Savage, B. D.; Sitko, M. L.
The 2800 A feature of Karim et al. (1983) is shown to be the result of IUE detector saturation effects in overexposed spectra. A properly exposed spectrum and an overexposed one are shown. The latter shows a broad absorption peak at 2800 A while the former does not.
... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...
Each year almost 800,000 Americans have a heart attack. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart suddenly ... it's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if you or ...
Comments on Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim's "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning" [and] A Reader Reacts . . . [and] Identity or Identification? A Response to Some Objections.
Goldstein, Lynn; Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M.
Goldstein questions the way Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim portrayed her research on the language and identity of Hispanic English-as-a-Second-Language learners in his article, "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning." Ibrahim responds to these comments. (Author/VWL)
Differential response of NADP-dehydrogenases and carbon metabolism in leaves and roots of two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars (Karim and Azizi) with different sensitivities to salt stress.
Bouthour, Donia; Kalai, Tawba; Chaffei, Haouari C; Gouia, Houda; Corpas, Francisco J
Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is a common Mediterranean species of considerable agronomic importance. Salinity is one of the major threats to sustainable agricultural production mainly because it limits plant productivity. After exposing the Karim and Azizi durum wheat cultivars, which are of agronomic significance in Tunisia, to 100mM NaCl salinity, growth parameters (dry weight and length), proline content and chlorophylls were evaluated in their leaves and roots. In addition, we analyzed glutathione content and key enzymatic activities, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH-generating system. The sensitivity index indicates that cv Karim was more tolerant to salinity than cv Azizi. This higher tolerance was corroborated at the biochemical level, as cv Karim showed a greater capacity to accumulate proline, especially in leaves, while the enzyme activities studied were differentially regulated in both organs, with NADP-ICDH being the only activity to be unaffected in all organs. In summary, the data indicate that higher levels of proline accumulation and the differential responses of some key enzymes involved in the carbon metabolism and NADPH regeneration contribute to the salinity tolerance mechanism and lead to increased biomass accumulation in cv Karim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
... it as instructed while awaiting emergency help. Take aspirin, if recommended. Taking aspirin during a heart attack could reduce heart damage by helping to keep your blood from clotting. Aspirin can interact with other medications, however, so don' ...
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Heart Attacks Updated:Jan 11,2018 A heart attack is ... coronary artery damage leads to a heart attack . Heart Attack Questions and Answers What is a heart attack? ...
Guidera, K J; Ogden, J A; Highhouse, K; Pugh, L; Beatty, E
Shark attacks are rare but devastating. This case had major injuries that included an open femoral fracture, massive hemorrhage, sciatic nerve laceration, and significant skin and muscle damage. The patient required 15 operative procedures, extensive physical therapy, and orthotic assistance. A review of the literature pertaining to shark bites is included.
... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...
Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood ... The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack . Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...
First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...
describing attack models to a scenario recognition engine, a prototype of such an engine was developed, using components of the EMERALD intrusion...content. Results – The attacker gains information enabling remote access to database (i.e., privileged login information, database layout to allow...engine that uses attack specifications written in CAML. The implementation integrates two advanced technologies devel- oped in the EMERALD program [27, 31
... artery surgery - discharge Stroke - discharge Taking warfarin (Coumadin) Images Endarterectomy Transient Ischemic attack (TIA) References Biller J, Ruland S, Schneck MJ. Ischemic cerebrovascular disease. In Daroff ...
... Heart Attack - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (bosanski) Expand Section Heart Attack - bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Heart ...
Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert
Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, findmore » out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.« less
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a stroke that lasts only a few minutes. It happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is briefly blocked. Symptoms of a TIA are like other stroke symptoms, but do not ...
... to use in patients with coronary heart disease. Cognitive behavior therapy is a form of psychological treatment that has ... after a heart attack and that SSRIs and cognitive behavior therapy reduce depression, it stands to reason that treating ...
Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang
A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.
Kepler , T. B., Denny, T., Moody, M. A., and Haynes, B. F. (2009) High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and...Parks, R., Foulger, A., Jaeger, F., Donathan, M., Bilska, M., Gray, E. S., Abdool Karim, S. S., Kepler , T. B., Whitesides, J., Montefiori, D., Moody...Vandergrift, N. A., Alam, S. M., Tomaras, G. D., Kepler , T. B., Kelsoe, G., Liao, H. X., and Haynes, B. F. (2011) H3N2 influenza infection elicits
Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav
A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
White, J A
The injuries in 5 cases of shark attack in Natal during 1973-74 are reviewed. Experience in shark attacks in South Africa during this period is discussed (1965-73), and the value of protecting heavily utilized beaches in Natal with nets is assessed. The surgical applications of elasmobranch research at the Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban) and at the Headquarters of the Natal Anti-Shark Measures Board (Umhlanga Rocks) are described. Modern trends in the training of surf life-guards, the provision of basic equipment for primary resuscitation of casualties on the beaches, and the policy of general and local care of these patients in Natal are discussed.
Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Cuadrado, María L; Rodríguez-Gómez, Octavio; Valencia, Cristina; García-Ptacek, Sara
Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder. Here, the case of a patient with migraine who experienced hypothermia during her migraine attacks is presented. The authors propose that larger clinical series should be studied to evaluate the occurrence of hypothermia in migraine, as well as the possible influence of some preventive regimens in this setting.
episode of the flu and because of these misdiagnoses , some cardiologists believe that the signs and symptoms of a heart attack are often missed [25...pattern. Coronary Artery Disease Chest Pain Diabetes Lung Cancer Anemias Atrial Fibrillation Hyperlipidemia Metabolic Disorders .1 Bucket 3: Spectral...8217Urologic disease, Male genital disease, Breast disease,Female genital disease ’Complications of pregnancy, Obstetric labor complication, Puerperal
the insider amongst senior leaders of an organization [Mes08], the undercover detective within a drug cartel, or the classic secret agent planted in...to a mimicry attack that shapes the embedded malware to have a statistical distribution similar to "normal" or benign behavior. 188.8.131.52
Ingram, Joey Burton; Draelos, Timothy J.; Galiardi, Meghan
Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms requiremore » large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.« less
Almogy, Gidon; Belzberg, Howard; Mintz, Yoaz; Pikarsky, Alon K.; Zamir, Gideon; Rivkind, Avraham I.
Objective: To review the experience of a large-volume trauma center in managing and treating casualties of suicide bombing attacks. Summary Background Data: The threat of suicide bombing attacks has escalated worldwide. The ability of the suicide bomber to deliver a relatively large explosive load accompanied by heavy shrapnel to the proximity of his or her victims has caused devastating effects. Methods: The authors reviewed and analyzed the experience obtained in treating victims of suicide bombings at the level I trauma center of the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem, Israel from 2000 to 2003. Results: Evacuation is usually rapid due to the urban setting of these attacks. Numerous casualties are brought into the emergency department over a short period. The setting in which the device is detonated has implications on the type of injuries sustained by survivors. The injuries sustained by victims of suicide bombing attacks in semi-confined spaces are characterized by the degree and extent of widespread tissue damage and include multiple penetrating wounds of varying severity and location, blast injury, and burns. Conclusions: The approach to victims of suicide bombings is based on the guidelines for trauma management. Attention is given to the moderately injured, as these patients may harbor immediate life-threatening injuries. The concept of damage control can be modified to include rapid packing of multiple soft-tissue entry sites. Optimal utilization of manpower and resources is achieved by recruiting all available personnel, adopting a predetermined plan, and a centrally coordinated approach. Suicide bombing attacks seriously challenge the most experienced medical facilities. PMID:15075644
... gov/ency/article/007488.htm Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... supply blood and oxygen to the heart. A heart attack can occur if a blood clot stops the ...
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease, Angina Basic Facts & Information What ... and oxygen supply; this is what causes a heart attack. If the damaged area is small, however, your ...
Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad
The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.
Harding, Brett E; Wolf, Barbara C
The American alligator inhabits bodies of fresh water in Florida and other southeastern states. Although attacks on pets are frequent, alligator attacks on humans are relatively rare because of the animal's natural fear of man. Because of the rarity of attacks on humans, the pathologic findings and pathophysiology of death in such cases have not been well characterized in the literature. We report three cases of fatal alligator attacks that occurred in southwest Florida, each with different pathologic findings and mechanisms of death. Although the cause of death in each case was attributed to the alligator attack, the mechanisms of death differed and included exsanguination because of amputation of an extremity, overwhelming sepsis, and drowning. These cases illustrate the varied pathophysiologies associated with deaths due to alligator attacks on humans and the features that distinguish alligator bites from those of other aquatic predators.
Kreth, A.; Genender, E.; Doering, O.; Garbe, H.
This work presents a new and sophisticated approach to detect and locate the origin of electromagnetic attacks. At the example of an airport, a normal electromagnetic environment is defined, in which electromagnetic attacks shall be identified. After a brief consideration of the capabilities of high power electromagnetic sources to produce high field strength values, this contribution finally presents the approach of a sensor network, realizing the identification of electromagnetic attacks.
Výtisková, T; Suchá, D; Fučíková, Z
To describe hear-attack on crystal meth addicted pregnant woman. Case report. Acute heart-attack during pregnancy means unexpected obstetric complication. The consequences could be fatal for the mother and the fetus. Although good delivery management and treatment could reduce morbidity and mortality to a minimum.
Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim
We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.
implement blind attack protection, leaving long -standing connections, such as Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) sessions, vulnerable to exploitation. This...protection measures should a discovered vulnerability reduce attack complexity. 14. SUBJECT TERMS BGP, TCP, blind attack, blind data attack 15. NUMBER OF...implementations may not properly implement blind attack protection, leaving long -standing connections, such as BorderGateway Protocol (BGP) sessions
Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animalsmore » were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.« less
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido
Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.
... Bronchial asthma - attack References Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...
... triggers severe physical reactions when there is no real danger or apparent cause. Panic attacks can be ... a loved one A traumatic event, such as sexual assault or a serious accident Major changes in your ...
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido
Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.
to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light
Sellke, Sarah H.
Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…
Ågren, Martin; Johansson, Thomas; Hell, Martin
Hashing or encrypting a key or a password is a vital part in most network security protocols. The most practical generic attack on such schemes is a time memory trade-off attack. Such an attack inverts any one-way function using a trade-off between memory and execution time. Existing techniques include the Hellman attack and the rainbow attack, where the latter uses different reduction functions ("colours") within a table.
Asaka, Midori, Shunji Okazawa, Atsushi Taguchi, and Shigeki Goto. June 1999. “A Method of Tracing Intruders by Use of Mobile Agents”, INET’99. http...Tsuchiya, Takefumi Onabuta, Shunji Okazawa, and Shigeki Goto. November 1999. “Local Attack Detection and Intrusion Route Tracing”, IEICE Transaction on
Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina
In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…
Follettie, Joseph F.
A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)
Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug
One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka
Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold formore » the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.« less
Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941
Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng
Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability.
Chen, Yuan; Kar, Soummya; Moura, Jose M. F.
This study studies attackers with control objectives against cyber-physical systems (CPSs). The goal of the attacker is to counteract the CPS's controller and move the system to a target state while evading detection. We formulate a cost function that reflects the attacker's goals, and, using dynamic programming, we show that the optimal attack strategy reduces to a linear feedback of the attacker's state estimate. By changing the parameters of the cost function, we show how an attacker can design optimal attacks to balance the control objective and the detection avoidance objective. In conclusion, we provide a numerical illustration based onmore » a remotely controlled helicopter under attack.« less
Chen, Yuan; Kar, Soummya; Moura, Jose M. F.
This study studies attackers with control objectives against cyber-physical systems (CPSs). The goal of the attacker is to counteract the CPS's controller and move the system to a target state while evading detection. We formulate a cost function that reflects the attacker's goals, and, using dynamic programming, we show that the optimal attack strategy reduces to a linear feedback of the attacker's state estimate. By changing the parameters of the cost function, we show how an attacker can design optimal attacks to balance the control objective and the detection avoidance objective. In conclusion, we provide a numerical illustration based onmore » a remotely controlled helicopter under attack.« less
... taking vitamins help prevent heart disease or a heart attack? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. It's not yet clear ... risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. But, what is known is that no vitamin ...
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Mar 29,2018 Sounds simple doesn' ... to read. Many topics also available in Spanish . Heart Attack Tools & Resources My Cardiac Coach What Is a ...
... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...
Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.
Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203
El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal
Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395
Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…
Blakely, Benjamin A.
The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…
Dixon, A., Zhang, R., Walter, E., Parks, R., Whitesides, J., Marshall, D. J., Hwang, K. K., Yang, Y., Chen, X., Gao, F., Munshaw, S., Kepler , T. B...A., Jaeger, F., Donathan, M., Bilska, M., Gray, E. S., Abdool Karim, S. S., Kepler , T. B., Whitesides, J., Montefiori, D., Moody, M. A., Liao, H...A., Alam, S. M., Tomaras, G. D., Kepler , T. B., Kelsoe, G., Liao, H. X., and Haynes, B. F. (2011) H3N2 influenza infection elicits more cross
The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.
... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...
Heartburn or heart attack: When to worry Severe heartburn and heart attack can be hard to tell apart. Understand how they typically ... flow to your heart (angina) or an actual heart attack. Heartburn, angina and heart attack may feel very ...
Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki
Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.
Niranchana, R.; Gayathri Devi, N.; Santhi, H.; Gayathri, P.
The major threat caused to the authorised usage of Internet is Distributed Denial of Service attack. The mechanisms used to prevent the DDoS attacks are said to overcome the attack’s ability in spoofing the IP packets source addresses. By utilising Internet Protocol spoofing, the attackers cause a consequential load over the networks destination for policing attack packets. To overcome the IP Spoofing level on the Internet, We propose an Inter domain Packet Filter (IPF) architecture. The proposed scheme is not based on global routing information. The packets with reliable source addresses are not rejected, the IPF frame work works in such a manner. The spoofing capability of attackers is confined by IPF, and also the filter identifies the source of an attack packet by minimal number of candidate network.
Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo
The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.
Katerndahl, D A
Panic attacks are surprisingly common in the United States, costing our economy more than $100 million per year in disability benefits and health care expenses. However, diagnosis is difficult and consequently many patients are treated for other conditions. When an underlying disorder is determined to be present, treatment of that disorder may ameliorate attacks. If none is present, panic symptoms will respond to a variety of drugs. Behavioral therapy may be necessary in severe cases or as adjunctive therapy after attacks abate.
Moisan, Frédéric; Gonzalez, Cleotilde
Game Theory is a common approach used to understand attacker and defender motives, strategies, and allocation of limited security resources. For example, many defense algorithms are based on game-theoretic solutions that conclude that randomization of defense actions assures unpredictability, creating difficulties for a human attacker. However, many game-theoretic solutions often rely on idealized assumptions of decision making that underplay the role of human cognition and information uncertainty. The consequence is that we know little about how effective these algorithms are against human players. Using a simplified security game, we study the type of attack strategy and the uncertainty about an attacker's strategy in a laboratory experiment where participants play the role of defenders against a simulated attacker. Our goal is to compare a human defender's behavior in three levels of uncertainty (Information Level: Certain, Risky, Uncertain) and three types of attacker's strategy (Attacker's strategy: Minimax, Random, Adaptive) in a between-subjects experimental design. Best defense performance is achieved when defenders play against a minimax and a random attack strategy compared to an adaptive strategy. Furthermore, when payoffs are certain, defenders are as efficient against random attack strategy as they are against an adaptive strategy, but when payoffs are uncertain, defenders have most difficulties defending against an adaptive attacker compared to a random attacker. We conclude that given conditions of uncertainty in many security problems, defense algorithms would be more efficient if they are adaptive to the attacker actions, taking advantage of the attacker's human inefficiencies. PMID:28690557
Garson, Arthur; Engelhard, Carolyn L
For the first time since the Civil War, American life expectancy is projected to decrease, owing to the diseases associated with obesity such as diabetes, ultimately causing cardiovascular death. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults has doubled, as has the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Enough data. The Surgeon General should attack obesity the same way as smoking in 1964, with: 1) Advisory Council creation of public statements; 2) warning labels and menu information in all restaurants; 3) legislation for tax incentives for industry to promote worksite health; and 4) consideration of taxation of fatty food; the cigarette tax is now 42%. It is abundantly clear that in short order, obesity will kill more people than smoking. The time has come for the country to get serious about obesity and take lessons from our nation's campaign to reduce smoking. As patient advocates, scientists, and medical professionals, cardiologists should appropriately take the lead.
Cougar attacks on humans are increasing. Presented is a case report of a nonfatal 2-year-old male cougar attack on an 8-year-old girl in British Columbia. Discussions of wound management, rabies postexposure prophylaxis (RPEP), and the possible psychologic ramifications of such an attack are presented. Also reviewed are recommendations on actions that may be helpful in preventing an attack following a sudden encounter with a cougar. Humans must learn to coexist with cougars, which present a small but real threat to people.
Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Zhou, Enlu; Conrad, Ansgar; Ritz, Thomas; Roth, Walton T.
Background Spontaneous or unexpected panic attacks, per definition, occur out-of-the blue, in absence of cues or triggers. Accordingly, physiological arousal or instability should occur at the onset of or during the attack, but not preceding it. To test this hypothesisweexaminedif points of significant autonomic changes preceded the onset of spontaneous panic attacks. Methods Forty-three panic disorder patients underwent repeated 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Thirteen naturally panic attacks were recorded during 1,960 hours of monitoring. Minute-by-minute epochs beginning 60 minutes before, and continuing to 10 minutes after, the onset of individual attacks were examined for respiration, heart rate, and skin conductance level. Measures were controlled for physical activity and vocalization, and compared to time matched control periods within the same person. Results Significant patterns of instability across a numberof autonomic and respiratory variables were detected as early as 47 minutes before panic onset. The final minutes prior to onset were dominated by respiratory changes, with significant decreases in tidal volume followed by abrupt PCO2 increases. Panic attack onset was characterized by heart rate and tidal volume increases and a drop in PCO2. Symptom report was consistent with these changes. Skin conductance levels were generally elevated in the hour before and duringthe attacks. Changes in the matched control periods were largely absent. Conclusions Significant autonomic irregularities preceded the onset of attacks that were reported as abrupt and unexpected. The findings invite reconsideration of the current diagnostic distinction betweenuncuedand cued panic attacks. PMID:21783179
Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Bjornsson, Andri S.
Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common and often severe disorder. Clinical observations suggest that panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms may be common. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined such panic attacks in BDD. We investigated the prevalence, clinical features, and correlates of BDD-triggered panic attacks in individuals with this disorder. Methods Panic attacks and other variables were assessed using reliable and valid measures in 76 individuals with lifetime DSM-IV BDD. Results 28.9% (95% CI, 18.5%–39.4%) of participants reported lifetime panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms. The most common triggers of such attacks were feeling that others were looking at or scrutinizing the perceived appearance defects (61.9%), looking in the mirror at perceived defects (38.1%), and being in bright light where perceived defects would be more visible (23.8%). The most common panic attack symptoms were palpitations (86.4%), sweating (66.7%), shortness of breath (63.6%), trembling or shaking (63.6%), and fear of losing control or going crazy (63.6%). Compared to participants without such panic attacks, those with BDD-triggered panic attacks had more severe lifetime BDD, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as poorer functioning and quality of life on a number of measures. They were also less likely to be employed and more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized and to have had suicidal ideation due to BDD. Conclusions Panic attacks triggered by BDD-related situations appear common in individuals with this disorder. BDD-triggered panic attacks were associated with greater symptom severity and morbidity. PMID:23653076
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting of...
Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian
Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.
Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David
Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753
Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael
As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.
Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.
Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.
The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.
Grover, Sandeep; Painuly, Nitesh; Gupta, Nitin; Mattoo, Surendra K
Research on anger attacks has been mostly limited to unipolar depression, and only a few studies have focused on anger attacks in bipolar depression. In a cross-sectional study, 22 subjects with bipolar depression were compared to 22 subjects with recurrent unipolar depression using an anger attack questionnaire, irritability, depression and anxiety scale and quality of life scale. Anger attacks were present in 62.5% subjects with recurrent depression (RDD group) compared to 54.5% in subjects with bipolar depression (BD group), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the RDD and BD groups on the Irritability Depression and Anxiety Scale and WHOQOL-Bref except that the BD group had a poorer quality of life (QOL) compared to the RDD group in the social relationship domain (t=-2.30, p<0.05). In the BD group, the subjects with anger attacks were older (t=2.77, p<0.05), had significantly higher scores on the Irritability-Outwards component of IDA (t=3.90, p<0.01) and shorter duration of illness (Mann Whitney Signed ranked value 20.00, p<0.01) and duration of treatment (Mann Whitney Signed ranked value 28.00, p<0.05) compared to BD group members without anger attacks. In the RDD group, the subjects with anger attacks had poor QOL in the social domain (t= -2.12, p<0.05), environmental domain (t=2.99, p=.01) and total (t=2.56, p<0.05) QOL compared to those without anger attacks. Anger attacks are equally prevalent in unipolar and bipolar depression, are not influenced by sociodemographic and clinical variables, and lead to comparable impact on the subjective QOL in both groups.
Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A
The CPAD technology relates to anomaly detection and more specifically to cyber physical attack detection. It infers underlying physical relationships between components by analyzing the sensor measurements of a system. It then uses these measurements to detect signs of a non-physically realizable state, which is indicative of an integrity attack on the system. CPAD can be used on any highly-instrumented cyber-physical system to detect integrity attacks and identify the component or components compromised. It has applications to power transmission and distribution, nuclear and industrial plants, and complex vehicles.
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...
Luo, Xiapu; Chan, Edmond W. W.; Chang, Rocky K. C.
This paper addresses the important problem of detecting pulsing denial of service (PDoS) attacks which send a sequence of attack pulses to reduce TCP throughput. Unlike previous works which focused on a restricted form of attacks, we consider a very broad class of attacks. In particular, our attack model admits any attack interval between two adjacent pulses, whether deterministic or not. It also includes the traditional flooding-based attacks as a limiting case (i.e., zero attack interval). Our main contribution is Vanguard, a new anomaly-based detection scheme for this class of PDoS attacks. The Vanguard detection is based on three traffic anomalies induced by the attacks, and it detects them using a CUSUM algorithm. We have prototyped Vanguard and evaluated it on a testbed. The experiment results show that Vanguard is more effective than the previous methods that are based on other traffic anomalies (after a transformation using wavelet transform, Fourier transform, and autocorrelation) and detection algorithms (e.g., dynamic time warping).
Some incident response practitioners feel that they have been locked in a battle with cyber criminals since the popular adoption of the internet. Initially, organisations made great inroads in preventing and containing cyber attacks. In the last few years, however, cyber criminals have become adept at eluding defence security technologies and rapidly modifying their exploit strategies for financial or political gains. Similar to changes in military combat tactics, cyber criminals utilise distributed attack cells, real-time communications, and rapidly mutating exploits to minimise the potential for detection. Cyber criminals have changed their attack paradigm. This paper describes a new incident response paradigm aimed at combating the new model of cyber attacks with an emphasis on agility to increase the organisation's ability to respond rapidly to these new challenges.
Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali
One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.
Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An
The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.
An unobjectionable-sounding title obscures the real intent of the latest in a series of Bills which the federal Coalition government is attempting to legislate in its ongoing attempts to undermine employee wages and conditions and attack unions.
Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood ...
Elevated outdoor ambient air particle pollution triggers heart attacks, strokes, and abnormal heart rhythms and worsens heart failure in individuals at high risk due to underlying medical conditions. Emergency Medical Services in communities are the first responders to these eme...
Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders
Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An
The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559
ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S
Tulin Askit; Ibrahim Cakmak; John Moser
The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (AksÂ¸it et al. 2003). This pest attacks...
Farris, Samantha G.; Brown, Lily A.; Goodwin, Renee D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Background Little is known about panic attacks and puffing topography, a behavioral index of the value of smoking reinforcement. This study examined smoking style during the course of smoking of a single cigarette among adult daily smokers with and without a history of panic attacks. Method Participants (n = 124, Mage = 43.9, SD = 9.7; 44.4% female) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers. Lifetime panic attack history was assessed via diagnostic assessment; 28.2% (n = 35) of the sample had a panic attack history. Participants smoked one cigarette during an ad libitum smoking trial. Puff volume, duration, and inter-puff interval were measured using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) pocket device. Results Regression analyses revealed that panic attack status was not associated with significant differences in average puff volume, duration, or inter-puff interval. Multi-level modeling was used to examine puffing trajectories. Puff-level data revealed that there was a significant quadratic time x panic effect for puff volume and duration. Those with a panic attack history demonstrated relatively sustained levels of both puff volume and duration over time, whereas those without a history of panic attacks demonstrated an increase followed by a decrease in volume and duration over time. These effects were not accounted for by the presence of general psychopathology. Discussion Smokers with a panic attack history demonstrate more persistent efforts to self-regulate the delivery of nicotine, and thus may be at risk for continued smoking and dependence. Tailored treatment may be needed to address unique vulnerabilities among this group. PMID:28033542
Farris, Samantha G; Brown, Lily A; Goodwin, Renee D; Zvolensky, Michael J
Little is known about panic attacks and puffing topography, a behavioral index of the value of smoking reinforcement. This study examined smoking style during the course of smoking of a single cigarette among adult daily smokers with and without a history of panic attacks. Participants (n=124, M age =43.9, SD=9.7; 44.4% female) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers. Lifetime panic attack history was assessed via diagnostic assessment; 28.2% (n=35) of the sample had a panic attack history. Participants smoked one cigarette during an ad libitum smoking trial. Puff volume, duration, and inter-puff interval were measured using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) pocket device. Regression analyses revealed that panic attack status was not associated with significant differences in average puff volume, duration, or inter-puff interval. Multi-level modeling was used to examine puffing trajectories. Puff-level data revealed that there was a significant quadratic time x panic effect for puff volume and duration. Those with a panic attack history demonstrated relatively sustained levels of both puff volume and duration over time, whereas those without a history of panic attacks demonstrated an increase followed by a decrease in volume and duration over time. These effects were not accounted for by the presence of general psychopathology. Smokers with a panic attack history demonstrate more persistent efforts to self-regulate the delivery of nicotine, and thus may be at risk for continued smoking and dependence. Tailored treatment may be needed to address unique vulnerabilities among this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.
Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila
In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.
Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen
Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacksmore » [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.« less
Costa, Gustavo C; Castro, Henrique O; Evangelista, Breno F; Malheiros, Laura M; Greco, Pablo J; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert
This study examined 142 volleyball games of the Men's Super League 2014/2015 seasons in Brazil from which we analyzed 24-26 games of each participating team, identifying 5,267 Zone 4 attacks for further analysis. Within these Zone 4 attacks, we analyzed the association between the effect of the attack carried out and the separate effects of serve reception, tempo and type of attack. We found that the reception, tempo of attack, second tempo of attack, and power of diagonal attack were predictors of the attack effect in Zone 4. Moreover, placed attacks showed a tendency to not yield a score. In conclusion, winning points in high-level men's volleyball requires excellent receptions, a fast attack tempo and powerfully executed of attacks.
