses from the first two scenarios were very small; 2.8 × 10(-3) mSv and 8.1 × 10(-4) mSv, respectively. Using extremely conservative assumptions, the skin dose was estimated to be 72 mSv; in a realistic scenario, this dose would likely be an order of magnitude or more lower. These doses are very small compared to regulatory limits, and good health physics practices likely to be employed in such incidents would lower them still further. The authors conclude that the medical use of Xofigo does not pose any significant radiation safety issue with respect to potential contamination events, even if multiple incidents might occur during the course of a year, since all worst-case potential contamination events considered in this study will not result in significant radiation exposures to workers.

  14. Nonbridging external fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Matthew D; Shin, Eon K

    2010-08-01

    Surgical management of distal radius fractures continues to evolve because of their high incidence in an increasingly active elderly population. Traditional radiocarpal external fixation relies on ligamentotaxis for fracture reduction but has several drawbacks. Nonbridging external fixation has evolved to provide early wrist mobility in the setting of anatomic fracture reduction. Several studies of the nonbridging technique have demonstrated satisfactory results in isolated nonbridging external fixation series and in comparison with traditional spanning external fixation. Nonbridging external fixation for surgical treatment of distal radius fractures can be technically demanding and requires at least 1 cm of intact volar cortex in the distal fracture fragment for successful implementation.

  15. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  16. External Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    DCR is the treatment of choice for NLDO. External DCR has remained the standard approach since the 1890s. With advances in technique and technology, and more otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists performing endoscopic DCR, more studies have been conducted, some with equivalent success rates between the 2 approaches. Endoscopic endonasal DCR offers the advantages of avoiding a skin incision with similar success rates with experienced surgeons. However, the technique necessitates more surgical equipment, and has a steep learning curve. Both approaches have low complication rates and serious complications are very rare. The decision for the type of approach to use depends on the surgeon’s experience, the patient’s preference or concerns, and the resources available within a particular health system.

  17. An emergency radiobioassay method for 226Ra in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki B; Li, Chunsheng; Kramer, Gary H

    2012-08-01

    A new radioanalytical method was developed for rapid determination of (226)Ra in human urine samples. The method is based on organic removal and decolourisation of a urine sample by a polymeric (acrylic ester) solid phase sorbent material followed by extraction and preconcentration of (226)Ra in an organic solvent using a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique. Radiometric measurement of (226)Ra was carried out using a liquid scintillation counting instrument. The minimum detectable activity for the method (0.15 Bq l(-1)) is lower than the required sensitivity of 0.2 Bq l(-1) for (226)Ra in human urine samples as defined in the requirements for radiation emergency bioassay techniques for the public and first responders based on the dose threshold for possible medical attention recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The accuracy (expressed as relative bias, B(r)) and repeatability of the method (expressed as relative precision, S(B)) evaluated at the reference level (2 Bq l(-1)) were found to be -4.5 and 2.6 %, respectively. The sample turnaround time was <5 h for a single urine sample and <20 h for a batch of six urine samples. With the fast sample turnaround time combined with the potential to carry out the analysis in a field deployable mobile laboratory, the newly developed method can be used for emergency radiobioassay of (226)Ra in human urine samples following a radiological or nuclear accident.

  18. PADI4 haplotypes in association with RA Mexican patients, a new prospect for antigen modulation.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity. PMID:24454473

  19. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra gene MRA_1916 causes growth defects upon down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumar Sachin; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2015-01-01

    D-amino acid oxidases play an important role in converting D-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids. MRA_1916 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra) is annotated to be a D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). However, not much information is available about its physiological role during Mtb-Ra growth and survival. The present study was taken-up to understand the role of DAO during different stages of growth and effect of its down-regulation on growth. Recombinant Mtb-Ra strains with DAO and GlcB (malate synthase: MRA_1848) gene knockdown were developed and their growth was studied using Microtiter Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) with glycerol, acetate and glycine as a carbon source. Ethyl bromopyruvate (BrP) was used as an inhibitor of GlcB. MABA study showed inhibition of wild-type (WT) and knockdowns in the presence of BrP (2.5mM). However, growth inhibition of WT was less noticeable at lower concentrations of BrP. Mtb-Ra with DAO knockdown showed poor utilization of glycine in the presence of BrP. The DAO localization study showed its prominent distribution in cytosolic fraction and to some extent in cell wall and membrane fractions. Growth profile of WT under oxygen and nutritional stress showed changes in expression of DAO, GlcB, PckA (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase: MRA_0219) and GlyA1 (serine hydroxymethyltransferase: MRA_1104). PMID:26531045

  20. PADI4 Haplotypes in Association with RA Mexican Patients, a New Prospect for Antigen Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I.; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity. PMID:24454473

  1. PADI4 haplotypes in association with RA Mexican patients, a new prospect for antigen modulation.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Rosales-Gomez, Roberto Carlos; Gutierrez-Rubio, Susan Andrea; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Davalos-Rodriguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG) was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC). There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity.

  2. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  3. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam

    2013-07-30

    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. PMID:23623032

  4. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutier, N.R.; Clulow, F.V.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7163 +/- 1077 mBq per animal in spring; 1506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The /sup 226/Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of /sup 226/Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  5. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  6. Production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Meriarty, H; Metcalfe, P; Knittel, T; Allen, B J

    2007-09-01

    The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. The production of Ac-225 has been achieved using bremsstrahlung photons from an 18 MV medical linear accelerator (linac) to bombard a Ra-226 target. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 64 microCi of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225. This result, while consistent with the theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use. A more powerful linac is required that runs at a higher current, longer pulse length and higher frequency for practical production. This process could also lead to the reduction of the nuclear waste product Ra-226.

  7. Low-level measurements of Ra-226/Rn-222 by pulse ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Daoushy, Fand; Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of two ionization chambers have been studied and the chambers utilized for 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements for more than ten years. The results obtained show that coating of internal surfaces with a pure and thin Ag-layer enhances the background of ionization chambers in spite of some improvements at the early stages of operation. In addition to previously known parameters influencing the accuracy in routine measurements, new correction factors are suggested. 226Ra impurities in the body of ionization chambers are found to act not only as a permanent, but also as a temperature-dependent source of background. Earlier accuracies of 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements have been considerably improved by assuring long-term mechanical and thermal stability of the ionization chambers.

  8. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  9. Ra-226 concentrations in otter, Lutra canadensis, trapped near uranium tailings at Elliot Lake, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.D.; Cloutier, N.R.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1987-02-01

    The Elliot Lake area of Ontario, is currently the major uranium producing region of Canada. It is estimated there are 120 million tons of uranium tailings spread over 600 ha in the vicinity of Elliot Lake. The transfer and fate of uranium-series radionuclides from tailing sites remain primary ecological concerns in these areas. It has been demonstrated that the levels of radionuclides, including Ra-226, are elevated in vegetation, small mammals and fish living on or near tailing disposal sites. However, the transfer potential of Ra-226 to predatory species has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to measure Ra-226 levels in otters (Lutra canadensis), captured near tailing sites, to provide further information on the fate of radionuclides in the environment.

  10. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won Hyun; Kim, Seonghui; Lee, Hanshin; Yi, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Min; Ham, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho Soon; Choi, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Zeen Chul; Lockwood, Mike; Morris, Nigel; Tosh, Ian

    2007-03-01

    The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm) in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m) and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1}) at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  11. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-09-09

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.

  12. Applications of 211At and 223Ra in targeted alpha-particle radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Targeted radiotherapy using agents tagged with α-emitting radionuclides is gaining traction with several clinical trials already undertaken or ongoing, and others in the advanced planning stage. The most commonly used α-emitting radionuclides are 213Bi, 211At, 223Ra and 225Ac. While each one of these has pros and cons, it can be argued that 211At probably is the most versatile based on its half life, decay scheme and chemistry. On the other hand, for targeting bone metastases, 223Ra is the ideal radionuclide because simple cationic radium can be used for this purpose. In this review, we will discuss the recent developments taken place in the application of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and give an overview of the current status of 223Ra for targeted α-particle radiotherapy. PMID:22202151

  13. Applications of 211At and 223Ra in Targeted Alpha-Particle Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy using agents tagged with α-emitting radionuclides is gaining traction with several clinical trials already undertaken or ongoing, and others in the advanced planning stage. The most commonly used α-emitting radionuclides are 213Bi, 211At, 223Ra and 225Ac. While each one of these has pros and cons, it can be argued that 211At probably is the most versatile based on its half life, decay scheme and chemistry. On the other hand, for targeting bone metastases, 223Ra is the ideal radionuclide because simple cationic radium can be used for this purpose. In this review, we will discuss the recent developments taken place in the application of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and give an overview of the current status of 223Ra for targeted α-particle radiotherapy. PMID:22202151

  14. Simulating magnetospheres with numerical relativity: The GiRaFFE code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiuc-Hamilton, Maria; Etienne, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Numerical Relativity has shown success over the past several years, especially in the simulation of black holes and gravitational waves. In recent years, teams have tackled the problem of the interaction of gravitational and electromagnetic waves. But where there are plasmas, the simulations often have trouble reproducing nature. Neutron stars, black hole accretion disks, astrophysical jets—all of these represent extreme environments both gravitationally and electromagnetically. We are creating the first open-source, dynamical spacetime general relativity force-free electrodynamics code: GiRaFFE.We present here the performance of GiRaFFE in testing. With this code, we will simulate neutron star magnetospheres, collisions between neutron stars and black holes, and particular attention will be paid to the production of jets through the Blandford-Znajek mechanism.GiRaFFE will be made available to the community.

  15. Production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Meriarty, H; Metcalfe, P; Knittel, T; Allen, B J

    2007-09-01

    The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. The production of Ac-225 has been achieved using bremsstrahlung photons from an 18 MV medical linear accelerator (linac) to bombard a Ra-226 target. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 64 microCi of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225. This result, while consistent with the theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use. A more powerful linac is required that runs at a higher current, longer pulse length and higher frequency for practical production. This process could also lead to the reduction of the nuclear waste product Ra-226. PMID:17532223

  16. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed. PMID:27618064

  17. Applications of 211At and 223Ra in targeted alpha-particle radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Targeted radiotherapy using agents tagged with α-emitting radionuclides is gaining traction with several clinical trials already undertaken or ongoing, and others in the advanced planning stage. The most commonly used α-emitting radionuclides are 213Bi, 211At, 223Ra and 225Ac. While each one of these has pros and cons, it can be argued that 211At probably is the most versatile based on its half life, decay scheme and chemistry. On the other hand, for targeting bone metastases, 223Ra is the ideal radionuclide because simple cationic radium can be used for this purpose. In this review, we will discuss the recent developments taken place in the application of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and give an overview of the current status of 223Ra for targeted α-particle radiotherapy.

  18. Criticality safety evaluation for pathfinder fuel elements in model No. RA-3 shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1986-11-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently processes approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which will require shipment from their nuclear facility. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-IV, and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of these fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. Except for a slightly higher U-235 enrichment in the UO/sub 2/ rods of the Pathfinder fuel elements, the parameters for the proposed shipment are within those limits currently approved in Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 17, for shipment of UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in the Model RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis in this report verifies an adequate margin of criticality safety for the Pathfinder fuel elements in Model RA-3 containers for a Fissile Class 1 shipment.

  19. Geology and Topography of Ra Patera, Io, in the Voyager era: Prelude to Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McEwen, Alfred; Davies, A. G.; Davenport, Trevor; Jones, Kevin; Fessler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Voyager era stereo images are used to map the geology and topography of Ra Patera (a major active volcanic center and possible site of sulfur eruptions on Io). The summit of Ra Patera reaches only approx.1 km above the surrounding plains. Pre-Voyager-era lava flows occur on slopes of 0.1-0.3 deg, comparable to the lunar mare. These flows were emplaced at either low viscosities, high eruption rates, or both. A 600- km-long ridged mountain unit (rising to approx. 8 km near Carancho Patera) forms a 60 by 90 km wide plateau approx. 0.5 km high 50 km east of Ra Patera. The new lava flows observed by Galileo flowed around the southern edge of this plateau.

