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Sample records for abducens nucleus presenting

  1. Anatomic and physiological characteristics of the ferret lateral rectus muscle and abducens nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Keith N; McClung, J Ross; Goldberg, Stephen J; Shall, Mary S

    2007-11-01

    The ferret has become a popular model for physiological and neurodevelopmental research in the visual system. We believed it important, therefore, to study extraocular whole muscle as well as single motor unit physiology in the ferret. Using extracellular stimulation, 62 individual motor units in the ferret abducens nucleus were evaluated for their contractile characteristics. Of these motor units, 56 innervated the lateral rectus (LR) muscle alone, while 6 were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch, tetanic peak force, and fatigue. The abducens nucleus motor units showed a twitch contraction time of 15.4 ms, a mean twitch tension of 30.2 mg, and an average fusion frequency of 154 Hz. Single-unit fatigue index averaged 0.634. Whole muscle twitch contraction time was 16.7 ms with a mean twitch tension of 3.32 g. The average fatigue index of whole muscle was 0.408. The abducens nucleus was examined with horseradish peroxidase conjugated with the subunit B of cholera toxin histochemistry and found to contain an average of 183 motoneurons. Samples of LR were found to contain an average of 4,687 fibers, indicating an LR innervation ratio of 25.6:1. Compared with cat and squirrel monkeys, the ferret LR motor units contract more slowly yet more powerfully. The functional visual requirements of the ferret may explain these fundamental differences.

  2. Eye movements and abducens motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    the aim of this work was to characterize eye movements and abducens (ABD) motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (NRPC). six female adult cats were prepared for chronic recording of eye movements (using the scleral search-coil technique), electroencephalography, electromyography, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves in the lateral geniculate nucleus, and ABD motoneuron activities after microinjections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the NRPC. unilateral microinjections of carbachol in the NRPC induced tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system. Tonic effects consisted of ipsiversive rotation to the injected side, convergence, and downward rotation of the eyes. Phasic effects consisted of bursts of rhythmic rapid eye movements directed contralaterally to the injected side along with PGO-like waves in the lateral geniculate and ABD nuclei. Although tonic effects were dependent on the level of drowsiness, phasic effects were always present and appeared along with normal saccades when the animal was vigilant. ABD motoneurons showed phasic activities associated with ABD PGO-like waves during bursts of rapid eye movements, and tonic and phasic activities related to eye position and velocity during alertness. the cholinergic activation of the NRPC induces oculomotor phenomena that are somewhat similar to those described during REM sleep. A precise comparison of the dynamics and timing of the eye movements further suggests that a temporal organization of both NRPCs is needed to reproduce the complexity of the oculomotor behavior during REM sleep.

  3. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Abducens Nerve in Patients with Type 3 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that the presence of the abducens nerve was variable in patients with type 3 Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS), being present in 2 of 5 eyes (40%) and absent in 3 (60%) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The previous study included only 5 eyes with unilateral DRS type 3. Objectives To supplement existing scarce pathologic information by evaluating the presence of the abducens nerve using high resolution thin-section MRI system in a larger number of patients with DRS type 3, thus to provide further insight into the pathogenesis of DRS. Data Extraction A retrospective review of medical records on ophthalmologic examination and high resolution thin-section MRI at the brainstem level and orbit was performed. A total of 31 patients who showed the typical signs of DRS type 3, including abduction and adduction deficit, globe retraction, narrowing of fissure on adduction and upshoot and/or downshoot, were included. The abducens nerve and any other extraocular muscle abnormalities discovered by MRI were noted. Results DRS was unilateral in 26 patients (84%) and bilateral in 5 patients (16%). Two out of 5 bilateral patients had DRS type 3 in the right eye and DRS type 1 in the left eye. Of the 34 affected orbits with DRS type 3 in 31 patients, the abducens nerve was absent or hypoplastic in 31 eyes (91%) and present in 3 eyes (9%). Patients with a present abducens nerve showed more limitation in adduction compared to patients with an absent abducens nerve (P = 0.030). Conclusions The abducens nerve is absent or hypoplastic in 91% of DRS type 3. Patients with a present abducens nerve showed more prominent limitation of adduction. As DRS type 3 partly share the same pathophysiology with type 1 and 2 DRS, the classification of DRS may have to be revised according to MRI findings. PMID:27352171

  5. Anatomic variation of the abducens nerve in a single cadaver dissection: the "petrobasilar canal".

    PubMed

    Pizzolorusso, Felice; Cirotti, Andrea; Pizzolorusso, Gianfranco

    2017-04-01

    Anatomic variations of the petrosphenoid ligament, Dorello's canal and the course of the abducens nerve have been extensively described over the past years. In the present report of a single cadaver dissection, we describe an unusual course of the abducens nerve at the level of the petrous bone. The right abducens nerve did not enter Dorello's canal, but ran below the petrous bone through a narrow canal in the petrobasilar suture, which we called the "petrobasilar canal". No anatomic variations of the left abducens nerve were noted.

  6. Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with zoster meningitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Kim, Ji-Soo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2013-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with diplopia following painful skin eruptions on the right upper extremity. On presentation, she was found to have 35 prism diopters of esotropia and an abduction limitation in the left eye. Two weeks later, she developed blepharoptosis and anisocoria with a smaller pupil in the right eye, which increased in the darkness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and a positive result for immunoglobulin G antibody to varicella zoster virus. She was diagnosed to have zoster meningitis with Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy. After intravenous antiviral and steroid treatments, the vesicular eruptions and abducens nerve palsy improved. Horner's syndrome and diplopia resolved after six months. Here we present the first report of Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with zoster meningitis.

  7. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Elif Seda; Keskin, Ekrem; Atik, Bekir; Koçer, Abdülkadir

    2015-01-01

    Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis muscle. In case of their paralysis, diplopia and restriction in the eye movements while looking sideways, are seen. Since the same signs are seen due to the muscle entrapment in blowout fractures, its differential diagnosis has importance in terms of the treatment protocol and avoiding unnecessary operations. In this article, we present a 22-year-old male patient who was referred to our department due to the prediagnosis of blowout fracture following maxillofacial trauma. However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement was resolved via systemic steroid treatment instead of unnecessary operation. PMID:26981484

  9. Paralytic squint due to abducens nerve palsy : a rare consequence of dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is an endemic illness in the tropics with early and post infectious complications affecting multiple systems. Though neurological sequelae including mononeuropathy, encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, polyradiculopathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome , optic neuropathy and oculomotor neuropathy have been reported in medical literature, the abducens nerve despite its notoriety in cranial neuropathies in a multitude of condition due to its long intracranial course had not been to date reported to manifest with lateral rectus paralysis following dengue. Case presentation A previously well 29 year old male with serologically confirmed dengue hemorrhagic fever developed symptomatic right lateral rectus palsy during the critical phase of the illness, which persisted into convalescence and post convalescence with proven deficit on Hess screen. Alternate etiologies were excluded by imaging, serology and electrophysiology. Conclusions The authors detail the first reported case of abducens nerve palsy complicating dengue fever in a previously healthy male from Sri Lanka. In a tropical country with endemic dengue infections, dengue related abducens neuropathy may be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of acquired lateral rectus palsy after dengue fever. PMID:22799448

  10. Detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yong Seok; Kim, In-Beom; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches. The single trunk of the abducens nerve divided into two branches 37 mm from insertion of the LRM, and 22 of 32 (68.8%) orbits showed only two superior and inferior branches with no subdivision. The superior branch entered the LRM more anteriorly (P = 0.037) and the superior branch was thinner than the inferior branch (P = 0.040). The most distally located intramuscular nerve ending was observed at 52.9 ± 3.5% of the length of each muscle. Non-overlap between the superior and inferior intramuscular arborization of the nerve was detected in 27 of 32 cases (84.4%). Five cases (15.6%) showed definite overlap of the superior and inferior zones. This study revealed the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the LRM and provides helpful information to understand abducens nerve palsy. Clin. Anat. 30:873-877, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Intrinsic Properties Guide Proximal Abducens and Oculomotor Nerve Outgrowth in Avian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Shah, Veeral; Noden, Drew M.; Sours, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Proper movement of the vertebrate eye requires the formation of precisely patterned axonal connections linking cranial somatic motoneurons, located at defined positions in the ventral midbrain and hindbrain, with extraocular muscles. The aim of this research was to assess the relative contributions of intrinsic, population-specific properties and extrinsic, outgrowth site-specific cues during the early stages of abducens and oculomotor nerve development in avian embryos. This was accomplished by surgically transposing midbrain and caudal hindbrain segments, which had been pre-labeled by electroporation with an EGFP construct. Graft-derived EGFP+ oculomotor axons entering a hindbrain microenvironment often mimicked an abducens initial pathway and coursed cranially. Similarly, some EGFP+ abducens axons entering a midbrain microenvironment mimicked an oculomotor initial pathway and coursed ventrally. Many but not all of these axons subsequently projected to extraocular muscles that they would not normally innervate. Strikingly, EGFP+ axons also took initial paths atypical for their new location. Upon exiting from a hindbrain position, most EGFP+ oculomotor axons actually coursed ventrally and joined host branchiomotor nerves, whose neurons share molecular features with oculomotor neurons. Similarly, upon exiting from a midbrain position, some EGFP+ abducens axons turned caudally, elongated parallel to the brainstem, and contacted the lateral rectus muscle, their originally correct target. These data reveal an interplay between intrinsic properties that are unique to oculomotor and abducens populations and shared ability to recognize and respond to extrinsic directional cues. The former play a prominent role in initial pathway choices, whereas the latter appear more instructive during subsequent directional choices. PMID:21739615

  12. A Physiological Neural Network for Saccadic Eye Movement Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the thalamus, the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the oculomotor plant...and pause cells), the vestibular nucleus , abducens nucleus , oculomotor nucleus , cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the...vestibular nucleus , abducens nucleus , oculomotor nucleus , cerebellum, substantia nigra, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP), the thalamus, the

  13. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cranial nerve. We recommend thin-slice MR examination in patients with abducens palsy after severe facial and/or head trauma.