Byard, R W; Gilbert, J D; Brown, K
To examine the pattern of injuries in cases of fatal shark attack in South Australian waters, the authors examined the files of their institution for all cases of shark attack in which full autopsies had been performed over the past 25 years, from 1974 to 1998. Of the seven deaths attributed to shark attack during this period, full autopsies were performed in only two cases. In the remaining five cases, bodies either had not been found or were incomplete. Case 1 was a 27-year-old male surfer who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the right thigh, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incision of the femoral artery. There were also incised wounds of the right wrist. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male diver who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the left thigh and lower leg, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incised wounds of the femoral artery and vein. There was also soft tissue trauma to the left wrist, with transection of the radial artery and vein. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. In both cases, death resulted from exsanguination following a similar pattern of soft tissue and vascular damage to a leg and arm. This type of injury is in keeping with predator attack from underneath or behind, with the most severe injuries involving one leg. Less severe injuries to the arms may have occurred during the ensuing struggle. Reconstruction of the damaged limb in case 2 by sewing together skin, soft tissue, and muscle bundles not only revealed that no soft tissue was missing but also gave a clearer picture of the pattern of teeth marks, direction of the attack, and species of predator.
Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Arulmozhi, T; Vengatesan, A
To study the clinical features, precipitating stressful life events and prognosis of nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD) among married women. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. A tertiary care teaching hospital. Of the 1020 patients with epilepsy referred to the epilepsy clinic during 2002-2003, 30 were married women with NEAD. The diagnostic criteria for NEAD included normal EEG during ictal and post-ictal phase of the generalized 'attack.' The data collected included clinical characteristics, semiology of the attacks, precipitating stressful events, and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The control group included 30 age-matched married women with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The long-term outcome and factors influencing the outcomes were analyzed. The mean duration of illness was 18 months, and the pattern of the attack was 'fall and lying still' in 53% and 'fall with generalized motor movements' in 47%. The frequency was one or more per week in 57% and occasionally in 43%. The important stressful events were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman (chi2 = 9.02, P = 0.003) and constant quarrel with other family members (chi2 = 5.19, P = 0.02). The prevalence of sexual abuse was low (7%). Co-morbid psychiatric disorder was observed in 70%. At the end of 1 year, 39% were free from the attack. Resolution of the stressful life events (chi2 = 4.52, P = 0.03) and lower frequency of attack at the time of reporting (chi2 = 3.88, P = 0.05) correlated with good outcomes. Among patients with NEAD in India, the major precipitating factors were matrimonial discord following illegal relationship of the husband with another woman and constant quarrel with other family members and not sexual abuse. Women with low frequency of attack at the time of reporting and the remission of the stressful events had better outcomes.
... No. 22 Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack What is a heart attack? Aheart attack happens when the blood vessels that ... hurting your heart muscle. Another name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction, or MI. If you have ...
Lekse Kovach, Jaclyn; Maguluri, Srilakshmi; Recchia, Franco M
Ocular injury resulting from rooster attacks is rarely reported in the literature. Sadly, the target of these attacks is most often children younger than 3 years old, whose naiveté of the aggressive, territorial behavior of birds can place them at risk. Acute sequelae of these attacks can result in a lifetime of visual impairment. The possibility of a subacute or occult infection is an unusual occurrence that must always be considered. In an effort to prevent future attacks and ocular casualties, we present a case of a 12-month-old boy who suffered an open globe following a rooster attack. The open globe was emergently repaired. One week later, a white cataract was noticed on examination in the absence of systemic or ocular signs of inflammation. Traumatic endophthalmitis and lenticular abscess were suspected during examination under anesthesia. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, and injection of intravitreal antibiotics were performed. Culture of lenticular and vitreous aspirates grew alpha-streptococcus. Alpha-streptococcal endophthalmitis can result from ocular injuries caused by rooster pecking. The infection may present insidiously and without typical ocular or systemic symptoms or signs. Management is challenging and may require surgery.
Mitsonis, Charalampos; Dimopoulos, Nikolaos; Zavrou, Marianna; Psarra, Vassiliki; Giofkos, Christos; Fiorakis, Christos; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Valavanis, Dimitrios; Vousoura, Eleni; Zervas, Iannis; Papavassiliou, Efstathios
Background. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (CS) can evoke anxiety, embarrassment, and discomfort. These concerns can culminate in panic attacks, which may traumatize patients and significantly decrease their compliance to the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preendoscopic anxiety and the possibility of a panic attack during an elective gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGE). Methods. The study population comprised of 79 Greek outpatients. The examination was carried out without the use of conscious sedation. Patients' anxiety levels were assessed before the procedure using the Greek version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Results. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled: 45 EGD and 34 CS. Females had higher state and trait anxiety levels than males (48.14 ± 7.94 versus 44.17 ± 7.43, P < 0.05; and 43.68 ± 6.95 versus 39.86 ± 7.46, P < 0.05). Patients who experienced panic attack had significantly higher levels of both trait and state anxiety, compared to those who were panic-free. There was no significant relationship between panic attacks and sex or type of procedure. Conclusions. Patients who experience panic attacks during endoscopic procedures appear to have significantly higher anxiety levels before the procedure. Administering the STAI questionnaire prior to the endoscopy seems to be a useful screening method for vulnerable patients.
A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network set up by a wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. These nodes maintain connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate with each other, they cooperate by forwarding data packets to other nodes in the network. Thus the nodes find a path to the destination node using routing protocols. However, due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, mobile ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack against network integrity absorbing all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper, we simulated the black hole attack in various mobile ad-hoc network scenarios using AODV routing protocol of MANET and have tried to find a effect if number of nodes are increased with increase in malicious nodes.
Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet
Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.
Atta Yaseen, Amer; Bayart, Mireille
In this work, a new approach will be introduced as a development for the attack-tolerant scheme in the Networked Control System (NCS). The objective is to be able to detect an attack such as the Stuxnet case where the controller is reprogrammed and hijacked. Besides the ability to detect the stealthy controller hijacking attack, the advantage of this approach is that there is no need for a priori mathematical model of the controller. In order to implement the proposed scheme, a specific detector for the controller hijacking attack is designed. The performance of this scheme is evaluated be connected the detector to NCS with basic security elements such as Data Encryption Standard (DES), Message Digest (MD5), and timestamp. The detector is tested along with networked PI controller under stealthy hijacking attack. The test results of the proposed method show that the hijacked controller can be significantly detected and recovered.
Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; El Haj, Mohamad
Flashbulb memories are vivid autobiographical memories of the circumstances where an individual first learns about emotionally significant public events. Our paper assesses whether these memories were triggered by the attacks of Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris. Two hundred and ninety-one participants answered a web-based questionnaire that assessed their memory of the circumstances in which they first learned of the attacks. The questionnaire also assessed vividness, rehearsal, emotion, surprise and novelty. The results showed substantial and vivid recall of the context in which the participants first learned of the event. This recall was associated with fair rehearsal, negative emotional valence, surprise, and novelty. Regression analysis showed that the flashbulb recall was predicted by negative emotion. Negative emotion seems to play a key role in the formation of flashbulb memories, at least those associated with the Paris attacks. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna
Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information aboutmore » the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.« less
Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier
In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.
Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan
The publication of power analysis attacks  has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.
Chothia, Tom; Smirnov, Vitaliy
Since 2004, many nations have started issuing "e-passports" containing an RFID tag that, when powered, broadcasts information. It is claimed that these passports are more secure and that our data will be protected from any possible unauthorised attempts to read it. In this paper we show that there is a flaw in one of the passport's protocols that makes it possible to trace the movements of a particular passport, without having to break the passport's cryptographic key. All an attacker has to do is to record one session between the passport and a legitimate reader, then by replaying a particular message, the attacker can distinguish that passport from any other. We have implemented our attack and tested it successfully against passports issued by a range of nations.
Over the last decade numerous Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) replication protocols have been proposed in the literature. However, the vast majority of these solutions reuse the same authentication scheme, which makes them susceptible to a so called MAC attack. Such vulnerability enables malicious clients to undetectably prevent the replicated service from processing incoming client requests, and consequently making it permanently unavailable. While some BFT protocols attempted to address this issue by using different authentication mechanisms, they at the same time significantly degraded the performance achieved in correct environments. This article presents a novel adaptive authentication mechanism which can be combined with practically any Byzantine fault-tolerant replication protocol. Unlike previous solutions, the proposed scheme dynamically switches between two operation modes to combine high performance in correct environments and liveness during MAC attacks. The experiment results presented in the article demonstrate that the proposed mechanism can sufficiently tolerate MAC attacks without introducing any observable overhead whenever no faults are present.
Lorenz, Gary V.; Manes, Gavin W.; Hale, John C.; Marks, Donald; Davis, Kenneth; Shenoi, Sujeet
The U.S. Public Telephone Network (PTN) is a massively connected distributed information systems, much like the Internet. PTN signaling, transmission and operations functions must be protected from physical and cyber attacks to ensure the reliable delivery of telecommunications services. The increasing convergence of PTNs with wireless communications systems, computer networks and the Internet itself poses serious threats to our nation's telecommunications infrastructure. Legacy technologies and advanced services encumber well-known and as of yet undiscovered vulnerabilities that render them susceptible to cyber attacks. This paper presents a taxonomy of cyber attacks on PTNs in converged environments that synthesizes exploits in computer and communications network domains. The taxonomy provides an opportunity for the systematic exploration of mitigative and preventive strategies, as well as for the identification and classification of emerging threats.
Zhang, Sheng; Wnang, Jian; Tang, Chao Jing
It is interesting that counterfactual quantum cryptography protocols allow two remotely separated parties to share a secret key without transmitting any signal particles. Generally, these protocols, expected to provide security advantages, base their security on a translated no-cloning theorem. Therefore, they potentially exhibit unconditional security in theory. In this letter, we propose a new Trojan horse attack, by which an eavesdropper Eve can gain full information about the key without being noticed, to real implementations of a counterfactual quantum cryptography system. Most importantly, the presented attack is available even if the system has negligible imperfections. Therefore, it shows that the present realization of counterfactual quantum key distribution is vulnerable.
Chambers, J. R.
An overview is presented of the aerodynamic inputs required for analysis of flight dynamics in the high-angle-of-attack regime wherein large-disturbance, nonlinear effects predominate. An outline of the presentation is presented. The discussion includes: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine to a large extent the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area.
Lynch, Wendy; Chan, Wing; Kleinman, Nathan; Andrews, L M; Yadao, Anthony M
The objective of this study was to compare episode-related and annual costs and work absence days for employees with <3 versus ≥ 3 annual gout attacks. Human Capital Management Services data (2009-2010) from adult employees with gout (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 274.x) and ≥ 12 months of medical and pharmacy benefits were studied. Outcomes of interest included medical and drug costs, number of emergency department and urgent care visits, number of inpatient days, short- and long-term disability, sick leave, workers' compensation costs, and work absence days. An algorithm based on diagnosis code and antigout medication use identified acute gout treatment episodes. Multivariate analysis compared annual and pre-episode vs. during-episode outcomes for employees with ≥ 3 vs. <3 gout annual attacks. Of 3361 employees with gout, 76 had ≥ 3 attacks; these employees had higher short-term disability costs ($1663 vs. $643, P=0.06) and days (11.68 versus 4.61, P<0.05), more emergency room visits (0.55 vs. 0.23, P<0.0001), and urgent care visits (0.07 vs. 0.04, P<0.01), and lower pharmacy costs ($1677 vs. $1108, P<0.0001) than those with <3 attacks. Medical costs both before ($203 higher) and during attacks ($136 higher) were significantly higher for those with ≥ 3 attacks than for those with <3 attacks. Additionally, a quadratic increasing relationship was found between number of attacks and cost. Frequency of acute gout attacks (≥ 3 episodes per year) among employees with gout was associated with greater short-term disability cost, absence days, and emergency department and urgent care visits, and trends toward higher overall costs.
Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Chavez, Mario; Molina, Felipe
Background: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named “Bang-Bang”, which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. Case Description: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23869277
Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)
Dube, Michael W. M.
This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…
Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas
Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…
Woolgar, J D; Cliff, G; Nair, R; Hafez, H; Robbs, J V
On average there are approximately 50 confirmed shark attacks worldwide annually. Despite their rarity, such incidents often generate much public and media attention. The injuries of 86 consecutive victims of shark attack were reviewed from 1980 to 1999. Clinical data retrieved from the South African Shark Attack Files, maintained by the Natal Sharks Board, were retrospectively analyzed to determine the nature, treatment, and outcome of injuries. The majority of victims (n = 68 [81%]) had relatively minor injuries that required simple primary suture. Those patients (n = 16 [19%]) with more extensive limb lacerations longer than 20 cm or with soft-tissue loss of more than one myofascial compartment were associated with higher morbidity and limb loss. In 8 of the 10 fatalities, death occurred as a result of exsanguinating hemorrhage from a limb vascular injury. Victims of shark attack usually sustain only minor injuries. In more serious cases, particularly if associated with a major vascular injury, hemorrhage control and early resuscitation are of utmost importance during the initial management if these patients are to survive.
Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena
Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN. PMID:28379192
Keller, Bess; Sack, Joetta L.
Widespread sniping at the Bush administration's centerpiece education law escalated into a frontal attack as the nation's largest teachers' union. Several school districts sued federal officials over the measure, just a day after the Utah legislature approved a bill challenging the reach of the law. The National Education Association's suit…
Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.
We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p
Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…
Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul
Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…
Perspectives on Terrorism 9, no. 4 (August 2015): 14-30. 6 Ibid., 19. 7 Ibid., 16. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., 14. 10 Ibid., 27. 11 Meg Wagner and Rich...Wagner, Meg and Rich Schapiro. “Mastermind of Paris terror attack planned strikes on schools, mocked Europe’s open borders: report,” New York Daily
During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...
Graph Analysis Network Web Logs Netflow Data TCP Dump Data System Logs Detect Protect Security Management What-If Figure 8. TVA attack graphs for...Clustered Graphs,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Graph Drawing, September 1996.  K. Lakkaraju, W. Yurcik, A. Lee, “NVisionIP: NetFlow
Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio
Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.
Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena
Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.
Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J
Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.
Ogura, Naoki; Uchiyama, Shigenori
In 2007, Ding et al. proposed an attractive scheme, which is called the l-Invertible Cycles (lIC) scheme. lIC is one of the most efficient multivariate public-key cryptosystems (MPKC); these schemes would be suitable for using under limited computational resources. In 2008, an efficient attack against lIC using Gröbner basis algorithms was proposed by Fouque et al. However, they only estimated the complexity of their attack based on their experimental results. On the other hand, Patarin had proposed an efficient attack against some multivariate public-key cryptosystems. We call this attack Patarin's attack. The complexity of Patarin's attack can be estimated by finding relations corresponding to each scheme. In this paper, we propose an another practical attack against the lIC encryption/signature scheme. We estimate the complexity of our attack (not experimentally) by adapting Patarin's attack. The attack can be also applied to the lIC- scheme. Moreover, we show some experimental results of a practical attack against the lIC/lIC- schemes. This is the first implementation of both our proposed attack and an attack based on Gröbner basis algorithm for the even case, that is, a parameter l is even.
Nøttestad, J Aa; Linaker, O M
The deinstitutionalization movement is presently spreading in Europe, but studies evaluating the effects of deinstitutionalization on behaviour disturbances among people with intellectual disability (ID) are inconclusive. The prevalence of aggressive behaviour among people with ID is high in both institutions and in community. Aggression and attacks on people are a significant problem for people with ID in both institutions and society. In the present paper, the authors focus on individuals who started attacking people after deinstitutionalization. The authors studied individual and environmental characteristics before and after deinstitutionalization to look for individual and environmental predictors for the development of aggression with the hope that some could be possible intervention points for preventive action. In an institution for people with ID, all who did not attack people before deinstitutionalization were included. The individuals who started attacking others after deinstitutionalization (n = 22) were the study group (group A) and those who did not (n = 42) comprised the control group (group B). The population was examined before and after deinstitutionalization. As far as possible the same methods were used at both occasions. The covariates included individual ones, such as mental health, behaviour disturbances and behaviour deficits, and environmental ones, such as caretaker education, caretaker:patient ratio, housing and leisure activities. Psychiatric disorders were identified in 1987 and 1995 with the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA), which was filled in by the caretakers. Group A showed significantly more self-injurious behaviour (SIB) than group B in 1987. The sum of behaviour disturbances shown in the past year, attacks on property, SIB and other disruptive behaviours were also significantly higher in group A than in group B. The soundness scores on the PIMRA for the people in group A were lower than for the
We investigate how to attack Shor's quantum algorithm for factorization with an entangling probe. We show that an attacker can steal an exact solution of Shor's algorithm outside an institute where the quantum computer is installed if he replaces its initialized quantum register with entangled qubits, namely the entangling probe. He can apply arbitrary local operations to his own probe. Moreover, we assume that there is an unauthorized person who helps the attacker to commit a crime inside the institute. He tells garbage data obtained from measurements of the quantum register to the attacker secretly behind a legitimate user's back. If the attacker succeeds in cracking Shor's algorithm, the legitimate user obtains a random answer and does not notice the attacker's illegal acts. We discuss how to detect the attacker. Finally, we estimate a probability that the quantum algorithm inevitably makes an error, of which the attacker can take advantage.
Fogel, Lajos; Varga, Gyula; Hubay, Marta; Felszeghy, Endre; Varga, Peter; Byard, Roger W
Lethal donkey attacks have very rarely been described. The case of a 65-year-old man who was found deceased on a country road with 2 domestic donkeys nearby is, therefore, reported. Examination of the body revealed contusions and lacerations of the face and scalp, a comminuted fracture of the left maxilla, comminuted fracturing of the right radius and ulna and of the left anterior superior iliac spine, a flail chest, and pulmonary contusions. In addition, there were bite marks on the left thigh, right buttock, right axilla/upper arm, and left cheek which corresponded to the dental arcades of the donkeys. Death had resulted from blunt chest trauma due to an attack by 1 or 2 donkeys. Deaths and serious injuries are much more commonly caused by horses; however, this case shows that even domesticated donkeys may also rarely be capable of inflicting significant trauma and so should be approached with circumspection.
Motter, Adilson E.; Lai, Ying-Cheng
We live in a modern world supported by large, complex networks. Examples range from financial markets to communication and transportation systems. In many realistic situations the flow of physical quantities in the network, as characterized by the loads on nodes, is important. We show that for such networks where loads can redistribute among the nodes, intentional attacks can lead to a cascade of overload failures, which can in turn cause the entire or a substantial part of the network to collapse. This is relevant for real-world networks that possess a highly heterogeneous distribution of loads, such as the Internet and power grids. We demonstrate that the heterogeneity of these networks makes them particularly vulnerable to attacks in that a large-scale cascade may be triggered by disabling a single key node. This brings obvious concerns on the security of such systems.
Steinebach, Martin; Liu, Huajian; Fan, Peishuai; Katzenbeisser, Stefan
Multimedia forensics deals with the analysis of multimedia data to gather information on its origin and authenticity. One therefore needs to distinguish classical criminal forensics (which today also uses multimedia data as evidence) and multimedia forensics where the actual case is based on a media file. One example for the latter is camera forensics where pixel error patters are used as fingerprints identifying a camera as the source of an image. Of course multimedia forensics can become a tool for criminal forensics when evidence used in a criminal investigation is likely to be manipulated. At this point an important question arises: How reliable are these algorithms? Can a judge trust their results? How easy are they to manipulate? In this work we show how camera forensics can be attacked and introduce a potential countermeasure against these attacks.
Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.
Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle
Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.
warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that
Spectrum of Conflict, Cyber Warfare , Preemptive Strike, Effects Based Targeting. 15. Abstract: Computer Network Attack (CNA) is defined as...great deal of attention as the world’s capabilities in cyber - warfare grow. 11 Although addressing the wide ranging legal aspects of CNA is beyond the...the notion of cyber - warfare has not yet developed to the point that international norms have been established.15 These norms will be developed in
Hariyanto, Fajar; Hayat Susanti, Bety
Tav-128 is a hash function which is designed for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) authentication protocol. Tav-128 is expected to be a cryptographically secure hash function which meets collision resistance properties. In this research, a collision attack is done to prove whether Tav-128 is a collision resistant hash function. The results show that collisions can be obtained in Tav-128 hash function which means in other word, Tav-128 is not a collision resistant hash function.
Zubaid, Mohammad; Suresh, Cheiyil G; Thalib, Lukman; Rashed, Wafa
During the Gulf war in 2003, Kuwait was targeted with missile attacks for 10 consecutive days. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of missile attacks on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We retrospectively compared the number of admissions for AMI presenting to a major general hospital during missile attacks period (MAP) in 2003 with four control periods. MAP and each control period consisted of the same number of days (10 days). The four control periods were the 10 days immediately before and after MAP; and the same time period as MAP for the years 2001 and 2002. The number of admissions for AMI was highest during MAP, 21 cases compared to 14-16 cases in the four control periods, with a trend towards increase during MAP (incidence rate ratio = 1.59; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.66, p < 0.07). The number of admissions for AMI during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher compared to the first 5 days of the four control periods (incidence rate ratio = 2.43; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.26, p < 0.01). The observed AMI admission rate during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher than expected for a 5-day period in the years 2001, 2002 and 2003. This increase was specific to AMI and did not affect other acute cardiac conditions. Missile attacks were associated with an increase in the incidence of AMI. This increase was specific to AMI and did not influence acute cardiac conditions.
modeling of statistical features , such as the frequency of events, the duration of events, the co-occurrence of multiple events combined through...forms of attack that have been reported [Error! Reference source not found.]. For example: • Unauthorized extraction , duplication, or exfiltration...network level. Schultz pointed out that not one approach will work but solutions need to be based on multiple sensors to be able to find any combination
Hall, A Brad; Smith, David; Palmer, Jillian
The domesticated pig or boar is ubiquitous to agriculture around the world and is an important food product in most countries. The males that are able to grow tusks that can approach 5 in are the primary contributor to morbidity and mortality from boar attacks. Literature surrounding domesticated boar attacks is sparse. There are no published cases of domesticated boar attacks that describe successful bacterial postexposure prophylaxis. We present a case report of an attack on an adult female by a domesticated boar.
Goldberg, Lital; Dreiher, Jacob; Friger, Michael; Levin, Alexander; Shvartzman, Pesach
The Qassam rocket attacks on southern Israel during the years 2000-2007 created a unique situation of life undera continuous threat. The effect of this unique situation on health services utilization has not been previously examined. To evaluate health utilization patterns in two primary care clinics in southern Israel: one under continuous attacks of Qassam rockets as compared with a similar clinic not under a rocket threat. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in two primary care clinics in southern Israel, with 11,630 persons listed in the two clinics during the entire study period. The primary outcome measures were total annual number of visits per person to the clinic and for specific diagnoses, and the number of drug prescriptions issued, emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalization days, cardiac catheterizations and coronary bypass surgeries. In both clinics there was an increase over time in the mean annual number of visits per person. During the years of severe attacks there was an increase in visits with a chief complaint of depression and anxiety and an increase in the number of anxiolytic prescriptions in the study clinic compared with the control. During the same period there was a decrease in the number of ER visits in the study clinic compared with the control. The population under continuous life-threatening events showed more depression and anxiety problems. Under severe bombardment, the residents prefer not to leave home, unless necessary.
Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan
Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.
Christiansen, Sandra C; Zuraw, Bruce L
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients suffering from laryngeal attacks in the United States faced severely limited treatment options until 2008. These potentially life-threatening episodes occur in over one-half of the patients affected by HAE during their lifetimes. Acute therapy had been relegated to supportive care, intubation, and consideration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP)--the latter with the potential for actually accelerating the speed and severity of the swelling. In this article we will review the recently approved and emerging HAE treatments that have evolved from the recognition that bradykinin generation is the fundamental abnormality leading to attacks of angioedema. Acute therapy for laryngeal attacks will be discussed including purified plasma-derived C1 inhibitor (C1INH), recombinant C1INH, an inhibitor of plasma kallikrein (ecallantide), and a B2 receptor antagonist (icatibant). Prophylactic care has also been transformed from a reliance on attenuated androgens with their attendant side effects to C1INH replacement. The arrival of these novel therapies promises to transform the future management of HAE.
Sharon M. Hood; Barbara Bentz; Kevin C. Ryan
A major concern after wildfires is the buildup of bark beetle populations in fire injured trees, and subsequent attack and population buildup in adjacent unburned areas. To examine this concern, we documented fire injury and insect attacks in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the 2001 Green Knoll Fire, Wyoming to determine attack preferences, brood production, and...
Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J
Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CImore » facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a
Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent
Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.
Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.
Jakobsson, Markus; Menczer, Filippo
We analyze a Web vulnerability that allows an attacker to perform an email-based attack on selected victims, using standard scripts and agents. What differentiates the attack we describe from other, already known forms of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks is that an attacker does not need to infiltrate the network in any manner - as is normally required to launch a DDoS attack. Thus, we see this type of attack as a poor man's DDoS. Not only is the attack easy to mount, but it is also almost impossible to trace back to the perpetrator. Along with descriptions of our attack, we demonstrate its destructive potential with (limited and contained) experimental results. We illustrate the potential impact of our attack by describing how an attacker can disable an email account by flooding its inbox; block competition during on-line auctions; harm competitors with an on-line presence; disrupt phone service to a given victim; disconnect mobile corporate leaders from their networks; and disrupt electronic elections. Finally, we propose a set of countermeasures that are light-weight, do not require modifications to the infrastructure, and can be deployed in a gradual manner.
Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao
With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.
Huang, Xin; Dong, Jiuxiang
Security issues of cyber-physical systems have received increasing attentions in recent years. In this paper, deception attacks on the remote state estimator equipped with the chi-squared failure detector are considered, and it is assumed that the attacker can monitor and modify all the sensor data. A novel adaptive optimisation-offline cyber attack strategy is proposed, where using the current and previous sensor data, the attack can yield the largest estimation error covariance while ensuring to be undetected by the chi-squared monitor. From the attacker's perspective, the attack is better than the existing linear deception attacks to degrade the system performance. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate theoretical results.
Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.
We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.
p. 18. C. V. Glines (LTC, USA), "De Bothezat’s Flying Octopus ," Airman, Vol VI, No. I (January, 1962), 43. 29Ross, p. 58. 20 in his own right, being...AIR MOBILE OPIRATIONS, A Report for the Blue Ribbon Defense Panel by COL Jay D. Vanderpool, USA, Ret. (February 1970), 29. F. IY 70A Observation...not produce significant quantitative progress. -Attack Helicopters The Key to Army Air Mobile Operations, A Report for the Blue Ribbon Defense Panel by
Zhang, Qing-Tan; Hu, Da-Yi; Yang, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Shan
Definitive treatment for heart attack is early reperfusion with either angioplasty or thrombolytic therapy, and the benefit is strictly time-dependent. Patient outcomes are improved with either therapy when initiated as soon as possible. Recognition of heart attack symptoms is logically tied to taking action to receive prompt emergency care. Inadequate knowledge of heart attack symptoms may prolong delay. The purpose of this study was to document knowledge about heart attack symptoms in Beijing residents and to identify the characteristics associated with increased knowledge of heart attack. A structured survey was conducted in 18 communities in Beijing from March 1 through June 10 in 2006. Addresses and participants were selected randomly following a stratification. The survey was designed to collect knowledge of heart attack symptoms from sampled adults in each community. A total of 4627 respondents completed the questionnaires correctly, and 50.29% of them were female. Totally 64.15% of the respondents reported chest pain or discomfort (common symptoms) as a symptom of heart attack; 75.38% reported at least one of the following eight symptoms as a symptom of heart attack: back pain, shortness of breath, arm pain or numbness, nausea or vomiting, neck, jaw or shoulder pain, epigastric pain, sweating, weakness (less common symptoms); 20.36% correctly reported four or more heart attack symptoms, only 7.4% knew all the correct heart attack symptoms, and 28.94% knew about reperfusion therapy for heart attack; 31.7% reported to call 120 or 999 while having a heart attack themselves; however 89.6% reported to call 120 or 999 when someone else is suffering from a heart attack. Very old persons and those with health insurance coverage, high education level, high household income, longer living in Beijing and previous experience with heart disease had greater knowledge of heart attack symptoms. Public knowledge of common heart attack symptoms as well as less common heart
Norton, Peter J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Cox, Brian J; Norton, G Ron
Since its development in the mid-1980s, the Panic Attack Questionnaire (PAQ) has been one of the more, if not the most, commonly used self-report tools for assessing panic attacks. The usage of the instrument, however, has come amid potential concerns that instructions and descriptions may lead to an over-estimate of the prevalence of panic attacks. Furthermore, the instrument has not been revised since 1992, despite changes in DSM-IV criteria and more recent developments in the understanding of panic attacks. As a result, this paper describes a revision of the PAQ to improve the instruction and descriptive set, and to fully assess features of panic derived from recent conceptualizations. Students meeting DSM-IV panic attack criteria and those endorsing panic attacks, but not meeting criteria, showed few differences with the exception that those not meeting DSM-IV criteria typically reported a longer onset-to-peak intensity time than did Panickers. Results were cross-validated and extended using an independent Community Sample. A full descriptive phenomenology of panic attacks is described, and future directions for studying panic attacks using the PAQ are presented.
Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László
Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network. Complex communication networks display a surprising degree of robustness: although key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global information-carrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems' components. Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells. We find that such networks display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates. However, error tolerance comes at a high price in that these networks are extremely vulnerable to attacks (that is, to the selection and removal of a few nodes that play a vital role in maintaining the network's connectivity). Such error tolerance and attack vulnerability are generic properties of communication networks.
Bottiglieri, Sal; Tierson, Neil; Patel, Raina; Mo, Jae-Hyun; Mehdi, Syed
In this case report, we review the experience of a patient who presented with early stage pancreatic cancer (Stage IIb) who underwent a Whipple procedure and adjuvant chemoradiation. The patient's past medical history included early stage colon cancer in remission, post-traumatic-stress-disorder, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, gout, and pre-diabetes. Chemotherapy initially consisted of weekly gemcitabine. The patient developed acute gouty attacks after his second dose of gemcitabine, which brought him to the emergency room for emergent treatment on several occasions. Gemcitabine was held and treatment began with fluorouracil and concurrent radiation. After completion of his chemoradiation with fluorouracil, he was again treated with weekly gemcitabine alone. As soon as the patient started gemcitabine chemotherapy the patient developed gouty arthritis again, requiring discontinuation of chemotherapy. The patient received no additional treatment until his recent recurrence 8 months later where gemcitabine chemotherapy was again introduced with prophylactic medications consisting of allopurinol 100 mg by mouth daily and colchicine 0.6 mg by mouth daily throughout gemcitabine chemotherapy, and no signs of gouty arthritis occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing gout attacks associated with gemcitabine therapy. There is limited data available describing the mechanism that gouty arthritis may be precipitated from gemcitabine chemotherapy. Further monitoring and management may be required in patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy with underlying gout.
Reuber, M.; Kurthen, M.
Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consciousness should not only distinguish between the ‘level’ and ‘content’ of consciousness but also between ‘phenomenal consciousness’ (consciousness of states it somehow “feels to be like”) and ‘access consciousness’ (having certain ‘higher’ cognitive processes at one’s disposal). The existing evidence shows that there is a great intra- and interindividual variability of NEA experience. However, in most NEAs phenomenal experience – and, as a precondition for that experience, vigilance or wakefulness – is reduced to a lesser degree than in those epileptic seizures involving impairment of consciousness. In fact, complete loss of “consciousness” is the exception rather than the rule in NEAs. Patients, as well as external observers, may have a tendency to overestimate impairments of consciousness during the seizures. PMID:21447903
Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo
Percolation properties of isolated and interdependent random networks have been investigated extensively. The focus of these studies has been on random attacks where each node in network is attacked with the same probability or targeted attack where each node is attacked with a probability being a function of its centrality, such as degree. Here we discuss a new type of realistic attacks which we call a localized attack where a group of neighboring nodes in the networks are attacked. We attack a randomly chosen node, its neighbors, and its neighbor of neighbors and so on, until removing a fraction (1 - p) of the network. This type of attack reflects damages due to localized disasters, such as earthquakes, floods and war zones in real-world networks. We study, both analytically and by simulations the impact of localized attack on percolation properties of random networks with arbitrary degree distributions and discuss in detail random regular (RR) networks, Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks and scale-free (SF) networks. We extend and generalize our theoretical and simulation results of single isolated networks to networks formed of interdependent networks.
Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan
A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework. PMID:29065461
Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan
A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.
Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo
The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node’s software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work. PMID:27869710
Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo
The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.
Bhuiyan, Tanveer H.; Nandi, Apurba; Medal, Hugh
The goal of our work is to enhance network security by generating partial cut-sets, which are a subset of edges that remove paths from initially vulnerable nodes (initial security conditions) to goal nodes (critical assets), on an attack graph given costs for cutting an edge and a limited overall budget.
Affleck, Glenn; And Others
Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…
Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin
Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813
Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin
Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources.
Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru
In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.
Li, Yongcheng; Liu, Shumei; Yu, Yao; Cao, Ting
The security problem of computer network system is becoming more and more serious. The fundamental reason is that there are security vulnerabilities in the network system. Therefore, it’s very important to identify and reduce or eliminate these vulnerabilities before they are attacked. In this paper, we are interested in joint node and link attacks and propose a vulnerability evaluation method based on the overall connectivity of the network to defense this attack. Especially, we analyze the attack cost problem from the attackers’ perspective. The purpose is to find the set of least costs for joint links and nodes, and their deletion will lead to serious network connection damage. The simulation results show that the vulnerable elements obtained from the proposed method are more suitable for the attacking idea of the malicious persons in joint node and link attack. It is easy to find that the proposed method has more realistic protection significance.
attacks that have been widely used to bypass randomization-based memory corruption defenses. A recent technique, Readactor, provides one of the... corruption defenses with various impacts. We analyze the prevalence of opportunities for such attacks in popular code bases and build two proof-of-concept...our countermeasures introduce only a modest additional overhead. I. INTRODUCTION Memory corruption has been a primary vector of attacks against
Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee
Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.
Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.
A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.
Gao, Yan-Li; Chen, Shi-Ming; Nie, Sen; Ma, Fei; Guan, Jun-Jie
The robustness of complex networks under attacks largely depends on the structure of a network and the nature of the attacks. Previous research on interdependent networks has focused on two types of initial attack: random attack and degree-based targeted attack. In this paper, a deliberate attack function is proposed, where six kinds of deliberate attacking strategies can be derived by adjusting the tunable parameters. Moreover, the robustness of four types of interdependent networks (BA-BA, ER-ER, BA-ER and ER-BA) with different coupling modes (random, positive and negative correlation) is evaluated under different attacking strategies. Interesting conclusions could be obtained. It can be found that the positive coupling mode can make the vulnerability of the interdependent network to be absolutely dependent on the most vulnerable sub-network under deliberate attacks, whereas random and negative coupling modes make the vulnerability of interdependent network to be mainly dependent on the being attacked sub-network. The robustness of interdependent network will be enhanced with the degree-degree correlation coefficient varying from positive to negative. Therefore, The negative coupling mode is relatively more optimal than others, which can substantially improve the robustness of the ER-ER network and ER-BA network. In terms of the attacking strategies on interdependent networks, the degree information of node is more valuable than the betweenness. In addition, we found a more efficient attacking strategy for each coupled interdependent network and proposed the corresponding protection strategy for suppressing cascading failure. Our results can be very useful for safety design and protection of interdependent networks.
Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry
These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.
A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.
Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy
This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.
Wein, Lawrence M.; Craft, David L.; Kaplan, Edward H.
We developed a mathematical model to compare various emergency responses in the event of an airborne anthrax attack. The system consists of an atmospheric dispersion model, an age-dependent dose–response model, a disease progression model, and a set of spatially distributed two-stage queueing systems consisting of antibiotic distribution and hospital care. Our results underscore the need for the extremely aggressive and timely use of oral antibiotics by all asymptomatics in the exposure region, distributed either preattack or by nonprofessionals postattack, and the creation of surge capacity for supportive hospital care via expanded training of nonemergency care workers at the local level and the use of federal and military resources and nationwide medical volunteers. The use of prioritization (based on disease stage and/or age) at both queues, and the development and deployment of modestly rapid and sensitive biosensors, while helpful, produce only second-order improvements. PMID:12651951
Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola
Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.
Kadesky, K M; Manarey, C; Blair, G K; Murphy, J J; Verchere, C; Atkinson, K
Cougar attacks on humans appear to be on the rise. A review of all attacks on children was performed to determine the method of attack and injury patterns so that a treatment regimen as well as possible preventative measures could be determined. A review of all attacks, including attacks on children, was performed, including three recent attacks treated at our institution. Situation, adult supervision, patient age, injuries recorded, survival, and mode of attack, if known, were reviewed. There were 50 documented attacks on children with a 25% fatality rate. Most children were not alone at the time of the attack (92%), and in many instances adult supervision was present or nearby. Severe head and neck lacerations along with puncture wounds were the most common injury. Examples of typical cervical injuries include a nonfatal vertebral artery injury, phrenic nerve injury, a fatal internal carotid artery injury, and a fatal cervical spine injury. The cougar was rabid in two cases. Pasteurella resulted in late infections in two patients. Based on the pattern of injuries, the authors recommend aggressive evaluation for occult cervical injuries as well as surgical debridement. Antibiotics should cover oropharyngeal flora including Pasteurella multocida. Rabies prophylaxis is indicated. Adult supervision in wilderness areas is not necessarily protective.
Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M
Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signalmore » attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.« less
Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian
In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in . Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.
Carmeli, A; Liberman, N; Mevorach, L
During the Persian Gulf war the Israeli civilian population was the target of missile attacks that could have carried poison gas warheads. During the attacks all civilians were ordered to wear gas masks and move into sealed rooms. Four telephone surveys studied the somatic reactions to this anxiety-arousing situation. The percent of subjects reporting the somatic reactions declined from 38% after the first attack to 20% 12 days later. Somatic reactions were more prevalent among females than males, and among those who completed elementary school only compared to those with an academic education. A complex pattern of relationships between expectancies about chemical warfare attacks and somatic reactions is discussed.
Sacks, J J; Lockwood, R; Hornreich, J; Sattin, R W
To update data on fatal dog bites and see if past trends have continued. To merge data from vital records, the Humane Society of the United States, and searches of electronic news files. United States. U.S. residents dying in the U.S. from 1989 through 1994 from dog bites. We identified 109 dog bite-related fatalities, of which 57% were less than 10 years of age. The death rate for neonates was two orders of magnitude higher than for adults and the rate for children one order of magnitude higher. Of classifiable deaths, 22% involved an unrestrained dog off the owner's property, 18% involved a restrained dog on the owner's property, and 59% involved an unrestrained dog on the owner's property. Eleven attacks involved a sleeping infant; 19 dogs involved in fatal attacks had a prior history of aggression; and 19 of 20 classifiable deaths involved an unneutered dog. Pit bulls, the most commonly reported breed, were involved in 24 deaths; the next most commonly reported breeds were rottweilers (16) and German shepherds (10). The dog bite problem should be reconceptualized as a largely preventable epidemic. Breed-specific approaches to the control of dog bites do not address the issue that many breeds are involved in the problem and that most of the factors contributing to dog bites are related to the level of responsibility exercised by dog owners. To prevent dog bite-related deaths and injuries, we recommend public education about responsible dog ownership and dog bite prevention, stronger animal control laws, better resources for enforcement of these laws, and better reporting of bites. Anticipatory guidance by pediatric health care providers should address dog bite prevention.
Loftus, Andrew; Pynn, Harvey; Parker, Paul
Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in their day-to-day practice. Within several countries there has been a move to disseminate the actions to take in the event of such attacks: in the UK, Run, Hide, Tell , and in the USA, Fight Back This paper outlines how a very basic medical knowledge combined with everyday high-street items can render highly effective first aid and save lives. We discuss and summarise modern improvised techniques. These include the
Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy A; Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G
The current study investigates race-ethnic differences in rates of panic disorder, panic attacks and certain panic attack symptoms by jointly combining three major national epidemiological databases. The compared groups were White, African American, Latino and Asian. The White group had significantly higher rates of panic disorder, and of many panic symptoms, including palpitations, as compared to the African American, Asian and Latino groups. Several expected race-ethnic differences were not found. An explanation for these findings are adduced, and suggestions are given for future studies so that possible ethnic-racial differences in panic disorder, panic attacks and panic attack symptoms can be investigated in a more rigorous manner.
Kebert, Alan; Barnejee, Bikramjit; Solano, Juan; Solano, Wanda
The cloud computing environment offers malicious users the ability to spawn multiple instances of cloud nodes that are similar to virtual machines, except that they can have separate external IP addresses. In this paper we demonstrate how this ability can be exploited by an attacker to distribute his/her attack, in particular SQL injection attacks, in such a way that an intrusion detection system (IDS) could fail to identify this attack. To demonstrate this, we set up a small private cloud, established a vulnerable website in one instance, and placed an IDS within the cloud to monitor the network traffic. We found that an attacker could quite easily defeat the IDS by periodically altering its IP address. To detect such an attacker, we propose to use multi-agent plan recognition, where the multiple source IPs are considered as different agents who are mounting a collaborative attack. We show that such a formulation of this problem yields a more sophisticated approach to detecting SQL injection attacks within a cloud computing environment.
Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima
Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…
A procedure has been developed for estimating the economic cost of initial attack and large-fire suppression. The procedure uses a per-unit approach to estimate total attack and suppression costs on an input-by-input basis. Fire management inputs (FMIs) are the production units used. All direct and indirect costs are charged to the FMIs. With the unit approach, all...
This paper empirically enlists Python plagiarism attacks that have been found on Introductory Programming course assignments for undergraduate students. According to our observation toward 400 plagiarism-suspected cases, there are 35 plagiarism attacks that have been conducted by students. It starts with comment & whitespace modification as…
Cirillo, G; James, H
Investigation of a number of shark attacks in South Australian waters has lead to recognition of pattern similarities on equipment recovered from the scene of such attacks. Six cases are presented in which a common pattern of striations has been noted.
Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed.
Garcia, Ryan J B; von Winterfeldt, Detlof
We propose a methodology, called defender-attacker decision tree analysis, to evaluate defensive actions against terrorist attacks in a dynamic and hostile environment. Like most game-theoretic formulations of this problem, we assume that the defenders act rationally by maximizing their expected utility or minimizing their expected costs. However, we do not assume that attackers maximize their expected utilities. Instead, we encode the defender's limited knowledge about the attacker's motivations and capabilities as a conditional probability distribution over the attacker's decisions. We apply this methodology to the problem of defending against possible terrorist attacks on commercial airplanes, using one of three weapons: infrared-guided MANPADS (man-portable air defense systems), laser-guided MANPADS, or visually targeted RPGs (rocket propelled grenades). We also evaluate three countermeasures against these weapons: DIRCMs (directional infrared countermeasures), perimeter control around the airport, and hardening airplanes. The model includes deterrence effects, the effectiveness of the countermeasures, and the substitution of weapons and targets once a specific countermeasure is selected. It also includes a second stage of defensive decisions after an attack occurs. Key findings are: (1) due to the high cost of the countermeasures, not implementing countermeasures is the preferred defensive alternative for a large range of parameters; (2) if the probability of an attack and the associated consequences are large, a combination of DIRCMs and ground perimeter control are preferred over any single countermeasure. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.
Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming
Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.
Meloy, J Reid; Amman, Molly
An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0.835 (intraclass correlation coefficient). The three most likely victim categories were politicians, judges, and athletes. Attackers were males, many with a psychiatric disorder, most were grandiose, and most had both a violent and nonviolent criminal history. The known motivations for the attacks were often angry and personal, the most common being dissatisfaction with a judicial or other governmental process (23%). In only one case was the primary motivation to achieve notoriety. Lethality risk during an attack was 55%. Collateral injury or death occurred in 29% of the incidents. Only 5% communicated a direct threat to the target beforehand. The term "publicly intimate figure" is introduced to describe the sociocultural blurring of public and private lives among the targets, and its possible role in some attackers' perceptions and motivations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ahead of the game and continue improving our security systems. Thus, investigating novel attack strategies and tactics is crucial to shaping the...step to stay ahead of the game and continue improving our security systems. Thus, investigating novel attack strategies and tactics is crucial to
Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce
Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes…
This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…
Chistokhodova, A. A.; Sidorov, I. D.
The relevance of the work is associated with an increasing number of advanced types of DDoS attacks, in particular, low-rate HTTP-flood. Last year, the power and complexity of such attacks increased significantly. The article is devoted to the analysis of DDoS attacks detecting methods and their modifications with the purpose of increasing the accuracy of DDoS attack detection. The article details low-rate attacks features in comparison with conventional DDoS attacks. During the analysis, significant shortcomings of the available method for detecting low-rate DDoS attacks were found. Thus, the result of the study is an informal description of a new method for detecting low-rate denial-of-service attacks. The architecture of the stand for approbation of the method is developed. At the current stage of the study, it is possible to improve the efficiency of an already existing method by using a classifier with memory, as well as additional information.
security impact of such an attack seem s minor, and thus, it h as not yet drawn much attention from the security community. In this project, we...of such an attack seems minor, and thus, it has not yet drawn much attention from the security community. In this project, we have thoroughly
Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia
In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy... protection against the effects of— (a) Attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the... deployment of weapons incident to U.S. defense activities. ...
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy... protection against the effects of— (a) Attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the... deployment of weapons incident to U.S. defense activities. ...
... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy... protection against the effects of— (a) Attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the... deployment of weapons incident to U.S. defense activities. ...
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy... protection against the effects of— (a) Attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the... deployment of weapons incident to U.S. defense activities. ...
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy... protection against the effects of— (a) Attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the... deployment of weapons incident to U.S. defense activities. ...
Holt, Thomas J.; Kilger, Max
The continuing adoption of technologies by the general public coupled with the expanding reliance of critical infrastructures connected through the Internet has created unique opportunities for attacks by civilians and nation-states alike. Although governments are increasingly focusing on policies to deter nation-state level attacks, it is unclear…
Wilent, W Bryan; Oh, Michael Y; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Bailes, Julian E; Cantella, Diane; Angle, Cindy; Whiting, Donald M
Panic attacks are sudden debilitating attacks of intense distress often accompanied by physical symptoms such as shortness of breath and heart palpitations. Numerous brain regions, hormones, and neurotransmitter systems are putatively involved, but the etiology and neurocircuitry of panic attacks is far from established. One particular brain region of interest is the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). In cats and rats, electrical stimulation delivered to the VMH has been shown to evoke an emotional "panic attack-like" escape behavior, and in humans, stimulation targeting nuclei just posterior or anterior to the VMH has reportedly induced panic attacks. The authors report findings obtained in an awake patient undergoing bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes into the hypothalamus that strongly implicates the VMH as being critically involved in the genesis of panic attacks. First, as the stimulating electrode progressed deeper into the VMH, the intensity of stimulation required to evoke an attack systematically decreased; second, while stimulation of the VMH in either hemisphere evoked panic, stimulation that appeared to be in the center of the VMH was more potent. Thus, this evidence supports the role of the VMH in the induction of panic attacks purported by animal studies.
Presents a process analysis of a psychodynamic intervention for a client with panic attacks. Discusses how a psychodynamic understanding of the complex etiology of the client's panic attacks that ultimately produced improved coping skills and a subjective sense of improvement for her. Process analysis is used to illustrate the theoretical base,…
Aberer, Werner; Bouillet, Laurence; Caballero, Teresa; Maurer, Marcus; Fabien, Vincent; Zanichelli, Andrea
Objective To characterize the management and outcomes of life-threatening laryngeal attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) treated with icatibant in the observational Icatibant Outcome Survey (NCT01034969) registry. Methods This retrospective analysis was based on data from patients with HAE type I/II who received healthcare professional-administered or self-administered icatibant to treat laryngeal attacks between September 2008 and May 2013. Results Twenty centers in seven countries contributed data. Overall, 42 patients with HAE experienced 67 icatibant-treated laryngeal attacks. Icatibant was self-administered for 62.3% of attacks (healthcare professional-administered, 37.7%). One icatibant injection was used for 87.9% of attacks, with rescue or concomitant medication used for 9.0%. The median time to treatment was 2.0 h (n=31 attacks) and the median time to resolution was 6.0 h (n=35 attacks). Conclusions This analysis describes successful use of icatibant for the treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks in a real-world setting. PMID:27116379
stolen-cyber-attack.  Hacked: Data breach costly for Ohio State, victims of compromised info http://www.thelantern.com/campus/hacked- data ... breach -costly-for-ohio-state-victims-of-compromised-info-1.1831311.  S. C. Lee and C. Shields, “Tracing the Source of Network Attack: A Technical
Zhou, Jiantao; Xu, Qinzhen; Pei, Wenjiang; He, Zhenya; Szu, Harold
Synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning has been demonstrated to be possible for constructing key exchange protocol over public channel. However, the neural cryptography schemes presented so far are not the securest under regular flipping attack (RFA) and are completely insecure under majority flipping attack (MFA). We propose a scheme by splitting the mutual information and the training process to improve the security of neural cryptosystem against flipping attacks. Both analytical and simulation results show that the success probability of RFA on the proposed scheme can be decreased to the level of brute force attack (BFA) and the success probability of MFA still decays exponentially with the weights' level L. The synchronization time of the parties also remains polynomial with L. Moreover, we analyze the security under an advanced flipping attack.
East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet
Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.
Nie, Sen; Wang, Xuwen; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Qilang; Wang, Binghong
We study the controllability of networks in the process of cascading failures under two different attacking strategies, random and intentional attack, respectively. For the highest-load edge attack, it is found that the controllability of Erdős-Rényi network, that with moderate average degree, is less robust, whereas the Scale-free network with moderate power-law exponent shows strong robustness of controllability under the same attack strategy. The vulnerability of controllability under random and intentional attacks behave differently with the increasing of removal fraction, especially, we find that the robustness of control has important role in cascades for large removal fraction. The simulation results show that for Scale-free networks with various power-law exponents, the network has larger scale of cascades do not mean that there will be more increments of driver nodes. Meanwhile, the number of driver nodes in cascading failures is also related to the edges amount in strongly connected components.
Fraguas, Renerio; Iosifescu, Dan V; Bankier, Bettina; Perlis, Roy; Clementi-Craven, Nicoletta; Alpert, Jonathan; Fava, Maurizio
Depression and anger have been separately associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We investigated if major depressive disorder (MDD) with concomitant anger attacks was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We measured total serum cholesterol, glycemia, resting blood pressure, and smoking parameters in 333 (52.9% women) MDD nonpsychotic outpatients, mean age of 39.4 years. MDD was diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R). The presence of anger attacks was established with the Massachusetts General Hospital Anger Attacks Questionnaire. In a logistic regression analysis, anger attacks were independently associated with cholesterol levels > or = 200 mg/dL (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-3.94) and years of smoking > 11 (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.32-5.04). MDD with anger attacks was significantly associated with increased cholesterol levels and years of smoking.
Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif
WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.
Acid attacks, especially on women, have seen an alarming growth in India over the last decade. While these attacks can be attributed to various factors such as the social weakness of women in a male-dominated society, the situation is exacerbated by the general neglect of the lawmakers. As acid is inexpensive and easily available, it serves as an ideal weapon for the perpetrators. Further, as this offence is bailable in certain situations, the punishment does not act as a sufficient deterrent in most cases. This paper describes the horrendous effects that acid attacks have on the victims physically, psychologically and socially. It also examines the contemporary laws governing acid attacks on victims and offenders. Ideas for a better legal approach will also be examined with special reference to acid attacks as a crime, and the validity of specific legal provisions for female victims.
Limbu, Yuba R; Malla, Rabi; Regmi, Shyam R; Dahal, Ramesh; Nakarmi, Hari L; Yonzan, Ganesh; Gartaula, Ritu P
Limited knowledge of heart attack symptoms may prevent patients from seeking time-dependent thrombolytic therapy, an intervention that offers impressive survival benefit. Previous studies carried out in developed countries demonstrated a deficit of knowledge about a wide range of heart attack symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe knowledge of heart attack, knowledge of heart attack symptoms, and anticipated first response to symptoms among the lay public in Nepal. A total of 1192 participants (657 men and 535 women age 16 to 88 years old) were interviewed in a cross-sectional manner. Those <16 years of age, all health professionals, and individuals with a history of heart attack were excluded. A total of 862 (72.3%) participants had heard of heart attack. Significantly more male than female participants had heard of heart attack (P <.001). Of the respondents, 91.7% with >or=10 years of education (ED-2) had heard of heart of attack, whereas only 54% respondents with <10 years of education or who were illiterate (unable to read and write) (ED-1) had heard of heart attack, and in both the male and female populations, a higher percentage of the ED-2 group had heard of heart attack than the ED-1 group (92.6% vs. 60% and 85.6% vs. 49.6%, respectively). A significantly higher number of respondents from 31 to 50 years of age (AGE-2) had heard of heart attack than those 16 to 30 years of age (AGE-1) and those >50 years of age (AGE-3) (P <.001). Among 862 respondents who had heard of heart attack, 21.3% could not name any heart attack symptoms. A total of 16 different heart attack symptoms were named. Fainting or collapsing (48%), chest pain (22.4%), shortness of breath (9%), dizziness (8.4%), palpitations (7.4%), and sweating (7.4%) were the leading symptoms named by respondents. Fainting or collapsing and chest pain and shortness of breath were named more frequently among the ED-2 group respondents and the AGE-3 group men. Only 3.7% could name >or=2 typical heart
Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent
There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised datamore » by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.« less
Keynan, Alex; Nealson, Kenneth; Sideropoulos, Henry; Hastings, J. W.
The isolation and partial characterization of a marine bacteriophage attacking a strain of luminous bacteria is described, including some physical, biological, and genetic properties. It is a DNA phage of density of 1.52 with a long flexible tail and an apparently icosohedral head. With respect to stability in suspension, it has a rather specific requirement for the sodium ion in high concentration; it is further stabilized by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions. These same ions are likewise all required for both good plating efficiency and plaque uniformity. Although it goes through a typical lytic growth cycle (about 45 min), with a burst size of 100, and no stable lysogens have been isolated, it is nevertheless a transducing phage specifically for the tryptophan region, transducing several, but not all, independently isolated Trp− auxotrophs to protrophy. No other auxotrophs of a variety of amino acids were transduced by this phage to prototrophy. Phage infection does not change the normal expression of the luminescent system, and light remains at near normal levels until cell lysis occurs. Images PMID:16789143
Summary: Chronic cardiovascular disease imposes a significant health and economic burden on individuals and communities. Despite decades of improvement in cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease and stroke remain the leading cause of death in the U.S. and disparities in health outcomes persist. Moreover, the continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality typical of the last four decades has ended motivating new and innovative approaches to improve population health and wellbeing. Apart from continued focus on traditional risk factor modification such as identification and treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol, cessation of smoking, and appropriate use of evidence-based pharmacological prevention measures and disease management, other factors should be considered such as increasing physical activity, dietary sodium reduction and modification of social and environmental determinants known to cause heart attacks and stroke and exacerbate vascular disease. Such an approach will require greater cooperation among public health, environmental health, the broader public and private healthcare delivery and payment systems, and federal agencies. To introduce this concept the U.S. EPA held a workshop in September 2016 bringing together representatives of local and state public health officials, the healthcare system, educators, data analytics, and federal partners (CMS, CDC, Dept. of State and EPA) for the purpose of exploring the idea of prom
Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten
We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635
Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Smith, Kimberlee I.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Background: The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Method: Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington,…
Kwon, Se Yun; Lee, Kyung Seop; Lee, Jun Nyung; Ha, Yun-Sok; Choi, Seock Hwan; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoo, Eun Sang
Purpose We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the risk factors for hypertensive attack during adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Despite the development of newer surgical and anesthetic techniques for the management of pheochromocytoma, intraoperative hypertensive attack continues to present a challenge. Materials and Methods Data from 53 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma at Kyungpook National Uriversity Medical Center between January 2000 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of hypertensive attack at the time of surgery. Patient demographic characteristics and preoperative evaluations were assessed for their prognostic relevance with respect to hypertensive attack. A univariate analysis was conducted, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Results In the univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure at presentation, preoperative hormonal status (including epinephrine, norepinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, and metanephrine levels in a 24-hour urine sample), tumor size, and postoperative systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the development of hypertensive attack. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative epinephrine level and tumor size were independent factors that predicted hypertensive attack. The highest odds ratio for tumor size (2.169) was obtained at a cutoff value of 4.25 cm and the highest odds ratio for preoperative epinephrine (1.020) was obtained at a cutoff value of 166.3 µg/d. Conclusions In this study, a large tumor size and an elevated preoperative urinary epinephrine level were risk factors for intraoperative hypertensive attack in patients with pheochromocytoma. PMID:27194549
Altunay, M.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.