  20. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed. PMID:27618064

  1. Quantifying seawater recirculation through subtidal estuarine sediments in Elkhorn Slough, California: coupling Ra isotope geochemistry with hydrodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, J. A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Monismith, S. G.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of short lived ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra in concert with hydrodynamic modelling were used to determine the magnitude and spatial extent of sediment/water exchange within Elkhorn Slough a tidally dominated estuary in Monterey Bay, California. Samples for dissolved Ra activity, Ba, U, silicate, nitrate, ammonium, and ortho-phosphate were collected from the estuary and potential endmember streams, sediment porewaters, and groundwater. Hourly precipitation, evaporation, and stream gauge data were used to develop a spatially explicit estimate of stream flow and runoff from the watershed to the estuary and salinity and water depth time series from an in-situ sensor network were used to determine tidal exchange. The sample chemistry indicates the mixing of at least three endmembers within the estuary: streams, seawater from the tidal inlet, and higher Ra activity sediment porewaters. In the case of ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra, the most important flux to the estuary is sediment porewater, an input two orders of magnitude greater than any other, which balances the decay of these isotopes in the water column. This large sedimentary source makes ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra excellent tracers of sediment/water exchange and differential decay in the water column makes their activity ratio an excellent indicator of water transport within the estuary. The chemical measurements were used in concert with the hydrologic data to develop Ra flux boundary conditions for a coupled three dimensional hydrodynamic and chemical transport model of the estuary which was used as a framework for interpreting the Ra activities and gradients and further refining our estimates of the magnitude and spatial variation in the sediment/water exchange. The results indicate that tidal pumping of intertidal sediments is the principal process by which ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra are supplied to Elkhorn Slough.

  2. Biodistribution of 225Ra citrate in mice: retention of daughter radioisotopes in bone.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Stephen J; Lankford, Trish; Garland, Marc; Sundberg, John P; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-11-01

    Alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides have potential for therapy of localized disease due to their high linear energy transformation and short pathlengths. Radiometals that home naturally to bone can be exploited for this purpose, and 223Ra (t(1/2)=11.4 days) recently has been studied for therapy of bone tumors in mice and rats. Actinium-225 (t(1/2)=10 days) is also an attractive radioisotope for endoradiotherapy. In a single decay of a 225Ac nucleus and its subsequent decay daughters, over 27 MeV ( approximately 90% of total energy) is released by sequential emission of four alpha particles, ranging in energy from 5.7 to 8.4 MeV. Although Ac3+ does not home naturally to bone, its parent radioisotope 225Ra (beta(-), t(1/2)=15 days) can be used as an in vivo source for 225Ac. Thus, injection of 225Ra takes advantage of the bone-homing properties of radium coupled with the significant amount of energy released from the 225Ac decay chain. Our data confirm that a large fraction of radium citrate injected intravenously into mice localizes rapidly in bone. Injected doses per gram (ID/g) for 225Ra range from 25% in skull to about 10% in sternum. Once deposited, the 225Ra remains in the bone with a biological half life of >40 days. Furthermore, >95% of the daughter radioisotope, 225Ac, is retained in the bone. However, a significant fraction of one of the daughter radioisotopes, 213Bi, is found in kidney. The biodistribution data indicate that 225Ra injection should be a powerful agent for killing cells associated with bone; however, the toxicity of this radioisotope which is similar to that of other alpha emitters limits the dose that can be tolerated. PMID:16253811

  3. Extensive polymorphism of Ra86 genes in field populations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamau, L M; Skilton, R A; Githaka, N; Kiara, H; Kabiru, E; Shah, T; Musoke, Aj; Bishop, R P

    2016-07-01

    Commercial vaccines based on recombinant forms of the Bm86 tick gut antigen are used to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, a 1-host species, in Australia and Latin America. We describe herein sequence polymorphism in genes encoding Ra86 homologues of Bm86 in the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, isolated from four Kenyan field populations and one laboratory colony. Sequencing of 19 Ra86 sequences defined two alleles differentiated by indels, encoding 693 amino acids (aa) and 654 aa respectively, from the Muguga laboratory reference strain. Ra86 sequences were also determined from gut cDNA from four field populations of R. appendiculatus collected in different livestock production systems in Kenya. Analysis of approximately 20 Ra86 sequences from each of the four field sites in central and Western Kenya; Makuyu, Kiambu, Kakamega and Uasin Gishu, revealed three additional size types differentiated by 39-49 amino acid indels resulting in a total of 5 indel-defined genotypes. The 693 aa type 5 was isolated only from the laboratory tick stock; genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were identified in ticks from the four Kenyan field sites and appeared to be derivatives of the shorter RA86 genotype found in Muguga laboratory stock genotype 4. By contrast no large indels have yet been observed between R. microplus sequences from Australia, South America or Africa. Evidence that selection contributes to the observed sequence variation was provided by analysis of ratio of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions and application of the selective neutrality and neutral evolution tests to the primary data. Phylogenetic analysis clustered sequences from all Ra86 size types and Bm86, into four major clades based on amino acid substitutions, but there was no evidence that these groupings correlated with geographical separation of R. appendiculatus populations. PMID:27051976

  4. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  5. Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Antonio; Sokka, Tuulikki; Descalzo, Miguel A; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Luukkainen, Reijo K; Combe, Bernard; Burmester, Gerd R; Devlin, Joe; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Morelli, Alessia; Hoekstra, Monique; Majdan, Maria; Sadkiewicz, Stefan; Belmonte, Miguel; Holmqvist, Ann-Carin; Choy, Ernest; Tunc, Recep; Dimic, Aleksander; Bergman, Martin; Toloza, Sergio; Pincus, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with traditional CV risk factors, clinical features of RA, and the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in a multinational cross-sectional cohort of nonselected consecutive outpatients with RA (The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Program, or QUEST-RA) who were receiving regular clinical care. Methods The study involved a clinical assessment by a rheumatologist and a self-report questionnaire by patients. The clinical assessment included a review of clinical features of RA and exposure to DMARDs over the course of RA. Comorbidities were recorded; CV morbidity included myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease, coronary bypass surgery, and stroke. Traditional risk factors recorded were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for CV morbidity were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results Between January 2005 and October 2006, the QUEST-RA project included 4,363 patients from 48 sites in 15 countries; 78% were female, more than 90% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 57 years. The prevalence for lifetime CV events in the entire sample was 3.2% for myocardial infarction, 1.9% for stroke, and 9.3% for any CV event. The prevalence for CV risk factors was 32% for hypertension, 14% for hyperlipidemia, 8% for diabetes, 43% for ever-smoking, 73% for physical inactivity, and 18% for obesity. Traditional risk factors except obesity and physical inactivity were significantly associated with CV morbidity. There was an association between any CV event and age and male gender and between extra-articular disease and myocardial infarction. Prolonged exposure to methotrexate (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89), leflunomide (HR 0

  6. 226Ra as a standard source for efficiency calibration of Ge(Li) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, M. A.; Al-Soraya, A. M.

    1982-09-01

    The relative intensities of gamma-rays resulting from the decay of 226Ra in equilibrium with its short-lived daughters have been measured using two different high resolution Ge(Li) detectors. The accuracy of the measurements does not exceed 2.5%. The most intense components of gamma-rays from thin 226Ra are recommended for use as a calibration standard Ge(Li) detectors in the energy range from 186 keV to 3.050 MeV.

  7. Externally fired combined cycle demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, N.J.; Young, S.; LaHaye, P.G.; Strom-Olsen, J.; Seger, J.L.; Pickup, H.

    1995-11-01

    Externally Fired Combined Cycles (EFCCs) can increase the amount of electricity produced from ash bearing fuels up to 40%, with overall powerplant efficiencies in excess of 45%. Achieving such high efficiencies requires high temperature-high pressure air heaters capable of driving modern gas turbines from gas streams containing the products of coal combustion. A pilot plant has been constructed in Kennebunk, Maine to provide proof of concept and evaluation of system components. Tests using pulverized Western Pennsylvania bituminous coal have been carried out since April, 1995. The ceramic air heater extracts energy from the products of coal combustion to power a gas turbine. This air heater has operated at gas inlet temperatures over 1,095 C and pressures over 7.0 atm without damage to the ceramic tube string components. Stable gas turbine operation has been achieved with energy input from the air heater and a supplementary gas fired combustor. Efforts are underway to fire the cycle on coal only, and to increase the duration of the test runs. Air heater improvements are being implemented and evaluated. These improvements include installation of a second pass of ceramic tubes and evaluation of corrosion resistant coatings on the ceramic tubes.

  8. External gamma-ray dose rate and radon concentration in indoor environments covered with Brazilian granites.

    PubMed

    Anjos, R M; Juri Ayub, J; Cid, A S; Cardoso, R; Lacerda, T

    2011-11-01

    Health hazard from natural radioactivity in Brazilian granites, covering the walls and floor in a typical dwelling room, was assessed by indirect methods to predict external gamma-ray dose rates and radon concentrations. The gamma-ray dose rate was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation method and validated by in-situ measurements with a NaI spectrometer. Activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (40)K in an extensive selection of Brazilian commercial granite samples measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry were found to be 4.5-450 Bq kg(-1), 4.9-160 Bq kg(-1) and 190-2029 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum external gamma-ray dose rate from floor and walls covered with the Brazilian granites in the typical dwelling room (5.0 m × 4.0 m area, 2.8 m height) was found to be 120 nGy h(-1), which is comparable with the average worldwide exposure to external terrestrial radiation of 80 nGy h(-1) due to natural sources, proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Radon concentrations in the room were also estimated by a simple mass balance equation and exhalation rates calculated from the measured values of (226)Ra concentrations and the material properties. The results showed that the radon concentration in the room ventilated adequately (0.5 h(-1)) will be lower than 100 Bq m(-3), value recommended as a reference level by the World Health Organization.

  9. External gamma-ray dose rate and radon concentration in indoor environments covered with Brazilian granites.

    PubMed

    Anjos, R M; Juri Ayub, J; Cid, A S; Cardoso, R; Lacerda, T

    2011-11-01

    Health hazard from natural radioactivity in Brazilian granites, covering the walls and floor in a typical dwelling room, was assessed by indirect methods to predict external gamma-ray dose rates and radon concentrations. The gamma-ray dose rate was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation method and validated by in-situ measurements with a NaI spectrometer. Activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (40)K in an extensive selection of Brazilian commercial granite samples measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry were found to be 4.5-450 Bq kg(-1), 4.9-160 Bq kg(-1) and 190-2029 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum external gamma-ray dose rate from floor and walls covered with the Brazilian granites in the typical dwelling room (5.0 m × 4.0 m area, 2.8 m height) was found to be 120 nGy h(-1), which is comparable with the average worldwide exposure to external terrestrial radiation of 80 nGy h(-1) due to natural sources, proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Radon concentrations in the room were also estimated by a simple mass balance equation and exhalation rates calculated from the measured values of (226)Ra concentrations and the material properties. The results showed that the radon concentration in the room ventilated adequately (0.5 h(-1)) will be lower than 100 Bq m(-3), value recommended as a reference level by the World Health Organization. PMID:21729819

  10. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  11. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of External Genitalia Development

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    External genitalia development occurs through a combination of hormone independent, hormone dependent, and endocrine pathways. Perturbation of these pathways can lead to abnormal external genitalia development. We review human and animal mechanisms of normal and abnormal external genitalia development, and we evaluate abnormal mechanisms that lead to hypospadias. We also discuss recent laboratory findings that further our understanding of animal models of hypospadias. PMID:22790208

  13. [Hidradenoma of the external acoustic meatus: ceruminoma].

    PubMed

    Gianotti, R

    1990-02-01

    Benign tumour originating from the ceruminous glands of the external auditory meatus are quite rare and present similar histological features to sweat gland tumours elsewhere. The paper reports the case of a nodule in the external auditory meatus diagnosed as a myoepitheliomatous-type hidradenoma . Three histological forms of benign ceruminous gland tumours are recognised: the myoepitheliomatous, cribriform and mixed salivary type. Currently, the term hidradenoma of the external ear is preferred.