  14. Behavior of accessory abducens and abducens motoneurons during eye retraction and rotation in the alert cat.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Garcia, J M; Evinger, C; Escudero, M; Baker, R

    1990-08-01

    1. The activity of both accessory abducens (Acc Abd) and abducens (Abd) motoneurons (Mns) was recorded in the alert cat during eye retraction and rotational eye movements. Cats were fitted with two scleral coils, one measured rotational eye movements directly and the other retraction by distinguishing the translational component. 2. Acc Abd and Abd Mns were identified following antidromic activation from electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral VIth nerve. 3. In response to corneal air puffs, bursts of spikes were produced in all (n = 30) Acc Abd Mns. The burst began 7.2 +/- 1.2 (SD) ms after onset of the air puff and 8.9 +/- 1.9 ms before eye retraction. 4. Acc Abd Mns were silent throughout all types of rotational eye movements, and tonic activity was not observed during intervals without air-puff stimulation. 5. In contrast, all (n = 50) identified Abd Mns exhibited a burst and/or pause in activity preceding and during horizontal saccades as well as a tonic activity proportional to eye position. 6. Only 10% of Abd Mns fired a weak burst of spikes in response to air-puff stimulation. 7. We conclude that Acc Abd Mns are exclusively involved in eye retraction in the cat and that only a few Abd Mns have an eye-retraction signal added to their eye position and velocity signals. Thus any rotational eye-movement response described in retractor bulbi muscle must result from innervation by Mns located in the Abd and/or the oculomotor nuclei. 8. The organization of the prenuclear circuitry and species variation are discussed in view of the nictiating membrane extension response measured in associative learning.

  15. Unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies associated with posterior fossa exploration surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. PMID:26951144

  16. Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Shin, Kang-Jae; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. The distances from the muscle insertion to the point at which the abducens nerve enters the LR and to the terminal nerve plexus were also measured. The LR was 46.0 mm long. The abducens nerve enters the muscle on the posterior one-third of the LR and then typically divides into a few branches (average of 1.8). This supports a segregated abducens nerve selectively innervating compartments of the LR. The intramuscular nerve distribution showed a Y-shaped ramification with root-like arborization. The intramuscular nerve course finished around the middle of the LR (24.8 mm posterior to the insertion point) to form the terminal nerve plexus. This region should be considered the optimal target site for botulinum toxin injections. We have also identified the presence of an overlapping zone and communicating nerve branches between the neighboring LR compartments. Sihler's staining is a useful technique for visualizing the entire nerve network of the LR. Improving the knowledge of the nerve distribution patterns is important not only for researchers but also clinicians to understand the functions of the LR and the diverse pathophysiology of strabismus.

  17. Unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies associated with posterior fossa exploration surgery.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ayman; Clerkin, James; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Green, Sandra; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2016-03-06

    Multiple cranial nerves palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment is a rare clinical presentation. This case report describes a young man who developed a unilateral abducens and bilateral facial nerve palsies following a posterior fossa exploration confined to an extradural compartment. There are different theories to explain this presentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We propose that this patient cranial nerve palsies developed following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, potentially as a consequence of rapid change in CSF dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  18. Noninvasive transcranial stimulation of rat abducens nerve by focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungmin; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Park, Shinsuk; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2012-09-01

    Nonpharmacologic and nonsurgical transcranial modulation of the nerve function may provide new opportunities in evaluation and treatment of cranial nerve diseases. This study investigates the possibility of using low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) to selectively stimulate the rat abducens nerve located above the base of the skull. FUS (frequencies of 350 kHz and 650 kHz) operating in a pulsed mode was applied to the abducens nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under stereotactic guidance. The abductive eyeball movement ipsilateral to the side of sonication was observed at 350 kHz, using the 0.36-msec tone burst duration (TBD), 1.5-kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and the overall sonication duration of 200 msec. Histologic and behavioral monitoring showed no signs of disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as no damage to the nerves and adjacent brain tissue resulting from the sonication. As a novel functional neuro-modulatory modality, the pulsed application of FUS has potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive transcranial stimulation of rat abducens nerve by focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungmin; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Park, Shinsuk; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2012-01-01

    Non-pharmacological and non-surgical transcranial modulation of the nerve function may provide new opportunities in evaluation and treatment of cranial nerve diseases. This study investigates the possibility of using low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) to selectively stimulate the rat abducens nerve located above the base of the skull. FUS (frequencies of 350 kHz and 650 kHz) operating in a pulsed mode was applied to the abducens nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under stereotactic guidance. The abductive eyeball movement ipsilateral to the side of sonication was observed at 350 kHz, using the 0.36 msec tone burst duration (TBD), 1.5 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and the overall sonication duration of 200 msec. Histological and behavioral monitoring showed no signs of disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB) as well as no damage to the nerves and adjacent brain tissue resulting from the sonication. As a novel functional neuro-modulatory modality, the pulsed application of FUS has potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications in diseases of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:22763009

  20. Postoperative full abduction in a patient of Duane retraction syndrome without an abducens nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2017-05-19

    Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) consists of abduction deficit, globe retraction and upshoots or downshoots with adduction. The abducens nerve on the affected side is absent in type 1 DRS. After bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral type 1 DRS may improve the abduction limitation, but still more than -3 limitation remains. A 6-month-old boy presented with esotropia which had been noticed in early infancy. He showed limited abduction, fissure narrowing on attempted adduction and a small upshoot OS. Left abducens nerve was not identified on magnetic resonance imaging compatible with Duane retraction syndrome type 1. He showed full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession of 6.0 mm at the age of 9 months, and remained orthotropia with full abduction OU 2 years postoperatively. He is my only patient with Duane retraction syndrome who showed full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession. A patient with the type 1 Duane retraction syndrome rarely may show full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession mimicking infantile esotropia.

  1. [Electromyographic differential diagnosis in cases of abducens nerve paresis with nuclear or distal neurogenic sive myogenic origine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Heuser, M

    1979-09-01

    Abducens nerve paresis may be of nuclear, of peripheral distal neurogenic origine, or is simulated by a myogenic weakness of abduction. Polygraphic emg analysis of the oculoauricularphenomenon (oap) permits a differentiation. In the emg, the oap proved to be a physiologic and constant automatic and always bilateral interaction between the hemolateral abducens nerve and both Nn. faciales with corresponding and obligatory coinnervation of the Mm. retroauricularis of the external ear. In case of medullary, nuclear or internuclear lesions, the oap is disturbed, instable, diminished or abolished, whereas in distal neurogenic or myogenic paresis, even in complete paralysis the oap is bilaterally well preserved.

  2. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.

  3. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kishore; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Bajantri, Bharat; Singh, Amandeep; Abbas, Hafsa; Dejesus, Eddy; Khan, Rana Raheel; Niazi, Masooma; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor. PMID:28553221

  4. Convergent synaptic inputs from the caudal fastigial nucleus and the superior colliculus onto pontine and pontomedullary reticulospinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mayu; Sugiuchi, Yuriko; Shinoda, Yoshikazu

    2014-02-01

    The caudal fastigial nucleus (FN) is known to be related to the control of eye movements and projects mainly to the contralateral reticular nuclei where excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons for saccades exist [the caudal portion of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (NRPc), and the rostral portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRG) respectively]. However, the exact reticular neurons targeted by caudal fastigioreticular cells remain unknown. We tried to determine the target reticular neurons of the caudal FN and superior colliculus (SC) by recording intracellular potentials from neurons in the NRPc and NRG of anesthetized cats. Neurons in the rostral NRG received bilateral, monosynaptic excitation from the caudal FNs, with contralateral predominance. They also received strong monosynaptic excitation from the rostral and caudal contralateral SC, and disynaptic excitation from the rostral ipsilateral SC. These reticular neurons with caudal fastigial monosynaptic excitation were not activated antidromically from the contralateral abducens nucleus, but most of them were reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) that were activated antidromically from the cervical cord. RSNs in the caudal NRPc received very weak monosynaptic excitation from only the contralateral caudal FN, and received either monosynaptic excitation only from the contralateral caudal SC, or monosynaptic and disynaptic excitation from the contralateral caudal and ipsilateral rostral SC, respectively. These results suggest that the caudal FN helps to control also head movements via RSNs targeted by the SC, and these RSNs with SC topographic input play different functional roles in head movements.