Cybersecurity is a growing concern, especially in open grids, where attack propagation is easy because of prevalent collaborations among thousands of users and hundreds of institutions. The collaboration rules that typically govern large science experiments as well as social networks of scientists span across the institutional security boundaries. A common concern is that the increased openness may allow malicious attackers to spread more readily around the grid. We consider how to optimally respond to attacks in open grid environments. To show how and why attacks spread more readily around the grid, we first discuss how collaborations manifest themselves in themore » grids and form the collaboration network graph, and how this collaboration network graph affects the security threat levels of grid participants. We present two mixed-integer program (MIP) models to find the optimal response to attacks in open grid environments, and also calculate the threat level associated with each grid participant. Given an attack scenario, our optimal response model aims to minimize the threat levels at unaffected participants while maximizing the uninterrupted scientific production (continuing collaborations). By adopting some of the collaboration rules (e.g., suspending a collaboration or shutting down a site), the model finds optimal response to subvert an attack scenario.« less
Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P
Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044
Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo
Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.
Varuttamaseni, Athi; Bari, Robert A.; Youngblood, Robert
The consideration of how one compromised digital equipment can impact neighboring equipment is critical to understanding the progression of cyber attacks. The degree of influence that one component may have on another depends on a variety of factors, including the sharing of resources such as network bandwidth or processing power, the level of trust between components, and the inclusion of segmentation devices such as firewalls. The interactions among components via mechanisms that are unique to the digital world are not usually considered in traditional PRA. This means potential sequences of events that may occur during an attack may be missedmore » if one were to only look at conventional accident sequences. This paper presents a method where, starting from the initial attack vector, the progression of a cyber attack can be modeled. The propagation of the attack is modeled by considering certain attributes of the digital components in the system. These attributes determine the potential vulnerability of a component to a class of attack and the capability gained by the attackers once they are in control of the equipment. The use of attributes allows similar components (components with the same set of attributes) to be modeled in the same way, thereby reducing the computing resources required for analysis of large systems.« less
Hwang, Seon Y; Ryan, Catherine J; Zerwic, Julie Johnson
This study assessed the knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors in a convenience sample of Korean immigrants. A total of 116 Korean immigrants in a Midwestern metropolitan area were recruited through Korean churches and markets. Knowledge was assessed using both open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Latent class cluster analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. About 76% of the sample had at least one self-reported risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Using an open-ended question, the majority of subjects could only identify one symptom. In the structured questionnaire, subjects identified a mean of 5 out of 10 heart attack symptoms and a mean of 5 out of 9 heart attack risk factors. Latent class cluster analysis showed that subjects clustered into two groups for both risk factors and symptoms: a high knowledge group and a low knowledge group. Subjects who clustered into the risk factor low knowledge group (48%) were more likely than the risk factor high knowledge group to be older than 65 years, to have lower education, to not know to use 911 when a heart attack occurred, and to not have a family history of heart attack. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors was variable, ranging from high to very low. Education should be focused on those at highest risk for a heart attack, which includes the elderly and those with risk factors.
Simmatis, Leif; Krett, Jonathan; Scott, Stephen H; Jin, Albert Y
We used a robotic exoskeleton to quantify specific patterns of abnormal upper limb motor behaviour in people who have had transient ischemic attack (TIA). A cohort of people with TIA was recruited within two weeks of symptom onset. All individuals completed a robotic-based assessment of 8 behavioural tasks related to upper limb motor and proprioceptive function, as well as cognitive function. Robotic task performance was compared to a large cohort of controls without neurological impairments corrected for the influence of age. Impairment in people with TIA was defined as performance below the 5th percentile of controls. Participants with TIA were also assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) of the arm, the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), the Purdue pegboard test (PPB), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Age-related white matter change (ARWMC), prior infarction and cella-media index (CMI) were assessed from baseline CT scan that was performed within 24 hours of TIA. Acute infarction was assessed from diffusion-weighted imaging in a subset of people with TIA. Twenty-two people with TIA were assessed. Robotic assessment showed impaired upper limb motor function in 7/22 people with TIA patients and upper limb sensory impairment in 4/22 individuals. Cognitive tasks involving robotic assessment of the upper limb were completed in 13 participants, of whom 8 (61.5%) showed significant impairment. Abnormal performance in the CMSA arm inventory was present in 12/22 (54.5%) participants. ARWMC was 11.8 ± 6.4 and CMI was 5.4 ± 1.5. DWI was positive in 0 participants. Quantitative robotic assessment showed that people who have had a TIA display a spectrum of upper limb motor and sensory performance deficits as well as cognitive function deficits despite resolution of symptoms and no evidence of tissue infarction.
Dobson, A J; Alexander, H M; Malcolm, J A; Steele, P L; Miles, T A
To test the hypothesis that stress generated by the Newcastle earthquake led to increased risk of heart attack and coronary death. A natural experiment. People living in the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas of New South Wales, Australia. At 10.27 a.m. on 28 December 1989 Newcastle was struck by an earthquake measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale. Myocardial infarction and coronary death defined by the criteria of the WHO MONICA Project and hospital admissions for coronary disease before and after the earthquake and in corresponding periods in previous years. Well established, concurrent data collection systems were used. There were six fatal myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths among people aged under 70 years after the earthquake in the period 28-31 December 1989. Compared with the average number of deaths at this time of year this was unusually high (P = 0.016). Relative risks for this four-day period were: fatal myocardial infarction and coronary death, 1.67 (95% confidence interval [Cl]: 0.72, 3.17); non-fatal definite myocardial infarction, 1.05 (95% Cl: 0.05, 2.22); non-fatal possible myocardial infarction, 1.34 (95% Cl: 0.67, 1.91); hospital admissions for myocardial infarction or other ischaemic heart disease, 1.27 (95% Cl: 0.83, 1.66). There was no evidence of increased risk during the following four months. The magnitude of increased risk of death was slightly less than that previously reported after earthquakes in Greece. The data provide weak evidence that acute emotional and physical stress may trigger myocardial infarction and coronary death.
Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.
Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160
Sakai, Yuto; Rinsaka, Koichiro; Dohi, Tadashi
In the present paper, we propose a novel cyber-attack detection model based on two multivariate-analysis methods to the audit data observed on a host machine. The statistical techniques used here are the well-known Hayashi's quantification method IV and cluster analysis method. We quantify the observed qualitative audit event sequence via the quantification method IV, and collect similar audit event sequence in the same groups based on the cluster analysis. It is shown in simulation experiments that our model can improve the cyber-attack detection accuracy in some realistic cases where both normal and attack activities are intermingled.
Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Sang-Won; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung
Human influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The influenza vaccination is recommended annually, but several adverse effects related to allergic reactions have been reported. Panic attacks are also known to occur, but no case of a panic attack adverse effect has been reported in South Korea. We present two cases of panic disorder patients whose symptoms were aggravated by the influenza vaccination. We assumed that dysregulation of T-lymphocytes in panic disorder patients could have a role in activating various kinds of cytokines and chemokines, which then can lead to panic attack aggravation.
Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von
Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.
Vulnerability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users to signal spoofing is a critical threat to positioning integrity, especially in aviation applications, where the consequences are potentially catastrophic. In response, this research describes and evaluates a new approach to directly detect spoofing using integrated Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) and fault detection concepts based on integrity monitoring. The monitors developed here can be implemented into positioning systems using INS/GNSS integration via 1) tightly-coupled, 2) loosely-coupled, and 3) uncoupled schemes. New evaluation methods enable the statistical computation of integrity risk resulting from a worst-case spoofing attack - without needing to simulate an unmanageably large number of individual aircraft approaches. Integrity risk is an absolute measure of safety and a well-established metric in aircraft navigation. A novel closed-form solution to the worst-case time sequence of GNSS signals is derived to maximize the integrity risk for each monitor and used in the covariance analyses. This methodology tests the performance of the monitors against the most sophisticated spoofers, capable of tracking the aircraft position - for example, by means of remote tracking or onboard sensing. Another contribution is a comprehensive closed-loop model that encapsulates the vehicle and compensator (estimator and controller) dynamics. A sensitivity analysis uses this model to quantify the leveraging impact of the vehicle's dynamic responses (e.g., to wind gusts, or to autopilot's acceleration commands) on the monitor's detection capability. The performance of the monitors is evaluated for two safety-critical terminal area navigation applications: 1) autonomous shipboard landing and 2) Boeing 747 (B747) landing assisted with Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS). It is demonstrated that for both systems, the monitors are capable of meeting the most stringent precision approach and landing
In this timely special section, editor Tom Rees recounts some of the swift, supportive actions health care providers took in response to the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.
The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.
Five records of Pipunculidae (Diptera) attacking proconiine sharpshooters (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are documented here for the first time. Eudorylas alternatus (Cresson) is documented as a parasitoid of Cuerna obtusa Oman and Beamer, and Oncometopia orbona (Fabricius) is recorded as being at...
... increased risk of heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular diseases from taking calcium supplements for men only. Other ... et al. Calcium supplement intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Osteoporosis International. 2014;25:2047. Waldman ...
Feng, Zhi; Wen, Guanghui; Hu, Guoqiang
This paper studies a distributed secure consensus tracking control problem for multiagent systems subject to strategic cyber attacks modeled by a random Markov process. A hybrid stochastic secure control framework is established for designing a distributed secure control law such that mean-square exponential consensus tracking is achieved. A connectivity restoration mechanism is considered and the properties on attack frequency and attack length rate are investigated, respectively. Based on the solutions of an algebraic Riccati equation and an algebraic Riccati inequality, a procedure to select the control gains is provided and stability analysis is studied by using Lyapunov's method.. The effect of strategic attacks on discrete-time systems is also investigated. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.
Lü, Xiaofei; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Ding, Bin
In order to pay our attention to the perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery. Three patients with asthma accompanied chronic sinusitis were analyzed systemically, who had undergone acute attacks of asthma introduced by anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma, because sinusitis with asthma means allergic airway inflammation, broncho-hyperreactivity and lower compensatory pulmonary function. Then all of the 3 cases had missed the preoperative treatment. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma. The perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery is very important for the prevention of the occurrences of this severe complication. Except emergency, the operation should be can celled for avoiding the acute attack of asthma introduced by anesthesia.
Barzegar, Kazem; Barzegar, Somayeh
To study the effect of playing cell phone chess game on treating panic attack. The chess game on an android cell phone was played by the researcher who was affected by panic attack as a post-traumatic disorder immediately after or before feeling of the start of symptoms. The right level of difficulty, i.e., levels 2-4, was selected for optimal results. Playing chess game on the android cell phone prevented the manifestation of panic attack and led to the cure of this traumatic condition. Chess therapy with the right level of difficulty can be recommended as a very effective non-pharmaceutical method for the successful treatment of panic attacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...
... using an angiogram , but an intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography screening, which allows doctors to see ... Changes Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library ...
Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.
Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).
At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...
Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam
An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate. PMID:26295058
Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam
An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.
Rogulj, Nenad; Srhoj, Vatromir; Srhoj, Ljerka
The prevalence of 19 elements of collective tactics in score efficient and score inefficient teams was analyzed in 90 First Croatian Handball League--Men games during the 1998-1999 season. Prediction variables were used to describe duration, continuity, system, organization and spatial direction of attacks. Analysis of the basic descriptive and distribution statistical parameters revealed normal distribution of all variables and possibility to use multivariate methods. Canonic discrimination analysis and analysis of variance showed the use of collective tactics elements on attacks to differ statistically significantly between the winning and losing teams. Counter-attacks and uninterrupted attacks predominate in winning teams. Other types of attacks such as long position attack, multiply interrupted attack, attack with one circle runner attack player/pivot, attack based on basic principles, attack based on group cooperation, attack based on independent action, attack based on group maneuvering, rightward directed attack and leftward directed attack predominate in losing teams. Winning teams were found to be clearly characterized by quick attacks against unorganized defense, whereas prolonged, interrupted position attacks against organized defense along with frequent and diverse tactical actions were characteristic of losing teams. The choice and frequency of using a particular tactical activity in position attack do not warrant score efficiency but usually are consequential to the limited anthropologic potential and low level of individual technical-tactical skills of the players in low-quality teams.
introduce security vulnerabilities and expose the cache memory to side channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a side channel attack (SCA) model...where the adversary can monitor the supply current of the memory array to partially identify the sensi- tive cache data that is being read or written. We...propose solutions such as short retention STTRAM, obfuscation of SCA using 1-bit parity, multi-bit random write, and, neutral- izing the SCA using
Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo
Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior. PMID:25550978
Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac
The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.
Seoane, Luís F; Ruttor, Andreas
An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.
Oracle , MySQL , or PostgreSQL. Figure 2 shows an incoming packet and the process involved before and after the Snort engine detects the suspicious...stored on a separate, secured system.”. Honeypots have several other uses besides monitoring attackers. They serve to protect real networks and...interaction vs . high-interaction. Although, both low-interaction and high-interaction honeypots are effective in soliciting attacks, high-interaction
INTRODUCTION We must not rely on changing the hearts and minds of terrorists. The motivation for terrorism results from long-term social, cultural and...psychological pressures, which are difficult to alter. But motivation is only part of the formula for terrorism. The other is opportunity for attack that...terrorists; motivation and opportunity reduction brings more immediate protection. In any case, easy opportunities encourage terrorists to attack
Wagner, E E; Klein, I
12 first and second degree murderers were matched on sex and age with subjects who had perpetrated aggressive interpersonal attacks short of homicide. Both groups had been referred for psychological testing by courts and social agencies. A substantial and significant difference in IQ was found in favor of the attackers over the murderers. Results were interpreted as lending credence to the hypothesis that differences in IQ exist among important sub-populations of murderers.
Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo
Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.
and the Air Support Headquarters. The call is created at the time of attack, and it automatically includes a request for help. Reliability of...communication conditions. 2. Air Support call : This call is produced for just the Headquarters of Air Component, only in case of armed attacks. The request can...estimated speed of armored vehicles in combat areas (West-Point Organization, 2002). When a call for air support is received, an information
Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav V.; Pereira, Shelby; Herrigel, Alexander; Baumgartner, Nazanin; Pun, Thierry
Digital image watermarking has become a popular technique for authentication and copyright protection. For verifying the security and robustness of watermarking algorithms, specific attacks have to be applied to test them. In contrast to the known Stirmark attack, which degrades the quality of the image while destroying the watermark, this paper presents a new approach which is based on the estimation of a watermark and the exploitation of the properties of Human Visual System (HVS). The new attack satisfies two important requirements. First, image quality after the attack as perceived by the HVS is not worse than the quality of the stego image. Secondly, the attack uses all available prior information about the watermark and cover image statistics to perform the best watermark removal or damage. The proposed attack is based on a stochastic formulation of the watermark removal problem, considering the embedded watermark as additive noise with some probability distribution. The attack scheme consists of two main stages: (1) watermark estimation and partial removal by a filtering based on a Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) approach; (2) watermark alteration and hiding through addition of noise to the filtered image, taking into account the statistics of the embedded watermark and exploiting HVS characteristics. Experiments on a number of real world and computer generated images show the high efficiency of the proposed attack against known academic and commercial methods: the watermark is completely destroyed in all tested images without altering the image quality. The approach can be used against watermark embedding schemes that operate either in coordinate domain, or transform domains like Fourier, DCT or wavelet.
Liquefied Natural Gas: Siting and Safety .” Feb. 15, 2005. 108 U.S. Coast Guard. U.S. Coast Guard Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Waterways...Order Code RL33787 Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities January 9, 2007 Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli...Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK
Xie, Dahua; Kuo, C. C. J.
Efficient multimedia encryption algorithms play a key role in multimedia security protection. One multimedia encryption algorithm known as the MHT (Multiple Huffman Tables) method was recently developed by Wu and Kuo. Even though MHT has many desirable properties, it is vulnerable to the chosen-plaintext attack (CPA). An enhanced MHT algorithm is proposed in this work to overcome this drawback. It is proved mathematically that the proposed algorithm is secure against the chosen plaintext attack.
Homeopathy is being attacked by the British media. These attacks draw support from irresponsible and unjustified claims by certain teachers of homeopathy. Such claims include the use of 'dream' and 'imaginative' methods for provings. For prescribing some such teachers attempt to replace the laborious process of matching symptom picture and remedy with spurious theories based on 'signatures', sensations and other methods. Other irresponsible claims have also been made. These "new ideas" risk destroying the principles, theory, and practice of homeopathy.
Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente
The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.
Li, Ya-Peng; Tan, Suo-Yi; Deng, Ye; Wu, Jun
Dealing with the protection of critical infrastructures, many game-theoretic methods have been developed to study the strategic interactions between defenders and attackers. However, most game models ignore the interrelationship between different components within a certain system. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous-move attacker-defender game model, which is a two-player zero-sum static game with complete information. The strategies and payoffs of this game are defined on the basis of the topology structure of the infrastructure system, which is represented by a complex network. Due to the complexity of strategies, the attack and defense strategies are confined by two typical strategies, namely, targeted strategy and random strategy. The simulation results indicate that in a scale-free network, the attacker virtually always attacks randomly in the Nash equilibrium. With a small cost-sensitive parameter, representing the degree to which costs increase with the importance of a target, the defender protects the hub targets with large degrees preferentially. When the cost-sensitive parameter exceeds a threshold, the defender switches to protecting nodes randomly. Our work provides a new theoretical framework to analyze the confrontations between the attacker and the defender on critical infrastructures and deserves further study.
Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell
The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination ofmore » food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.« less
Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente
The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores. PMID:26838467
Sawchuk, Craig N.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Craner, Julia R.; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero; Buchwald, Dedra
Panic disorder is a common mental health condition, but little is known about panic disorder in non-Caucasian populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and comorbidities of panic attacks and panic disorder in two large American Indian (AI) tribes (N = 3,084). A culturally-adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed panic attacks, panic disorder, and various psychiatric comorbidities. After adjusting for age, gender, and tribe, linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare AIs with panic disorder to those with panic attacks only on clinical characteristics and panic symptoms. Approximately 8.5% (N = 234) of American Indians reported a lifetime history of panic attacks. Among individuals with panic attacks, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was higher in females (p = 0.03) and comorbid alcohol-related disorders were higher in males (p ≤ 0.001). The prevalence and clinical features of panic attacks and panic disorder in American Indians were similar to epidemiologic studies with majority populations. However, in contrast to earlier research, panic symptoms were similar in both males and females, and different patterns of comorbidity emerged. Future research should examine the availability and accessibility of evidence-based panic treatments for this traditionally underserved population. PMID:27720578
Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Craner, Julia R; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero; Buchwald, Dedra
Panic disorder is a common mental health condition, but little is known about panic disorder in non-Caucasian populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, and comorbidities of panic attacks and panic disorder in two large American Indian (AI) tribes (N=3084). A culturally-adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed panic attacks, panic disorder, and various psychiatric comorbidities. After adjusting for age, gender, and tribe, linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare AIs with panic disorder to those with panic attacks only on clinical characteristics and panic symptoms. Approximately 8.5% (N=234) of American Indians reported a lifetime history of panic attacks. Among individuals with panic attacks, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was higher in females (p=0.03) and comorbid alcohol-related disorders were higher in males (p≤0.001). The prevalence and clinical features of panic attacks and panic disorder in American Indians were similar to epidemiologic studies with majority populations. However, in contrast to earlier research, panic symptoms were similar in both males and females, and different patterns of comorbidity emerged. Future research should examine the availability and accessibility of evidence-based panic treatments for this traditionally underserved population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan
In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.
Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.
A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered tomore » small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.« less
Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi
The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.
Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M
Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva
The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.
Kugler, A; Krüger-Franke, M; Reininger, S; Trouillier, H H; Rosemeyer, B
OBJECTIVE: In overhead sports such as volleyball, baseball, or tennis shoulder problems are very common. The aim of this study was to identify features which may correlate with shoulder problems in volleyball attackers. METHODS: 30 competitive volleyball attackers (mean age 25 years) were included in the study; 15 were suffering from shoulder pain and 15 had no history of shoulder pain. The results were compared with those of a control group of 15 recreational athletes without any overhead sports activities. RESULTS: Volleyball attackers have a different muscular and capsular pattern at the playing shoulder compared to the opposite shoulder. Their playing shoulder is depressed, the scapula lateralised, and the dorsal muscles and the posterior and inferior part of the shoulder capsule shortened. These differences were of more significance in volleyball attackers with shoulder pain than in volleyball players without shoulder pain. In contrast to recreational athletes without any overhead sports activity, there were no significant difference in the comparison of the two shoulders. The histories, clinical and sonographic findings did not reveal further typical features for volleyball attackers with shoulder pain. CONCLUSIONS: Muscular balance of the shoulder girdle is very important in this sport. It is therefore imperative to include adequate stretching and muscular training programme for the prevention, as well as for therapy, of shoulder pain in volleyball attackers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8889124
par. 4) Based on a RED projected size of 22.16 m, a sample calculation for the unadjusted single shot probability of kill for HELLFIRE missiles is...framework based on intelligent objects (SIMIO) environment to model a fast attack craft/fast inshore attack craft anti-surface warfare expanded kill chain...concept of operation efficiency. Based on the operational environment, low cost and less capable unmanned aircraft provide an alternative to the
Lengua, Liliana J; Long, Anna C; Smith, Kimberlee I; Meltzoff, Andrew N
The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington, participating in an ongoing study. Symptomatology and temperament assessed prior to the attacks were examined as prospective predictors of post-attack post-traumatic stress (PTS), anxiety, depression and externalizing problems. Children demonstrated PTS symptoms and worries at levels comparable to those in children directly experiencing disasters, with 77% of children reporting being worried, 68% being upset by reminders, and 39% having upsetting thoughts. The most common PTS symptom cluster was re-experiencing, and 8% of children met criteria consistent with PTSD. African-American children reported more avoidant PTS symptoms and being more upset by the attacks than European-American children. Girls reported being more upset than boys. Prior internalizing, externalizing, social competence and self-esteem were related to post-attack PTS; and child inhibitory control, assessed prior to the 9/11 attacks, demonstrated a trend towards an association with post-attack PTS symptoms controlling for prior levels of symptomatology. PTS predicted child-report anxiety and conduct problem symptoms at follow-up, approximately 6 months after 9/11. Children experiencing a major disaster at a distance or indirectly through media exposure demonstrated worries and PTS symptoms suggesting that communities need to attend to children's mental health needs in response to national or regional disasters. Pre-disaster symptomatology or low self-regulation may render children more vulnerable in response to a disaster, and immediate post-disaster responses predict subsequent symptomatology. These variables might be used in the identification of children in need of
Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda
Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically <5 m) encounters that threatened the involved person. Of cougars in close encounters, females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the
Meerwald, Peter; Pereira, Shelby
The Checkmark benchmarking tool was introduced to provide a framework for application-oriented evaluation of watermarking schemes. In this article we introduce new attacks and applications into the existing Checkmark framework. In addition to describing new attacks and applications, we also compare the performance of some well-known watermarking algorithms (proposed by Bruyndonckx,Cox, Fridrich, Dugad, Kim, Wang, Xia, Xie, Zhu and Pereira) with respect to the Checkmark benchmark. In particular, we consider the non-geometric application which contains tests that do not change the geometry of image. This attack constraint is artificial, but yet important for research purposes since a number of algorithms may be interesting, but would score poorly with respect to specific applications simply because geometric compensation has not been incorporated. We note, however, that with the help of image registration, even research algorithms that do not have counter-measures against geometric distortion -- such as a template or reference watermark -- can be evaluated. In the first version of the Checkmark benchmarking program, application-oriented evaluation was introduced, along with many new attacks not already considered in the literature. A second goal of this paper is to introduce new attacks and new applications into the Checkmark framework. In particular, we introduce the following new applications: video frame watermarking, medical imaging and watermarking of logos. Video frame watermarking includes low compression attacks and distortions which warp the edges of the video as well as general projective transformations which may result from someone filming the screen at a cinema. With respect to medical imaging, only small distortions are considered and furthermore it is essential that no distortions are present at embedding. Finally for logos, we consider images of small sizes and particularly compression, scaling, aspect ratio and other small distortions. The challenge
Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre
In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above
Dong, Gaogao; Gao, Jianxi; Du, Ruijin; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo
The robustness of a network of networks (NON) under random attack has been studied recently [Gao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 195701 (2011)]. Understanding how robust a NON is to targeted attacks is a major challenge when designing resilient infrastructures. We address here the question how the robustness of a NON is affected by targeted attack on high- or low-degree nodes. We introduce a targeted attack probability function that is dependent upon node degree and study the robustness of two types of NON under targeted attack: (i) a tree of n fully interdependent Erdős-Rényi or scale-free networks and (ii) a starlike network of n partially interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks. For any tree of n fully interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks and scale-free networks under targeted attack, we find that the network becomes significantly more vulnerable when nodes of higher degree have higher probability to fail. When the probability that a node will fail is proportional to its degree, for a NON composed of Erdős-Rényi networks we find analytical solutions for the mutual giant component P(∞) as a function of p, where 1-p is the initial fraction of failed nodes in each network. We also find analytical solutions for the critical fraction p(c), which causes the fragmentation of the n interdependent networks, and for the minimum average degree k[over ¯](min) below which the NON will collapse even if only a single node fails. For a starlike NON of n partially interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks under targeted attack, we find the critical coupling strength q(c) for different n. When q>q(c), the attacked system undergoes an abrupt first order type transition. When q≤q(c), the system displays a smooth second order percolation transition. We also evaluate how the central network becomes more vulnerable as the number of networks with the same coupling strength q increases. The limit of q=0 represents no dependency, and the results are consistent with the classical
Tyra, Adam; Li, Jingtao; Shang, Yilun; Jiang, Shuo; Zhao, Yanjun; Xu, Shouhuai
Robustness of complex networks has been extensively studied via the notion of site percolation, which typically models independent and non-adaptive attacks (or disruptions). However, real-life attacks are often dependent and/or adaptive. This motivates us to characterize the robustness of complex networks, including non-interdependent and interdependent ones, against dependent and adaptive attacks. For this purpose, dependent attacks are accommodated by L-hop percolation where the nodes within some L-hop (L ≥ 0) distance of a chosen node are all deleted during one attack (with L = 0 degenerating to site percolation). Whereas, adaptive attacks are launched by attackers who can make node-selection decisions based on the network state in the beginning of each attack. The resulting characterization enriches the body of knowledge with new insights, such as: (i) the Achilles' Heel phenomenon is only valid for independent attacks, but not for dependent attacks; (ii) powerful attack strategies (e.g., targeted attacks and dependent attacks, dependent attacks and adaptive attacks) are not compatible and cannot help the attacker when used collectively. Our results shed some light on the design of robust complex networks.