  14. Effects of a Bridging Exercise with Hip Adduction on the EMG Activities of the Abdominal and Hip Extensor Muscles in Females

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activities of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles between the bridging exercise (BE) and bridging exercise with hip adduction (BEHA) positions in women using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy adult females with no history of low back pain. [Methods] The subjects performed bridging exercises with and without hip adduction. The EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles were recorded. [Result] The EMG activities of all muscles were significantly increased during the BEHA compared to the BE. [Conclusion] The bridging exercise with hip adduction produced greater activation of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:24259933

  15. Control of External Kink Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Phycomyces carRA Gene Encoding the Enzymes Phytoene Synthase and Lycopene Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Catalina; Velayos, Antonio; Álvarez, María Isabel; Benito, Ernesto P.; Eslava, Arturo P.

    2011-01-01

    Phycomyces carRA gene encodes a protein with two domains. Domain R is characterized by red carR mutants that accumulate lycopene. Domain A is characterized by white carA mutants that do not accumulate significant amounts of carotenoids. The carRA-encoded protein was identified as the lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase enzyme by sequence homology with other proteins. However, no direct data showing the function of this protein have been reported so far. Different Mucor circinelloides mutants altered at the phytoene synthase, the lycopene cyclase or both activities were transformed with the Phycomyces carRA gene. Fully transcribed carRA mRNA molecules were detected by Northern assays in the transformants and the correct processing of the carRA messenger was verified by RT-PCR. These results showed that Phycomyces carRA gene was correctly expressed in Mucor. Carotenoids analysis in these transformants showed the presence of ß-carotene, absent in the untransformed strains, providing functional evidence that the Phycomyces carRA gene complements the M. circinelloides mutations. Co-transformation of the carRA cDNA in E. coli with different combinations of the carotenoid structural genes from Erwinia uredovora was also performed. Newly formed carotenoids were accumulated showing that the Phycomyces CarRA protein does contain lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities. The heterologous expression of the carRA gene and the functional complementation of the mentioned activities are not very efficient in E. coli. However, the simultaneous presence of both carRA and carB gene products from Phycomyces increases the efficiency of these enzymes, presumably due to an interaction mechanism. PMID:21858003

  17. 224Ra:228Th disequilibrium in coastal sediments: Implications for solute transfer across the sediment-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Pinghe; Shi, Xiangming; Moore, Williard S.; Peng, Shiyun; Wang, Guizhi; Dai, Minhan

    2014-01-01

    We utilized 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium in the sediment to investigate processes that regulate solute transfer across the sediment-water interface. Depth profiles of dissolved and surface-bound 224Ra and 228Th in the upper 0-20 cm sediment column were measured using a delayed coincidence counter during a cruise to the Yangtze estuary from 15 to 24 August 2011. Along with 224Ra and 228Th, depth profiles of 234Th were collected to determine the bioturbation rate in the sediment. At most study sites, a significant deficit of 224Ra relative to 228Th was observed in the upper 0-10 cm. In contrast, 224Ra was in excess with respect to 228Th in the upper 0-5 cm at the river mouth, possibly due to redistribution of 224Ra from the mid-salinity region. By modeling the 224Ra depth profiles in the sediment using the general diagenetic equation, we demonstrated that in most cases molecular diffusion and bioturbation together can account for only ∼20-30% of the measured flux of 224Ra. We concluded that other mechanisms, especially irrigation, must be invoked to explain the remnant 70% of the observed deviation of 224Ra relative to 228Th. On the basis of the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium in the sediment and a concept of increased surface area for exchange by irrigation as developed by early investigators, we proposed a new approach - the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium approach to quantify the transfer rate of other dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. We have utilized this new approach to determine the benthic consumption rate of dissolved O2. The result reveals that benthic consumption is an important loss term of dissolved O2 in the Yangtze estuary and must be considered as one of the mechanisms that lead to hypoxia in this area.

  18. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  19. Daughter growth in freshly separated Ra-226, Ac-227 and U-232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, L. J.; Macias, E. S.; Milstead, J.; Stewart, D. C.

    1969-01-01

    Report provides computer-calculated curves and tables for the daughter buildup of Ra-226, Ac-227 and U-232 chains. Data are presented as a function of time beginning with pure samples of each parent. The information may be of interest to those using decay chains as isotopic alpha sources or neutron sources.

  20. Imaging of Ra-223 with a small-pixel CdTe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuffham, J. W.; Pani, S.; Seller, P.; Sellin, P. J.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Cernik, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ra-223 Dichloride (Xofigo™) is a promising new radiopharmaceutical offering survival benefit and palliation of painful bone metastases in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer [1]. The response to radionuclide therapy and toxicity are directly linked to the absorbed radiation doses to the tumour and organs at risk respectively. Accurate dosimetry necessitates quantitative imaging of the biodistribution and kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. Although primarily an alpha-emitter, Ra-223 also has some low-abundance X-ray and gamma emissions, which enable imaging of the biodistribution in the patient. However, the low spectral resolution of conventional gamma camera detectors makes in-vivo imaging of Ra-223 challenging. In this work, we present spectra and image data of anthropomorphic phantoms containing Ra-223 acquired with a small-pixel CdTe detector (HEXITEC) [2] with a pinhole collimator. Comparison is made with similar data acquired using a clinical gamma camera. The results demonstrate the advantages of the solid state detector in terms of scatter rejection and quantitative accuracy of the images. However, optimised collimation is needed in order for the sensitivity to rival current clinical systems. As different dosage levels and administration regimens for this drug are explored in current clinical trials, there is a clear need to develop improved imaging technologies that will enable personalised treatments to be designed for patients.

  1. Persistence of antibody after subcutaneous vaccination with Wistar RA27/3 rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hillary, I B

    1971-09-01

    After subcutaneous vaccination of rubella sero-negative children with Wistar RA 27/3 rubella vaccine, haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres were compared in sera taken 46 days and 2 years after vaccination. Antibody titres were well maintained in the absence of any known exposure to natural infection.

  2. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates.

  3. 19. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix Az). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  4. 20. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  5. 21. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 3 June 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  6. 22. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE SOON AFTER COMPLETION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  7. 21. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  8. 22. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE SOON AFTER COMPLETION. - Corduroy Creek Bridge, Spanning Corduroy Creek at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  9. 18. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 28 May 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  10. 17. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 1937 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Cedar Canyon Bridge, Spanning Cedar Canyon at Highway 60, Show Low, Navajo County, AZ

  11. 7 CFR 1940.576 - Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for new construction. 1940.576 Section 1940.576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.577 - Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rental Assistance (RA) for existing projects. 1940.577 Section 1940.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  13. 39. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ASSEMBLY OF TRAVELER ON NORTH ARM, SHOWING TEMPORARY TIEBACKS AND ANCHORAGE ARMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 34. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. May 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION ON EIGHT PANEL OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 41. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 38. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). VIEW FROM CANYON OF THIRD PANEL OF NORTH ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 32. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, April 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 33. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. May 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH ARM, SHOWING ERECTION TRAVELER. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 31. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, April 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). INITIAL CONSTRUCTION ON SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 36. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, June 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ) COMPLETION OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 40. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF NORTH ARM, FROM SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 37. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION ON THIRD PANEL OF NORTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 35. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, June 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ELEVENTH (LAST) PANEL OF SOUTH ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING ERECTION TRAVELER. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  4. Ra-Th disequilibria systematics: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ross W.; Gill, James B.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

    1986-06-01

    Carbonatite magma can form and erupt within 7 to 18 years, and the event seems associated with prior volcanic eruptions. This determination of magma age is possible because the carbonatite lava and ash which were erupted in 1960-1966 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, have the most extreme disequilibria between U and Th series nuclides yet measured in volcanic rocks. At the time of eruption: ( 228Ra) /( 232Th) ≈ 27 and ( 226Ra) /( 230Th) > 60 ; ( 238U) /( 232Th) > 10 , while ( 232Th) /( 232Th) = 1.0 ; and ( 210Pb) /( 226Ra) ≈ 0.3 . Three end-member models are presented which enable interpretation of these disequilibria. If the disequilibrium formed instantaneously, the event occurred about 7 years before initial eruption, and just before the last preceding but small eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai. If, instead, the disequilibrium formed continuously, the process must have begun 15 to 18 years before initial eruption, just after the last preceding major eruption. The disequilibria data confirm that the carbonatites are not fused trona, but do not distinguish between other genetic options (mantle fusion, selective assimilation, liquid immiscibility). However, the shortness of magma-formation time together with mass-balance considerations suggest formation due to the continuous exsolution of 2 to 20% of carbonatite from nephelinite which was itself Ra-enriched.

  5. 24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA). 599.505 Section 599.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  6. 24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA). 599.505 Section 599.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  7. 24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA). 599.505 Section 599.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  8. 24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA). 599.505 Section 599.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  9. 24 CFR 599.505 - Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordinating responsible authority (CoRA). 599.505 Section 599.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  10. Active phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra) by T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Qi; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lei; Yang, Yining; Feng, Dongyun; Dai, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Kang, Tao; Chen, Ping; He, Ying; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhi, Jin; Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to co-culture Jurkat T lymphocytes with inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb H37Ra), explore whether T lymphocytes could phagocytose H37Ra cells, and determine the underlying mechanism. Jurkat T lymphocytes were co-cultured with H37Ra cells, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry techniques were used to identify phagocytosis and elucidate its mechanism. After Jurkat T lymphocytes phagocytosed H37Ra cells, the cell body became larger, with abundant cytoplasm, the portion of the nucleus closest to the bacterium deformed, long and short pseudopodia were extended, and the folds of the cell membrane formed depressions that created phagocytic vesicles surrounding the bacterium. The macropinocytosis inhibitor amiloride and the cytoskeletal inhibitor cytochalasin D were found to inhibit phagocytic efficacy; serum complements might enhance phagocytosis through opsonization. Jurkat T lymphocytes could actively phagocytose inactivated Mtb via the macropinocytotic mechanism. Actin remodeling played an important role in the macropinocytotic process. Serum complements may regulate phagocytosis.

  11. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R.; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates. PMID:26371756

  12. Self-cleaning in an estuarine area formerly affected by 226Ra anthropogenic enhancements.

    PubMed

    Absi, A; Villa, M; Moreno, H P; Manjón, G; Periañez, R

    2004-08-15

    The estuary of the Odiel River has been affected by both direct discharges of phosphogypsum (radium enriched industrial waste) and dissolution and weathering of the exposed piles where this radium enriched waste was stored. In 1998 the waste management policy for industries changed. The direct discharges stopped and the new phosphogypsum piles were well protected against dissolution processes, avoiding any transference of radium into the environment. This work presents a study of the evolution with time (1999-2002) of the levels of 226Ra in river water and sediment samples with the new waste management policy. A liquid scintillation technique was used to measure the 226Ra activity concentration in sediment samples. A gas-proportional counter was also used to measure the 226Ra activity concentration in river water samples. The main conclusion is that a systematic and continuous decrease of the activity concentration of 226Ra with time in the Odiel River estuary is occurring. Thus, a possible self-cleaning in the estuary, once the direct waste discharges were avoided, can be inferred.

  13. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates. PMID:26371756

  14. ETV Report: Siemens Model V-40R-A150 Open Channel UV System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Siemens Barrier Sunlight V-40R-A150 UV System was completed at the UV Validation and Research Center of New York (UV Center), located in Johnstown, NY. The V-40R System supplied by Siemens utilizes 40 high-output, low-pressure amalgam lamps, oriented ...