  5. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Usefulness of intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of oculomotor and abducens nerves during skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Yi; Li, Ming-Chu; Liang, Jian-Tao; Bao, Yu-Hai; Chen, Ge; Guo, Hong-Chuan; Ling, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring of the extraocular cranial nerve (EOCN) is not commonly performed because of technical difficulty and risk, reliability of the result and predictability of the postoperative function of the EOCN. We performed oculomotor nerve (CN III) and abducens nerve (CN VI) intraoperative monitoring in patients with skull base surgery by recording the spontaneous muscle activity (SMA) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). Two types of needle electrodes of different length were percutaneously inserted into the extraocular muscles with the free-hand technique. We studied the relationships between the SMA and CMAP and postoperative function of CN III and CN VI. A total of 23 patients were included. Nineteen oculomotor nerves and 22 abducens nerves were monitored during surgery, respectively. Neurotonic discharge had a positive predictive value of less than 50% and negative predictive value of more than 80% for postoperative CN III and CN VI dysfunction. The latency of patients with postoperative CN III dysfunction was 2.79 ± 0.13 ms, longer than that with intact CN III function (1.73 ± 0.11 ms). One patient had transient CN VI dysfunction, whose CMAP latency (2.54 ms) was longer than that of intact CN VI function (2.11 ± 0.38 ms). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with paresis and with intact function. The method of intraoperative monitoring of EOCNs described here is safe and useful to record responses of SMA and CMAP. Neurotonic discharge seems to have limited value in predicting the postoperative function of CN III and CN VI. The onset latency of CMAP longer than 2.5 ms after tumor removal is probably relevant to postoperative CN III and CN VI dysfunction. However, a definite quantitative relationship has not been found between the amplitude and stimulation intensity of CMAP and the postoperative outcome of CN III and CN VI.

  7. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  8. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Stimulation of pontine reticular formation in monkeys with strabismus.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mark M G; Ono, Seiji; Mustari, Michael J

    2013-10-29

    Saccade disconjugacy in strabismus could result from any of a number of factors, including abnormalities of eye muscles, the plant, motoneurons, near response cells, or atypical tuning of neurons in saccade-related areas of the brain. This study was designed to investigate the possibility that saccade disconjugacy in strabismus is associated with abnormalities in paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). We applied microstimulation to 22 sites in PPRF and 20 sites in abducens nucleus in three rhesus macaque monkeys (one normal, one esotrope, and one exotrope). When mean velocity was compared between the two eyes, a slight difference was found for 1/5 sites in the normal animal. Significant differences were found for 5/6 sites in an esotrope and 10/11 sites in an exotrope. For five sites in the strabismic monkeys, the directions of evoked movements differed by more than 40° between the two eyes. When stimulation was applied to abducens nucleus (20 sites), the ipsilateral eye moved faster for 4/6 sites in the normal animal and all nine sites in the esotrope. For the exotrope, however, the left eye always moved faster, even for three sites on the right side. For the strabismic animals, stimulation of abducens nucleus often caused a different eye to move faster than stimulation of PPRF. These data suggest that PPRF is organized at least partly monocularly in strabismus and that disconjugate saccades are at least partly a consequence of unbalanced saccadic commands being sent to the two eyes.

  10. Coalescence Effects on Neutron Production in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    25/Jun/2001 THESIS 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER COALESCENCE EFFECTS ON NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN HIGH- ENERGY NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS 5b... Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions." I have examined the final copy of this thesis for form and content and recommend that it be accepted in partial...School COALESCENCE EFFECTS ON NEUTRON PRODUCTION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS A Thesis Presented for the Master of Science Degree The

  11. Limits to the capacity of transplants of olfactory glia to promote axonal regrowth in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Gudiño-Cabrera, G; Pastor, A M; de la Cruz, R R; Delgado-García, J M; Nieto-Sampedro, M

    2000-02-28

    Olfactory bulb ensheathing cell (OBEC) transplants promoted axonal regeneration in the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone and in the corticospinal tract. However, OBECs failed to promote abducens internuclear neuron axon regeneration when transplanted at the site of nerve fibre transection. In experiments performed in both cats and rats, OBECs survived for up to 2 months, lining themselves up along the portion of the regrowing axons proximal to the interneuron cell body. However, OBECs migrated preferentially towards abducens somata, in the direction opposite to the oculomotor nucleus target. OBECs seem to promote nerve fibre regeneration only where preferred direction of glial migration coincides with the direction of axonal growth towards its target.

  12. [Effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Yongqiang; Liang, Jieyu; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Qiande

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). A total of 126 patients (224 hips) with DDH aged 6-36 months in Xiangya Hospital was randomly divided into 2 groups: an orthosis combined with walker group and an improved hip frog cast fixation group. Seventy patients (130 hips) were treated by the orthosis combined with walker and 56 patients (94 hips) were treated by the improved hip frog cast fixation. We compared the effect and complications of the 2 groups. The fineness rates of the orthosis combined with walker group and the improved hip frog cast fixation group were 89.2% and 90.4%, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). The rate of femoral head osteonecrosis in the orthosis combined with walker group was significantly lower than that in the improved hip frog cast fixation group (1.5% vs. 5.3%,P<0.05), but the re-dislocation rate in the former was significantly higher than that in the latter (6.9% vs. 1.1 %, P<0.05). Both methods are effective for DDH. Orthosis combined with walker has a lower proportion of femoral head osteonecrosis, but a higher proportion of re-dislocation.

  13. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  14. Computer program for parameterization of nucleus-nucleus electromagnetic dissociation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Badavi, Forooz F.

    1988-01-01

    A computer subroutine parameterization of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented that is suitable for implementation in a heavy ion transport code. The only inputs required are the projectile kinetic energy and the projectile and target charge and mass numbers.

  15. Electromagnetic Nucleus - Nucleus Cross Sections Using Energy Dependent Branching Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Norbury, John

    2009-11-01

    Energy dependent branching ratios, derived from Weisskopf-Ewing theory, are presented and compared to an energy independent formalism, developed by Norbury, Townsend, and Westfall. The energy dependent branching ratio formalism is more versatile since it allows for not only neutron and proton emission, but also alpha particle, deuteron, helion, and triton emission. A new theoretical method for calculating electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) nucleus - nucleus cross sections, with energy dependent branching ratios, is introduced. Comparisons of photonuclear and nucleus - nucleus cross sections, using energy dependent and independent branching ratios, to experiment are presented. Experimental efforts, by various groups, have focused on measuring cross sections for proton and neutron emission, because proton and neutron emission is generally more probable than heavier particle emission. Consequently, comparisons of energy dependent and independent branching ratios to experiment are made for photoneutron and photoproton cross sections. EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated and compared to experimental data for a variety of projectile, target, and energy combinations. Results indicate that using energy dependent branching ratios yields better estimates.

  16. Does infantile abduction deficit indicate duane retraction syndrome until disproven?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2014-11-01

    Duane retraction syndrome consists of abduction deficit and palpebral fissure narrowing, upshoots, or downshoots on adduction. Infants with abduction deficit should be considered to have Duane retraction syndrome until disproven, because congenital abducens nerve palsy is extremely rare. The abducens nerve on the affected side is absent in type 1 Duane retraction syndrome and in some type 3 patients. The authors present a 7-month-old girl who showed limitation of abduction simulating Duane retraction syndrome. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed atrophic lateral rectus and present abducens nerve. This report is important because this case showed that congenital abducens nerve palsy exists, although it is extremely rare, and high-resolution MRI could be pivotal for the differentiation of Duane retraction syndrome and congenital abducens nerve palsy in infancy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Hadron-nucleus interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.B.; He, Z.; Tow, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    A simple space-time description of high-energy hadron-nucleus interactions is presented. The model is based on the DTU (dual topologial unitarization)-parton-model description of soft multiparticle production in hadron-hadron interactions. The essentially parameter-free model agrees well with the general features of high-energy data for hadron-nucleus interactions; in particular, this DTU-parton model has a natural explanation for an approximate nu-bar universality. The expansion to high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions is presented. We also compare and contrast this model with several previously proposed models.

  18. Hadron-nucleus interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Charles B.; He, Zuoxiu; Tow, Don M.

    1982-06-01

    A simple space-time description of high-energy hadron-nucleus interactions is presented. The model is based on the DTU (dual topological unitarization) -parton-model description of soft multiparticle production in hadron-hadron interactions. The essentially parameter-free model agrees well with the general features of high-energy data for hadron-nucleus interactions; in particular, this DTU-parton model has a natural explanation for an approximate ν¯ universality. The extension to high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions is presented. We also compare and contrast this model with several previously proposed models.

  19. Nucleus-nucleus interactions between 20 and 65 GeV per nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Roberts, F. E.; Watts, J. W.; Oda, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Jones, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid electronic-counter/emulsion-chamber instrument was exposed to high-energy cosmic rays on a balloon. The data on 105 nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 20-65 GeV/nucleon and for incident nuclear charges Zp in the range of 22 to 28 are presented. Inclusive characteristics of particle production on different targets (plastic, emulsion, and lead) are shown and compared with models based on the superposition of nucleon-nucleus interactions. Features of a subset of the more central collisions with a plastic target and some characteristics of individual events with the highest multiplicity of produced particles are described.

  20. Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomoya; Miyajima, Satoshi; Nishino, Hirotaka; Narita, Junya; Abe, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons.more » As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.« less

  2. Transverse limited phase space model with Glauber geometry for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding Wei; Yen, Edward

    1989-08-01

    We propose a detailed model, combining the concepts from a partition temperature model and wounded nucleon model, to describe high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. One partition temperature is associated with collisions at a fixed wounded nucleon number. The (pseudo-) rapidity distributions are calculated and compared with experimental data. Predictions at higher energy are also presented.