Nie, Sen; Wang, Xuwen; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Qilang; Wang, Binghong
We study the controllability of networks in the process of cascading failures under two different attacking strategies, random and intentional attack, respectively. For the highest-load edge attack, it is found that the controllability of Erdős-Rényi network, that with moderate average degree, is less robust, whereas the Scale-free network with moderate power-law exponent shows strong robustness of controllability under the same attack strategy. The vulnerability of controllability under random and intentional attacks behave differently with the increasing of removal fraction, especially, we find that the robustness of control has important role in cascades for large removal fraction. The simulation results show that for Scale-free networks with various power-law exponents, the network has larger scale of cascades do not mean that there will be more increments of driver nodes. Meanwhile, the number of driver nodes in cascading failures is also related to the edges amount in strongly connected components. PMID:24586507
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) play critical roles in industrial control systems (ICS). Providing hardware peripherals and firmware support for control programs (i.e., a PLC’s “payload”) written in languages such as ladder logic, PLCs directly receive sensor readings and control ICS physical processes. An attacker with access to PLC development software (e.g., by compromising an engineering workstation) can modify the payload program and cause severe physical damages to the ICS. To protect critical ICS infrastructure, we propose to model runtime behaviors of legitimate PLC payload program and use runtime behavior monitoring in PLC firmware to detect payload attacks. By monitoring themore » I/O access patterns, network access patterns, as well as payload program timing characteristics, our proposed firmware-level detection mechanism can detect abnormal runtime behaviors of malicious PLC payload. Using our proof-of-concept implementation, we evaluate the memory and execution time overhead of implementing our proposed method and find that it is feasible to incorporate our method into existing PLC firmware. In addition, our evaluation results show that a wide variety of payload attacks can be effectively detected by our proposed approach. The proposed firmware-level payload attack detection scheme complements existing bumpin- the-wire solutions (e.g., external temporal-logic-based model checkers) in that it can detect payload attacks that violate realtime requirements of ICS operations and does not require any additional apparatus.« less
Ivanyo, Y. M.; Krakovsky, Y. M.; Luzgin, A. N.
At present, cyber-security issues of industrial control systems occupy one of the key niches in a state system of planning and management Functional disruption of these systems via cyber-attacks may lead to emergencies related to loss of life, environmental disasters, major financial and economic damage, or disrupted activities of cities and settlements. There is then an urgent need to develop protection methods against cyber-attacks. This paper studied the results of cyber-attack interval forecasting with a pre-set intensity level of cyber-attacks. Interval forecasting is the forecasting of one interval from two predetermined ones in which a future value of the indicator will be obtained. For this, probability estimates of these events were used. For interval forecasting, a probabilistic neural network with a dynamic updating value of the smoothing parameter was used. A dividing bound of these intervals was determined by a calculation method based on statistical characteristics of the indicator. The number of cyber-attacks per hour that were received through a honeypot from March to September 2013 for the group ‘zeppo-norcal’ was selected as the indicator.
Golshantafti, Mohammad; Yavari, Tahereh; Afrand, Mohammadhosain
The most common reason of respiratory distress in the newborn is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). There are some reports saying that TTN is associated with increased frequencies of wheezing attacks. The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors associated with TTN and to determine the association between TTN and the development of wheezing syndromes in early life. In a historical cohort study, we recorded the characteristics of 70 infants born at the Shohadaye Kargar Hospital in Yazd between March 2005 and March 2009 and who were hospitalized because of TTN in the neonatal intensive-care unit. We called their parents at least four years after the infants were discharged from the hospital and asked about any wheezing attacks. Seventy other infants with no health problems during the newborn period were included in the study as the control group. The rate of wheezing attacks in newborns with TTN was more than patients with no TTN diagnosis (P = 0.014). TTN was found to be an independent risk factor for later wheezing attacks (relative risk [RR] = 2.8). The most obvious finding of this study was that TTN was an independent risk factor for wheezing attacks. So long-term medical care is suggested for these patients who may be at risk, because TTN may not be as transient as has been previously thought.
Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Mesquita, Claudio T; Cosci, Fiammetta; Silva, Adriana C; Nardi, Antonio E
Chest pain is often seen alongside with panic attacks. Moreover, panic disorder has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even a trigger for acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary artery disease may have myocardial ischemia in response to mental stress, in which panic attack is a strong component, by an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or sympathetic hyperactivity setting off an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Indeed, coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. These findings correlating panic disorder with coronary artery disease lead us to raise questions about the favorable prognosis of chest pain in panic attack. To investigate whether myocardial ischemia is the genesis of chest pain in panic attacks, we developed a myocardial perfusion study through research by myocardial scintigraphy in patients with panic attacks induced in the laboratory by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide. In conclusion, from the data obtained, some hypotheses are discussed from the viewpoint of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease present in mental stress response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi
The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems.
Almogy, Gidon; Belzberg, Howard; Mintz, Yoaz; Pikarsky, Alon K; Zamir, Gideon; Rivkind, Avraham I
To review the experience of a large-volume trauma center in managing and treating casualties of suicide bombing attacks. The threat of suicide bombing attacks has escalated worldwide. The ability of the suicide bomber to deliver a relatively large explosive load accompanied by heavy shrapnel to the proximity of his or her victims has caused devastating effects. The authors reviewed and analyzed the experience obtained in treating victims of suicide bombings at the level I trauma center of the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem, Israel from 2000 to 2003. Evacuation is usually rapid due to the urban setting of these attacks. Numerous casualties are brought into the emergency department over a short period. The setting in which the device is detonated has implications on the type of injuries sustained by survivors. The injuries sustained by victims of suicide bombing attacks in semi-confined spaces are characterized by the degree and extent of widespread tissue damage and include multiple penetrating wounds of varying severity and location, blast injury, and burns. The approach to victims of suicide bombings is based on the guidelines for trauma management. Attention is given to the moderately injured, as these patients may harbor immediate life-threatening injuries. The concept of damage control can be modified to include rapid packing of multiple soft-tissue entry sites. Optimal utilization of manpower and resources is achieved by recruiting all available personnel, adopting a predetermined plan, and a centrally coordinated approach. Suicide bombing attacks seriously challenge the most experienced medical facilities.
Dupre, Matthew E; Nelson, Alicia
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73), currently divorced (OR = 1.70), or widowed (OR = 1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dupre, Matthew E.; Nelson, Alicia
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n=2,197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR]=1.73), currently divorced (OR=1.70), or widowed (OR=1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research. PMID:27770749
Creager, Colin M.; Jones, Lucas; Smith, Lauren M.
Ascending steep slopes is often a very difficult challenge for off-road vehicles, whether on Earth or on extraterrestrial bodies. This challenge is even greater if the surface consists of loose granular soil that does not provide much shear strength. This study investigated how the path at which a vehicle traverses a slope, specifically the angle that it is commanded to drive relative to the base of the hill (the angle of attack), can affect its performance. A vehicle was driven in loose sand at slope angles up to 15 degrees and angles of attack ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. A novel photogrammetry technique was implemented to both track vehicle motion and create a three-dimensional profile of the terrain. This allowed for true wheel sinkage measurements. The study showed that though low angles of attack result in lower wheel slip and sinkage, the efficiency of the vehicles uphill motion increased at higher angles of attack. For slopes up to 15 degrees, a 90 degree angle of attack provided the greatest likelihood of successful ascent.
Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.
Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark
Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.
Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, MIroslav; Rezac, Filip; Partila, Pavol; Tomala, Karel
There are many ways of getting real data about malicious activity in a network. One of them relies on masquerading monitoring servers as a production one. These servers are called honeypots and data about attacks on them brings us valuable information about actual attacks and techniques used by hackers. The article describes distributed topology of honeypots, which was developed with a strong orientation on monitoring of IP telephony traffic. IP telephony servers can be easily exposed to various types of attacks, and without protection, this situation can lead to loss of money and other unpleasant consequences. Using a distributed topology with honeypots placed in different geological locations and networks provides more valuable and independent results. With automatic system of gathering information from all honeypots, it is possible to work with all information on one centralized point. Communication between honeypots and centralized data store use secure SSH tunnels and server communicates only with authorized honeypots. The centralized server also automatically analyses data from each honeypot. Results of this analysis and also other statistical data about malicious activity are simply accessible through a built-in web server. All statistical and analysis reports serve as information basis for an algorithm which classifies different types of used VoIP attacks. The web interface then brings a tool for quick comparison and evaluation of actual attacks in all monitored networks. The article describes both, the honeypots nodes in distributed architecture, which monitor suspicious activity, and also methods and algorithms used on the server side for analysis of gathered data.
Lemma, Aweke N.; van der Veen, Michiel
Collusion attack is a malicious watermark removal attack in which the hacker has access to multiple copies of the same content with different watermarks and tries to remove the watermark using averaging. In the literature, several solutions to collusion attacks have been reported. The main stream solutions aim at designing watermark codes that are inherently resistant to collusion attacks. The other approaches propose signal processing based solutions that aim at modifying the watermarked signals in such a way that averaging multiple copies of the content leads to a significant degradation of the content quality. In this paper, we present signal processing based technique that may be deployed for deterring collusion attacks. We formulate the problem in the context of electronic music distribution where the content is generally available in the compressed domain. Thus, we first extend the collusion resistance principles to bit stream signals and secondly present experimental based analysis to estimate a bound on the maximum number of modified versions of a content that satisfy good perceptibility requirement on one hand and destructive averaging property on the other hand.
Lee, You-Seok; Lee, Young-Jun; Han, Dong-Guk; Kim, Ho-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Nam
A power analysis attack is a well-known side-channel attack but the efficiency of the attack is frequently degraded by the existence of power components, irrelative to the encryption included in signals used for the attack. To enhance the performance of the power analysis attack, we propose a preprocessing method based on extracting encryption-related parts from the measured power signals. Experimental results show that the attacks with the preprocessed signals detect correct keys with much fewer signals, compared to the conventional power analysis attacks.
Nichols, Jeff A.; Curtis, Laura
We investigated the security resilience of the current Windows Active Directory (AD) environments to Pass-the-Hash and Pass- the-Ticket credential theft attacks. While doing this, we discovered a way to trigger the removal of all previously issued authentication credentials for a client, thus preventing their use by attackers. After triggered, the user is forced to contact the domain administrators and to authenticate to the AD to continue. This could become the basis for a response that arrests the spread of a detected attack. Operating in a virtualized XenServer environment, we were able to carefully determine and recreate the conditions necessary tomore » cause this response.« less
Lesieutre, Daniel J.; Mendenhall, Michael R.; Nazario, Susana M.; Hemsch, Michael J.
An aerodynamic prediction method for missile aerodynamic performance and preliminary design has been developed to utilize a newly available systematic fin data base and an improved equivalent angle of attack methodology. The method predicts total aerodynamic loads and individual fin forces and moments for body-tail (wing-body) and canard-body-tail configurations with cruciform fin arrangements. The data base and the prediction method are valid for angles of attack up to 45 deg, arbitrary roll angles, fin deflection angles between -40 deg and 40 deg, Mach numbers between 0.6 and 4.5, and fin aspect ratios between 0.25 and 4.0. The equivalent angle of attack concept is employed to include the effects of vorticity and geometric scaling.
Han, Shao-cheng; Yang, Jin-feng; Wang, Rui; Jia, Gui-min
A robust digital watermarking algorithm is proposed based on quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) for copyright protection of color images. The luminance component Y of a host color image in YIQ space is decomposed by QWT, and then the coefficients of four low-frequency subbands are transformed by DCT. An original binary watermark scrambled by Arnold map and iterated sine chaotic system is embedded into the mid-frequency DCT coefficients of the subbands. In order to improve the performance of the proposed algorithm against rotation attacks, a rotation detection scheme is implemented before watermark extracting. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking scheme shows strong robustness not only against common image processing attacks but also against arbitrary rotation attacks.
Lamas-Linares, Antia; Liu, Qin; Gerhardt, Ilja; Makarov, Vadim; Kurtsiefer, Christian
We report on an experimental implementation of an attack of a practical quantum key distribution system , based on a vulnerability of single photon detectors . An intercept/resend-like attack has been carried out which revealed 100% of the raw key generated between the legitimate communication partners. No increase of the error ratio was observed, which is usually considered a reliable witness for any eavesdropping attempt. We also present an experiment which shows that this attack is not revealed by key distribution protocols probing for eavesdroppers by testing a Bell inequality , and discuss implications for practical quantum key distribution.[4pt]  I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006);  V. Makarov, New J. Phys. 11, 065003 (2009);  A. Ling et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 020301(R), (2008)
In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.
Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas
Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.
Blum, Rick S.; Pradhan, Parth; Nagananda, Kyatsandra
The problem of global positioning system (GPS) spoofing attacks on smart grids endowed with phasor measurement units (PMUs) is addressed, taking into account the dynamical behavior of the states of the system. First, it is shown how GPS spoofing introduces a timing synchronization error in the phasor readings recorded by the PMUs and alters the measurement matrix of the dynamical model. Then, a generalized likelihood ratio-based hypotheses testing procedure is devised to detect changes in the measurement matrix when the system is subjected to a spoofing attack. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on the 9-bus, 3-machine test grid to demonstratemore » the implication of the spoofing attack on dynamic state estimation and to analyze the performance of the proposed hypotheses test.« less
Carley, Kathleen M.; Fridsma, Douglas; Casman, Elizabeth; Altman, Neal; Chen, Li-Chiou; Kaminsky, Boris; Nave, Demian; Yahja, Alex
The capability to assess the impacts of large-scale biological attacks and the efficacy of containment policies is critical and requires knowledge-intensive reasoning about social response and disease transmission within a complex social system. There is a close linkage among social networks, transportation networks, disease spread, and early detection. Spatial dimensions related to public gathering places such as hospitals, nursing homes, and restaurants, can play a major role in epidemics [Klovdahl et. al. 2001]. Like natural epidemics, bioterrorist attacks unfold within spatially defined, complex social systems, and the societal and networked response can have profound effects on their outcome. This paper focuses on bioterrorist attacks, but the model has been applied to emergent and familiar diseases as well.
Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.
An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.
Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao
The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We foundmore » that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.« less
Bukhanov, D. G.; Polyakov, V. M.
The paper considers an approach to intrusion detection systems using a neural network of adaptive resonant theory. It suggests the structure of an intrusion detection system consisting of two types of program modules. The first module manages connections of user applications by preventing the undesirable ones. The second analyzes the incoming network traffic parameters to check potential network attacks. After attack detection, it notifies the required stations using a secure transmission channel. The paper describes the experiment on the detection and recognition of network attacks using the test selection. It also compares the obtained results with similar experiments carried out by other authors. It gives findings and conclusions on the sufficiency of the proposed approach. The obtained information confirms the sufficiency of applying the neural networks of adaptive resonant theory to analyze network traffic within the intrusion detection system.
Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shakhov, Vladimir; Koo, Insoo
The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.
Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George
Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.
Li, Wenjie; Han, Shenggao; Gregg, Thomas R; Kemp, Francis W; Davidow, Amy L; Louria, Donald B; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, John D
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food "treats" at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 micro g/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans.
Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.
Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri
The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.
Soriani, Stefano; Fiumana, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto; Boari, Benedetta; Battistella, Pier Antonio; Canetta, Elisabetta; Pedretti, Stefania; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina
To investigate the rhythmicity of migraine episodes without aura in a pediatric population. Time of occurrence of 2517 migraine attacks in 115 children was recorded, by means of a diary, both by hourly and monthly intervals. A significant circadian variation, characterized by a peak in the afternoon (P < .001) and one in the early morning (P= .002) was found. A seasonal peak was also observed between November and January, while a nadir was observed in July. The clustering of attacks in the morning and midday and in autumn-winter, with a minimum frequency in July, suggests that school activities may represent an important cause of migraine.
Science is under attack in many places throughout our society, from the White House to the classroom. I will concentrate my remarks here on the emerging threat to science education associated with the effort to have Intelligent Design incorporated into high school science curricula. While this may appear to be primarily an attack on evolutionary biology, it is in fact motivated by an effort to undermine the teaching of science itself as a discipline based on the scientific method. Moreover, the key proponents of this methodology are not misguided scientists, they are highly refined political operatives who are motivated by a desire to incorporate religion directly in science classes.
Marks, D R; Rapoport, A M
Cluster headache is a syndrome of severe head and facial pain accompanied by autonomic abnormalities. Men are affected more frequently than women. Headaches occur daily during periods of susceptibility, which may be followed by periods of remission. The etiology of cluster headache is uncertain. Recent work suggests that hypothalamic dysfunction and/or oxyhemoglobin desaturation may be involved in its pathogenesis. Effective medical regimens are available for aborting acute attacks and for preventing attacks. Surgical ablation of the trigeminal ganglion has been effective in some patients when conventional medical therapy has failed.
Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills,more » and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap
Wu, Y.; Dou, H. S.; Wei, Y. K.; Chen, X. P.; Chen, Y. N.; Cao, W. B.
In this paper, numerical simulation is performed for the performance and internal flow of a centrifugal fan with different operating conditions using steady three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-e turbulent model. The performance curves, the contours of static pressure, total pressure, radial velocity, relative streamlines and turbulence intensity at different attack angles are obtained. The distributions of static pressure and velocity on suction surface and pressure surface in the same impeller channel are compared for various attack angles. The research shows that the efficiency of the centrifugal fan is the highest when the attack angle is 8 degree. The main reason is that the vortex flow in the impeller is reduced, and the jet-wake pattern is weakened at the impeller outlet. The pressure difference between pressure side and suction side is smooth and the amplitude of the total pressure fluctuation is low along the circumferential direction. These phenomena may cause the loss reduced for the attack angle of about 8 degree.
Bauer, Norman J.
This paper examines the rhetoric and consequences of extreme religious right-wing groups' attack on American public schools. The first section identifies two competing world perspectives, the modern and postmodern perspectives. The second section identifies the fundamental principle that enables the two competing perspectives to coexist: the First…
Thompson, Patricia J.
Changes in a Home Economics curriculum at Lehman College of the City University of New York from 1979-1988 are examined, and a line of inquiry first reported in 1983 is continued. A secondary, feminist analysis of the earlier data, combined with the current data, discloses the extent to which the patriarchal academy will go to attack the…
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John
Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, prompted federal officials to step up campaigns to make schools safe. After visiting Ground Zero at New York City's World Trade Center, Education Secretary Rodney Paige sent each chief state school officer suggestions for managing school crises. Many states also have school safety plans in place. New…
Voznak, M.; Prokes, M.; Sevcik, L.; Frnda, J.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Jakovlev, Sergej; Fazio, Peppino; Mehic, M.; Mikulec, M.
Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is the most widespread technology for mobile communications in the world and serving over 7 billion users. Since first publication of system documentation there has been notified a potential safety problem's occurrence. Selected types of attacks, based on the analysis of the technical feasibility and the degree of risk of these weaknesses, were implemented and demonstrated in laboratory of the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. These vulnerabilities were analyzed and afterwards possible attacks were described. These attacks were implemented using open-source tools, software programmable radio USRP (Universal Software RadioPeripheral) and DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) receiver. GSM security architecture is being scrutinized since first public releases of its specification mainly pointing out weaknesses in authentication and ciphering mechanisms. This contribution also summarizes practically proofed and used scenarios that are performed using opensource software tools and variety of scripts mostly written in Python. Main goal of this paper is in analyzing security issues in GSM network and practical demonstration of selected attacks.
security; optimization; attacker-defender “And thence discover how with most advantage They may vex us with shot, or with assault.” Shakespeare , KingHenryVI...ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.  H. von Stackelberg, The theory of the market economy, William Hodge, London, UK, 1952.  J. Benders
Sun, Yanqiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xingming
Classical jamming attack models in the time domain have been proposed, such as constant jammer, random jammer, and reactive jammer. In this letter, we consider a new problem: given k jammers, how does the attacker minimize the pair-wise connectivity among the nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)? We call this problem k-Jammer Deployment Problem (k-JDP). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at considering the position-critical jamming attack against wireless sensor network. We mainly make three contributions. First, we prove that the decision version of k-JDP is NP-complete even in the ideal situation where the attacker has full knowledge of the topology information of sensor network. Second, we propose a mathematical formulation based on Integer Programming (IP) model which yields an optimal solution. Third, we present a heuristic algorithm HAJDP, and compare it with the IP model. Numerical results show that our heuristic algorithm is computationally efficient.
Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio
We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.
Data on the impact of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, attack on the height of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the first three growing seasons after planting from three locations in eastern North Carolina (U.S.A.) was used to develop multiple linear regression models relating tree height to tip moth infestation level in each growing season. These models...
Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; James Spero
Stochastic simulation models of initial attack on wildland fire can be designed to reflect the complexity of the environmental, administrative, and institutional context in which wildland fire protection agencies operate, but such complexity may come at the cost of a considerable investment in data acquisition and management. This cost may be well justified when it...
Romain M. Mees
Dispatching of firefighting resources requires instantaneous or precalculated decisions. A FORTRAN computer program has been developed that can provide a list of resources in order of computed arrival time for initial attack on a fire. The program requires an accurate description of the existing road system and a list of all resources available on a planning unit....
Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan
Timely and appropriate use of air tankers in firefighting can bring high returns, but their misuse can be expensive when measured in operating and other costs. An allocation model has been developed for identifying superior strategies-for air tanker initial attack, and for choosing an optimum set of allocations among airbases. Data are presented for a representative...
AND FRUSTRATION ........................ 42 FIGURE 27. TASK LOAD INDEX OF MENTAL DEMAND, TEMPORAL DEMAND, AND PHYSICAL DEMAND...situational awareness, affect, and trait characteristics interact with human performance during cyberspace attacks in the physical and information...Operator state was manipulated using emotional stimulation portrayed through the presentation of video segments. The effect of emotions on
Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.
The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. 747.17 Section 747.17 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... adjudicatory proceeding, the challenged adjudicatory proceeding shall continue without regard to the pendency...
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. 19.17 Section 19.17 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES... without regard to the pendency of that court proceeding. No default or other failure to act as directed in...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. 308.17 Section 308.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF... shall continue without regard to the pendency of that court proceeding. No default or other failure to...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. 1780.16 Section 1780.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF... adjudicatory proceeding shall continue without regard to the pendency of that court proceeding. No default or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. 263.17 Section 263.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... proceeding shall continue without regard to the pendency of that court proceeding. No default or other...
Dadkhah, Mehdi; Borchardt, Glenn; Maliszewski, Tomasz
Day by day, researchers receive new suspicious e-mails in their inboxes. Many of them do not have sufficient information about these types of e-mails, and may become victims of cyber-attacks. In this short communication, we review current cyber threats in academic publishing and try to present general guidelines for authors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
forward of the FLOT for 36 minutes.32 Ground Campaign: 4-229 AVN Deep Attack, 26-27 February With the commencement of the ground campaign on 24......battalions worth of tanks and armored personnel carriers while receiving no damage to 4-229 AVN aircraft.34 Prior planning, training, and command
and network cards , do not undergo translation by the MMU and are unaffected by EPT permission. The idea of exploiting systems via DMA is well studied... dump . There are two ways an attacker can gain access to a file opened using O_DIRECT. In the most straightforward scenario, the victim process may
Mao, Jian; Chen, Yue; Shi, Futian; Jia, Yaoqi; Liang, Zhenkai
Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users' browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.
Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.
This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiationmore » of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.« less
I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.
conflict between military forces of any origin.ൟ The definition above applies only to Title 18, Chapter 113B “ Terrorism ,” and is not applicable...beyond the context of terrorism . Applying this definition to cyber attacks outside the context of terrorism will not provide legal justification for
Vas, Prashanth R J; Edmonds, Michael; Kavarthapu, Venu; Rashid, Hisham; Ahluwalia, Raju; Pankhurst, Christian; Papanas, Nikolaos
The "diabetic foot attack" is one of the most devastating presentations of diabetic foot disease, typically presenting as an acutely inflamed foot with rapidly progressive skin and tissue necrosis, at times associated with significant systemic symptoms. Without intervention, it may escalate over hours to limb-threatening proportions and poses a high amputation risk. There are only best practice approaches but no international protocols to guide management. Immediate recognition of a typical infected diabetic foot attack, predominated by severe infection, with prompt surgical intervention to debride all infected tissue alongside broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is vital to ensure both limb and patient survival. Postoperative access to multidisciplinary and advanced wound care therapies is also necessary. More subtle forms exist: these include the ischemic diabetic foot attack and, possibly, in a contemporary categorization, acute Charcot neuroarthropathy. To emphasize the importance of timely action especially in the infected and ischemic diabetic foot attack, we revisit the concept of "time is tissue" and draw parallels with advances in acute myocardial infarction and stroke care. At the moment, international protocols to guide management of severe diabetic foot presentations do not specifically use the term. However, we believe that it may help increase awareness of the urgent actions required in some situations.
Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.
An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.
Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.
From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.
Laurent, J F; Richter, F; Michel, A
Since the early 1980s several disasters involving mass release of toxic substances have focused the attention of different administrations and the fire services into producing protocols and guidelines for action in civilian situations. The bomb attack in the Tokyo subway, in March 1995, made it clear that a terrorist attack using highly toxic agents is now feasible. Management of disasters in the civil sector in France is based upon two interlinked plans: the Red Plan, which covers on-site organisation, and the White Plan, which concerns the interface with hospital services. Special procedures have been developed to adapt the Red and White Plans for use in the event of toxic attack and concern the deployment of emergency responding personnel, the provision of life support and antidotes in the contaminated zone, the prevention of secondary contamination and the transport and reception of victims at the hospital. Based on the established principle of pre-hospital resuscitation and well-tried assistance plans, this doctrine allows a safe and effective response to terrorist attacks as well as to other toxic release incidents.
Bohart, Barbara; Manilov, Marianne; Schwarz, Tamara
This report claims that an attack has been waged on environmental education to derail the re-authorization of the National Environmental Education Act and to de-stabilize and de-fund environmental education in the United States. Presented in the media as a grassroots movement, stories have appeared in local, state, and national media that…
Huber, Peter; Seamount, Patricia
The design goals for the X-31 flight control system were: (1) level 1 handling qualities during post-stall maneuvering (30 to 70 degrees angle-of-attack); (2) thrust vectoring to enhance performance across the flight envelope; and (3) adequate pitch-down authority at high angle-of-attack. Additional performance goals are discussed. A description of the flight control system is presented, highlighting flight control system features in the pitch and roll axes and X-31 thrust vectoring characteristics. The high angle-of-attack envelope clearance approach will be described, including a brief explanation of analysis techniques and tools. Also, problems encountered during envelope expansion will be discussed. This presentation emphasizes control system solutions to problems encountered in envelope expansion. An essentially 'care free' envelope was cleared for the close-in-combat demonstrator phase. High angle-of-attack flying qualities maneuvers are currently being flown and evaluated. These results are compared with pilot opinions expressed during the close-in-combat program and with results obtained from the F-18 HARV for identical maneuvers. The status and preliminary results of these tests are discussed.