  15. A new two-phase media method for 226Ra activity measurement in water.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M; Khodadadi, F

    2015-06-01

    A new two-phase media method was developed for determination of (226)Ra activity in water. The method was calibrated by applying 7 standard (226)Ra waters with known activities. The method detects alphas in two media; 80 ml of water in a glass bottle with air or a non-polar liquid such as olive oil on top of the water. Alpha particles from (226)Ra, (222)Rn and progeny were detected by two polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) which were mounted on a holder inserted in the bottle so that one PCTD is placed in water and the other in air or in the non-polar liquid. The bottles were hermetically sealed and kept for 40 or 48 d. The PCTDs in the bottles shaken every other day enhanced the sensitivity of the measurements. The Calibration Factors for the standard (226)Ra waters, air and olive oil above water are, respectively, (7.85 ± 0.25) × 10(-3), (7.94 ± 0.13) × 10(-3) and 3.02 × 10(-2) tracks.cm(-2) kBq(-1) h(-1) m(3). PMID:25971343

  16. Supply of purified Th228 for Ra224 generators. Final CRADA Report .

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-02

    CRADA was terminated when it was determined that the Russians could not perform the terms of the subcontract. It became apparent that the Russians would not be a reliable source of Th228, as a precursor in the decay chain which leads to Ra224. Their government policies will prohibit the export of Th228 in quantities needed for commercial cancer therapy.

  17. ALTERED RA SIGNALING IN THE GENESIS OF ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered RA Signaling in the Genesis of Ethanol-Induced Limb Defects

    Johnson CS(1), Sulik KK(1,2) Hunter, ES III(3)
    (1) Dept of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-Chapel Hill (2) Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, UNC-CH (3) NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC

    Administr...

  18. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Pradyumna; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Dubey, J S; Vidyasagar, D; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-03-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 µSv y(-1), respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 µSv y(-1). The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from (226)Ra for cereals and drinking water and (40)K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide (137)Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. (226)Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources.

  19. Ψ-RA: a parallel sparse index for genomic read alignment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic read alignment involves mapping (exactly or approximately) short reads from a particular individual onto a pre-sequenced reference genome of the same species. Because all individuals of the same species share the majority of their genomes, short reads alignment provides an alternative and much more efficient way to sequence the genome of a particular individual than does direct sequencing. Among many strategies proposed for this alignment process, indexing the reference genome and short read searching over the index is a dominant technique. Our goal is to design a space-efficient indexing structure with fast searching capability to catch the massive short reads produced by the next generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. Results We concentrate on indexing DNA sequences via sparse suffix arrays (SSAs) and propose a new short read aligner named Ψ-RA (PSI-RA: parallel sparse index read aligner). The motivation in using SSAs is the ability to trade memory against time. It is possible to fine tune the space consumption of the index based on the available memory of the machine and the minimum length of the arriving pattern queries. Although SSAs have been studied before for exact matching of short reads, an elegant way of approximate matching capability was missing. We provide this by defining the rightmost mismatch criteria that prioritize the errors towards the end of the reads, where errors are more probable. Ψ-RA supports any number of mismatches in aligning reads. We give comparisons with some of the well-known short read aligners, and show that indexing a genome with SSA is a good alternative to the Burrows-Wheeler transform or seed-based solutions. Conclusions Ψ-RA is expected to serve as a valuable tool in the alignment of short reads generated by the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology. Ψ-RA is very fast in exact matching and also supports rightmost approximate matching. The SSA structure that Ψ-RA is built

  20. RaInCube: a proposed constellation of precipitation profiling Radars In Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peral, E.; Tanelli, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Stephens, G. L.; Im, E.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation radars in Low-Earth-Orbit provide vertically resolved profiles of rain and snow on a global scale. With the recent advances in miniaturized radar and CubeSat/SmallSat technologies, it would now be feasible to launch multiple copies of the same radar instrument in desirable formations to allow measurements of short time scale evolution of atmospheric processes. One such concept is the novel radar architecture compatible with the 6U CubeSat class that is being developed at JPL by exploiting simplification and miniaturization of the radar subsystems. The RaInCube architecture would significantly reduce the number of components, power consumption and mass with respect to existing spaceborne radars. The baseline RaInCube instrument configuration would be a fixed nadir-pointing profiler at Ka-band with a minimum detectable reflectivity better than +10 dBZ at 250m range resolution and 5 km horizontal resolution. The low cost nature of the RaInCube platform would enable deployment of a constellation of identical copies of the same instrument in various relative positions in LEO to address specific observational gaps left open by the current missions that require high-resolution vertical profiling capability. A constellation of only four RaInCubes would populate the precipitation statistics in a distributed fashion across the globe and across the times of day, and therefore, would enable substantially better sampling of the diurnal cycle statistics. One could extend this scheme by adding more RaInCubes in each of the orbital planes, and phase them once in orbit so that they would be separated by an arbitrary amount of time among them. Wide separations (say 20-30 min) would further extend the sampling of the diurnal cycle to sub-hourly scales. Narrower time separations between RaInCubes would allow studying the evolution of convective systems at the convective time scale in each region of interest and would reveal the dominant modes of evolution of each

  1. Association of the IL2RA/CD25 Gene With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hinks, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Worthington, Jane; Thompson, Susan D; Langefeld, Carl D; Glass, David N; Thomson, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Objective IL2RA/CD25, the gene for interleukin-2 receptor α, is emerging as a general susceptibility gene for autoimmune diseases because of its role in the development and function of regulatory T cells and the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), Graves' disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs within the IL2RA/CD25 gene are associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Three SNPs within the IL2RA/CD25 gene, that previously showed evidence of an association with either RA, MS, or type 1 DM, were selected for genotyping in UK JIA cases (n = 654) and controls (n = 3,849). Data for 1 SNP (rs2104286) were also available from North American JIA cases (n = 747) and controls (n = 1,161). Association analyses were performed using Plink software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results SNP rs2104286 within the IL2RA/CD25 gene was significantly associated with UK JIA cases (OR for the allele 0.76 [95% CI 0.66–0.88], P for trend = 0.0002). A second SNP (rs41295061) also showed modest evidence for association with JIA (OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.63–1.0], P = 0.05). Association with rs2104286 was convincingly replicated in the North American JIA cohort (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.65–0.99], P for trend = 0.05). Meta-analysis of the 2 cohorts yielded highly significant evidence of association with JIA (OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.62–0.88], P = 4.9 × 10−5). Conclusion These results provide strong evidence that the IL2RA/CD25 gene represents a JIA susceptibility locus. Further investigation of the gene using both genetic and functional approaches is now required. PMID:19116909

  2. Human Alveolar Macrophage Gene Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains H37Ra and H37Rv

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Richard F.; Walrath, Jessica; Lee, Hung; Jacobson, Bruce A.; Horton, Heidi; Bowman, Michael R.; Nocka, Karl; Sypek, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    H37Rv and H37Ra have been widely used as models of virulent and avirulent strains, respectively, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since the sequencing of H37Rv, microarrays have been used to investigate gene expression of M. tuberculosis strains under various conditions, and to compare gene expression of specific isolates of the organism. Because differences in the virulence of these organisms could also be manifest via their differential induction of host genes, we used Affymetrix Human Genome Arrays U133A and U133B to evaluate human alveolar macrophage (AM) responses to infection with H37Rv and H37Ra. H37Rv altered expression of far more genes than did H37Ra. Moreover, the genes induced by H37Rv to a greater extent than by H37Ra were predominantly associated with the development of effective immunity. H37Rv markedly increased expression of IL-23 p19, whereas neither organism significantly induced IL-12 p35 expression. Quantitative PCR confirmed that H37Rv induced significantly more AM p19 expression than did H37Ra. After low-level infection of both AM and peripheral blood monocytes (MN) with H37Rv, neither cell type produced IL-12 (by ELISA). In contrast, AM displayed significant IL-23 production in response to H37Rv, whereas MN did not. Our findings thus suggest an important role for IL-23 in human host responses to pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis, and are consistent with epidemiologic and genetic studies that imply that H37Rv may not have unusual capacity to cause human disease. PMID:18787177

  3. Possible cluster preformation in the sup 14 C decay of sup 223 Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J.F.; Brillard, L.; Ardisson, G. )

    1990-08-01

    A recent experiment on the {sup 14}C fine structure has shown that the branching ratio to {sup 209}Pb ground state is quite different from the one predicted by the various models of cluster emission. Assuming that the {sup 14}C is preformed in the {sup 223}Ra nucleus, we have calculated the hindrance factor {ital F}{sup 14}C of the three {sup 14}C branches to {sup 209}Pb states with a barrier penetrability approximated by a square-well Coulomb potential. The {ital F}{sup 14}C=3.9 and 4.6 values found for the {sup 14}C transitions to the two excited states at 779 keV ({ital I}{sup {pi}}=11/2{sup +}) and 1423 keV ({ital I}{sup {pi}}=15/2{sup {minus}}), respectively, reveal that the cluster formation amplitudes in both transitions are close to those of the {sup 222}Ra and {sup 224}Ra {sup 14}C decays. Such values could be the result of {vert bar}{ital nlj}{r angle} shell-model components common to both the wave functions of the octupole deformed {sup 223}Ra nucleus and of the two first excited states of {sup 209}Pb spherical nucleus. The high hindrance factor {ital F}{sup 14}C=583 of the {sup 14}C branch to the {sup 209}Pb ground state ({ital I}{sup {pi}}=9/2{sup +}) could reveal the absence of {vert bar}1{ital g}{sub 9/2}{r angle} shell-model component in the {sup 223}Ra wave function.

  4. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  5. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  6. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  7. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  8. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  9. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  10. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  11. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  12. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  13. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  14. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  15. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  16. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for... maximum external load for which authorization is requested. It must be shown by analysis, test, or both...) Provides a dual actuation device for the primary quick release subsystem, and (ii) Provides a separate...

  17. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  18. External Communities of Practice and Relational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Frank W.; Navarro, Juan G. Cegarra

    2004-01-01

    External communities of practice are groups formed by company clients and employees based on common interests, commitment, mutual trust and collaboration whose members regularly share knowledge and learning. This paper examines how external communities of practice contribute to the creation of relational capital through an empirical investigation…

  19. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  20. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  1. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  2. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  3. 47 CFR 95.669 - External controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External controls. 95.669 Section 95.669... controls. (a) Only the following external transmitter controls, connections or devices will normally be... power to transmitter. This switch may be combined with receiver controls such as the receiver...

  4. The transportation external coordination working group

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    In an effort to improve coordinated interactions between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and external groups interested in transportation activities, DOE established the Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Membership includes representatives from State, Tribal and local governments, industry, and professional organizations. All DOE programs with significant transportation programs participate.

  5. Regents External Degrees. College Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on both Regents External Degrees and the College Proficiency Examination Programs for the State of New York is presented in a single catalog. Part One on the Regents External Degrees covers general information on accreditation, degrees offered, enrollment, credit, grading, status reports and transcripts, costs, counseling, and the…

  6. External Fund Raising. SPEC Kit 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Responses to a 1978 telephone survey of selected Association of Research Libraries (ARL) directors indicated a movement toward the use of endowed funds for collection development and toward external funding for special collections. Other needs for which libraries were seeking external monies included technological improvements, publications,…

  7. 226Ra-in marine barite: relationship with carbonate dissolution and sediment focusing in the equatorial pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, P.; Reyss, J.-L.; DeMaster, D.; Paterne, M.

    2004-02-01

    Sedimentation rates were determined from the 226Ra ( T 1/2=1602 a) decay in barite in seven cores collected from the western, central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Timing of the last carbonate dissolution increase was investigated with this new chronometer. However, an unconformity in the 226Ra-in-barite profiles was observed at some sites, which could be related to this carbonate dissolution event. We discuss different mechanisms that may have generated these unconformities, including (1) bioturbation, (2) possible bias in the estimate of the correction for supported 226Ra activities, (3) changes in the 226Ra/Ba ratio within surface waters and (4) processes that may have affected the 226Ra/Ba ratio recorded in barite, either within the water column or at the sediment-water interface. Among the processes invoked, an increase in the sediment focusing during the Holocene constitutes the mechanism that can most likely explain the observed unconformities. An increase in the sediment redistribution by bottom currents would enhance the lateral transport of old resuspended barite crystals (with a low 226Ra/Ba ratio). The 226Ra/Ba ratio of barite that accumulates in the sediments, therefore, may have decreased, leading to the unconventional 226Ra-profile shape observed in several cores. A change in the chemistry of the bottom waters that transport the resuspended sediment may have also affected the sediment carbonate contents.