  3. The pathways connecting the hippocampal formation, the thalamic reuniens nucleus and the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cavdar, Safiye; Onat, Filiz Y; Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgür; Yananli, Hasan R; Gülçebi, Medine; Aker, Rezzan

    2008-03-01

    Most dorsal thalamic nuclei send axons to specific areas of the neocortex and to specific sectors of the thalamic reticular nucleus; the neocortex then sends reciprocal connections back to the same thalamic nucleus, directly as well indirectly through a relay in the thalamic reticular nucleus. This can be regarded as a 'canonical' circuit of the sensory thalamus. For the pathways that link the thalamus and the hippocampal formation, only a few comparable connections have been described. The reuniens nucleus of the thalamus sends some of its major cortical efferents to the hippocampal formation. The present study shows that cells of the hippocampal formation as well as cells in the reuniens nucleus are retrogradely labelled following injections of horseradish peroxidase or fluoro-gold into the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat. Within the hippocampal formation, labelled neurons were localized in the subiculum, predominantly on the ipsilateral side, with fewer neurons labelled contralaterally. Labelled neurons were seen in the hippocampal formation and nucleus reuniens only after injections made in the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus (1.6-1.8 mm caudal to bregma). In addition, the present study confirmed the presence of afferent connections to the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus from cortical (cingulate, orbital and infralimbic, retrosplenial and frontal), midline thalamic (paraventricular, anteromedial, centromedial and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei) and brainstem structures (substantia nigra pars reticularis, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, superior vestibular and pontine reticular nuclei). These results demonstrate a potential for the thalamo-hippocampal circuitry to influence the functional roles of the thalamic reticular nucleus, and show that thalamo-hippocampal connections resemble the circuitry that links the sensory thalamus and neocortex.

  4. The pathways connecting the hippocampal formation, the thalamic reuniens nucleus and the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Çavdar, Safiye; Onat, Filiz Y; Çakmak, Yusuf Özgür; Yananli, Hasan R; Gülçebi, Medine; Aker, Rezzan

    2008-01-01

    Most dorsal thalamic nuclei send axons to specific areas of the neocortex and to specific sectors of the thalamic reticular nucleus; the neocortex then sends reciprocal connections back to the same thalamic nucleus, directly as well indirectly through a relay in the thalamic reticular nucleus. This can be regarded as a ‘canonical’ circuit of the sensory thalamus. For the pathways that link the thalamus and the hippocampal formation, only a few comparable connections have been described. The reuniens nucleus of the thalamus sends some of its major cortical efferents to the hippocampal formation. The present study shows that cells of the hippocampal formation as well as cells in the reuniens nucleus are retrogradely labelled following injections of horseradish peroxidase or fluoro-gold into the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat. Within the hippocampal formation, labelled neurons were localized in the subiculum, predominantly on the ipsilateral side, with fewer neurons labelled contralaterally. Labelled neurons were seen in the hippocampal formation and nucleus reuniens only after injections made in the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus (1.6–1.8 mm caudal to bregma). In addition, the present study confirmed the presence of afferent connections to the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus from cortical (cingulate, orbital and infralimbic, retrosplenial and frontal), midline thalamic (paraventricular, anteromedial, centromedial and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei) and brainstem structures (substantia nigra pars reticularis, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, superior vestibular and pontine reticular nuclei). These results demonstrate a potential for the thalamo-hippocampal circuitry to influence the functional roles of the thalamic reticular nucleus, and show that thalamo-hippocampal connections resemble the circuitry that links the sensory thalamus and neocortex. PMID:18221482

  5. Distribution of methionine-enkephalin in the minipig brainstem.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Vecino, Elena; Coveñas, Rafael

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the distribution of immunoreactive cell bodies and axons are containing methionine-enkephalin in the minipig brainstem. Immunoreactive axons were widely distributed, whereas the distribution of perikarya was less widespread. A high or moderate density of axons containing methionine-enkephalin were found from rostral to caudal levels in the substantia nigra, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, nucleus dorsalis raphae, nucleus centralis raphae, nuclei dorsalis and ventralis tegmenti of Gudden, locus ceruleus, nucleus sensorius principalis nervi trigemini, nucleus cuneatus externalis, nucleus tractus solitarius, nuclei vestibularis inferior and medialis, nucleus ambiguus, nucleus olivaris inferior and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini. Immunoreactive perikarya were observed in the nuclei centralis and dorsalis raphae, nucleus motorius nervi trigemini, nucleus centralis superior, nucleus nervi facialis, nuclei parabrachialis medialis and lateralis, nucleus ventralis raphae, nucleus reticularis lateralis and in the formatio reticularis. We have also described the presence of perikarya containing methionine-enkephalin in the nuclei nervi abducens, ruber, nervi oculomotorius and nervi trochlearis. These results suggest that in the minipig the pentapeptide may be involved in many physiological functions (for example, proprioceptive and nociceptive information; motor, respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

  7. A Central Mesencephalic Reticular Formation Projection to the Supraoculomotor Area in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Martin O.; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The central mesencephalic reticular formation is physiologically implicated in oculomotor function and anatomically interwoven with many parts of the oculomotor system’s premotor circuitry. This study in Macaca fascicularis monkeys investigates the pattern of central mesencephalic reticular formation projections to the area in and around the extraocular motor nuclei, with special emphasis on the supraoculomotor area. It also examines the location of the cells responsible for this projection. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine were stereotaxically placed within the central mesencephalic reticular formation to anterogradely label axons and terminals. These revealed bilateral terminal fields in the supraoculomotor area. In addition, dense terminations were found in both the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nuclei. The dense terminations just dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus overlap with the location of the C-group medial rectus motoneurons projecting to multiply innervated muscle fibers suggesting they may be targeted. Minor terminal fields were observed bilaterally within the borders of the oculomotor and abducens nuclei. Injections including the supraoculomotor area and oculomotor nucleus retrogradely labeled a tight band of neurons crossing the central third of the central mesencephalic reticular formation at all rostrocaudal levels, indicating a subregion of the nucleus provides this projection. Thus, these experiments reveal that a subregion of the central mesencephalic reticular formation may directly project to motoneurons in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei, as well as to preganglionic neurons controlling the tone of intraocular muscles. This pattern of projections suggests an as yet undetermined role in regulating the near triad. PMID:25859632

  8. A central mesencephalic reticular formation projection to the supraoculomotor area in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin O; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    The central mesencephalic reticular formation is physiologically implicated in oculomotor function and anatomically interwoven with many parts of the oculomotor system's premotor circuitry. This study in Macaca fascicularis monkeys investigates the pattern of central mesencephalic reticular formation projections to the area in and around the extraocular motor nuclei, with special emphasis on the supraoculomotor area. It also examines the location of the cells responsible for this projection. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine were stereotaxically placed within the central mesencephalic reticular formation to anterogradely label axons and terminals. These revealed bilateral terminal fields in the supraoculomotor area. In addition, dense terminations were found in both the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nuclei. The dense terminations just dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus overlap with the location of the C-group medial rectus motoneurons projecting to multiply innervated muscle fibers suggesting they may be targeted. Minor terminal fields were observed bilaterally within the borders of the oculomotor and abducens nuclei. Injections including the supraoculomotor area and oculomotor nucleus retrogradely labeled a tight band of neurons crossing the central third of the central mesencephalic reticular formation at all rostrocaudal levels, indicating a subregion of the nucleus provides this projection. Thus, these experiments reveal that a subregion of the central mesencephalic reticular formation may directly project to motoneurons in the oculomotor and abducens nuclei, as well as to preganglionic neurons controlling the tone of intraocular muscles. This pattern of projections suggests an as yet undetermined role in regulating the near triad.

  9. Tetrodotoxin-dependent glutamate release in the rat nucleus accumbens during concurrent presentation of appetitive and conditioned aversive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Saulskaya, Natalia B; Soloviova, Nina A

    2004-12-30

    In vivo microdialysis combined with a high-performance liquid chromatography was used to monitor extracellular glutamate (GLU) levels in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) of Sprague-Dawley rats during their behavioral responses to the concurrent presentation of appetitive and conditioned aversive stimuli. The presentation of a highly palatable diet followed by a tone previously paired with footshock to rats trained to take a pellet of the diet under these experimental conditions resulted in a marked and short lasting increase in extracellular glutamate, whereas the tone alone had no effect. A similar increase of the glutamate release was observed during the presentation of a piece of rubber instead of the diet. In both cases, the increase in extracellular glutamate was completely prevented by intra-accumbal infusions through the dialysis probe of 1 microM tetrodotoxin (a voltage-dependent Na(+) channel blocker), whereas (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (a cystine/glutamate exchange blocker, 5 microM) had no effect. The data obtained suggest that behavioral responses to unpredicted change in motivational value of expected reward appear to be associated with an increase of the extracellular glutamate level in the nucleus accumbens, and impulse-dependent synaptic release, rather than non-vesicular glutamate release via cystine/glutamate exchange, is responsible for this phenomenon.