Zhang, Chuanhao; Bu, Youjun; Zhao, Zheng
Network eavesdropping is one of the most popular means used by cyber attackers, which has been a severe threat to network communication security. Adversaries could capture and analyze network communication data from network nodes or links, monitor network status and steal sensitive data such as username and password etc. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, and existing defense methods, including firewall, IDS, IPS etc., cannot prevent eavesdropping, which has no distinguishing characteristic. Network eavesdropping become silent during most of the time of the attacking process, which is why it is difficult to discover and to defend. But A successful eavesdropping attack also has its' precondition, which is the target path should be relatively stable and has enough time of duration. So, In order to resolve this problem, it has to work on the network architecture. In this paper, a path hopping communication(PHC) mechanism based on Software Define Network (SDN) was proposed to solve this problem. In PHC, Ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths were changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic would be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. so that Network eavesdropping attack could be prevented effectively. It was concluded that PHC was able to increase the overhead of Network eavesdropping, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.
House, James Thomas; Cybenko, George
This work concerns cyber attack and defense in the context of game theory--specifically hypergame theory. Hypergame theory extends classical game theory with the ability to deal with differences in players' expertise, differences in their understanding of game rules, misperceptions, and so forth. Each of these different sub-scenarios, or subgames, is associated with a probability--representing the likelihood that the given subgame is truly "in play" at a given moment. In order to form an optimal attack or defense policy, these probabilities must be learned if they're not known a-priori. We present hidden Markov model and maximum entropy approaches for accurately learning these probabilities through multiple iterations of both normal and modified game play. We also give a widely-applicable approach for the analysis of cases where an opponent is aware that he is being studied, and intentionally plays to spoil the process of learning and thereby obfuscate his attributes. These are considered in the context of a generic, abstract cyber attack example. We demonstrate that machine learning efficacy can be heavily dependent on the goals and styles of participant behavior. To this end detailed simulation results under various combinations of attacker and defender behaviors are presented and analyzed.
Uneri, A; Turkdogan, D
Aim: To examine vestibular system functions in children with episodic vertigo attacks. Methods: Thirty four children (20 males) aged 4–18 years with paroxysmal dizziness and/or vertigo attacks were evaluated. A medical history for vestibular symptoms and migraine was taken. Vestibular and auditory functions were assessed. Results: Chronic headache attacks consistent with migraine were reported in 12 children and motion sickness was reported in 30. Family history in first degree relatives was positive for migraine in 29 children and for episodic vertigo in 22. Electronystagmography and videonystagmography showed two types of nystagmus: spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (41%) and benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus (BPPN) (59%). The first type of nystagmus was assessed as a sign of vestibulopathy and the patients with BPPN were diagnosed as having benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Audiometric examination in four cases revealed bilateral sensory neural hearing loss in low frequencies. Pure tone averages in 30 cases were within normal ranges; however low frequencies in 28 of them were approximately 10 dB lower than high frequencies. Unilateral caloric responses diminished in eight children. Conclusions: Peripheral vestibular problems in childhood present in a wide spectrum, which varies from a short episode of dizziness to a typical vestibular attack with fluctuating sensory neural hearing loss or episodes of BPPV. A considerable number of these vestibular problems might be related to the migraine syndrome. PMID:12765917
Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr
Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…
A critical step prior to reoccupation of any facility following a chemical attack will be the monitoring of toxic compounds on surfaces within that facility. Low level detection of toxicant(s) is necessary to ensure that these compounds have been eliminated after decontamination...
Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene
Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…
Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.
We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.
Sibai, Faisal M.
There has been a constant growing security concern with insider attacks on network accessible computer systems. Users with power credentials can do almost anything they want with the systems they own with very little control or oversight. Most breaches occurring nowadays by power users are considered legitimate access and not necessarily…
People for the American Way, Washington, DC.
Documenting a cumulative attack on the freedom to learn, which strikes at the heart of public education, this report describes how censorship has grown since 1982, highlighting trends that have emerged over five years, the actors, the challenges, and the results. Following an introduction, the report documents the state of censorship for…
Fardy, Paul S.
This paper presents information on the effectiveness of exercise programs for heart attack victims. Some of the observations come from unpublished results of a two year experiment of the National Exercise and Heart Disease Project. The paper first establishes that a group exercise program with trained supervision is advantageous for people with…
Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.
Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…
Atkinson, George F.
Discusses materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained for an experiment involving a dry attack of ores with pyrosulfate flux. The experiment has been carried out by about 150 students a year with a demonstrator-to-student ratio of about 1:15 with no serious accidents. (JN)
School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004
This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…
Hariri, Mahdi; Shokouhi, Shahriar Baradaran
Multibiometric systems have been recently developed in order to overcome some weaknesses of single biometric authentication systems, but security of these systems against spoofing has not received enough attention. In this paper, we propose a novel practical method for simulation of possibilities of spoof attacks against a biometric authentication system. Using this method, we model matching scores from standard to completely spoofed genuine samples. Sum, product, and Bayes fusion rules are applied for score level combination. The security of multimodal authentication systems are examined and compared with the single systems against various spoof possibilities. However, vulnerability of fused systems is considerably increased against spoofing, but their robustness is generally higher than single matcher systems. In this paper we show that robustness of a combined system is not always higher than a single system against spoof attack. We propose empirical methods for upgrading the security of multibiometric systems, which contain how to organize and select biometric traits and matchers against various possibilities of spoof attack. These methods provide considerable robustness and present an appropriate reason for using combined systems against spoof attacks.
Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie
To comprehend the developments underlying the suicide attacks of recent years, we suggest that the organizational approach, which until recently was used to explain this phenomenon, should be complemented with a social network perspective. By employing a social network analysis of Palestinian suicide networks, the authors found that, in contrast…
Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.
Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results ofmore » a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.« less
Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata
Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique in two steps to reduce the probability of false intrusion.
anonymity of speakers. 23. Tony Capaccio, “Cyber Attacks from China Show Computers Insecure, Pen- tagon Says,” 6 August 2008, <www.bloomberg.com/apps/news...smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2008/01/changing-the-organizational-cu-1/> (18 August 2008). 27. Elizabeth Robbins , “Muddy Boots IO: The Rise of Soldier Blogs,” Military
B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall
In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...
Leahey, Christopher R.
Reflecting on the current debate on how to teach about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, this article examines Thomas B. Fordham Institute's Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know, one of the several publications produced by the Fordham Institute that…
Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit
A new intelligent mechanism is presented to protect networks against the new generation of cyber attacks. This mechanism integrates TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack protection and attacker/intruder deception to eliminate existing TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack vulnerabilities. It allows to detect currently undetectable, highly distributed, low-frequency attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, coordinated attacks, botnet, and stealth network reconnaissance. The mechanism also allows insulating attacker/intruder from the network and redirecting the attack to a simulated network acting as a decoy. As a result, network security personnel gain sufficient time to defend the network and collect the attack information. The presented approach can be incorporated into wireless or wired networks that require protection against known and the new generation of cyber attacks.
Teramura, Ryoichi; Asakura, Yasuo; Ohigashi, Toshihiro; Kuwakado, Hidenori; Morii, Masakatu
Conventional efficient key recovery attacks against Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) require specific initialization vectors or specific packets. Since it takes much time to collect the packets sufficiently, any active attack should be performed. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS), however, will be able to prevent the attack. Since the attack logs are stored at the servers, it is possible to prevent such an attack. This paper proposes an algorithm for recovering a 104-bit WEP key from any IP packets in a realistic environment. This attack needs about 36, 500 packets with a success probability 0.5, and the complexity of our attack is equivalent to about 220 computations of the RC4 key setups. Since our attack is passive, it is difficult for both WEP users and administrators to detect our attack.
James, D V; Mullen, P E; Meloy, J R; Pathé, M T; Farnham, F R; Preston, L; Darnley, B
The only systematic studies of attacks on public figures come from the USA. These studies de-emphasize the role of mental illness and suggest threats are of no predictive value. This study re-examines these questions through a study of attacks on European politicians. All non-terrorist attacks on elected politicians in Western Europe between 1990 and 2004 were analysed. Twenty-four attacks were identified, including five involving fatalities, and eight serious injuries. Ten attackers were psychotic, four drunk, nine politically motivated and one unclassifiable. Eleven attackers evidenced warning behaviours. The mentally disordered, most of whom gave warnings, were responsible for most of the fatal and seriously injurious attacks. A greater awareness of the link between delusional fixations on public figures and subsequent attacks could aid prevention. Equally importantly, recognition would encourage earlier intervention in people who, irrespective of whether they eventually attack, have delusional preoccupations which ruin their lives.
Wilder, James; Vongraven, Dag; Atwood, Todd C.; Hansen, Bob; Jessen, Amalie; Kochnev, Anatoly A.; York, Geoff; Vallender, Rachel; Hedman, Daryll; Gibbons, Melissa
Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused on understanding black (U. americanus) and grizzly (U. arctos) bear conflicts with humans, there have been few attempts to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret available information on human-polar bear conflicts across their range. To help fill this knowledge gap, a database was developed (Polar Bear-Human Information Management System [PBHIMS]) to facilitate the range-wide collection and analysis of human-polar bear conflict data. We populated the PBHIMS with data collected throughout the polar bear range, analyzed polar bear attacks on people, and found that reported attacks have been extremely rare. From 1870–2014, we documented 73 attacks by wild polar bears, distributed among the 5 polar bear Range States (Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, and United States), which resulted in 20 human fatalities and 63 human injuries. We found that nutritionally stressed adult male polar bears were the most likely to pose threats to human safety. Attacks by adult females were rare, and most were attributed to defense of cubs. We judged that bears acted as a predator in most attacks, and that nearly all attacks involved ≤2 people. Increased concern for both human and bear safety is warranted in light of predictions of increased numbers of nutritionally stressed bears spending longer amounts of time on land near people because of the loss of their sea ice habitat. Improved conflict investigation is needed to collect accurate and relevant data and communicate accurate bear safety messages and mitigation strategies to the public. With better information, people can take proactive measures in polar bear habitat to ensure their safety and prevent conflicts with polar bears. This work represents an important first step towards improving our understanding of factors influencing
Berzak, Elina; Reznik, Mila; Narsia, Oxana; Benjamin, Jonathan
There is currently no way of knowing whether a patient who has recently had a single panic attack has incipient panic disorder. Sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) is lower in healthy volunteers than in panic disorder patients. If this is also true of people who experience a single lifetime panic attack, it could be used as a prognostic test. Subjects with a single lifetime panic attack and subjects with panic disorder received an inhalation of 35% CO2. Subjects completed the panic symptoms scale (PSS), and also stated whether they considered that they had experienced an attack. None of 14 subjects with a single lifetime panic attack, compared to 7 of 17 subjects with panic disorder (P=.009), had an attack. The PSS also distinguished between the groups. The 35% CO2 challenge warrants further investigation as a predictive test after a first panic attack.
DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain
Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set.
DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain
Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set. PMID:26491717
Bou Khalil, R; Richa, S
Suicide-attacks are possibly increasing in frequency all over the world. To date, these attacks are not considered as a manifestation of a particular mental illness. However, the process of radicalization of suicide-attackers has to interest the field of mental health. One plausible explanation for the radicalization of individuals is the use of biased cognitive schemes by the indoctrinator. Among these cognitive schemes could figure the causal attribution bias in which the subject cannot distinguish in front of two factors that operate simultaneously, the share of each factor in achieving a certain goal. Another cognitive bias would be the confirmation bias during which the subject would tend to adhere to ideas from his/her own thinking or the thinking of subjects who share some cultural values with him/her and refute any other ideas. Finally, the bias of polarization or splitting could also be incriminated. Through this bias, the subject would either be proud of being a member of a cultural group or ashamed when he/she feels that this group is being attacked and that he/she is unable to rescue it. Approaches to increase the awareness of individuals to the adverse effects of these biased cognitive schemes may theoretically reduce the risk of committing suicide-attacks. However, despite numerous attempts of "deradicalization" involving technological means of communication as well as social "reintegration" centers, all approaches aiming at raising awareness of cognitive biases need to be studied in a scientific manner before they become widespread. Copyright © 2018 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Aziz, Md Momin Al; Ghasemi, Reza; Waliullah, Md; Mohammed, Noman
With the enormous need for federated eco-system for holding global genomic and clinical data, Global Alliance for Genomic and Health (GA4GH) has created an international website called beacon service which allows a researcher to find out whether a specific dataset can be utilized to his or her research beforehand. This simple webservice is quite useful as it allows queries like whether a certain position of a target chromosome has a specific nucleotide. However, the increased integration of individuals genomic data into clinical practice and research raised serious privacy concern. Though the answer of such queries are yes or no in Bacon network, it results in serious privacy implication as demonstrated in a recent work from Shringarpure and Bustamante. In their attack model, the authors demonstrated that with a limited number of queries, presence of an individual in any dataset can be determined. We propose two lightweight algorithms (based on randomized response) which captures the efficacy while preserving the privacy of the participants in a genomic beacon service. We also elaborate the strength and weakness of the attack by explaining some of their statistical and mathematical models using real world genomic database. We extend their experimental simulations for different adversarial assumptions and parameters. We experimentally evaluated the solutions on the original attack model with different parameters for better understanding of the privacy and utility tradeoffs provided by these two methods. Also, the statistical analysis further elaborates the different aspects of the prior attack which leads to a better risk management for the participants in a beacon service. The differentially private and lightweight solutions discussed here will make the attack much difficult to succeed while maintaining the fundamental motivation of beacon database network.
Zhou, Tong; Dowell, Earl
Buffeting is a fluid instability caused by flow separation or shock wave oscillations in the flow around a bluff body. Typically there is a dominant frequency of these flow oscillations called Strouhal or buffeting frequency. In prior work several researchers at Duke University have noted the analogy between the classic Von Karman Vortex Street behind a bluff body and the flow oscillations that occur for flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil at sufficiently large angle of attack. Lock-in is found for certain combinations of airfoil oscillation (pitching motion) frequencies and amplitudes when the frequency of the airfoil motion is sufficiently close to the buffeting frequency. The goal of this paper is to explore the flow around a static and an oscillating airfoil at high angle of attack by developing a method for computing buffet response. Simulation results are compared with experimental data. Conditions for the onset of buffeting and lock-in of a NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack are determined. Effects of several parameters on lift coefficient and flow response frequency are studied including Reynolds number, angle of attack and blockage ratio of the airfoil size to the wind tunnel dimensions. Also more detailed flow field characteristics are determined. For a static airfoil, a universal Strouhal number scaling has been found for angles of attack from 30° to 90°, where the flow around airfoil is fully separated. For an oscillating airfoil, conditions for lock-in are discussed. Differences between the lock-in case and the unlocked case are also studied. The second affiliation: Duke University.
Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jungwoo; Suh, Mina; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun
The effect of ambient air pollution on panic disorder in the general population has not yet been thoroughly elucidated, although the occurrence of panic disorder in workers exposed to organic solvents has been reported previously. We investigated the association of ambient air pollution with the risk of panic attack-related emergency department visits. Using health insurance claims, we collected data from emergency department visits for panic attacks in Seoul, Republic of Korea (2005-2009). Daily air pollutant concentrations were obtained using automatic monitoring system data. We conducted a time-series study using a generalized additive model with Poisson distribution, which included spline variables (date of visit, daily mean temperature, and relative humidity) and parametric variables (daily mean air pollutant concentration, national holiday, and day of the week). In addition to single lag models (lag1 to lag3), cumulative lag models (lag0-1 to lag0-3) were constructed using moving-average concentrations on the days leading up to the visit. The risk was expressed as relative risk (RR) per one standard deviation of each air pollutant and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 2320 emergency department visits for panic attacks were observed during the study period. The adjusted RR of panic attack-related emergency department visits was 1.051 (95% CI, 1.014-1.090) for same-day exposure to ozone. In cumulative models, adjusted RRs were 1.068 (1.029-1.107) in lag0-2 and 1.074 (1.035-1.114) in lag0-3. The ambient ozone concentration was significantly associated with emergency department visits for panic attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borchelt, Peter L.; Lockwood, Randall; Beck, Alan M.; Voith, Victoria L.
Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals. The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack. The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks. Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity. Imagesp61-ap61-bp61-c PMID:6828639
Caldicott, D G; Mahajani, R; Kuhn, M
Shark attacks are rare but are associated with a high morbidity and significant mortality. We report the case of a patient's survival from a shark attack and their subsequent emergency medical and surgical management. Using data from the International Shark Attack File, we review the worldwide distribution and incidence of shark attack. A review of the world literature examines the features which make shark attacks unique pathological processes. We offer suggestions for strategies of management of shark attack, and techniques for avoiding adverse outcomes in human encounters with these endangered creatures.
... Other resources Learn more about heart disease and heart attacks. Make the Call, Don't Miss a Beat ... symptoms Learn the 7 most common signs of heart attack in men and women. Chest pain or discomfort " ...
... 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment ... When it comes to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke, every minute counts. Get to know ...
Massey, E. E.
The relative radiation hazards from early and delayed fallout following a nuclear attack have been reviewed. It is indicated that the hazard to life from whole-body gamma irradiation from early fallout far outweighs the hazard from radioactive contamination of food. Nevertheless, because of the possible effects of iodine-131, the consumption by infants of fresh milk from animals which have ingested contaminated fodder should be avoided if possible during the first few weeks after attack. During the same period, water from covered supplies should be used in preference to that from open reservoirs. It is more important, however, to alleviate hunger and thirst in both man and animal than to prevent the temporary ingestion of food which may be contaminated by fallout. PMID:6071130
Ritter, E; Levine, M
Shark attacks have primarily been analyzed from wound patterns, with little knowledge of a shark's approach, behaviour and intention leading to such wounds. For the first time, during a shark-human interaction project in South Africa, a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, was filmed biting a vertically positioned person at the water surface, and exhibiting distinct approach patterns leading to the bite. This bite was compared to ten white shark attacks that occurred (i) in the same geographical area of South Africa, and (ii) where the same body parts were bitten. Close similarity of some of these wound patterns to the bite imprint of the videotaped case indicate that the observed behaviour of the white shark may represent a common pattern of approaching and biting humans.
Chambers, J. R.
Recently, the military and civil technical communities have undertaken numerous studies of the high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of advanced airplane and missile configurations. The method of approach and the design methodology employed have necessarily been experimental and exploratory in nature, due to the complex nature of separated flows. However, despite the relatively poor definition of many of the key aerodynamic phenomena involved for high-alpha conditions, some generic guidelines for design consideration have been identified. The present paper summarizes some of the more important lessons learned in the area of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics with examples of a number of key concepts and with particular emphasis on high-alpha stability and control characteristics of high performance aircraft. Topics covered in the discussion include the impact of design evolution, forebody flows, control of separated flows, configuration effects, aerodynamic controls, wind-tunnel flight correlation, and recent NASA research activities.
8217 TBE ALERT FOR’ SU. ; ATTACKS AT ALL .TIMWES %. EN EIEM!Y AIR ATTACK I-S 1REA0ASLY POSJ SIL Aw ?) MUST tNOT BE DISTRACTED FRi OWN S3ETOR OF RESPON1L...A:UTF-LD TO A D :INfl E.:I.ATE F: IR ING Ok iWt; AI PCRAFT BY EN T. iA’l Y TI:’CER F!-NGE~. X OH:E’ER: PLME ’OT FOLLOWI O - ,APPPOA-, PR CE.RE...COMMUNICATION SERVICE l C.SIFICATION AMPHIBIOUS FORCES, PACIFIC PRECEDENC ’ 8"A8iS ’,F’’ IT’i.GN, aNiR ATON8 O F PERSONN EL , AND) EXAMIATiON OF:Xeti~ss
Saha, Sudip; Vullinati, Anil K.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
We investigate efficient security control methods for protecting against vulnerabilities in networked systems. A large number of interdependent vulnerabilities typically exist in the computing nodes of a cyber-system; as vulnerabilities get exploited, starting from low level ones, they open up the doors to more critical vulnerabilities. These cannot be understood just by a topological analysis of the network, and we use the attack graph abstraction of Dewri et al. to study these problems. In contrast to earlier approaches based on heuristics and evolutionary algorithms, we study rigorous methods for quantifying the inherent vulnerability and hardening cost for the system. Wemore » develop algorithms with provable approximation guarantees, and evaluate them for real and synthetic attack graphs.« less
Dowzenko, A; Niedzielska-Zawadzka, K; Witkowska-Olearska, K; Jakubowska, T
The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the clinical course of epilepsy with infrequent partial attacks with complex manifestations derived from the temporal lobe. Thirty patients aged 14 to 64 years treated on an outpatient basis and discovered during epidemiological investigations were followed-up. In half the cases only attacks without generalization occurred, in the remaining cases isolated generalized seizures appeared during many years of disease duration. In both groups a decrease was observed in the frequency of seizures in patients treated systematically or irregularly, as well as in those who had never been treated. Despite a long duration of the disease (above 6 years in 24 cases) the patients had normal mental level and good social adaptation.
Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Short, Nicole A; Schmidt, Norman B
Panic attacks (PAs) are characterized by overwhelming surges of fear and discomfort and are one of the most frequently occurring symptoms in psychiatric populations. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. DSM-5) allows for a panic attack (PA) specifier for all disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, there is little research examining differences between individuals diagnosed with SAD with the PA specifier versus individuals diagnosed with SAD without the PA specifier. The current study examined social anxiety, mood, anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity social concerns, a risk factor for social anxiety in SAD-diagnosed individuals without (N = 52) and with (N = 14) the PA specifier. The groups differed only in somatic symptoms of anxiety. Result of the current study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of the PA specifier in social anxiety does not result in elevated levels of comorbidity or a more severe presentation of social anxiety.
Yuan, Tianyu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Gouhei
The dynamical tolerance of coupled oscillator networks against local failures is studied. As the fraction of failed oscillator nodes gradually increases, the mean oscillation amplitude in the entire network decreases and then suddenly vanishes at a critical fraction as a phase transition. This critical fraction, widely used as a measure of the network robustness, was analytically derived for random failures but not for targeted attacks so far. Here we derive the general formula for the critical fraction, which can be applied to both random failures and targeted attacks. We consider the effects of targeting oscillator nodes based on their degrees. First we deal with coupled identical oscillators with homogeneous edge weights. Then our theory is applied to networks with heterogeneous edge weights and to those with nonidentical oscillators. The analytical results are validated by numerical experiments. Our results reveal the key factors governing the robustness and fragility of oscillator networks.
St Ledger, J.W.; Naegeli, R.E.; Dowden, N.A.
An analytic model is developed for a nuclear barrage attack, assuming weapons with no aiming error and a cookie-cutter damage function. The model is then extended with approximations for the effects of aiming error and distance damage sigma. The final result is a fast running model which calculates probability of damage for a barrage attack. The probability of damage is accurate to within seven percent or better, for weapon reliabilities of 50 to 100 percent, distance damage sigmas of 0.5 or less, and zero to very large circular error probabilities. FORTRAN 77 coding is included in the report for themore » analytic model and for a numerical model used to check the analytic results.« less
Burhans, W., Jr.; Crafta, V. J., Jr.; Dannenhoffer, N.; Dellamura, F. A.; Krepski, R. E.
Vertical short takeoff aircraft capability, supersonic dash capability, and transonic agility were investigated for the development of Fighter/attack aircraft to be accommodated on ships smaller than present aircraft carriers. Topics covered include: (1) description of viable V/STOL fighter/attack configuration (a high wing, close-coupled canard, twin-engine, control configured aircraft) which meets or exceeds specified levels of vehicle performance; (2) estimates of vehicle aerodynamic characteristics and the methodology utilized to generate them; (3) description of propulsion system characteristics and vehicle mass properties; (4) identification of areas of aerodynamic uncertainty; and (5) a test program to investigate the areas of aerodynamic uncertainty in the conventional flight mode.
Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan
Homicide by heart attack is a well-established model in forensic pathology that describes death elicited during or immediately after a criminal act where a threat or fear of physical injury is present. After its introduction nearly 4 decades ago, the principle has undergone a handful of modifications but still maintains its core concepts. All cases of this nature during a 20-year period at the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office were compared and contrasted for demographics, circumstances and scene investigation, and autopsy and toxicology findings. Of the cases fulfilling the previously established criteria for homicide by heart attack, more than 80% displayed significant changes because of hypertension. This finding coincides with the high prevalence of hypertension in our urban population and highlights the significance of this disease. Also present were minor external and internal injuries in select cases, which reinforce the understanding that physical contact between the decedent and assailant does not preclude this diagnosis.
Kroo, I.; Rock, S.; Roberts, L.
A feasibility study to determine if the use of tangential leading edge blowing over the forebody could produce effective and practical control of the F-18 HARV aircraft at high angles of attack was conducted. A simplified model of the F-18 configuration using a vortex-lattice model was developed to obtain a better understanding of basic aerodynamic coupling effects and the influence of forebody circulation on lifting surface behavior. The effect of tangential blowing was estimated using existing wind tunnel data on normal forebody blowing and analytical studies of tangential blowing over conical forebodies. Incorporation of forebody blowing into the flight control system was investigated by adding this additional yaw control and sideforce generating actuator into the existing F-18 HARV simulation model. A control law was synthesized using LQG design methods that would schedule blowing rates as a function of vehicle sideslip, angle of attack, and roll and yaw rates.
their passwords never expire. Their privileges allow telnet access and FTP access to the system, but do not allow local logins . Each user can...default: • Administrator: This root account allows remote and local logins and full control of system software. • Guest: This default account, setup by...realizing that the Netbus server was installed. The attack also edits the Windows NT Registry so the Netbus server restarts at every login . This
Acín, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Scarani, Valerio
We present the optimal collective attack on a quantum key distribution protocol in the "device-independent" security scenario, where no assumptions are made about the way the quantum key distribution devices work or on what quantum system they operate. Our main result is a tight bound on the Holevo information between one of the authorized parties and the eavesdropper, as a function of the amount of violation of a Bell-type inequality.
PRA,” also 28 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215... REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solving Defender-Attacker-Defender Models for
and J. Lowe, “The Myths and Facts Behind Cyber Security Risks for Industrial Control Systems ,” in Proceedings of the VDE Kongress, vol. 116, 2004. [13...Feb 2014 Date 20 Feb 2014 Date 20 Feb 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-14-M-66 Abstract Unprotected Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems offer...control and monitor physical industrial processes. Although attacks targeting SCADA systems have increased, there has been little work exploring the
Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias
Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.
speed of data processing. It really ought to be possible to program computers with likely locations of needs, and then locations of ablebodied people...that a number of existing programs and institutions were imple- mented when public concerns over the risk of nuclear war were considerably higher...natural disasters are funded as programs if such programs would also be appropriate to the post-nuclear attack situation. This logic has a compelling
Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H
Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
REFRACTORY DEGRADATION BY SLAG ATTACK IN COAL GASIFICATION Jinichiro Nakano 1,2 , Sridhar Seetharaman 1,2 , James Bennett 3 , Kyei-Sing...and two synthetic slags (coal and petcoke). Pulverized slag samples were placed at specific microstructure locations on refractory substrates and...heated to 1500 ºC at log(Po2) = -9, using a high-speed heating chamber. Cross-sections of the slag /refractory interface indicated unique slag
such as blogs, social bookmarking ( folksonomies ), and wikis continue to gain its popularity, concerns about the rapid proliferation of Web spam has...Attacks Report Title ABSTRACT As online social media applications such as blogs, social bookmarking ( folksonomies ), and wikis continue to gain its... folksonomies ), and wikis continue to gain its popularity, concerns about the rapid proliferation of Web spam has grown in recent years. These applications
strike assets by attempting to gain and maintain control of the electromagnetic spectrum. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...receiving his commission through Officer Training School in 2000, Major Howard served as an RC-135V/W RIVET JOINT EWO at Offutt AFB, Nebraska...significant Airborne Electronic Attack challenges in protecting strike assets by attempting to gain and maintain control of the electromagnetic spectrum
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
There has been much interest in ;counterfactual quantum cryptography; (T.-G. Noh, 2009 ). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes.
characteristics of Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism. Anthrax was known primarily as a disease of cattle, sheep, and other types of livestock, but it...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bayes, Bugs, and Bioterrorists: Lessons Learned from the Anthrax Attacks 5a. CONTRACT...develop a strategy for managing the risks of bioterrorism. Using this type of approach, the government can better characterize the costs, risks and
Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G.; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias
Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567
Naumann, D; Hejmadi, R K; Evriviades, D
Cnidaria stings cause a wide range of cutaneous and systemic symptoms, normally occurring shortly after the venomous insult (1). We report a case of worsening cutaneous reaction over an eight-year period following a Cnidaria attack sustained whilst maritime swimming. The lesion was characterised by severe, ulcerating chronic inflammation that required wide local excision and skin grafting. Prevention and early identification of Cnidaria envenomation is important for those treating maritime swimmers.
propellant additives and agents: (1) Bonding agents as follows: (i) tris(l-(2-methyl)aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (MAPO); (ii) trimesoyl-l(2-ethyl...Triphenyl bismuth (TPB) (ii) Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) (3) Burning rate modifiers as follows: (i) Catocene (ii) N-butyl- ferrocene (iii...Butacene (iv) Other ferrocene derivatives 9g Controlling the Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (4) Nitrate esters and nitrato plasticizers as
threat informs his decision about the appropriate deterrent counter-threats. There tend to be three camps in general: Minimalists , Moderates, and...Alarmists. Minimalists do not require much explanation because they are the authors who believe that cyber does not pose any significant threat...Armageddon.”32 Amongst the minimalists are Lawrence Freedman and Thomas Rid. Freedman grants discussion of cyber attacks a scant two pages in his seven
Mott, Gerry; Attaar, Mustan; Rishel, Rick D.
Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.
attack is also similar to those that rely on misbehaving receivers and optimistic ACKs to bypass flow control protocol mechanisms –. In particular...thank the anonymous reviewers for their feedback and suggestions, Damon McCoy for discussions about misbehaving receivers and authenticated signals...ping-o-death. html.  S. Savage, N. Cardwell, D. Wetherall, and T. Anderson, “TCP Con- gestion Control with a Misbehaving Receiver,” ACM SIGCOMM CCR
attacker can destroy n arcs in the network SPNI Shortest-Path Network-Interdiction problem TSP Traveling Salesman Problem UB upper bound UKR Ukraine...elimination from the traveling salesman problem (TSP). Literature calls a walk that does not contain a cycle a path . The objective function in...arc lengths as random variables with known probability distributions. The m-median problem seeks to design a network with minimum average travel cost
Hazani, Ron; Buntic, Rudolf F; Brooks, Darrell
Mountain lion attacks on humans are rare and potentially fatal. Although few victims experience minor injuries, permanent disfigurement and disability is common among survivors of these assaults. Since 1986, a steady number of mountain lion attacks have been noted in California. We report a recent attack of a cougar on a couple hiking in California's Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. The victim sustained a significant scalp injury that led to a life-threatening soft-tissue infection. We present an analysis of the injury pattern as it relates to the bite marks, the resulting degloving injury, and the surgical reconstruction. We also offer a current survey of the pathogens often found in cats' and mountain lions' bite wounds and the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Given the infrequency at which clinicians encounter mountain lion injuries, we recommend that after initial management and exclusion of life threatening injuries patients be transferred to a tertiary care facility capable of managing the various reconstructive challenges such as the one presented in this case.
Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri
Honeypot application is a source of valuable data about attacks on the network. We run several SIP honeypots in various computer networks, which are separated geographically and logically. Each honeypot runs on public IP address and uses standard SIP PBX ports. All information gathered via honeypot is periodically sent to the centralized server. This server classifies all attack data by neural network algorithm. The paper describes optimizations of a neural network classifier, which lower the classification error. The article contains the comparison of two neural network algorithm used for the classification of validation data. The first is the original implementation of the neural network described in recent work; the second neural network uses further optimizations like input normalization or cross-entropy cost function. We also use other implementations of neural networks and machine learning classification algorithms. The comparison test their capabilities on validation data to find the optimal classifier. The article result shows promise for further development of an accurate SIP attack classification engine.
Lavie; Amit; Epstein; Tzischinsky
The present paper reports on the influence of the Scud missile attacks during the Gulf War on the sleep of Israeli children. Two studies were performed. In the first, sleep habits and sleep disturbances of 61 (mean age 20 months) infants were assessed by questionnaires completed by their parents 5 months before the war and immediately after the end of the War. Comparison of pre- and post-war data revealed no major changes in sleep habits or in sleep quality. In the second study, sleep of 55 children was monitored at home by actigraphs during the last month of the War. All children were aroused during missile attacks, but returned to sleep immediately, with no evidence of carry-over effects once the 'all clear' sign was given. Comparison of sleep quality measures obtained during the War with those of age- and sex-matched children monitored a year before the war did not reveal any significant differences apart from the immediate response to the attack.
Safarik, Jakub; Rezac, Filip
SIP is one of the most successful protocols in the field of IP telephony communication. It establishes and manages VoIP calls. As the number of SIP implementation rises, we can expect a higher number of attacks on the communication system in the near future. This work aims at malicious SIP traffic classification. A number of various machine learning algorithms have been developed for attack classification. The paper presents a comparison of current research and the use of classifier fusion method leading to a potential decrease in classification error rate. Use of classifier combination makes a more robust solution without difficulties that may affect single algorithms. Different voting schemes, combination rules, and classifiers are discussed to improve the overall performance. All classifiers have been trained on real malicious traffic. The concept of traffic monitoring depends on the network of honeypot nodes. These honeypots run in several networks spread in different locations. Separation of honeypots allows us to gain an independent and trustworthy attack information.
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y
Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.
Tian, Huawei; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Qin, Lunming; Li, Xuelong
Up to now, a watermarking scheme that is robust against desynchronization attacks (DAs) is still a grand challenge. Most image watermarking resynchronization schemes in literature can survive individual global DAs (e.g., rotation, scaling, translation, and other affine transforms), but few are resilient to challenging cropping and local DAs. The main reason is that robust features for watermark synchronization are only globally invariable rather than locally invariable. In this paper, we present a blind image watermarking resynchronization scheme against local transform attacks. First, we propose a new feature transform named local daisy feature transform (LDFT), which is not only globally but also locally invariable. Then, the binary space partitioning (BSP) tree is used to partition the geometrically invariant LDFT space. In the BSP tree, the location of each pixel is fixed under global transform, local transform, and cropping. Lastly, the watermarking sequence is embedded bit by bit into each leaf node of the BSP tree by using the logarithmic quantization index modulation watermarking embedding method. Simulation results show that the proposed watermarking scheme can survive numerous kinds of distortions, including common image-processing attacks, local and global DAs, and noninvertible cropping.
Bojková, Martina; Dítě, Petr; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dvořáčková, Nina; Kianička, Bohuslav; Kupka, Tomáš; Svoboda, Pavel; Klvaňa, Pavel; Martínek, Arnošt
One of the diseases involving a potential risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. Of the overall number of 231 individuals followed with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 56 patients were initially treated for acute pancreatitis (24.2 %). Within an interval of 12- 24 months from the first attack of acute pancreatitis, their condition gradually progressed to reached the picture of chronic pancreatitis. The individuals included in the study abstained (from alcohol) following the first attack of acute pancreatitis and no relapse of acute pancreatitis was proven during the period of their monitoring. The etiology of acute pancreatitis identified alcohol as the predominant cause (55.3 %), biliary etiology was proven in 35.7 %. According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe pancreatitis was established in 69.6 % of the patients, the others met the criterion for intermediate form, those with the light form were not included. Significant risk factors present among the patients were smoking, obesity and 18 %, resp. 25.8 % had pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus identified. 88.1 % of the patients with acute pancreatitis were smokers. The majority of individuals with chronic pancreatitis following an attack of acute pancreatitis were of a productive age from 25 to 50 years. It is not only acute alcoholic pancreatitis which evolves into chronic pancreatitis, we have also identified this transition for pancreatitis of biliary etiology.
Islam, Waqar; Noman, Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Wang, Liande
Small RNAs (sRNA) are a significant group of gene expression regulators for multiple biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, many sRNA silencing pathways produce extensive array of sRNAs with specialized roles. The evidence on record advocates for the functions of sRNAs during plant microbe interactions. Host sRNAs are reckoned as mandatory elements of plant defense. sRNAs involved in plant defense processes via different pathways include both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) that actively regulate immunity in response to pathogenic attack via tackling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors. In response to pathogen attack, plants protect themselves with the help of sRNA-dependent immune systems. That sRNA-mediated plant defense responses play a role during infections is an established fact. However, the regulations of several sRNAs still need extensive research. In this review, we discussed the topical advancements and findings relevant to pathogen attack and plant defense mediated by sRNAs. We attempted to point out diverse sRNAs as key defenders in plant systems. It is hoped that sRNAs would be exploited as a mainstream player to achieve food security by tackling different plant diseases.
Weerakkody, Sean; Ozel, Omur; Griffioen, Paul
In this paper, we consider approaches for detecting integrity attacks carried out by intelligent and resourceful adversaries in control systems. Passive detection techniques are often incorporated to identify malicious behavior. Here, the defender utilizes finely-tuned algorithms to process information and make a binary decision, whether the system is healthy or under attack. We demonstrate that passive detection can be ineffective against adversaries with model knowledge and access to a set of input/output channels. We then propose active detection as a tool to detect attacks. In active detection, the defender leverages degrees of freedom he has in the system to detectmore » the adversary. Specifically, the defender will introduce a physical secret kept hidden from the adversary, which can be utilized to authenticate the dynamics. In this regard, we carefully review two approaches for active detection: physical watermarking at the control input, and a moving target approach for generating system dynamics. We examine practical considerations for implementing these technologies and discuss future research directions.« less
Small RNAs (sRNA) are a significant group of gene expression regulators for multiple biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, many sRNA silencing pathways produce extensive array of sRNAs with specialized roles. The evidence on record advocates for the functions of sRNAs during plant microbe interactions. Host sRNAs are reckoned as mandatory elements of plant defense. sRNAs involved in plant defense processes via different pathways include both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) that actively regulate immunity in response to pathogenic attack via tackling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors. In response to pathogen attack, plants protect themselves with the help of sRNA-dependent immune systems. That sRNA-mediated plant defense responses play a role during infections is an established fact. However, the regulations of several sRNAs still need extensive research. In this review, we discussed the topical advancements and findings relevant to pathogen attack and plant defense mediated by sRNAs. We attempted to point out diverse sRNAs as key defenders in plant systems. It is hoped that sRNAs would be exploited as a mainstream player to achieve food security by tackling different plant diseases. PMID:29419801
Li, Yihong; Liu, Fangzheng; Du, Zhenyu
By studying the defense scheme of Network attacks, this paper propose an effective traffic features selection algorithm based on k-means++ clustering to deal with the problem of high dimensionality of traffic features which extracted from cyber-attacks samples. Firstly, this algorithm divide the original feature set into attack traffic feature set and background traffic feature set by the clustering. Then, we calculates the variation of clustering performance after removing a certain feature. Finally, evaluating the degree of distinctiveness of the feature vector according to the result. Among them, the effective feature vector is whose degree of distinctiveness exceeds the set threshold. The purpose of this paper is to select out the effective features from the extracted original feature set. In this way, it can reduce the dimensionality of the features so as to reduce the space-time overhead of subsequent detection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and it has some advantages over other selection algorithms.
Li, Huixian; Chen, Xubao; Pang, Liaojun; Shi, Weisong
The existing certificateless signcryption schemes were designed mainly based on the traditional public key cryptography, in which the security relies on the hard problems, such as factor decomposition and discrete logarithm. However, these problems will be easily solved by the quantum computing. So the existing certificateless signcryption schemes are vulnerable to the quantum attack. Multivariate public key cryptography (MPKC), which can resist the quantum attack, is one of the alternative solutions to guarantee the security of communications in the post-quantum age. Motivated by these concerns, we proposed a new construction of the certificateless multi-receiver signcryption scheme (CLMSC) based on MPKC. The new scheme inherits the security of MPKC, which can withstand the quantum attack. Multivariate quadratic polynomial operations, which have lower computation complexity than bilinear pairing operations, are employed in signcrypting a message for a certain number of receivers in our scheme. Security analysis shows that our scheme is a secure MPKC-based scheme. We proved its security under the hardness of the Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) problem and its unforgeability under the Isomorphism of Polynomials (IP) assumption in the random oracle model. The analysis results show that our scheme also has the security properties of non-repudiation, perfect forward secrecy, perfect backward secrecy and public verifiability. Compared with the existing schemes in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length, our scheme is more efficient, which makes it suitable for terminals with low computation capacity like smart cards.
Li, Huixian; Chen, Xubao; Pang, Liaojun; Shi, Weisong
The existing certificateless signcryption schemes were designed mainly based on the traditional public key cryptography, in which the security relies on the hard problems, such as factor decomposition and discrete logarithm. However, these problems will be easily solved by the quantum computing. So the existing certificateless signcryption schemes are vulnerable to the quantum attack. Multivariate public key cryptography (MPKC), which can resist the quantum attack, is one of the alternative solutions to guarantee the security of communications in the post-quantum age. Motivated by these concerns, we proposed a new construction of the certificateless multi-receiver signcryption scheme (CLMSC) based on MPKC. The new scheme inherits the security of MPKC, which can withstand the quantum attack. Multivariate quadratic polynomial operations, which have lower computation complexity than bilinear pairing operations, are employed in signcrypting a message for a certain number of receivers in our scheme. Security analysis shows that our scheme is a secure MPKC-based scheme. We proved its security under the hardness of the Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) problem and its unforgeability under the Isomorphism of Polynomials (IP) assumption in the random oracle model. The analysis results show that our scheme also has the security properties of non-repudiation, perfect forward secrecy, perfect backward secrecy and public verifiability. Compared with the existing schemes in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length, our scheme is more efficient, which makes it suitable for terminals with low computation capacity like smart cards. PMID:23967037
Advance persistent threat (APT) groups are continuing to attack the energy sector through cyberspace, which poses a risk to our society, national security, and economy. Industrial control systems (ICSs) are not designed to handle cyber-attacks, which is why asset owners need to implement the correct proactive and reactive measures to mitigate the risk to their ICS environments. The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) responded to 290 incidents for fiscal year 2016, where 59 of those incidents came from the Energy Sector. APT groups know how vulnerable energy sector ICS systems are and the destruction they can cause when they go offline such as loss of production, loss of life, and economic impact. Defending against APT groups requires more than just passive controls such as firewalls and antivirus solutions. Asset owners should implement a combination of best practices and active defense in their environment to defend against APT groups. Cyber-attacks against critical infrastructure will become more complex and harder to detect and respond to with traditional security controls. The purpose of this paper was to provide asset owners with the correct security controls and methodologies to help defend against APT groups.
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Tian; Xu, Dahai; Ma, Yutian
This paper offers two different attacks on a freshly proposed image encryption based on chaotic logistic map. The cryptosystem under study first uses a secret key of 80-bit and employed two chaotic logistic maps. We derived the initial conditions of the logistic maps from using the secret key by providing different weights to all its bits. Additionally, in this paper eight different types of procedures are used to encrypt the pixels of an image in the proposed encryption process of which one of them will be used for a certain pixel which is determined by the product of the logistic map. The secret key is revised after encrypting each block which consisted of 16 pixels of the image. The encrypting process have weakness, worst of which is that every byte of plaintext is independent when substituted, so the cipher text of the byte will not change even the other bytes have changed. As a result of weakness, a chosen plaintext attack and a chosen cipher text attack can be completed without any knowledge of the key value to recuperate the ciphered image.
Much of the traffic in modern computer networks is conducted between clients and servers, rather than client-toclient. As a result, servers represent a high-value target for collection and analysis of network traffic. As they reside at a single network location (i.e. IP/MAC address) for long periods of time. Servers present a static target for surveillance, and a unique opportunity to observe the network traffic. Although servers present a heightened value for attackers, the security community as a whole has shifted more towards protecting clients in recent years leaving a gap in coverage. In addition, servers typically remain active on networks for years, potentially decades. This paper builds on previous work that demonstrated a proof of concept leveraging existing technology for increasing attacker workload. Here we present our clean slate approach to increasing attacker workload through a novel hypervisor and micro-kernel, utilizing next generation virtualization technology to create synthetic diversity of the server's presence including the hardware components.
Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen
Blind signature schemes allow users to obtain the signature of a message while the signer learns neither the message nor the resulting signature. Therefore, blind signatures have been used to realize cryptographic protocols providing the anonymity of some participants, such as: secure electronic payment systems and electronic voting systems. A fair blind signature is a form of blind signature which the anonymity could be removed with the help of a trusted entity, when this is required for legal reasons. Recently, a fair quantum blind signature scheme was proposed and thought to be safe. In this paper, we first point out that there exists a new attack on fair quantum blind signature schemes. The attack shows that, if any sender has intercepted any valid signature, he (she) can counterfeit a valid signature for any message and can not be traced by the counterfeited blind signature. Then, we construct a fair quantum blind signature scheme by improved the existed one. The proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme can resist the preceding attack. Furthermore, we demonstrate the security of the proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme and compare it with the other one.
Aggarwal, Mayank; Nipur, Pallavi
Mobile Agents are softwares migrating from one node to another to fulfill the task of its owner. The introduction of mobile agents has reduced network latency, network traffic a lot but at the same time it has increased the vulnerability for attacks by malicious hosts. One such attack is `Denial of Service', once the agent is launched it is free to roam without any control of its owner, this on one hand decreases the cost of agent—owner interaction and on the other hand increases the chances of `Denial Of Service'. In Denial Of Service attack the malicious host may deny resources required by the agent and kill the agent, thus the result computed so far is lost and this may happen every time the agent visits any malicious host. In this paper we continued the work done in  in which the authors proposed techniques by which owner can detect the malicious host for `Denial Of Service' but they did not covered technique for dynamic routes i.e. where the host or agent initiate migrations to hosts which were not contained in the route composed by the owner. We introduced an algorithm and a model which can be useful for the above purpose.
Liu, Penghui; Liu, Jing
Recently, coevolution between strategy and network structure has been established as a rule to resolve social dilemmas and reach optimal situations for cooperation. Many follow-up researches have focused on studying how coevolution helps networks reorganize to deter the defectors and many coevolution methods have been proposed. However, the robustness of the coevolution rules against attacks have not been studied much. Since attacks may directly influence the original evolutionary process of cooperation, the robustness should be an important index while evaluating the quality of a coevolution method. In this paper, we focus on investigating the robustness of an elementary coevolution method in resolving the prisoner's dilemma game upon the interdependent networks. Three different types of time-independent attacks, named as edge attacks, instigation attacks and node attacks have been employed to test its robustness. Through analyzing the simulation results obtained, we find this coevolution method is relatively robust against the edge attack and the node attack as it successfully maintains cooperation in the population over the entire attack range. However, when the instigation probability of the attacked individuals is large or the attack range of instigation attack is wide enough, coevolutionary rule finally fails in maintaining cooperation in the population.
Kohler, Thomas; Haimerl, Christianne
Six-month longitudinal study examined whether migraine attacks were preceded by or occurred on stressful days. Every evening, 13 patients completed questionnaires assessing daily stress. Analyses on single-subject level tested when attacks occurred. Increased stress was generally not found for Days 2 and 3 before an attack, but often for Day 1 and…
Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.; O'Gorman, Robert
We compared the locations of healed attack marks of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus on live lake trout Salvelinus namaycush with those of unhealed attack marks on dead lake trout to determine if the lethality of a sea lamprey attack was related to attack location. Lake trout were collected from Lake Ontario, live fish with gill nets in September 1985 and dead fish with trawls in October 1983−1986. Attack location was characterized by the percent distances from snout to tail and from the ventral to the dorsal midline. Kolmogorov−Smirnov two-sample tests did not detect significant differences in the distribution of attack location along either the anteroposterior axis or the dorsoventral axis. When attack locations were grouped into six anatomical regions historically used to record sea lamprey attacks, dead fish did not exhibit a significantly higher proportion of attacks in the more anterior regions. Even if the differences in attack location on live and dead fish were significant, they were too small to imply substantial spatial differences in attack lethality that should be accounted for when modeling the effects of sea lampreys feeding on lake trout. We suggest that the tendency for sea lamprey attacks to occur on the anterior half of the fish is related to the lower amplitude of lateral body movement there during swimming and thus the lower likelihood of being dislodged.
Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Kotrschal, Kurt; Weiß, Brigitte M.
It is known from primates that alliance partners may support each other’s interests in competition with others, for example, through repeated agonistic attacks against a particular individual. We examined serial aggressive interactions between greylag goose families and other flock members. We found that repeated attacks towards the same individual were common and that up to five serial attacks by family members followed an initial attack. Family size did not affect the frequency of such serial attacks. Juvenile geese evidently benefited most from active social support through serial attacks. About 60% of the juveniles’ lost primary interactions were subsequently reversed by another family member. This may be one of the reasons why juveniles rank higher in the social hierarchy than would be expected from their age and size alone. Losses in serial attacks predominantly occurred against other, presumably higher-ranking, family geese and ganders. We propose three major functions/consequences of serial attacks. Analogous to primates, serial attacks in greylag geese may serve to reinforce a losing experience of an opponent defeated in a preceding attack. On the side of the winning family, serial attacks may reinforce the experience of winning. Both winning and losing experiences are linked with physiological consequences in higher vertebrates, affecting the future social performance of winners or losers. Finally, serial attacks may signal the agonistic potential of a family to other flock members. This is supported by heart rate data, which indicate that greylags are competent to interpret third-party relationships. PMID:21984838
Yuen, Horace P.; Nair, Ranjith
The security of the Y-00 direct encryption protocol under correlation attack is addressed. A Y-00 configuration that is more secure than AES under known-plaintext attack is presented. It is shown that under any ciphertext-only attack, full information-theoretic security on the Y-00 seed key is obtained for any encryption box ENC with proper deliberate signal randomization.
Dattilio, Frank M.
Describes technique known as symptom induction and de-escalation for panic attacks in which goal is to reproduce the type of situation that may precipitate an attack and then to show the client how the attacks can be "turned on" as well as "turned off." (ABL)
heart attack Know the symptoms. Take action. call Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast “ One evening ... didn’t think I could be having a heart attack. I didn’t expect it to happen to ...
Learn What a Heart Attack Feels Like— It Could Save Your Life. This fact sheet tells you about heart attack signs. It also tells you what to ... heart attack warning signs. Your chest hurts or feels squeezed. One or both arms, your back, shoulders, ...
Ren, Shuai; Zhang, Yinfa; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Jumei; Rao, Xuejun; Fang, Yuanyuan
The mechanism of high power intra-channel crosstalk attack is analyzed theoretically and the conclusion that power of attack signal and crosstalk coefficient of optical switch are the main factors for which high power intra-channel have destructive effect on quality of legitimate signals is drawn. Effects of high power intra-channel crosstalk attack on quality of legitimate signals and its capability of attack propagation are investigated quantitatively by building the simulation system in VPI software. The results show that legitimate signals through the first and the second stage optical switch are affected by attack and legitimate signal through the third stage optical switch is almost unaffected by attack when power of original attack signal (OAS) is above 20dB more than that of legitimate signals and crosstalk coefficient of optical switch is -20dB at optical cross connect 1 (OXC1). High power intra-channel crosstalk attack has a certain capability of attack propagation. Attack capability of OAS can be propagated to OXC3 when power of OAS is 27dB more than that of legitimate signals and crosstalk coefficient of optical switch is -20dB. We also find that the secondary attack signal (SAS) does not have capability of attack propagation.
David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan
Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...
Hinton, Devon E; Pich, Vuth; Marques, Luana; Nickerson, Angela; Pollack, Mark H
Traumatized Cambodian refugees with PTSD often complain of khyâl attacks. The current study investigates khyâl attacks from multiple perspectives and examines the validity of a model of how khyâl attacks are generated. The study found that khyâl attacks had commonly been experienced in the previous 4 weeks and that their severity was strongly correlated with the severity of PTSD (PTSD Checklist). It was found that khyâl attacks were triggered by various processes--such as worry, trauma recall, standing up, going to a mall--and that khyâl attacks almost always met panic attack criteria. It was also found that during a khyâl attack there was great fear that death might occur from bodily dysfunction. It was likewise found that a complex nosology of khyâl attacks exists that rates the attacks on a scale of severity, that the severity determines how the khyâl attacks should be treated and that those treatments are often complex. As illustrated by the article, khyâl attacks constitute a key aspect of trauma ontology in this group, a culturally specific experiencing of anxiety and trauma-related disorder. The article also contributes to the study of trauma somatics, that is, to the study of how trauma results in specific symptoms in a specific cultural context, showing that a key part of the trauma-somatic reticulum is often a cultural syndrome.
Manes, Gavin W.; Dawkins, J.; Shenoi, Sujeet; Hale, John C.
Converged network security is extremely challenging for several reasons; expanded system and technology perimeters, unexpected feature interaction, and complex interfaces all conspire to provide hackers with greater opportunities for compromising large networks. Preventive security services and architectures are essential, but in and of themselves do not eliminate all threat of compromise. Attack management systems mitigate this residual risk by facilitating incident detection, analysis and response. There are a wealth of attack detection and response tools for IP networks, but a dearth of such tools for wireless and public telephone networks. Moreover, methodologies and formalisms have yet to be identified that can yield a common model for vulnerabilities and attacks in converged networks. A comprehensive attack management system must coordinate detection tools for converged networks, derive fully-integrated attack and network models, perform vulnerability and multi-stage attack analysis, support large-scale attack visualization, and orchestrate strategic responses to cyber attacks that cross network boundaries. We present an architecture that embodies these principles for attack management. The attack management system described engages a suite of detection tools for various networking domains, feeding real-time attack data to a comprehensive modeling, analysis and visualization subsystem. The resulting early warning system not only provides network administrators with a heads-up cockpit display of their entire network, it also supports guided response and predictive capabilities for multi-stage attacks in converged networks.
Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.
Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research
Grosshans, Frédéric; Cerf, Nicolas J
A general study of arbitrary finite-size coherent attacks against continuous-variable quantum cryptographic schemes is presented. It is shown that, if the size of the blocks that can be coherently attacked by an eavesdropper is fixed and much smaller than the key size, then the optimal attack for a given signal-to-noise ratio in the transmission line is an individual Gaussian attack. Consequently, non-Gaussian coherent attacks do not need to be considered in the security analysis of such quantum cryptosystems.