  8. Disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb in a sediment core from a shallow Florida lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, M.; Peplov, A.J.; Schelske, C.L. )

    1994-07-01

    [sup 210]Pb dating can be used to assign ages in lake sediment cores, calculate rates of sediment accumulation, and determine the timing of recent changes in lake-watershed ecosystems. We used low-background gamma counting to measure [sup 226]Ra and total [sup 210]Pb activity in a core from Lake Rowell, Florida. [sup 226]Ra activity was high and strongly variable throughout the core, even exceeding total [sup 210]Pb activity in recently deposited sediments. We traced one source of Ra-rich sediments to the only inflow, Alligator Creek, where stream-bottom deposits display disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb. High and variable [sup 226]Ra activity in the Lake Rowell profile argues for direct estimates of in situ Ra in lake sediment cores from disturbed watersheds that have Ra-bearing bedrock. Isotopic disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb makes it difficult to distinguish between supported and unsupported [sup 210]Pb activity throughout the Lake Rowell core and would require special assumptions and nonconventional dating models to establish age-depth relationships. 78 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Critical function of RA-GEF-2/Rapgef6, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, in mouse spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keisuke; Miyake, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Chiba, Koji; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Edamatsu, Hironori; Kataoka, Tohru; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-02-28

    Small GTPase Rap1 has been implicated in the proper differentiation of testicular germ cells. In the present study, we investigated the functional significance of RA-GEF-2/Rapgef6, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, in testicular differentiation using mice lacking RA-GEF-2. RA-GEF-2 was expressed predominantly on the luminal side of the seminiferous tubules in wild-type mice. No significant differences were observed in the body weights or hormonal parameters of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) and wild-type mice. However, the testes of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) male mice were significantly smaller than those of wild-type mice and were markedly atrophied as well as hypospermatogenic. The concentration and motility of epididymal sperm were also markedly reduced and frequently had an abnormal shape. The pregnancy rate and number of fetuses were markedly lower in wild-type females after they mated with RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) males than with wild-type males, which demonstrated the male infertility phenotype of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) mice. Furthermore, a significant reduction and alteration were observed in the expression level and cell junctional localization of N-cadherin, respectively, in RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) testes, which may, at least in part, account for the defects in testicular differentiation and spermatogenesis in these mice. PMID:24491570

  10. [sup 226]Ra-[sup 230]Th disequilibrium in axial and off-axis mid-ocean ridge basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A.M.; Goldstein, S.J. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1993-03-01

    The authors describe [sup 226]Ra-[sup 230]Th disequilibrium in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the Juan de Fuca, Gorda, and East Pacific ridges. These first mass spectrometric measurements of [sup 226]Ra in MORB glasses at sub-picogram abundance levels confirm the large excesses over [sup 230]Th determined by radon-emanation techniques and alpha spectrometry. All off-axis MORB glasses have [sup 226]Ra-[sup 230]Th and [sup 234]U-[sup 238]U in secular equilibrium. This suggests that magmatic processes, not secondary post-eruption alteration, generate [sup 238]U-series disequilibrium in these MORB. Least evolved, N-MORB from axial valleys have ([sup 226]Ra/[sup 230]Th) between 2.2-2.3. Differentiated and enriched E-type MORB have consistently low ([sup 226]Ra/[sup 230]Th) ratios compared with N-MORB from the same ridge sections. Ra-Th fractionation may be less pronounced, or magma residence-transit periods may be long for differentiated MORB. Also, E-MORB may be generated by different melt extraction volumes and rates. Estimated [sup 226]Ra-[sup 230]Th ages for N-MORB agree with location on and off ridge segments, and with Th-U model ages. These preliminary results show that [sup 226]Ra-[sup 230]Th disequilibrium could be used to quantify volcanic episodicity at ocean ridges. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. On the externalization of auditory images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, N. I.; Rigopulos, A.; Pang, X. D.; Woods, W. S.; Kulkarni, A.; Colburn, H. S.; Wenzel, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    An acoustic image is said to be 'externalized' if the sound source appears to the listener to lie outside the head. The purpose of the note is to put the phenomenon of externalization of auditory images in proper perspective. It points out that the listener's pinnae (the so-called 'pinna factor') is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which a sound image is externalized and that the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. The note begins with some general comments on externalization. It then considers the effect of reverberation. It examines head movements, visual effects, and other factors. It concludes with remarks on externalization's relation to head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the pinna factor, and improved experimental instrumentation.

  13. The association between lipid levels and major adverse cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis compared to non-RA

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Katherine P.; Liu, Jun; Lu, Bing; Solomon, Daniel H.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) may be associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We studied whether the complex relationship between LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with CV risk is different in RA compared to non-RA. Methods Using data from a US health insurance plan (2003–2012), we conducted a cohort study that included RA and non-RA patients matched on age, sex and index date. Non-linearity between lipid levels and major adverse CV events (MACE) was tested. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine for an interaction between lipids and RA on the risk of MACE, adjusting for CV risk factors. Results We studied 16,085 RA and 48,499 non-RA subjects with mean age 52.6 years and 78.6% women. The relationship between LDL-C and MACE was non-linear and similar between RA and non-RA (p for interaction=0.72). We observed no significant increase in CV risk between the lowest LDL-C quintile (<91.g/dL) and successive quintiles until the highest quintile (>190.0mg/dL) was compared; hazard ratio (HR) 1.40,95%CI 1.17,1.68). The relationship between HDL and MACE was also non-linear and similar in RA and non-RA (p for interaction=0.39). Compared to the lowest HDL-C quintile, each successive quintile was associated with reduced risk of MACE [lowest (<43.0mg/dL) vs highest quintile (>71.0mg/dL), HR 0.45,95%CI 0.48,0.72]. Conclusions The complex relationship between LDL-C, HDL-C and MACE was non-linear in RA and also not statistically different from an age- and sex-matched non-RA cohort. PMID:25917955

  14. High IgE in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is complexed with anti-IgE autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Millauer, N; Zuercher, A W; Miescher, S M; Gerber, H A; Seitz, M; Stadler, B M

    1999-01-01

    This study presents data on more than 300 RA and allergic patients analysed for their serum levels of anti-immunoglobulin isotype autoantibodies and IgE. We observed high levels of IgE in sera of RA and allergic patients. Interestingly, we measured significantly higher specific IgE levels against Alternaria but not against nine other allergens in the RA compared with the allergic group. As expected, anti-IgG autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors (RF)) of different isotypes were detected in sera from RA patients only. However, we found increased titres of complexed anti-IgE autoantibodies in all RF+ groups and in the allergic group. These findings may explain why despite elevated IgE levels a decreased prevalence of allergic diseases in RA patients has been observed. PMID:9933440

  15. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  16. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Linsalata, P.

    1986-02-01

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 228/Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs.

  17. NEA 2100 Ra-Shalom: K-class and Source of CV3 Chondrite Grosnaja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. K.; Clark, B. E.; Swetra, S.; Vilas, F.; Jarvis, K.; Lederer, S. M.

    2004-11-01

    We obtained rotationally resolved spectra of the near-Earth asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom in Aug 2003 in the visible (0.5-0.9 micron) at McDonald Observatory and infrared (0.8-2.5 micron) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Ra-Shalom is one of the larger members of the Aten family. Its effective diameter is 2.5 km (Harris et al. Icarus 135, 441-450, 1998; Shepard et al. Icarus 147, 520-529, 2000) and its rotation period is 19.8 h (Pravec et al. Icarus 136, 124-153, 1998). Ra-Shalom has been classified as C- (Binzel et al., Icarus 170, 259-294, 2004), S- (Harris et al. 1998), and Xc- class (Bus and Binzel, Icarus 158, 146-177, 2002). Our observations show significant spectral variations with rotation phase, however their proximity to the Milky Way makes interpretation difficult. Our hemispheric-averaged spectrum is an excellent match to the CV3 chondrite Grosnaja, suggesting Ra-Shalom to be its source (RELAB sample MR-MJG-119-P1; Gaffey, JGR 81, 905-920, 1976). Given the purported link between K-class asteroids and CV3 and CO3 chondrites (Bell, Meteoritics 23, 256-257, 1988; Doressoundiram, et al. Icarus 131, 15-31, 1998; Burbine et al. Meteoritics Planet. Sci 36, 245-253, 2001), we suggest that Ra-Shalom is K-class, making it the second known Aten of that class after 1999 JD6 (Binzel et al. Icarus 151, 139-149, 2001). This raises difficult dynamical questions. The major reservoir of K-class asteroids is the Eos family in the outer main-belt ( 3 AU). Dynamical simulations by Bottke et al. (Icarus 156, 399-433, 2002) suggest that Atens originate from the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter (2.5 AU), the nu6 secular resonance (2.1-2.3 AU), or the Mars crossing population (2.1-2.8 AU). Specific computations for Ra-Shalom mirror this (Bottke, personal comm.). Either there is an unknown dynamical path or another K-class source to populate the Atens.

  18. Targeting of Osseous Sites with Alpha-emitting Ra-223: Comparison with the Beta-emitter Sr-89 in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Fisher, Darrell R.; Roeske, John C.; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2003-05-16

    The bone-seeking property of and the potential to irradiate red marrow by the alpha-particle emitter Ra-223 (t1/2 = 11.43 d) were compared to those of the beta-emitter Sr-89 (t1/2 = 50.53 d). Methods: The biodistributions of Ra-223 and Sr-89 were studied in mice. Tissue uptakes were determined at 1 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 14 d after intravenous administration. The potential redistribution of progeny from Ra-223 located in bone was investigated. Radiation absorbed doses were calculated for soft tissues and bone. Doses were also estimated for marrow-containing cavities assuming spheric geometries. Results: We found that both Sr-89 and Ra-223 selectively concentrated on bone surfaces relative to soft tissues. The measured bone uptake of Ra-223 was slightly higher than that of Sr-89. At the 24 h time-point, the femur uptake of Ra-223 was 40.1% of the administered activity per gram tissue. The uptake in spleen and most other soft tissues was higher for Ra-223 than for Sr-89. We observed rapid clearance of Ra-223 from soft tissues within the first 24 hours, but the bone surface uptake of Ra-223 increased with time up to 24 h. Among the soft tissues, the spleen had the greatest accumulation and retention of Ra-223. The femur-to-spleen ratio increased with time, from 6.4 at 6 h to 23.7 at 3 days after injections. We found little redistribution of Ra-223 daughter products away from bone (about 2% at 6 h and less than 1% detectable at 3 d). Estimates of dose to marrow-containing cavities showed that the Ra-223 alpha-emitter might have a marrow-sparing advantage compared to beta-emitters due to high linear-energy-transfer and short alpha range targeting osteoid surfaces. The alpha-emitters irradiate a smaller fraction of the marrow-containing volumes--sparing marrow and enhancing survival of marrow cells. At the same time, the bone surfaces receives a therapeutically effective radiation dose. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Ra-223 is a promising candidate

  19. Congenital cholesteatoma of external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Laura; Carrera Fernández, Sandra; Moretti, Jorge

    2002-02-01

    A 7-month-old male child is reported with congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal. We describe the clinical features, computed tomography finding and surgical treatment. Congenital cholesteatomas can occur within the temporal bone. There are six places of location: (1) petrous apex, (2) mastoid, (3) middle ear, (4) both middle ear and mastoid, (5) external ear canal and (6) within the squamous portion of the temporal bone. Congenital cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is rare. Generally, it appears in the canal floor without lesions in the tympanic membrane. Computed tomography completes the study. Treatment consists of excision of the mass.

  20. Electronic considerations for externally segmented germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Landis, D. A.; Goulding, F. S.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Malone, D. F.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The dominant background source for germanium gamma ray detector spectrometers used for some astrophysics observations is internal beta decay. Externally segmented germanium gamma ray coaxial detectors can identify beta decay by localizing the event. Energetic gamma rays interact in the germanium detector by multiple Compton interactions while beta decay is a local process. In order to recognize the difference between gamma rays and beta decay events, the external electrode (outside of detector) is electrically partitioned. The instrumentation of these external segments and the consequence with respect to the spectrometer energy signal is examined.