  10. Thalamic reticular nucleus in Caiman crocodilus: Relationship with the dorsal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Pritz, M B

    2016-05-13

    The thalamic reticular nucleus was investigated in one group of crocodilians, Caiman crocodilus. This neuronal aggregate is composed of two parts: a compact portion and a diffuse region made up of scattered cells within the forebrain bundles. In Caiman, both the lateral and medial forebrain bundles project to the telencephalon and the thalamic reticular nucleus is associated with each fiber tract. In the lateral forebrain bundle, the compact area is termed the nucleus of the dorsal peduncle (dorsal peduncular nucleus) while the diffuse part is called the perireticular area. In the medial forebrain bundle, the interstitial nucleus comprises one part of the compact area while another region without a specific neuronal label is also present. Similar to the perireticular cells of the lateral forebrain bundle, scattered cells are also present in the medial forebrain bundle. Morphological features of the thalamic reticular nucleus are revealed with stains for the following: fibers; cells; succinic acid dehydrogenase; and acetylcholinesterase. Regardless of which dorsal thalamic nucleus was injected, a localized region of the thalamic reticular nucleus contained retrogradely labeled cells and anterogradely labeled axons and terminals. This grouping was termed clusters and was felt to represent the densest interconnection between the dorsal thalamus and the reticular nucleus. Using clusters as an index of interconnections, the reticular nucleus was divided into sectors, each of which was associated with a specific dorsal thalamic nucleus. An organization similar to that found in Caiman is present in other sauropsids as well as in mammals. These data suggest that a thalamic reticular nucleus is present in all amniotes and has morphological properties similar to those described in this analysis. Lastly, a hypothesis is presented to explain how the external shape of the reticular nucleus in Caiman might be transformed into the homologous area in a representative bird and

  11. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  12. The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Alelú-Paz, Raúl; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus of the human thalamus is in a crucial position that allows it to establish connections with diverse cerebral structures, particularly the prefrontal cortex. The present review examines existing neurobiologic studies of the brains of people with and without schizophrenia that indicate a possible involvement of the mediodorsal nucleus in this psychiatric disorder. Studies at synaptic and cellular levels of the neurobiology of the mediodorsal nucleus, together with a better anatomic understanding of this diencephalic structure owing to neuroimaging studies, should help to establish a more deep and solid pathophysiologic model of schizophrenia. PMID:18982171

  13. Effect of repulsive and attractive three-body forces on nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Furumoto, T.; Sakuragi, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2009-10-15

    The effect of the three-body force (TBF) is studied in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering on the basis of Brueckner theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) effective interaction (complex G matrix) in the nuclear matter. A new G matrix called CEG07 proposed recently by the present authors includes the TBF effect and reproduces a realistic saturation curve in the nuclear matter, and it is shown to well reproduce proton-nucleus elastic scattering. The microscopic optical potential for the nucleus-nucleus system is obtained by folding the G matrix with nucleon density distributions in colliding nuclei. We first analyze in detail the {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O elastic scatteringmore » at E/A=70 MeV. The observed cross sections are nicely reproduced up to the most backward scattering angles only when the TBF effect is included. The use of the frozen-density approximation (FDA) is essentially important to properly estimate the effect of the TBF in nucleus-nucleus scattering. Other prescriptions for defining the local density have also been tested, but only the FDA prescription gives a proper description of the experimental cross sections as well as the effect of the TBF. The effects of the three-body attraction and the {omega}-rearrangement term are also analyzed. The CEG07 interaction is compared with CDM3Y6, which is a reliable and successful effective density-dependent NN interaction used in the double-folding model. The CEG07 G matrix is also tested in the elastic scattering of {sup 16}O by the {sup 12}C, {sup 28}Si, and {sup 40}Ca targets at E/A=93.9 MeV, and in the elastic scattering of {sup 12}C by the {sup 12}C target at E/A=135 MeV with great success. The decisive effect of the TBF is clearly seen also in those systems. Finally, we have tested CEG07a, CEG07b, and CEG07c for the {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O system at various energies.« less

  14. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: amitabha-62@rediffmail.com; Sarkar, S.

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see amore » direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.« less

  15. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.  R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.  D.

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  16. Spinodal assisted growing dynamics of critical nucleus in polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Qi, Shuanhu; Yan, Dadong

    2012-11-01

    In metastable polymer blends, nonclassical critical nucleus is not a drop of stable phase in core wrapped with a sharp interface, but a diffuse structure depending on the metastability. Thus, forming a critical nucleus does not mean the birth of a new phase. In the present work, the nonclassical growing dynamics of the critical nucleus is addressed in the metastable polymer blends by incorporating self-consistent field theory and external potential dynamics theory, which leads to an intuitionistic description for the scattering experiments. The results suggest that the growth of nonclassical critical nucleus is controlled by the spinodal-decomposition which happens in the region surrounding the nucleus. This leads to forming the shell structures around the nucleus.

  17. [Ultrasonic measurements of fetal thalamus, caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus in prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jialing; Zhu, Chonglei; Fan, Limei

    2015-05-19

    To establish the reference values of thalamus, caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus diameters through fetal thalamic transverse section. A total of 265 fetuses at our hospital were randomly selected from November 2012 to August 2014. And the transverse and length diameters of thalamus, caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus were measured. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used to calculate the regression curve of fetal diameter changes and gestational weeks of pregnancy. P < 0.05 was considered as having statistical significance. The linear regression equation of fetal thalamic length diameter and gestational week was: Y = 0.051X+0.201, R = 0.876, linear regression equation of thalamic transverse diameter and fetal gestational week was: Y = 0.031X+0.229, R = 0.817, linear regression equation of fetal head of caudate nucleus length diameter and gestational age was: Y = 0.033X+0.101, R = 0.722, linear regression equation of fetal head of caudate nucleus transverse diameter and gestational week was: R = 0.025 - 0.046, R = 0.711, linear regression equation of fetal lentiform nucleus length diameter and gestational week was: Y = 0.046+0.229, R = 0.765, linear regression equation of fetal lentiform nucleus diameter and gestational week was: Y = 0.025 - 0.05, R = 0.772. Ultrasonic measurement of diameter of fetal thalamus caudate nucleus, and lenticular nucleus through thalamic transverse section is simple and convenient. And measurements increase with fetal gestational weeks and there is linear regression relationship between them.

  18. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    dorsal cochlear nucleus, we concluded that the serotoninergic projection pattern to the cochlear nucleus is divergent and non-specific. Double-labeled fiber segments were also present, but sparse, in the superior olive, localized mainly in periolivary regions; this indicated that the divergence of dorsal and median raphe neurons that extends throughout regions of the cochlear nucleus also extended well beyond the cochlear nucleus to include at least the superior olivary complex as well.

  19. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  20. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini Southmore » we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width

  1. Excitatory innervation of caudal hypoglossal nucleus from nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, C C; Chan, J Y; Chan, S H

    1995-03-01

    We examined the possible innervation of the caudal hypoglossal nucleus by the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis of the medulla oblongata, based on single-neuron recording and retrograde tracing experiments in Sprague-Dawley rats. Under pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg, i.p.) anesthesia, electrical stimulation of the caudal portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis with repetitive 0.5-ms rectangular pulses increased (46 of 51 neurons) the basal discharge frequency of spontaneously active cells, or evoked spike activity in silent, hypoglossal neurons located at the level of the obex. This excitatory effect was related to the intensity (25-100 microA) and/or frequency (0.5-20 Hz) of the stimulating pulses to the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis. Perikaryal activation of neurons by microinjection of L-glutamate (0.5 nmol, 25 nl) into the caudal portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis similarly produced an excitatory action on eight of 14 hypoglossal neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons were found bilaterally within the confines of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis following unilateral microinjection of wheatgerm agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase or Fast Blue into the corresponding hypoglossal recording sites. Furthermore, the distribution of labeled neurons in the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis substantially overlapped with the loci of electrical or chemical stimulation. These complementary electrophysiological and neuroanatomical results support the conclusion that an excitatory link exists between the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and at least the caudal portion of the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat.

  2. Expression of a serine protease (motopsin PRSS12) mRNA in the mouse brain: in situ hybridization histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Iijima, N; Tanaka, M; Mitsui, S; Yamamura, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Ibata, Y

    1999-03-20

    Serine proteases are considered to play several important roles in the brain. In an attempt to find novel brain-specific serine proteases (BSSPs), motopsin (PRSS-12) was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the postnatal 10-day mouse brain contained the most amount of motopsin mRNA. At this developmental stage, in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that motopsin mRNA was specifically expressed in the following regions: cerebral cortical layers II/III, V and VIb, endopiriform cortex and the limbic system, particularly in the CA1 region of the hippocampal formation. In addition, in the brainstem, the oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, mecencephalic and motor nuclei of trigeminal nerve (N), abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, nucleus of the raphe pontis, dorsoral motor nucleus of vagal N, hypoglossal nucleus and ambiguus nucleus showed motopsin mRNA expression. Expression was also found in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The above findings strongly suggest that neurons in almost all motor nuclei, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord, express motopsin mRNA, and that motopsin seems to have a close relation to the functional role of efferent neurons. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com; Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com

    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and reviewmore » how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from

  4. Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Debasis; Basu, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed by using a simple diffused-barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier-height distributions. The fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The theoretical values for the parameters of the barrier distribution are estimated which can be used for fusion or capture cross-section predictions that are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new superheavy elements.

  5. Study of multiplicity correlations in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Sultan, E. M.; Baz, Shadiah S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper, some results on the correlations of the nucleus-nucleus interactions, at high energy, between different particle multiplicities are reported. The correlations between the multiplicities of the different charged particles emitted in the interactions of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei with emulsion at (4.1-4.5)A GeV/c have been studied. The correlations of the compound multiplicity nc, defined as the sum of both numbers of the shower particles ns and grey particles ng, have been investigated. The experimental data have been compared with the corresponding theoretical ones, calculated according to the modified cascade evaporation model (MCEM). An agreement has already been fairly obtained between the experimental values and the calculated ones. The dependence of the average compound multiplicity, on the numbers of shower, grey, black and heavy particles is obvious and the values of the slope have been found to be independent of the projectile nucleus. On the other hand, the variation of the average shower, grey, black and heavy particles is found to increase linearly with the compound particles. A strong correlation has been observed between the number of produced shower particles and the number of compound particles. Moreover, the value of the average compound multiplicity is found to increase with the increase of the projectile mass. Finally, an attempt has also been made to study the scaling of the compound multiplicity distribution showing that the compound multiplicity distribution is nearly consistent with the KNO scaling behavior.