Taylor, Curtis R; Shue, Craig A
On the Internet, attackers can compromise systems owned by other people and then use these systems to launch attacks automatically. When attacks such as phishing or SQL injections are successful, they can have negative consequences including server downtime and the loss of sensitive information. Current methods to prevent such attacks are limited in that they are application-specific, or fail to block attackers. Phishing attempts can be stopped with email filters, but if the attacker manages to successfully bypass these filters, then the user must determine if the email is legitimate or not. Unfortunately, they often are unable to do so.more » Since attackers have a low success rate, they attempt to compensate for it in volume. In order to have this high throughput, attackers take shortcuts and break protocols. We use this knowledge to address these issues by implementing a system that can detect malicious activity and use it to block attacks. If the client fails to follow proper procedure, they can be classified as an attacker. Once an attacker has been discovered, they will be isolated and monitored. This can be accomplished using existing software in Ubuntu Linux applications, along with our custom wrapper application. After running the system and seeing its performance on three popular Web browsers Chromium, Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as two popular email clients, Thunderbird and Evolution, we found that not only is this system conceivable, it is effective and has low overhead.« less
Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M
As control system networks are being connected to enterprise level networks for remote monitoring, operation, and system-wide performance optimization, these same connections are providing vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious actors for attack, financial gain, and theft of intellectual property. Much effort in cyber-physical system (CPS) protection has focused on protecting the borders of the system through traditional information security techniques. Less effort has been applied to the protection of cyber-physical systems from intelligent attacks launched after an attacker has defeated the information security protections to gain access to the control system. In this paper, attacks on actuator signalsmore » are analyzed from a system theoretic context. The threat surface is classified into finite energy and bounded attacks. These two broad classes encompass a large range of potential attacks. The effect of theses attacks on a linear quadratic (LQ) control are analyzed, and the optimal actuator attacks for both finite and infinite horizon LQ control are derived, therefore the worst case attack signals are obtained. The closed-loop system under the optimal attack signals is given and a numerical example illustrating the effect of an optimal bounded attack is provided.« less
Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W
In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.
Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott
Biometric detectors for speaker identification commonly employ a statistical model for a subject's voice, such as a Gaussian Mixture Model, that combines multiple means to improve detector performance. This allows a malicious insider to amend or append a component of a subject's statistical model so that a detector behaves normally except under a carefully engineered circumstance. This allows an attacker to force a misclassification of his or her voice only when desired, by smuggling data into a database far in advance of an attack. Note that the attack is possible if attacker has access to database even for a limited time to modify victim's model. We exhibit such an attack on a speaker identification, in which an attacker can force a misclassification by speaking in an unusual voice, and replacing the least weighted component of victim's model by the most weighted competent of the unusual voice of the attacker's model. The reason attacker make his or her voice unusual during the attack is because his or her normal voice model can be in database, and by attacking with unusual voice, the attacker has the option to be recognized as himself or herself when talking normally or as the victim when talking in the unusual manner. By attaching an appropriately weighted vector to a victim's model, we can impersonate all users in our simulations, while avoiding unwanted false rejections.
Blaisdell, G. Kai; Roy, Bitty A.; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D.
Many hypotheses address the associations of plant community composition with natural enemies, including: (i) plant species diversity may reduce enemy attack, (ii) attack may increase as host abundance increases, (iii) enemy spillover may lead to increased attack on one host species due to transmission from another host species, or enemy dilution may lead to reduced attack on a host that would otherwise have more attack, (iv) physical characteristics of the plant community may influence attack, and (v) plant vigor may affect attack. Restoration experiments with replicated plant communities provide an exceptional opportunity to explore these hypotheses. To explore the relative predictive strengths of these related hypotheses and to investigate the potential effect of several restoration site preparation techniques, we surveyed arthropod herbivore and fungal pathogen attack on the six most common native plant species in a restoration experiment. Multi-model inference revealed a weak but consistent negative correlation with pathogen attack and host diversity across the plant community, and no correlation between herbivory and host diversity. Our analyses also revealed host species-specific relationships between attack and abundance of the target host species, other native plant species, introduced plant species, and physical community characteristics. We found no relationship between enemy attack and plant vigor. We found minimal differences in plant community composition among several diverse site preparation techniques, and limited effects of site preparation techniques on attack. The strongest associations of community characteristics with attack varied among plant species with no community-wide patterns, suggesting that no single hypothesis successfully predicts the dominant community-wide trends in enemy attack. PMID:25699672
Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T
The increased media attention to shark attacks has led to a heightened fear and public awareness. Although few sharks are considered dangerous, attacks on humans can result in large soft tissue defects necessitating the intervention of reconstructive surgeons. This study aims to evaluate and describe the characteristics of shark-related injuries in order to improve treatment. The Global Shark Accident File, maintained by the Shark Research Institute (Princeton, NJ, USA), is a compilation of all known worldwide shark attacks. Database records since the 1900s were reviewed to identify differences between fatal and nonfatal attacks, including: geography, injury pattern, shark species, and victim activity. Since the 1900s, there have been 5034 reported shark attacks, of which 1205 (22.7%) were fatal. Although the incidence of attacks per decade has increased, the percentage of fatalities has decreased. Characteristics of fatal attacks included swimming (p = 0.001), boating (p = 0.001), three or more bite sites (p = 0.03), limb loss (p = 0.001), or tiger shark attack (p = 0.002). The most common attacks were bites to the legs (41.8%) or arms (18.4%), with limb loss occurring in 7% of attacks. Geographically, the majority of attacks occurred in North America (36.7%) and Australia (26.5%). Most attacks in the USA occurred in Florida (49.1%) and California (13.6%). Although rare, shark attacks result in devastating injuries to patients. As these injuries often involve multiple sites and limb loss, this creates a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Proper identification of the characteristics of the attack can aid in providing optimal care for those affected. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snoer, Agneta; Lund, Nunu; Beske, Rasmus; Jensen, Rigmor; Barloese, Mads
Introduction In contrast to the premonitory phase of migraine, little is known about the pre-attack (prodromal) phase of a cluster headache. We aimed to describe the nature, prevalence, and duration of pre-attack symptoms in cluster headache. Methods Eighty patients with episodic cluster headache or chronic cluster headache, according to ICHD-3 beta criteria, were invited to participate. In this observational study, patients underwent a semi-structured interview where they were asked about the presence of 31 symptoms/signs in relation to a typical cluster headache attack. Symptoms included previously reported cluster headache pre-attack symptoms, premonitory migraine symptoms and accompanying symptoms of migraine and cluster headache. Results Pre-attack symptoms were reported by 83.3% of patients, with an average of 4.25 (SD 3.9) per patient. Local and painful symptoms, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 70%. Local and painless symptoms and signs, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 43.8% and general symptoms, occurring with a median of 20 minutes before attack, were reported by 62.5% of patients. Apart from a dull/aching sensation in the attack area being significantly ( p < 0.05) more frequent among men and episodic patients, compared with women and chronic patients respectively, no other differences in the prevalence of pre-attack symptoms were identified between groups. Conclusion Pre-attack symptoms are frequent in cluster headache. Since the origin of cluster headache attacks is still unresolved, studies of pre-attack symptoms could contribute to the understanding of cluster headache pathophysiology. Furthermore, identification and recognition of pre-attack symptoms could potentially allow earlier abortive treatment.
Maurer, Marcus; Kaplan, Allen; Investigators, on behalf of I. O. S.
Background Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. Objective To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. Methods The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009–February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. Results Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]). Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001]) and <5 hours versus ≥5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]). Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]). Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. Conclusion Early blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution. PMID:23390491
Almogy, Gidon; Mintz, Yoav; Zamir, Gideon; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Elazary, Ram; Dotan, Livnat; Faruga, Mohammed; Rivkind, Avraham I
To report the distribution and types of injuries in victims of suicide bombing attacks and to identify external signs that would guide triage and initial management. There is a need for information on the degree to which external injuries indicate internal injuries requiring emergency triage. The medical charts and the trauma registry database of all patients who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem from August 2001 to August 2004 following a suicide bombing attack were reviewed and analyzed for injury characteristics, number of body areas injured, presence of blast lung injury (BLI), and need for therapeutic laparotomy. Logistic analysis was performed to identify predictors of BLI and intra-abdominal injury. The study population consisted of 154 patients who were injured as a result of 17 attacks. Twenty-eight patients suffered from BLI (18.2%) and 13 patients (8.4%) underwent therapeutic laparotomy. Patients with penetrating head injury and those with > or =4 body areas injured were significantly more likely to suffer from BLI (odds ratio, 3.47 and 4.12, respectively, P < 0.05). Patients with penetrating torso injury and those with > or =4 body areas injured were significantly more likely to suffer from intra-abdominal injury (odds ratio, 22.27 and 4.89, respectively, P < 0.05). Easily recognizable external signs of trauma can be used to predict the occurrence of BLI and intra-abdominal injury. The importance of these signs needs to be incorporated into triage protocols and used to direct victims to the appropriate level of care both from the scene and in the hospital.
Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin
On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs.
Leverrier, Anthony; Grangier, Philippe; Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau Cedex
In this article, we give a simple proof of the fact that the optimal collective attacks against continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a Gaussian modulation are Gaussian attacks. Our proof, which makes use of symmetry properties of the protocol in phase space, is particularly relevant for the finite-key analysis of the protocol and therefore for practical applications.
Wray, Ricardo J; Kreuter, Matthew W; Jacobsen, Heather; Clements, Bruce; Evans, R Gregory
The experience of federal health authorities in responding to the mailed anthrax attacks in the Fall of 2001 sheds light on the challenges of public information dissemination in emergencies. Lessons learned from the Fall of 2001 have guided more recent efforts related to crisis communication and preparedness goals. This article applies theories and evidence from the field of communication to provide an orientation to how public health communication can best contribute to the preparedness effort. This theoretical orientation provides a framework to systematically assess current recommendations for preparedness communication.
Anderson, D.; Thomson, D. G.
The survivability of helicopters under attack by ground troops using rocket propelled grenades has been amply illustrated over the past decade. Given that an RPG is unguided and it is infeasible to cover helicopters in thick armour, existing optical countermeasures are ineffective - the solution is to compute an evasive manoeuvre. In this paper, an RPG/helicopter engagement model is presented. Manoeuvre profiles are defined in the missile approach warning sensor camera image plane using a local maximum acceleration vector. Required control inputs are then computed using inverse simulation techniques. Assessments of platform survivability to several engagement scenarios are presented.
OPPOSING FORCES: US: 3d Army 377th Inf XX Corps 378th Inf 5th Inf Div 379th Inf 90th Inf Div 320th Eng Cbt Bn 95th Inf Div 10th Inf 10th Armored Div 11th...Panzer Bde SYNOPSIS: US XX Corps encircled and reduced Metz as a preliminary for continued attack east by 3d US Army. Excellent example of a Corps...crossings in the north. The 3d Cavalry Regiment also played a major role in combat and in the Corps& deception schemes prior to the battle. The XII
We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.
Wang, Xingang; Zhan, Meng; Lai, C-H; Gang, Hu
Different chaos synchronization based encryption schemes are reviewed and compared from the practical point of view. As an efficient cryptanalysis tool for chaos encryption, a proposal based on the error function attack is presented systematically and used to evaluate system security. We define a quantitative measure (quality factor) of the effective applicability of a chaos encryption scheme, which takes into account the security, the encryption speed, and the robustness against channel noise. A comparison is made of several encryption schemes and it is found that a scheme based on one-way coupled chaotic map lattices performs outstandingly well, as judged from quality factor. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.
Nakayama, A.; Chow, W. L.
A transonic flow past a boattailed afterbody under a small angle of attack was examined. It is known that the viscous effect offers significant modifications of the pressure distribution on the afterbody. Thus, the formulation for the inviscid flow was based on the consideration of a flow past a nonaxisymmetric body. The full three dimensional potential equation was solved through numerical relaxation, and quasi-axisymmetric boundary layer calculations were performed to estimate the displacement effect. It was observed again that the viscous effects were not negligible. The trend of the final results agreed well with the experimental data.
Zhang, Wen-Ping; Xia, Yongxiang; Tan, Fei
Many real-world networks are interconnected with each other. In this paper, we study the traffic dynamics in interconnected complex networks under an intentional attack. We find that with the shortest time delay routing strategy, the traffic dynamics can show the stable state, periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic oscillations, when the capacity redundancy parameter changes. Moreover, compared with isolated complex networks, oscillations always take place in interconnected networks more easily. Thirdly, in interconnected networks, oscillations are affected strongly by the coupling probability and coupling preference.
0T’Fit f-copy Combined Radiation and Thermal Injury 04 After Nuclear Attack , (M) William K. Becker, Teresa M. Buescher, William G. Cioffi, William F...Chicago, 1979, pp. 5-61. 4. Reiss, E., Stirman, J. A., Artz, C . P., et al. Fluid and electrolyte balance in burns. JAMA 152:1309- 1313, 1953. 5...et al. Septicemia in burn injury. J Trauma 1:22-31,1961. 7. Moncrief , J. A., Lindberg, R. B., Switzer, W. E., et al. Use of topical antibacterial
Davis, Benjamin; Bernstein, Jonathan A
Recently, multiple C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) replacement products have been approved for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE). This review summarizes HAE and its current treatment modalities and focuses on findings from bench to bedside trials of a new C1-INH replacement, conestat alfa. Conestat alfa is unique among the other C1-INH replacement products because it is produced from transgenic rabbits rather than derived from human plasma donors, which can potentially allow an unlimited source of drug without any concern of infectious transmission. The clinical trial data generated to date indicate that conestat alfa is safe and effective for the treatment of acute HAE attacks. PMID:21753889
Soskolne, Varda; Dekel, Rachel; Vinker, Shlomo
Evidence regarding the detrimental effects of exposure to stress on glycemic control among diabetes patients has mainly focused on personal life events or acute trauma. However, the effects of continuous exposure to extreme stress on type 2 diabetes patients have rarely been studied. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of continuous exposure to rocket attacks with glycemic control and with risk factors for diabetes complications among civilian type 2 diabetes patients. We focus on patients residing in the Western Negev in the south of Israel that has been subjected to rocket attacks fired from Gaza since the end of 2001. A two-arm retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients, aged 35-70 years, residing in a region with chronic exposure to rocket attacks (N = 1697) and in a non-exposed comparison region in Israel (N = 3000). Data were retrieved from the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)'s database for four time periods representing exposure: chronic-2008; elevated-2009 (post'Cast Lead' operation); return to chronic-2010, 2011. Data included socio-demographic variables, HbA 1c , BMI, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure. General Linear Models (GLM) were used for analysis. For HbA 1c , the model yielded a significant main effect for time, a borderline significance main effect for region, and a significant time by region interaction: no differences in HbA 1c levels between the regions in 2008 and 2009, followed by significant differences between the regions in 2010 and 2011 when HbA 1c continued to increase in the exposed region but decreased in the comparison region. Regarding risk factors, a significant main effect for time for LDL cholesterol only, and significant main effects for region were found in all factors: BMI and LDL cholesterol were higher in the exposed than in the comparison region, but blood pressure values were lower. Continuous exposure to rocket attacks is associated with glycemic control and risk factors in a
Králik, Juraj, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Králik, Juraj, E-mail: email@example.com
The paper presents the nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete buildings of nuclear power plant under the aircraft attack. The dynamic load is defined in time on base of the airplane impact simulations considering the real stiffness, masses, direction and velocity of the flight. The dynamic response is calculated in the system ANSYS using the transient nonlinear analysis solution method. The damage of the concrete wall is evaluated in accordance with the standard NDRC considering the spalling, scabbing and perforation effects. The simple and detailed calculations of the wall damage are compared.
Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris
Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.
Rtshiladze, Michael Alexander; Andersen, Sean Peter; Nguyen, Dai Quoc Anh; Grabs, Anthony; Ho, Kevin
There were 59 unprovoked shark attacks worldwide in 2008. Twelve of these occurred in Australia, ranking it as second only to the USA. In February 2009, two attacks occurred within 72 h in Sydney, Australia. The two patients involved survived severe limb trauma. Case 1 suffered bite trauma to the lower limb and hand and underwent staged debridement and early amputation. Case 2 presented with a hand severed at the level of the wrist that was initially replanted. However, it would succumb to progressive necrosis after 12 days. We discuss the aspects of these cases that contributed to the patients' survival and ultimately good functional outcomes. New paradigms for the management of major trauma patients have emerged over the last decade. We consider recent advances in the understanding of pre-hospital tourniquet use, rapid transit to the operating suite and damage control surgery, and examine how they impacted on the management of our patients. Very little is known about the microbiology of shark bites. Organisms from sea water, the patient's skin and the shark's mouth must all be considered when selecting appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis. The planning of definitive surgery in severe limb trauma is dependent on the interactions of a number of factors including physical, psychological and social issues. The decision to ultimately replant or amputate the effected limb is best made in union with the patient and their family. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Stephenson, J B
From clinical history 58 children were diagnosed as having reflex anoxic seizures secondary to provoked cardioinhibition (also known as white breath-holding attacks). Before referral, these seizures were commonly misdiagnosed as epileptic either because the provocation was ignored, not recognised, or was a febrile illness, or because there was no crying, no obvious breath-holding, little cyanosis, and often no pallor to suggest syncope and cerebral ischaemia. The duration of cardiac asystole after ocular compression was measured in these children and in 60 additional children with other paroxysmal disorders. In 45 (78%) of the 58 with reflex anoxic seizures asystole was 2 seconds or over, and in 32 (55%) it was 4 seconds or greater, an abnormal response. Review of the literature supports the concept that these seizures result from vagal-mediated reflex cardiac arrest which can if necessary be prevented by atropine. The simple name 'vagal attack' is proposed. Ocular compression under EEG and ECG control supports the clinical diagnosis if asystole and/or an anoxic seizure is induced; the procedure described is safe and should be routine in seizure or syncope evaluation, when a meticulous history still leaves room for doubt. Images Figs. 1-8 p194-b p194-c p194-d p194-e p194-f p194-g p194-h PMID:348123
Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.
Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.
Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete
Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro
Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and "Wenner" resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.
In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children’s unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population. PMID:18624067
Requião da Cunha, Bruno; González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Gonçalves, Sebastián
In the multidisciplinary field of Network Science, optimization of procedures for efficiently breaking complex networks is attracting much attention from a practical point of view. In this contribution, we present a module-based method to efficiently fragment complex networks. The procedure firstly identifies topological communities through which the network can be represented using a well established heuristic algorithm of community finding. Then only the nodes that participate of inter-community links are removed in descending order of their betweenness centrality. We illustrate the method by applying it to a variety of examples in the social, infrastructure, and biological fields. It is shown that the module-based approach always outperforms targeted attacks to vertices based on node degree or betweenness centrality rankings, with gains in efficiency strongly related to the modularity of the network. Remarkably, in the US power grid case, by deleting 3% of the nodes, the proposed method breaks the original network in fragments which are twenty times smaller in size than the fragments left by betweenness-based attack. PMID:26569610
Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.
The mean depth of penetration rates (MDPRs) of eight polycrystalline metallic materials, Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass, phosphor bronze, Ni, Fe, Mo, and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exposed to cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil with a 20 kHz ultrasonic oscillator vibrating at 50 micron amplitude are reported. The titanium alloy followed by molybdenum have large incubation periods and small MDPRs. The incubation periods correlate linearly with the inverse of hardness and the average MDPRs correlate linearly with the inverse of tensile strength of materials. The linear relationships yield better statistical parameters than geometric and exponential relationships. The surface roughness and the ratio of pit depth to pit width (h/a) increase with the duration of cavitation attack. The ratio h/a varies from 0.1 to 0.8 for different materials. Recent investigations (20) using scanning electron microscopy to study deformation and pit formation features are briefly reviewed. Investigations with single crystals indicate that the geometry of pits and erosion are dependent on their orientation.
Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem
Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keough, Meghan E; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) has emphasized the importance of understanding psychopathology within a cultural framework by including culture-bound syndromes within its appendices. These syndromes are proposed to be bound to certain cultures and distinct from other psychological disorders. Included among the syndromes are ataques de nervios (ADN), which are reported to be bound to the Hispanic culture and closely resemble panic attacks. However, the cultural distinctiveness and phenomenology of ADN has not been adequately investigated. The current study employed an ethnically diverse study sample (N=342) of undergraduates. Participants completed a number of measures that assessed acculturation, syndrome and anxiety risk factors. In contrast to the DSM-IV's conceptualization of ADN, the rate of ADN did not significantly vary across the three main groups (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic participants) nor did it vary based on acculturation. More consistent with the DSM-IV, the symptom comparisons indicated some differentiation between ADN and panic attacks. The present report provides data indicating that ADNs, as described by the DSM-IV, are not unique to the Hispanic culture and are experienced by non-Hispanic individuals at similar rates to Hispanic-endorsement. The findings are consistent with the DSM-IV assertion that ADNs and PAs are distinct syndromes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Karsenty, E; Shemer, J; Alshech, I; Cojocaru, B; Moscovitz, M; Shapiro, Y; Danon, Y L
During the period 18 January-28 February 1991, a total of 39 Iraqi modified Scud missiles landed in Israel, most of them in the densely populated Tel Aviv area. There were 23 missile attack alerts. These attacks caused 1,059 cases of injury; there were two deaths and 232 patients were admitted to emergency rooms for injuries directly related to the explosions, only one of which was severe. A survey among 91 of the injured showed that 46.6% of the wounds were caused by glass splinters, 31.1% were blunt contusions, and 22.2% were acute psychological reactions. No case of blast injury was reported. Inappropriate injection of atropine was reported in 230 cases. Acute anxiety was the reason for admission of 544 patients to emergency rooms. Another 40 patients sustained various traumas while rushing to the sealed room. The relatively low number of injured people is striking in view of the density of population in the areas hit. Various explanations are discussed.
Fisher, David F.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Banks, Daniel W.; Hall, Robert M.; Wahls, Richard A.
Lessons learned from comparisons between ground-based tests and flight measurements for the high-angle-of-attack programs on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the X-29 forward-swept wing aircraft, and the X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability aircraft are presented. On all three vehicles, Reynolds number effects were evident on the forebodies at high angles of attack. The correlation between flight and wind tunnel forebody pressure distributions for the F-18 HARV were improved by using twin longitudinal grit strips on the forebody of the wind-tunnel model. Pressure distributions obtained on the X-29 wind-tunnel model at flight Reynolds numbers showed excellent correlation with the flight data up to alpha = 50 deg. Above (alpha = 50 deg. the pressure distributions for both flight and wind tunnel became asymmetric and showed poorer agreement, possibly because of the different surface finish of the model and aircraft. The detrimental effect of a very sharp nose apex was demonstrated on the X-31 aircraft. Grit strips on the forebody of the X-31 reduced the randomness but increased the magnitude of the asymmetry. Nose strakes were required to reduce the forebody yawing moment asymmetries and the grit strips on the flight test noseboom improved the aircraft handling qualities.
Erlandsson, Åsa; Reid Meloy, J
This is a case report of the offender and offense characteristics of a targeted attack on a Swedish school using a sword, with a particular focus upon the offender's history, the relationship between mental disorder and ideology, and whether or not it was an act of terrorism. Findings indicate that the offender had no drug or psychiatric treatment history, but postoffense analysis suggests autism spectrum disorder, depression, and both suicidal ideation and intent. The offender planned and prepared for his attack, and the triggering event appeared to be the loss of a temporary job. He expressed chronic anger concerning immigrants to Sweden and blamed them for his failures. Comparison of the fact pattern to other cases of lone actor terrorism with the Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) empirically demonstrates excellent criterion validity with other lone actor terrorists in Europe and North America-including right wing extremists-and contributes to further understanding of ideologically motivated mass murder. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro
Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones. PMID:28774026
Clark, Charles W.
The day before the Pearl Harbor attack, December 6, 1941, the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory was given four goals: design a plutonium (Pu) bomb; produce Pu by irradiation of uranium (U); extract Pu from the irradiated U; complete this in time to be militarily significant. A year later the first controlled nuclear chain reaction was attained in Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1). In January 1943, Hanford, WA was chosen as the site of the Pu factory. Neutron irradiation of 238U was to be used to make 239Pu. This was done by a larger version of CP-1, Hanford Reactor B, which went critical in September 1944. By July 1945 it had made enough Pu for two bombs: one used at the Trinity test in July; the other at Nagasaki, Japan in August. I focus on an ironic sidelight to this story: disruption of hydroelectric power to Reactor B by a Japanese fire balloon attack on March 10, 1945. This activated the costly coal-fired emergency backup plant to keep the reactor coolant water flowing, thwarting disaster and vindicating the conservative design of Hanford Engineer Works. Management of the Hanford Engineer Works in World War II, H. Thayer (ASCE Press 1996).
Cheng, Yi; Sagduyu, Yalin; Deng, Julia; Li, Jason; Liu, Peng
Real-time cyberspace situational awareness is critical for securing and protecting today's enterprise networks from various cyber threats. When a security incident occurs, network administrators and security analysts need to know what exactly has happened in the network, why it happened, and what actions or countermeasures should be taken to quickly mitigate the potential impacts. In this paper, we propose an integrated cyberspace situational awareness system for efficient cyber attack detection, analysis and mitigation in large-scale enterprise networks. Essentially, a cyberspace common operational picture will be developed, which is a multi-layer graphical model and can efficiently capture and represent the statuses, relationships, and interdependencies of various entities and elements within and among different levels of a network. Once shared among authorized users, this cyberspace common operational picture can provide an integrated view of the logical, physical, and cyber domains, and a unique visualization of disparate data sets to support decision makers. In addition, advanced analyses, such as Bayesian Network analysis, will be explored to address the information uncertainty, dynamic and complex cyber attack detection, and optimal impact mitigation issues. All the developed technologies will be further integrated into an automatic software toolkit to achieve near real-time cyberspace situational awareness and impact mitigation in large-scale computer networks.
Almgody, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I
Suicide bombing attacks have emerged as a lethal weapon in the hands of terrorist groups. Our aim was to review the medical experience acquired in Israel, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States in managing terrorist attacks, and prepare medical systems for the difficult task of managing these events. EMS protocols are amended to deal with a large number of victims in an urban setting who must be rapidly evacuated to a medical center where resuscitative as well as definitive care is delivered. A combination of extensive soft tissue damage caused by penetrating injuries, blast injury to the lungs and tympanic membranes, and burns are common among survivors. Preparation must include establishment of a clear chain-of-command lead by a general surgeon who manages the event and is responsible for decisions regarding OR preferences and ICU admissions. The emergency department is re-organized to handle the influx of numerous severely injured casualties. Professional personnel and resources are recruited and re-directed away from routine tasks towards treating the victims. This is achieved by deferring non-urgent operations, procedures and imaging studies. Victims are frequently re-assessed and re-evaluated to control chaos, minimize missed injuries and ensure delivery of an adequate level of care.
Almgody, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I
Suicide bombing attacks have emerged as a lethal weapon in the hands of terrorist groups. Our aim was to review the medical experience acquired in Israel, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States in managing terrorist attacks, and prepare medical systems for the difficult task of managing these events. EMS protocols are amended to deal with a large number of victims in an urban setting who must be rapidly evacuated to a medical center where resuscitative as well as definitive care is delivered. A combination of extensive soft tissue damage caused by penetrating injuries, blast injury to the lungs and tympanic membranes, and burns are common among survivors. Preparation must include establishment of a clear chain-of-command lead by a general surgeon who manages the event and is responsible for decisions regarding OR preferences and ICU admissions. The emergency department is re-organized to handle the influx of numerous severely injured casualties. Professional personnel and resources are recruited and re-directed away from routine tasks towards treating the victims. This is achieved by deferring non-urgent operations, procedures and imaging studies. Victims are frequently re-assessed and re-evaluated to control chaos, minimize missed injuries and ensure delivery of an adequate level of care.
Anderson, Raymond F
A number of airfoils, including 14 commonly used airfoils and 10 NACA airfoils, were tested through the negative angle-of-attack range in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds Number of approximately 3,000,000. The tests were made to supply data to serve as a basis for the structural design of airplanes in the inverted flight condition. In order to make the results immediately available for this purpose they are presented herein in preliminary form, together with results of previous tests of the airfoils at positive angles of attack. An analysis of the results made to find the variation of the ratio of the maximum negative lift coefficient to the maximum positive lift coefficient led to the following conclusions: 1) For airfoils of a given thickness, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to decrease as the mean camber is increased. 2) For airfoils of a given mean camber, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to increase as the thickness increases.