  1. Assembly of Superparamagnetic Filaments in External Field.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiachen; Song, Fan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2016-09-13

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of anchored magneto-elastic filaments in external magnetic field. The filaments are composed of a mixture of superparamagnetic and nonmagnetic colloidal beads interlinked with elastic springs. We explore the steady-state structures of filaments with various composition and bending rigidity subject to external magnetic field parallel to the surface. The interplay of elastic and induced magnetic interactions results in a rich phase behavior with morphologies reminiscent of macromolecular folding: bent filaments, loops, sheets, helicoids, and other collapsed structures. Our results provide new insights into the design of hierarchically assembled supramolecular structures with controlled response to external stimuli. PMID:27536958

  2. Issues with external occultation of a coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanna, A. Raja; Mathew, Shibu K.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Singh, J.; Prasad, B. R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper addresses some of the issues related to externally occulted solar coronagraph; vignetting and achievable resolution due to an external occulter. The analytical expression by Evans (J Opt Soc Am 38:1083-1085, 1948) is used to perform the initial calculations. An expression for the vignetting for a given external occulter and field angle is derived. The values obtained with the derived expression are verified with those obtained by ZEMAX an Optical design software. The degradation in angular resolution of the system due to vignetting is also presented and an empirical relation to calculate the normalized resolution for a given amount of vignetting is obtained.

  3. A COMPARISON OF THE ROSE-WAALER, LATEX FIXATION, "RA-TEST," AND BENTONITE FLOCCULATION TESTS.

    PubMed

    Greenbury, C L; Keningale, J

    1960-07-01

    The bentonite flocculation test of Bozicevich, Bunim, Freund, and Ward (1958), the latex fixation test of Singer and Plotz (1956), and the "RA-test" (a latex reagent for use as a slide test) of Hyland Laboratories have been compared with each other and with a modified Rose-Waaler test, the behaviour of which has been previously extensively investigated. In these tests sera from 2,250 patients were tested by two or more methods on 3,000 occasions. The findings of this trial are set out and the merits of the tests and reasons for disagreement among them are discussed. It is concluded that the most satisfactory means of testing rheumatoid sera is by the Rose-Waaler test and the "RA-test," or a satisfactory modification of it, in parallel.

  4. TheRadio Science Experiment VeRa onboard ESA's Venus Express (VEX) Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeusler, Bernd; Paetzold, M.; Bird, M. K.; Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, L. G.; Dehant, V.; Imamura, T.; Tellmann, S.; Mattei, R.

    2006-09-01

    The VEX spacecraft was successfully injected into the Venus orbit on April 11, 2006. VeRa is an active radio sounding instrument which will measure atmospheric/ionospheric temperature and density profiles, sound with bistatic radar experiments the surface of the planet, will measure its gravity anomalies and investigate also the structure of the corona by analyzing radio carrier signals received on ground in the S- and X-frequency bands. The radio science instrument VeRa is equipped with an ultrastable oscillator (USO) which will be used especially for atmospheric sounding and bistatic radar experiments as frequency reference in the OneWay transmission mode. We will present the current status of the experiment, the results of the commissioning tests and first scientific results.

  5. Electric dipole moments of actinide atoms and RaO molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2008-02-15

    We have calculated the atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) induced in {sup 229}Pa and {sup 225}Ac by their respective nuclear Schiff moments S. The results are d({sup 229}Pa)=-9.5x10{sup -17} [S/(e fm)]e cm=-1.1x10{sup -20}{eta} e cm and d({sup 225}Ac)=-8.6x10{sup -17} [S/(e fm)]e cm=-0.8x10{sup -21}{eta} e cm. EDM of {sup 229}Pa is 3x10{sup 4} times larger than {sup 199}Hg EDM and 40 times larger than {sup 225}Ra EDM. Possible use of actinides in solid state experiments is also discussed. The (T,P)-odd spin-axis interaction in RaO molecule is 500 times larger than in TlF.

  6. Investigations of Ra{sup +} properties to test possibilities for new optical-frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Chaudhuri, R. K.; Mukherjee, D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Jungmann, K.

    2007-10-15

    The present work tests the suitability of the narrow transitions 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} and 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}6d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} in Ra{sup +} for optical frequency standard studies. Our calculations of the lifetimes of the metastable 6d states using the relativistic coupled-cluster theory suggest that they are sufficiently long for Ra{sup +} to be considered as a potential candidate for an atomic clock. This is further corroborated by our studies of the hyperfine interactions, dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities, and quadrupole moments of the appropriate states of this system.

  7. Exotic nuclear decay of /sup 223/Ra by emission of /sup 14/C nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gales, S.; Hourani, E.; Hussonnois, M.; Schapira, J.P.; Stab, L.; Vergnes, M.

    1984-08-20

    The exotic nuclear decay of /sup 223/Ra by emission of /sup 14/C nuclei has been investigated by use of an intense radioactive /sup 227/Ac source and a magnetic spectrometer with a large solid angle. After a run of 5 d, a group of eleven events was observed at the expected location of /sup 14/C in a ..delta..E-E telescope calibrated with a /sup 14/C beam. A branching ratio of (5.5 +- 2.0) x 10/sup -10/ was measured for the emission of /sup 14/C nuclei relative to ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 223/Ra in agreement with the previously reported ratio of (8.5 +- 2.5) x 10/sup -10/. .AE

  8. Interpretation of the fine structure in the sup 14 C radioactive decay of sup 223 Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K. ); Ragnarsson, I. )

    1991-03-01

    The experimental hindrance factors determined from the fine structure in the {sup 14}C decay of {sup 223}Ra are strikingly similar to the hindrance factors observed in the alpha decay of odd-{ital A} reflection-asymmetric deformed nuclei in spite of the deformed to spherical shape which occurs in the {sup 14}C decay. Calculations of the overlap between the reflection-asymmetric ground state of {sup 223}Ra and the spherical shell-model orbitals of {sup 209}Pb involved in the {sup 14}C decay are consistent with the experimental hindrance factors from the {sup 14}C fine structure except that the {ital j}{sub 15/2} orbital is more strongly populated experimentally than the calculations suggest.

  9. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  10. The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, Donald; Melchior, Daniel

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as 90Sr and 226Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO 4 were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40°C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash fades and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO 4. 226Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10 -11.3 to 10 -12.7 m, are not controlled by RaSO 4 solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  11. Study of the distribution of ²²⁶Ra in ground water near the uranium industry of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R M; Jha, V N; Sahoo, S K; Sethy, N K; Shukla, A K; Puranik, V D; Kushwaha, H S

    2012-01-01

    Ground water is the principal source of drinking water in the rural areas of India. With the aim of determining, the contribution of (226)Ra to natural background radiation through drinking water exposure pathway near an operating uranium mining industry at Jaduguda, Jharkhand state of eastern India, the (226)Ra activity concentrations were measured in potable ground water. The water analysed, both tube well and well water, was collected in areas near the uranium industry and away. The (226)Ra concentration was measured by emanometric technique. The (226)Ra level in ground water was ranging between minimum detection limit of 3.5 mBq l(-1) and a maximum of 208 mBq l(-1). The analysis of variance reveals that there is insignificant statistical variation in the median (226)Ra concentration up to a distance of >10 km from the mining complex. Variation in concentration of (226)Ra in sources is attributed to the local geochemistry and environmental factors. The (226)Ra concentration was significantly elevated in natural artesian wells in the vicinity of uranium mineralised hill and it varies from 53.4 to 754 mBq l(-1). The WHO [Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Third Edition, Vol. 1, Recommendation (2004)] guideline value of 1000 mBq l(-1) has not been exceeded in any of the sources investigated.

  12. Spontaneous secretion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) by cells isolated from herniated lumbar discal tissue after discectomy.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Reinecke, J A; Meijer, H; Wehling, P

    1998-09-01

    In the study presented, cells of a herniated lumbar disc were cultivated in vitro and analysed for interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) production. The objective of this study was the detection of IL-1beta and IL-1Ra secreted by herniated lumbar discal cells after discectomy. The involvement of cytokines in the degeneration of intervertebral discs and in the pathophysiology of radiculopathy is established. Antagonizing proteins, e.g. IL-1Ra are thought to have considerable therapeutic potential. In the present study, a 51-year-old male with massive sequestrated lumbar disc herniation at L5/S1 was treated by microsurgical discectomy. Discal cells were isolated, cultures and culture supernatants immunochemically analysed for IL-1beta and IL-1Ra secretion. Spontaneous secretion of IL-1Ra was found. IL-1beta was not detected. Our findings might contradict recent studies on the role of IL-1beta and IL-1Ra. A possible therapeutic role of exogenous IL-1Ra in disc degeneration needs further research. PMID:9770331

  13. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... (CDC) to develop a multi-city AED registry that will link with the CDC-funded Cardiac Arrest Registry.... What factors or criteria should be considered when designing external defibrillators for use...

  14. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  15. The Hillman Rotation: An External Clinic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Joan M.; Veith, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Describes the external optometric education program at the Sidney Hillman Health Centre (Chicago, Illinois). Discusses the history of the clinic, its administrative and educational philosophy, and its affiliation with two prominent hospitals and the Illinois College of Optometry. (DB)

  16. Osteoma of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, I; Aikawa, T; Honda, M; Ouchi, J

    1984-01-01

    A case of osteoma of the external auditory canal in a 19-year-old male patient was reported. The differentiation between osteoma and exostosis was discussed clinically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically.

  17. External Fixation of Open Humerus Factures

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, JL; Mahoney, Craig R; Steinbronn, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen patients with open shaft of humerus fractures were treated with a monolateral external fixator. Nine patients presented with nerve palsies. Two radial nerves were disrupted and required grafting. Of the seven others, six spontaneously recovered and one brachial plexus partially improved. All fractures healed. The average duration of external fixation was 21 weeks. Four patients required additional procedures prior to healing (external fixator reapplication - 2, plating and bone grafting - 2). Two of these four experienced breakage of 4.5 mm external fixation pins. Eight patients developed pin tract infections, which all resolved with local care and antibiotics. Thirteen patients were contacted at an average of 63 months after injury. Eleven reported they were satisfied with their result, nine had no functional limits, and eight reported no pain. PMID:10847515

  18. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  19. Numerical study of external burning flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, Robert D.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the successful application of CFD to modeling an external burning flowfield. The study used the 2D, 3D, and PNS versions of the SPARK code. Various grids, boundary conditions, and ignition methodologies have been employed. Flameholding was achieved through the use of a subsonic outflow condition and a hot block located behind the step to ignite the fuel. Since the resulting burning produces a large subsonic region downstream of the cowl, this entire surface can be pressurized to the level of the back pressure. An evaluation of interactions between the ramjet exhaust and the external burning products demonstrate the complexity of this design issue. Ths code is now capable of evaluating the external burning effectiveness for flight vehicles using simple injector schemes, and the methodology can be readily applied to other external burning designs.

  20. Quantifying bone weathering stages using the average roughness parameter Ra measured from 3D data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietti, Laura A.

    2016-09-01

    Bone surface texture is known to degrade in a predictable fashion due to subaerial exposure, and can thus act as a relative proxy for estimating temporal information from modern and ancient bone assemblages. To date, the majority of bone weathering data is collected on a categorical scale based on descriptive terms. While this qualitative classification of weathering data is well established, textural analyses of bone surfaces may provide means to quantify weathering stages but have yet to be tested. Here, I examined the suitability of textural analyses for bone weathering studies by first establishing bone surface regions most appropriate for weathering analyses. I then measured and compared the roughness texture of weathered bones at different stages. To establish regions of bone most suitable for textural analyses, Ra was measured from 3D scans of dorsal ribs of four adult ungulate taxa. Results indicate that the rib-shafts from unweathered ungulate skeletons were similar and are likely good candidates because differences in surface texture will not be due to differences in initial bone texture. To test if textural measurements could reliably characterize weathering stages, the average roughness values (Ra) were measured from weathered ungulate rib-shafts assigned to four descriptive weathering stages. Results from analyses indicate that the Ra was statistically distinct for each weathering stage and that roughness positively correlates with the degree of weathering. As such, results suggest that textural analyses may provide the means for quantifying bone-weathering stages. Using Ra and other quantifiable texture parameters may enable more reliable and comparative taphonomic analyses by reducing inter-observer variations and by providing numerical data more compatible for multivariate statistics.