  6. Mechanics of mouse ocular motor plant quantified by optogenetic techniques.

    PubMed

    Stahl, John S; Thumser, Zachary C; May, Paul J; Andrade, Francisco H; Anderson, Sean R; Dean, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Rigorous descriptions of ocular motor mechanics are often needed for models of ocular motor circuits. The mouse has become an important tool for ocular motor studies, yet most mechanical data come from larger species. Recordings of mouse abducens neurons indicate the mouse mechanics share basic viscoelastic properties with larger species but have considerably longer time constants. Time constants can also be extracted from the rate at which the eye re-centers when released from an eccentric position. The displacement can be accomplished by electrically stimulating ocular motor nuclei, but electrical stimulation may also activate nearby ocular motor circuitry. We achieved specific activation of abducens motoneurons through photostimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in cholinergic neurons. Histology confirmed strong channelrhodopsin expression in the abducens nucleus with relatively little expression in nearby ocular motor structures. Stimulation was delivered as 20- to 1,000-ms pulses and 40-Hz trains. Relaxations were modeled best by a two-element viscoelastic system. Time constants were sensitive to stimulus duration. Analysis of isometric relaxation of isolated mouse extraocular muscles suggest the dependence is attributable to noninstantaneous decay of active forces in non-twitch fibers following stimulus offset. Time constants were several times longer than those obtained in primates, confirming that the mouse ocular motor mechanics are relatively sluggish. Finally, we explored the effects of 0.1- to 20-Hz sinusoidal photostimuli and demonstrated their potential usefulness in characterizing ocular motor mechanics, although this application will require further data on the temporal relationship between photostimulation and neuronal firing in extraocular motoneurons.

  7. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutamatergic projection from the nucleus incertus to the septohippocampal system.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Rahmani, Yasamin; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Martínez-Ricós, Joana

    2012-05-31

    Recent findings support a relevant role of the nucleus incertus in the control of the hippocampal activity through the modulation of theta rhythm. Previous studies from our group have shown that this nucleus is a critical relay between reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum/diagonal band, regarded as the main activator and the pacemaker of the hippocampal oscillations, respectively. Besides, the nucleus incertus is highly linked to activated states related to the arousal response. The neurotransmission of the nucleus incertus, however, remains uncertain. Only GABA and the neuromodulator relaxin 3 are usually considered to be involved in its contribution to the septohippocampal system. In this work, we have analyzed the existence of an excitatory projection from the nucleus incertus to the medial septum. We have found a group of glutamatergic neurons in the nucleus incertus projecting to the medial septum. Moreover, we were able to describe a segregated distribution of calbindin and calretinin neurons. While calretinin expression was restricted to the nucleus incertus pars compacta, calbindin positive neurons where observed both in the pars dissipata and the pars compacta of the nucleus. The present work provides innovative data supporting an excitatory component in the pontoseptal pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    The Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated extended standard model predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3 and that Nucleus is 2 dimensional. The CBM theory began with an insight into the structure of the He nucleus around the year 1989. Details of how this theory evolved which took many years, and is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references One independent check of this model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light (around the ``dn'' quark in the center of the proton) turns out to be exactly one de Broglie wavelength something determined after the mass and speed of the up quark were determined by other means. This theory explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments and this along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. When this theory was first presented at Argonne in 1996, it was the first time that anyone had predicted the quarks orbited inside the proton at relativistic speeds and it was met with skepticism.

  10. Substance P binding sites in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the cat

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, B.E.; Sasek, C.A.; Seybold, V.S.

    1988-11-01

    Substance P binding sites in the nucleus tractus solitarius were visualized with receptor autoradiography using Bolton-Hunter (/sup 125/I)substance P. Substance P binding sites were found to have distinct patterns within the cat nucleus tractus solitarius. The majority of substance P binding sites were present in the medial, intermediate and the peripheral rim of the parvocellular subdivisions. Lower amounts of substance P binding sites were present in the commissural, ventrolateral, interstitial and dorsolateral subdivisions. No substance P binding sites were present in the central region of the parvocellular subdivision or the solitary tract. The localization of substance P binding sites inmore » the nucleus tractus solitarius is very similar to the patterns of substance P immunoreactive fibers previously described for this region. Results of this study add further support for a functional role of substance P in synaptic circuits of the nucleus tractus solitarius.« less

  11. Strand-like structures and the nonstructural proteins 5, 3 and 1 are present in the nucleus of mosquito cells infected with dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ruiz, José M; Osuna-Ramos, Juan F; Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Lagunes Guillen, Anel E; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Salas-Benito, Juan S; Del Ángel, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus, which replicates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Although replicative cycle takes place in the cytoplasm, some viral proteins such as NS5 and C are translocated to the nucleus during infection in mosquitoes and mammalian cells. To localized viral proteins in DENV-infected C6/36 cells, an immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) analysis were performed. Our results indicated that C, NS1, NS3 and NS5 proteins were found in the nucleus of DENV-infected C6/36 cells. Additionally, complex structures named strand-like structures (Ss) were observed in the nucleus of infected cells. Interestingly, the NS5 protein was located in these structures. Ss were absent in mock-infected cells, suggesting that DENV induces their formation in the nucleus of infected mosquito cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  13. Parabrachial origin of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive axons innervating Meynert's basal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Knyihár-Csillik, E; Boncz, I; Sáry, G; Nemcsók, J; Csillik, B

    1999-06-01

    Meynert's basal nucleus is innervated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive axons synapsing with cholinergic principal cells. Origin of CGRP-immunopositive axons was studied in the albino rat. Since beaded axons containing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are also present in the basal nucleus, the microstructural arrangement raises the question whether or not an interaction between CGRP and nAChR exists like in the neuromuscular junction. We found that electrolytic lesion of the parabrachial nucleus results in degeneration of CGRP-immunoreactive axons in the ipsilateral nucleus basalis and induces shrinkage of principal cholinergic neurons while the contralateral nucleus basalis remains intact. Electrolytic lesions in the thalamus, caudate-putamen, and hippocampus did not induce alterations in Meynert's basal nucleus. Disappearance of CGRP after lesions of the parabrachial nucleus does not impair presynaptic nAChR in the basal nucleus, suggesting that, unlike in the neuromuscular junction, CGRP is not involved in the maintenance of nAChR in the basal forebrain. It is concluded that the parabrachial nucleus is involved in the activation of the nucleus basalis-prefrontal cortex system, essential in gnostic and mnemonic functions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Neurons of human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Sazdanović, Maja; Sazdanović, Predrag; Zivanović-Macuzić, Ivana; Jakovljević, Vladimir; Jeremić, Dejan; Peljto, Amir; Tosevski, Jovo

    2011-08-01

    Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I--fusiform neurons; type II--fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III--pyramidal-like neuron; type IV--multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV--multipolar neurons. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV--multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.

  15. Neuronal plasticity in the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Toscano, F; Caminero, A A; Machin, C; Abella, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify processes of plasticity in the receptive field of neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation in the hedgehog, in order to correlate them with the increased neurosecretory activity observed in this nucleus during this annual period. Using the Rapid Golgi method, a quantitative study was conducted in the receptive field of bipolar and multipolar neurons (the main components of the nucleus). Results indicate a generalized increase in the following characteristics: (1) number of dendritic spines per millimeter along the dendritic shafts; (2) degree of branching in the dendritic field; and (3) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. These data demonstrate modification of the dendritic field in the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation, a change undoubtedly related to functional conditions. Since the observed changes affect structures such as dendritic spines which are directly related to the arrival of neural afferences, the discussion is centered on the types of stimuli which may be responsible for the observed processes.

  16. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  17. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  18. Facebook usage on smartphones and gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Markowetz, Alexander; Blaszkiewicz, Konrad; Andone, Ionut; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Trendafilov, Boris; Eibes, Mark; Kolb, Julia; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2017-06-30

    A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebook usage of N=62 participants on their smartphones over the course of five weeks and correlated summary measures of Facebook use with gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens. It appeared, that in particular higher daily frequency of checking Facebook on the smartphone was robustly linked with smaller gray matter volumes of the nucleus accumbens. The present study gives additional support for the rewarding aspects of Facebook usage. Moreover, it shows the feasibility to include real life behavior variables in human neuroscientific research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Restoring Segmental Biomechanics Through Nucleus Augmentation: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Matthew H; Cohen, Charles S; Ducheyne, Paul; Walsh, William R

    2016-12-01

    In vitro biomechanical laboratory study. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a mechanical treatment to create a degenerative motion segment and the ability of nucleus augmentation to restore biomechanics. In cases with an intact annulus fibrosus, the replacement or augmentation of the nucleus pulposus alone may provide a less invasive option to restore normal biomechanics and disk height when compared with spinal fusion or total disk replacement. Laboratory testing allows these changes to be fully characterized. However, without preexisting pathology, nucleus augmentation therapies are difficult to evaluate in vitro. The present study evaluated pure moment bending and compressive biomechanics in 3 states (n=6): (1) intact, (2) after creep loading and nucleus disruption to induce degenerative biomechanical changes, and (3) after nucleus augmentation through an injectable polymer (DiscCell). Neutral zone and ROM were increased in all modes of bending after the degenerative treatment. The most sensitive mode of bending was lateral bending, with intact ROM (20.0±2.9 degrees) increased to 22.3±2.6 degrees after degenerative treatment and reduced to 18.4±1.6 degrees after injection of the polymer. All bending ROM and NZ changes induced by the degenerative treatment were reversed by nucleus augmentation. This material was shown to be effective at altering motion segment biomechanics and restoring disk height during time zero tests. This technique may provide a model to examine the time zero performance of a nucleus augmentation device/material.