  1. Coelimination and Survival in Gene Network Evolution: Dismantling the RA-Signaling in a Chordate.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Belyaeva, Olga V; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Kedishvili, Natalia Y; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    The bloom of genomics is revealing gene loss as a pervasive evolutionary force generating genetic diversity that shapes the evolution of species. Outside bacteria and yeast, however, the understanding of the process of gene loss remains elusive, especially in the evolution of animal species. Here, using the dismantling of the retinoic acid metabolic gene network (RA-MGN) in the chordate Oikopleura dioica as a case study, we combine approaches of comparative genomics, phylogenetics, biochemistry, and developmental biology to investigate the mutational robustness associated to biased patterns of gene loss. We demonstrate the absence of alternative pathways for RA-synthesis in O. dioica, which suggests that gene losses of RA-MGN were not compensated by mutational robustness, but occurred in a scenario of regressive evolution. In addition, the lack of drastic phenotypic changes associated to the loss of RA-signaling provides an example of the inverse paradox of Evo-Devo. This work illustrates how the identification of patterns of gene coelimination-in our case five losses (Rdh10, Rdh16, Bco1, Aldh1a, and Cyp26)-is a useful strategy to recognize gene network modules associated to distinct functions. Our work also illustrates how the identification of survival genes helps to recognize neofunctionalization events and ancestral functions. Thus, the survival and extensive duplication of Cco and RdhE2 in O. dioica correlated with the acquisition of complex compartmentalization of expression domains in the digestive system and a process of enzymatic neofunctionalization of the Cco, while the surviving Aldh8 could be related to its ancestral housekeeping role against toxic aldehydes. PMID:27406791

  2. Thermal Infrared (8-13 micron) Spectra of the NEA 2100 Ra-Shalom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; McConnochie, T. H.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the near-Earth asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom were measured on August 22 and 23 (UT) 2003 at Palomar Observatory using Spectrocam-10 on the 200'' Hale telescope. Total integration time was 186 minutes. These observations were part of the multi-wavelength observing campaign organized by Shepard et al. (2004). The thermal spectra of most main-belt asteroids can be well modelled by the Standard Thermal Model (STM) with a ``beaming parameter'' η =0.756 ± 0.014, which implies rough ``dusty'' surfaces of negligible thermal inertia. A STM fit of our Ra-Shalom data, however, yields η =1.2, corroborating the conclusion of Harris et al. (1998) and Lebofsky et al. (1979) that Ra-Shalom has a substantial thermal inertia. Harris et al., however, derived a higher value η =1.6--1.8 from their 1997 spectrophotometric data. We have used the pole solution of Kaasalainen et al. (2004) to apply a more sophisticated thermophysical model (Emery et al., 1998) to the circumstances of both our observations and those of Harris et al. Our preliminary result is that both data sets are consistent with asteroid radius R=1.15 km and thermal inertia ≥ 580 J/m2}/s{0.5/K. This is a lower limit because at the phase angles of these observations, surface roughness increases color temperature by infrared ``beaming''. Further modelling will be conducted with varying surface roughnesses. Despite its unusually high thermal inertia, Ra-Shalom appears to be similar to its main-belt counterparts in lacking spectral emissivity variation at the 5% level. (1) Shepard et al. (2004), LPSC XXXV, #1120. (2) Harris et al. (1998), Icarus 135, 441-450. (3) Lebofsky et al. (1979), Astron. J. 84, 885-888. (4) Kaasalainen et al. (2004), Icarus 167, 178-196. (5) Emery et al. (1998), Icarus 136, 104-123.

  3. Application of Envisat RA-2 measurements over land surfaces: the case of Mozambique flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorihuela, M. J.; Roca, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radar altimetry measurements have been traditionally used to monitor ocean surfaces and ice caps. Previous studies have shown the potentialities of radar altimetry to monitor land surfaces at the global scale. However, radar altimetry applications over continental surfaces remain relatively underdeveloped. The aim of this study is to use Envisat RA-2 data to detect water puddles of very reduced dimensions (about 1 meter wide) were typically malaria mosquitoes reproduce. Different teams have already carried out studies in order to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) data with epidemiology purposes. Nowadays it has been demonstrated that there is no instrument that could detect such small patches of water unless there are many of them spread in an area of several hundreds of meters. The interest of RA-2 relies on its ability to discriminate a particular echo shape. Due to the flatness of these water surfaces (and therefore very specular reflection), these areas will produce a particular echo shape even if the water surface is only a small part of the radar footprint. Despite RA-2 spatial resolution (about 350m) being rather poor when compared to other radar systems like ASAR (20m), its ability to discrimate a particular echo shape can allow to detect water surfaces much smaller than the RA-2 spatial resolution. In this study, five-year-measurements of the Envisat radar altimeter are studied over Mozambique. The temporal and spatial stability of the parameters from the different nominal retracking procedures is assessed. Our results show, among other, the capabilities of radar altimeter to map flooded areas. These results are very promising and they open ground for new applications.

  4. The results of palaeontological excavations in the Sadowa Góra quarry (2012-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Skreczko, Sylwia; Wolny, Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    Palaeontological fieldwork (2012-14) in the Sadowa Góra quarry carried out under the auspices of the University of Silesia, within the framework of a research project supported by the National Science Centre, helped to document the taxonomic diversity of Middle Triassic marine vertebrates from the Cracow-Silesia region. Accumulations of fossil bones are correlated with storm deposition and are time-averaged

  5. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization. PMID:27134401

  6. A soluble class II cytokine receptor, IL-22RA2, is a naturally occurring IL-22 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenfeng; Presnell, Scott R.; Parrish-Novak, Julia; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Jaspers, Steve; Chen, Zhi; Dillon, Stacey R.; Gao, Zeren; Gilbert, Teresa; Madden, Karen; Schlutsmeyer, Stacy; Yao, Lena; Whitmore, Theodore E.; Chandrasekher, Yasmin; Grant, Francis J.; Maurer, Mark; Jelinek, Laura; Storey, Harold; Brender, Ty; Hammond, Angie; Topouzis, Stavros; Clegg, Christopher H.; Foster, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    IL-22 is an IL-10 homologue that binds to and signals through the class II cytokine receptor heterodimer IL-22RA1/CRF2–4. IL-22 is produced by T cells and induces the production of acute-phase reactants in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its involvement in inflammation. Here we report the identification of a class II cytokine receptor designated IL-22RA2 (IL-22 receptor-α 2) that appears to be a naturally expressed soluble receptor. IL-22RA2 shares amino acid sequence homology with IL-22RA1 (also known as IL-22R, zcytor11, and CRF2–9) and is physically adjacent to IL-20Rα and IFN-γR1 on chromosome 6q23.3–24.2. We demonstrate that IL-22RA2 binds specifically to IL-22 and neutralizes IL-22-induced proliferation of BaF3 cells expressing IL-22 receptor subunits. IL-22RA2 mRNA is highly expressed in placenta and spleen by Northern blotting. PCR analysis using RNA from various tissues and cell lines showed that IL-22RA2 was expressed in a range of tissues, including those in the digestive, female reproductive, and immune systems. In situ hybridization revealed the dominant cell types expressing IL-22RA2 were mononuclear cells and epithelium. Because IL-22 induces the expression of acute phase reactants, IL-22RA2 may play an important role as an IL-22 antagonist in the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:11481447

  7. Uptake of Ra during the recrystallization of barite: a microscopic and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Martina; Brandt, Felix; Breuer, Uwe; Bosbach, Dirk

    2014-06-17

    A combined macroscopic and microanalytical approach was applied on two distinct barite samples from Ra uptake batch experiments using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. The experiments were set up at near to equilibrium conditions to distinguish between two possible scenarios for the uptake of Ra by already existent barite: (1) formation of a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution surface layer on the barite or (2) a complete recrystallization, leading to homogeneous Ba1-xRaxSO4 crystals. It could be clearly shown that Ra uptake in all barite particles analyzed within this study is not limited to the surface but extends to the entire solid. For most grains a homogeneous distribution of Ra could be determined, indicating a complete recrystallization of barite into a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution. The maxima of the Ra/Ba intensity ratio distribution histograms calculated from ToF-SIMS are identical with the expected Ra/Ba ratios calculated from mass balance assuming a complete recrystallization. In addition, the role of Ra during the recrystallization of barite was examined via detailed SEM investigations. Depending on the type of barite used, an additional coarsening effect or a strong formation of oriented aggregates was observed compared to blank samples without Ra. In conclusion, the addition of Ra to a barite at close to equilibrium conditions has a major impact on the system leading to a fast re-equilibration of the solid to a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution and visible effects on the particle size distribution, even at room temperature.

  8. Low density of sympathetic nerve fibres and increased density of brain derived neurotrophic factor positive cells in RA synovium

    PubMed Central

    Weidler, C; Holzer, C; Harbuz, M; Hofbauer, R; Angele, P; Scholmerich, J; Straub, R

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between density of nerve fibres and the presence of BDNF+ cells. Methods: Densities of nerve fibres and BDNF+ cells were detected by quantitative immunohistochemistry in fresh synovial tissue from 52 patients with RA, 59 with OA, and 26 controls (Co). BDNF was also detected by in situ hybridisation. Results: Sympathetic nerve fibre density was similar in Co and OA but markedly reduced in RA (p = 0.002), whereas density of substance P positive (SP+) sensory nerve fibres was lower in OA than in Co and RA (p = 0.002). The ratio of sympathetic/SP+ sensory nerve fibre density was highest in OA and Co, followed by RA. The correlation between density of sympathetic nerve fibres and SP+ sensory nerve fibres in OA (R = 0.425, p = 0.001) was strongly positive, had a positive trend in Co (R = 0.243, NS), but was negative in RA (R = –0.292, p = 0.040). In RA and OA tissue the density of BDNF+ cells was high in sublining areas but markedly lower in Co (p = 0.001). BDNF+ cell density correlated positively with the ratio of sympathetic/SP+ sensory nerve fibre density in Co (R = 0.433, p = 0.045) and in OA (R = 0.613, p = 0.015), but not in RA (R = 0.101, NS). Immunohistochemical double staining demonstrated that some macrophages and fibroblasts were positive for BDNF. Conclusions: The correlation of density of SP+ sensory with sympathetic nerve fibres was positive in Co and OA but negative in RA. BDNF may have a stimulatory role on growth of sympathetic in relation to SP+ sensory nerve fibres in Co and OA, but not in RA. PMID:15608299

  9. Uptake of Ra during the recrystallization of barite: a microscopic and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Martina; Brandt, Felix; Breuer, Uwe; Bosbach, Dirk

    2014-06-17

    A combined macroscopic and microanalytical approach was applied on two distinct barite samples from Ra uptake batch experiments using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. The experiments were set up at near to equilibrium conditions to distinguish between two possible scenarios for the uptake of Ra by already existent barite: (1) formation of a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution surface layer on the barite or (2) a complete recrystallization, leading to homogeneous Ba1-xRaxSO4 crystals. It could be clearly shown that Ra uptake in all barite particles analyzed within this study is not limited to the surface but extends to the entire solid. For most grains a homogeneous distribution of Ra could be determined, indicating a complete recrystallization of barite into a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution. The maxima of the Ra/Ba intensity ratio distribution histograms calculated from ToF-SIMS are identical with the expected Ra/Ba ratios calculated from mass balance assuming a complete recrystallization. In addition, the role of Ra during the recrystallization of barite was examined via detailed SEM investigations. Depending on the type of barite used, an additional coarsening effect or a strong formation of oriented aggregates was observed compared to blank samples without Ra. In conclusion, the addition of Ra to a barite at close to equilibrium conditions has a major impact on the system leading to a fast re-equilibration of the solid to a Ba1-xRaxSO4 solid solution and visible effects on the particle size distribution, even at room temperature. PMID:24845972

  10. [sup 223]Ra levels fed in the [sup 223]Fr [beta] decay

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Hadi, A.; Barci, V.; Weiss, B.; Maria, H.; Ardisson, G. ); Hussonnois, M.; Constantinescu, O. )

    1993-01-01

    The [sup 223]Fr [beta] decay was reinvestigated using high-resolution single [gamma] spectrometry as well as [gamma]-[gamma] coincidence techniques. For single [gamma]-spectra measurements, radiochemically pure [sup 223]Fr sources were obtained by chromatographic separation from a 75 MBq activity [sup 227]Ac parent source and continuously purified of [sup 223]Ra and daughters. The analysis of the [gamma] spectra of 30 sources showed the existence of 131 [gamma] lines, of which 87 are reported for the first time in the [sup 223]Fr [beta] decay although many of them are observed following the [sup 227]Th [alpha] decay. The [sup 223]Fr half-life was remeasured and found to be [ital T][sub 1/2]=22.00[plus minus]0.07 min. [gamma]-[gamma]-[ital t] coincidence measurements were also carried out with [sup 223]Fr purified sources. The [sup 223]Ra level scheme was built on the basis of our [gamma] data, as well as [sup 227]Th [alpha]-decay data. Among the 32 excited [sup 223]Ra levels, of which 22 were also known from [sup 227]Th [alpha] decay, 13 are newly reported from [sup 223]Fr [beta] decay. Low energy levels ([ital E][lt]400 keV) may be classified as parity doublet bands according to the predictions of the reflection asymmetric rotor model. Above a 700 keV gap, a coexistence of symmetric and asymmetric shapes including both static and dynamic octupole correlations is suggested.

  11. 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb in some vent waters of the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, K. K.

    1982-08-01

    The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U and 210Pb have been measured in waters from the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden thermal fields at the Galapagos spreading center over a temperature range of ˜2.5-16°C. The 226Ra-T plots yield slopes of 0.112 and 0.036 dpm/kg°C for the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden respectively yielding a global hydrothermal 226Ra flux less than 5% of that required to sustain the oceanic inventory. 238U concentration in waters <9°C is the same as that in ambient sea water whereas water hotter than ˜9°C shows a decreasing trend with temperature to zero 238U at ˜29°C. 210Pb concentration in Mussel Bed increases with temperature, and extrapolated to ˜350°C yields a 210Pb concentration considerably less than that expected from 222Rn decay and basalt alteration.

  12. EXPLoRA-web: linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci using bulk segregant analysis.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Tamayo, Sergio; Duitama, Jorge; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of genomic regions associated with a phenotype of interest is a fundamental step toward solving questions in biology and improving industrial research. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) combined with high-throughput sequencing is a technique to efficiently identify these genomic regions associated with a trait of interest. However, distinguishing true from spuriously linked genomic regions and accurately delineating the genomic positions of these truly linked regions requires the use of complex statistical models currently implemented in software tools that are generally difficult to operate for non-expert users. To facilitate the exploration and analysis of data generated by bulked segregant analysis, we present EXPLoRA-web, a web service wrapped around our previously published algorithm EXPLoRA, which exploits linkage disequilibrium to increase the power and accuracy of quantitative trait loci identification in BSA analysis. EXPLoRA-web provides a user friendly interface that enables easy data upload and parallel processing of different parameter configurations. Results are provided graphically and as BED file and/or text file and the input is expected in widely used formats, enabling straightforward BSA data analysis. The web server is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/explora-web/.

  13. EXPLoRA-web: linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci using bulk segregant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Tamayo, Sergio; Duitama, Jorge; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions associated with a phenotype of interest is a fundamental step toward solving questions in biology and improving industrial research. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) combined with high-throughput sequencing is a technique to efficiently identify these genomic regions associated with a trait of interest. However, distinguishing true from spuriously linked genomic regions and accurately delineating the genomic positions of these truly linked regions requires the use of complex statistical models currently implemented in software tools that are generally difficult to operate for non-expert users. To facilitate the exploration and analysis of data generated by bulked segregant analysis, we present EXPLoRA-web, a web service wrapped around our previously published algorithm EXPLoRA, which exploits linkage disequilibrium to increase the power and accuracy of quantitative trait loci identification in BSA analysis. EXPLoRA-web provides a user friendly interface that enables easy data upload and parallel processing of different parameter configurations. Results are provided graphically and as BED file and/or text file and the input is expected in widely used formats, enabling straightforward BSA data analysis. The web server is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/explora-web/. PMID:27105844

  14. The atRA-responsive gene neuron navigator 2 functions in neurite outgrowth and axonal elongation.

    PubMed

    Muley, P D; McNeill, E M; Marzinke, M A; Knobel, K M; Barr, M M; Clagett-Dame, M

    2008-11-01

    Neuron navigator 2 (Nav2) was first identified as an all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-responsive gene in human neuroblastoma cells (retinoic acid-induced in neuroblastoma 1, RAINB1) that extend neurites after exposure to atRA. It is structurally related to the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-53 gene that is required for cell migration and axonal outgrowth. To gain insight into NAV2 function, the full-length human protein was expressed in C. elegans unc-53 mutants under the control of a mechanosensory neuron promoter. Transgene expression of NAV2 rescued the defects in unc-53 mutant mechanosensory neuron elongation, indicating that Nav2 is an ortholog of unc-53. Using a loss-of-function approach, we also show that Nav2 induction is essential for atRA to induce neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. The NAV2 protein is located both in the cell body and along the length of the growing neurites of SH-SY5Y cells in a pattern that closely mimics that of neurofilament and microtubule proteins. Transfection of Nav2 deletion constructs in Cos-1 cells reveals a region of the protein (aa 837-1065) that directs localization with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Collectively, this work supports a role for NAV2 in neurite outgrowth and axonal elongation and suggests this protein may act by facilitating interactions between microtubules and other proteins such as neurofilaments that are key players in the formation and stability of growing neurites.

  15. 18O and 226Ra in the Minjiang River estuary, China and their hydrological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huatai; Guo, Zhanrong; Gao, Aiguo; Yuan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the 2H, 18O and 226Ra values in groundwater and surface water in the Minjiang River estuary were investigated in the dry and wet seasons. The δ18O values in the dry season were always higher than those in the wet season in both groundwater and surface water because of the presence of evaporation in the water cycle process. During the dry season, the δ18O values in groundwater on the southern bank of the Minjiang River are much higher than those on the northern bank because evaporation is more intense in the farmland of the southern bank than in the urbanized northern bank. The δ18O values in the estuarine water exhibit a good positive correlation with salinity, with a coefficient of 0.96 (p = 0.05) in both seasons. The 226Ra activities in the estuarine water increase with increasing salinity because of desorption from riverine suspended particles. The 226Ra activity reaches a peak value at a salinity of 20.5. Based on a three-endmember model, the average proportions of the estuarine water are calculated to be 0.02 for groundwater, 0.39 for river water and 0.59 for seawater. From this mixing ratio, the groundwater discharge into the estuary is estimated to be 9.31 × 106 m3 d-1 in the wet season.

  16. [The life and work of Zaíra Cintra Vidal].

    PubMed

    Lopes, G T; Caldas, N P; Lima, T C; Martingil, I C

    2001-01-01

    This is a social-historical study that aims at describing the trajectory of Zaíra Cintra Vidal, her participation in the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and in the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). The study is based on the concepts of symbolic power, habitus and symbolic struggle of Pierre Bourdieu. The primary sources are documents which were collected in the Documentation Center of Escola de Enfermagem Ana Neri (EEAN--Ana Neri School of Nursing) in the Federeal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and at the Memory Center of the Faculty of Nursing (FENF) in the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). The data was collected between August 2000 and April 2001 by means of document analysis script. The outcomes showed that Zaíra Cintra Vidal was born on 5 May 1903; graduated from the Nursing School of the National Public Health Department in 1926; studied and post-graduated in the United States from 1927 until 1929 and returned to Brazil in 1943. Zaíra Cintra Vidal was the founder of the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and was its first director for nine years. She also and took part in ABEn's Direction Board and in the Revista Anais de Enfermagem (Nursing Magazine).

  17. Criticality safety evaluation for pathfinder fuel elements in model No. RA-3 shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1990-02-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently possesses approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which require shipment from their nuclear facility. It is planned to use Model No. RA-3 shipping containers for shipment of these elements. Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 22, Docket No. 71-4986 authorizes the use of these containers for Fissile Class 1 shipments of UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies and UO{sub 2} fuel rods with parameters similar to the Pathfinder fuel elements. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-V.a and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis is described and the results are given in this report. This analysis demonstrates that the RA-3 container with Pathfinder fuel elements complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.59 for Fissile Class 2 shipping containers with six as the allowable number of containers in a single shipment. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Criticality safety evaluation for Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Pennsylvania State University presently possesses approximately 415 Pathfinder fuel elements which require shipment from their nuclear facility. It is planned to use Model No. RA-3 shipping containers for shipment of these elements. Certificate of Compliance No. 4986, Revision No. 18, Docket No. 71-4986 authorizes the use of these containers for Fissile Class I shipments of UO/sub 2/ fuel assemblies and UO/sub 2/ fuel rods with parameters similar to the Pathfinder fuel elements. Criticality safety calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code, KENO-V.a and 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections for shipment of Pathfinder fuel elements in Model No. RA-3 shipping containers. The analysis is described and the results are given in this report. This analysis demonstrates that the RA-3 container with Pathfinder fuel elements complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.59 for Fissile Class II shipping containers with six as the allowable number of containers in a single shipment. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. EXPLoRA-web: linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci using bulk segregant analysis.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Tamayo, Sergio; Duitama, Jorge; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Identification of genomic regions associated with a phenotype of interest is a fundamental step toward solving questions in biology and improving industrial research. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) combined with high-throughput sequencing is a technique to efficiently identify these genomic regions associated with a trait of interest. However, distinguishing true from spuriously linked genomic regions and accurately delineating the genomic positions of these truly linked regions requires the use of complex statistical models currently implemented in software tools that are generally difficult to operate for non-expert users. To facilitate the exploration and analysis of data generated by bulked segregant analysis, we present EXPLoRA-web, a web service wrapped around our previously published algorithm EXPLoRA, which exploits linkage disequilibrium to increase the power and accuracy of quantitative trait loci identification in BSA analysis. EXPLoRA-web provides a user friendly interface that enables easy data upload and parallel processing of different parameter configurations. Results are provided graphically and as BED file and/or text file and the input is expected in widely used formats, enabling straightforward BSA data analysis. The web server is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/explora-web/. PMID:27105844

  20. RaSH, a rapid subtraction hybridization approach for identifying and cloning differentially expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongping; Kang, Dong-chul; Alexandre, Deborah; Fisher, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    Human melanoma cells growth-arrest irreversibly and terminally differentiate on treatment with a combination of fibroblast interferon and the protein kinase C activator mezerein. This experimental protocol also results in a loss of tumorigenic potential and profound changes in gene expression. Various cloning and cDNA microarray strategies are being used to determine the complete spectrum of gene expression changes underlying these alterations in human melanoma cells. An efficient approach, Rapid Subtraction Hybridization (RaSH), has been developed that is permitting the identification of genes of potential relevance to cancer growth control and terminal cell differentiation. RaSH cDNA libraries are prepared from double-stranded cDNAs that are enzymatically digested into small fragments, ligated to adapters, and PCR amplified followed by incubation of tester and driver PCR fragments. This subtraction hybridization scheme is technically simple and results in the identification of a high proportion of differentially expressed sequences, including known genes and those not described in current DNA databases. The RaSH approach represents an efficient methodology for identifying and cloning genes displaying differential expression that associate with and potentially regulate complex biological processes. PMID:11058161