  20. A Simple Method for Nucleon-Nucleon Cross Sections in a Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A simple reliable formalism is presented for obtaining nucleon-nucleon cross sections within a nucleus in nuclear collisions for a given projectile and target nucleus combination at a given energy for use in transport, Monte Carlo, and other calculations. The method relies on extraction of these values from experiments and has been tested and found to give excellent results.

  1. A Physiological Neural Controller of a Muscle Fiber Oculomotor Plant in Horizontal Monkey Saccades

    PubMed Central

    Enderle, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain is presented to drive a muscle fiber oculomotor plant during horizontal monkey saccades. Neural circuitry, including omnipause neuron, premotor excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons, long lead burst neuron, tonic neuron, interneuron, abducens nucleus, and oculomotor nucleus, is developed to examine saccade dynamics. The time-optimal control strategy by realization of agonist and antagonist controller models is investigated. In consequence, each agonist muscle fiber is stimulated by an agonist neuron, while an antagonist muscle fiber is unstimulated by a pause and step from the antagonist neuron. It is concluded that the neural network is constrained by a minimum duration of the agonist pulse and that the most dominant factor in determining the saccade magnitude is the number of active neurons for the small saccades. For the large saccades, however, the duration of agonist burst firing significantly affects the control of saccades. The proposed saccadic circuitry establishes a complete model of saccade generation since it not only includes the neural circuits at both the premotor and motor stages of the saccade generator, but also uses a time-optimal controller to yield the desired saccade magnitude. PMID:24944832

  2. Neuropharmacological mechanisms of drug reward: beyond dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bardo, M T

    1998-01-01

    Multiple lines of research have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine system in drug reward measured by either the drug self-administration or conditioned place preference paradigm. The present review summarizes recent work that examines the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which drugs impinge on this dopaminergic neural circuitry, as well as other systems that provide input and output circuits to the mesolimbic dopamine system. Studies examining the effect of selective agonist and antagonist drugs administered systemically have indicated that multiple neurotransmitters are involved, including dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and various peptides. Direct microinjection studies have also provided crucial evidence indicating that, in addition to the mesolimbic dopamine system, other structures play a role in drug reward, including the ventral pallidum, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. GABAergic circuitry descending from the nucleus accumbens to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus via the ventral pallidum appears to be especially important in directing the behavioral sequelae associated with reward produced by various drugs of abuse. However, activation of the reward circuitry is achieved differently for various drugs of abuse. With amphetamine and cocaine, initiation of reward is controlled within the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, respectively. With opiates, initiation of reward involves the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. It is not clear presently if these multiple anatomical structures mediate opiate reward by converging on a single output system or multiple output systems.

  3. Review of high energy hadron-nucleus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this review we will summarize new data on hardron-nucleus interactions. The possibility that quark-gluon plasma may be created in heavy ion collisions has led to renewed interest in hadron-nucleus collisions. In particular one hopes that understanding the energy loss of hadrons in h-A collissions will allow us to estimate the optimum energy in AA collisions in order to achieve maximum baryon and/or maximum energy density. This will allow us to choose the optimal experimental environment in the search for quark-gluon plasma. This review will thus omit many interesting results from hadron-nucleus collisions, such as the A dependence of lepton pair production, EMC effect and others. We will focus our attention on the following: (i) Estimating the rate of energy loss of the incident hadron as it propagates through the target. (ii) Determining where the enmergy is deposited in central hadron-nucleus collisions. It is clear that there is no direct or unique method of extrapolating our knowledge of h-A collisions to predict what will happen in AA-collisions. The knowledge and understanding of pp and pA collisions is, however, a useful and necessary guide to what one can expect in AA collisions. In this review we will concentrate on three experimental approaches to the study of h-A collisions. In Section 1 we will discuss the present status of pA → p + X inclusive measurements. In Section 2 measurements from visual detectors, in this case results from the 30″ hybrid spectrometer, which allows investigations of global event properties will be presented. In Section 3 data using 2π calorimeters, where one can trigger and measure transverse energy and energy flow over a given rapidity region, will be discussed. The conclusions will be given in Section 4.

  4. An alarm pheromone reduces ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens shell responsivity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Saldivar-Lara, Mauricio

    2018-06-21

    2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). 2-Heptanone increases the firing rate of amygdala neurons without participation of the vomeronasal organ. The olfactory amygdala-VTA-nucleus accumbens circuit may integrate defensive behaviors, but the possible actions of 2-heptanone on the responsivity of VTA-nucleus accumbens connections have not yet been explored. In the present study, multiunit activity recordings were obtained in adult Wistar rats from the core and shell subregions of the nucleus accumbens during electrical stimulation of the VTA under basal conditions and later during simultaneous stimulation of the VTA and olfactory exposure to 2-heptanone. 2-Heptanone reduced the responsivity of the VTA-nucleus accumbens shell but did not influence the responsivity of the VTA-nucleus accumbens core. The lower VTA-nucleus accumbens shell excitability may be related to a primary defensive warning when exposed to an alarm pheromone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  6. Results on ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions from balloon-borne emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Meegan, C. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1985-01-01

    The results of balloon-borne emulsion-chamber measurements on high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei (Burnett et al., 1983) are summarized in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Special consideration is given to seven nucleus-nucleus interaction events at energy in excess of 1 TeV/A with multiplicity greater than 400, and to Fe interactions (53 with CHO, 10 with emulsion, and 14 with Pb) at 20-60 GeV/A.

  7. Isolated abducens nerve palsy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a localizing sign of ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Winkler, Ethan A; Lasker, George F; Yue, John K; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Compressive cranial nerve syndromes can be useful bedside clues to the diagnosis of an enlarging intracranial aneurysm and can also guide subsequent evaluation, as with an acute oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve [CN] III) palsy that is presumed to be a posterior communicating artery aneurysm and a surgical emergency until proven otherwise. The CN VI has a short cisternal segment from the pontomedullary sulcus to Dorello's canal, remote from most PICA aneurysms but in the hemodynamic pathway of a rupturing PICA aneurysm that projects toward Dorello's canal. The authors describe a cranial nerve syndrome for posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms that associates subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and an isolated abducens nerve (CN VI) palsy. METHODS Clinical and radiological data from 106 surgical patients with PICA aneurysms (66 ruptured and 40 unruptured) were retrospectively reviewed. Data from a group of 174 patients with other aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) were analyzed in a similar manner to control for nonspecific effects of SAH. Univariate statistical analysis compared incidence and risk factors associated with CN VI palsy in subarachnoid hemorrhage. RESULTS Overall, 13 (4.6%) of 280 patients had CN VI palsy at presentation, and all of them had ruptured aneurysms (representing 13 [5.4%] of the 240 cases of ruptured aneurysms). CN VI palsies were observed in 12 patients with ruptured PICA aneurysms (12/66 [18.1%]) and 1 patient with other aSAH (1/174 [0.1%], p < 0.0001). PICA aneurysm location in ruptured aneurysms was an independent predictor for CN VI palsy on multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). PICA aneurysm size was not significantly different in patients with or without CN VI palsy (average size 4.4 mm and 5.2 mm, respectively). Within the PICA aneurysm cohort, modified Fisher grade (p = 0.011) and presence of a thick cisternal SAH (modified Fisher Grades 3 and 4) (p = 0.003) were predictors of CN VI palsy. In all patients with ruptured PICA

  8. Virtual photon polarization and dilepton anisotropy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Enrico; Jaiswal, Amaresh; Friman, Bengt

    2018-07-01

    The polarization of virtual photons produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions provides information on the conditions in the emitting medium. In a hydrodynamic framework, the resulting angular anisotropy of the dilepton final state depends on the flow as well as on the transverse momentum and invariant mass of the photon. We illustrate these effects in dilepton production from quark-antiquark annihilation in the QGP phase and π+π- annihilation in the hadronic phase for a static medium in global equilibrium and for a longitudinally expanding system.

  9. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  10. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  11. Low P sub T hadron-nucleus interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holynski, R.; Wozniak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of describing hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions is discussed in terms of a number of independent collisions of the projectile inside the target nucleus. This multiple rescattering may occur on a particle or quark parton level. To investigate the characteristics of hA interactions as a function of antineutrinos advantage is taken of the correlation between the average number antineutrinos of collisions of the projectile inside the nucleus and the number Ng of fast protons ejected from the struck nucleus. The relation antineutrinos vs Ng obtained in antineutrinos was used. For a given target nucleus this allows the selection of interactions occurring at different impact parameters.

  12. On the functional anatomy of the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus commissural connection in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita).

    PubMed

    Vargas, C D; Volchan, E; Hokoç, J N; Pereira, A; Bernardes, R F; Rocha-Miranda, C E

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods revealed the presence of GABA in cell bodies and terminals in the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus, the lateral terminal nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita). Moreover, after unilateral injections of rhodamine beads in the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus complex and processing for GABA, double-labelled cells were detected in the ipsilateral complex, up to 400 microns from the injected site, but not in the opposite. Analysis of the distributions of GABAergic and retrogradely-labelled cells throughout the contralateral nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus showed that the highest density of GABAergic and rhodamine-labelled cells overlapped at the middle third of the complex. Previous electrophysiological data obtained in the opossum had suggested the existence, under certain conditions, of an inhibitory action between the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus of one side over the other. The absence of GABAergic commissural neurons may imply that this inhibition is mediated by an excitatory commissural pathway that activates GABAergic interneurons.

  13. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  14. Forced precession of the cometary nucleus with randomly placed active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szutowicz, Slawomira

    1992-01-01

    The cometary nucleus is assumed to be triaxial or axisymmetric spheroid rotating about its axis of maximum moment of inertia and is forced to precess due to jets of ejected material. Randomly placed regions of exposed ice on the surface of the nucleus are assumed to produce gas and dust. The solution of the heat conduction equation for each active region is used to find the gas sublimation rate and the jet acceleration. Precession of the comet nucleus is followed numerically using a phase-averaged system of equations. The gas production curves and the variation of the spin axis during the orbital motion of the comet are presented.

  15. Heterogeneities of 67P nucleus seen by CONSERT in the vicinity of Abydos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Valerie; Lasue, Jéremie; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lemmonier, Florentin; Guiffaut, Christophe; Plettemeier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Since their arrival at comet 67P in August 2014, a number of instruments onboard Rosetta's main spacecraft and Philae lander have been observing the surface of the nucleus and have revealed details of amazing structures. This information was complemented by information about the nucleus internal structure collected by the CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) experiment in order to constrain the nucleus formation and evolution. The CONSERT experiment is a bistatic radar with receivers and transmitters on-board both Rosetta's main spacecraft and Philae lander. The instrument makes use of electromagnetic waves at 90 MHz that propagated, during the First Science Sequence, between Philae and Rosetta through the small lobe of 67P over distances ranging from approximately 200 to 800 m depending on the spacecraft location. The data used here have been collected at depths that reach a maximum of about one hundred of meters nucleus in the vicinity of Abydos. The data collected by CONSERT provide an estimate of the permittivity mean value and information about its spatial variability inside the sounded volume. Thanks to the 10 MHz frequency bandwidth of the signal used by the instrument a spatial resolution around 10m is obtained inside the sounded volume of the nucleus. In this paper, we specifically focus on local variations in the nucleus subsurface permittivity. A number of electromagnetic simulations corresponding to the CONSERT operations have been performed for a variety of subsurface permittivity models. The effect of local vertical and horizontal large scale variations as well as smaller scale random fractal structure of the permittivity values around the landing site will be presented and discussed in comparison with CONSERT's experimental data collected in the same configurations. Possible interpretations of the results will be presented as well as potential consequences for the nucleus structure in connection with observations made

  16. Highlight on the dynamic organization of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Stephen D; Charpentier, Myriam

    2017-01-02

    The last decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of the proteins of the nuclear envelope, which have multiple roles including positioning the nucleus, maintaining its structural organization, and in events ranging from mitosis and meiosis to chromatin positioning and gene expression. Diverse new and stimulating results relating to nuclear organization and genome function from across kingdoms were presented in a session stream entitled "Dynamic Organization of the Nucleus" at this year's Society of Experimental Biology (SEB) meeting in Brighton, UK (July 2016). This was the first session stream run by the Nuclear Dynamics Special Interest Group, which was organized by David Evans, Katja Graumann (both Oxford Brookes University, UK) and Iris Meier (Ohio State University, USA). The session featured presentations on areas relating to nuclear organization across kingdoms including the nuclear envelope, chromatin organization, and genome function.

  17. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  18. Comet encke: radar detection of nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, P G; Campbell, D B; Ostro, S J; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I

    1982-04-16

    The nucleus of the periodic comet Encke was detected in November 1980 with the Arecibo Observatory's radar system (wavelength, 12.6 centimeters). The echoes in the one sense of circular polarization received imply a radar cross section of 1.1 +/- 0.7 square kilometers. The estimated bandwidth of these echoes combined with an estimate of the rotation vector of Encke yields a radius for the nucleus of l.5(+2.3)(-1.0) kilometers. The uncertainties given are dependent primarily on the range of models considered for the comet and for the manner in which its nucleus backscatters radio waves. Should this range prove inadequate, the true value of the radius of the nucleus might lie outside the limits given.

  19. A search for ϕ meson nucleus bound state using antiproton annihilation on nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Bühler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Hartmann, O.; Hicks, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Muto, R.; Naruki, M.; Niiyama, M.; Noumi, H.; Okada, S.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sawada, S.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The mass shift of the vector mesons in nuclei is known to be a powerful tool for investigating the mechanism of generating hadron mass from the QCD vacuum. The mechanism is known to be the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In 2007, KEK-PS E325 experiment reported about 3.4 % mass reduction of the ϕ meson in medium-heavy nuclei (Cu). This result is possibly one of the indications of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei, however, unfortunately it is hard to make strong conclusions from the data. One of the ways to conclude the strength of the ϕ meson mass shift in nuclei will be by trying to produce only slowly moving ϕ mesons where the maximum nuclear matter effect can be probed. The observed mass reduction of the ϕ meson in the nucleus can be translated as the existence of an attractive force between ϕ meson and nucleus. Thus, one of the extreme conditions that can be achieved in the laboratory is indeed the formation of a ϕ-nucleus bound state, where the ϕ meson is "trapped" in the nucleus. The purpose of the experiment is to search for a ϕ-nucleus bound state and measure the binding energy of the system. We will demonstrate that a completely background-free missing-mass spectrum can be obtained efficiently by (bar{p}, φ) spectroscopy together with K + Λ tagging, using the primary reaction channel bar{p} p rightarrow φ φ. This paper gives an overview of the physics motivation and the detector concept, and explains the direction of the initial research and development effort.

  20. A search for ϕ meson nucleus bound state using antiproton annihilation on nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Bühler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Guaraldo, C.; Hartmann, O.; Hicks, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Muto, R.; Naruki, M.; Niiyama, M.; Noumi, H.; Okada, S.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sawada, S.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zmeskal, J.

    The mass shift of the vector mesons in nuclei is known to be a powerful tool for investigating the mechanism of generating hadron mass from the QCD vacuum. The mechanism is known to be the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In 2007, KEK-PS E325 experiment reported about 3.4 % mass reduction of the ϕ meson in medium-heavy nuclei (Cu). This result is possibly one of the indications of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei, however, unfortunately it is hard to make strong conclusions from the data. One of the ways to conclude the strength of the ϕ meson mass shift in nuclei will be by trying to produce only slowly moving ϕ mesons where the maximum nuclear matter effect can be probed. The observed mass reduction of the ϕ meson in the nucleus can be translated as the existence of an attractive force between ϕ meson and nucleus. Thus, one of the extreme conditions that can be achieved in the laboratory is indeed the formation of a ϕ-nucleus bound state, where the ϕ meson is "trapped" in the nucleus. The purpose of the experiment is to search for a ϕ-nucleus bound state and measure the binding energy of the system. We will demonstrate that a completely background-free missing-mass spectrum can be obtained efficiently by (bar{p}, φ) spectroscopy together with K + Λ tagging, using the primary reaction channel bar{p} p rightarrow φ φ. This paper gives an overview of the physics motivation and the detector concept, and explains the direction of the initial research and development effort.

  1. Perimovement decrease of alpha/beta oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Dürschmid, Stefan; Rutledge, Robb B; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Kaufmann, Jörn; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-10-01

    The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e., online, role during action preparation. We recorded local field potentials from the nucleus accumbens in patients with epilepsy undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. We found a consistent decrease in the power of alpha/beta oscillations (10-30 Hz) before and around the time of movements. This perimovement alpha/beta desynchronization was observed in seven of eight patients and was present both before instructed movements in a serial reaction time task as well as before self-paced, deliberate choices in a decision making task. A similar beta decrease over sensorimotor cortex and in the subthalamic nucleus has been directly related to movement preparation and execution. Our results support the idea of a direct role of the human nucleus accumbens in action preparation and execution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Perimovement decrease of alpha/beta oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Kaufmann, Jörn; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e., online, role during action preparation. We recorded local field potentials from the nucleus accumbens in patients with epilepsy undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. We found a consistent decrease in the power of alpha/beta oscillations (10–30 Hz) before and around the time of movements. This perimovement alpha/beta desynchronization was observed in seven of eight patients and was present both before instructed movements in a serial reaction time task as well as before self-paced, deliberate choices in a decision making task. A similar beta decrease over sensorimotor cortex and in the subthalamic nucleus has been directly related to movement preparation and execution. Our results support the idea of a direct role of the human nucleus accumbens in action preparation and execution. PMID:27486103

  3. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  4. [Magnetic resonance imaging features in two Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhou, Lian-Hong; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Cha, Yun-Fei; Wang, Jiong; Xing, Yi-Qiao

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the structural basis of ocular motility and visual abnormalities in humans with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). 17 volunteers from 2 CFEOM pedigrees Clinical ophthalmic and motility examed and 18 normal control subjects were correlated with thin-sectioned magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across the orbit and the brain-stem level. Subjects with CFEOM had severe bilateral blepharoptosis, limited supraduction, and variable ophthalmoplegia. In affected subjects, MRI demonstrated atrophy of the levator palpebrae superioris, all EOMs, and the optic nerves, and small or absent orbital motor nerves. The oculomotor nerve was most severely hypoplastic, but the abducens was also affected. Subjects with CFEOM exhibited subclinical but highly significant reduction from normal in mean optic nerve size (P < 0.05). There are also some difference between the two CFEOM pedigrees. These findings suggest that neuronal disease is primary in CFEOM, with myopathy arising secondary to abnormal innervation and the oculomotor nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the abnormalities defects.

  5. [MRI in Duane retraction syndrome: Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Denis, D; Cousin, M; Zanin, E; Toesca, E; Girard, N

    2011-09-01

    Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital ocular motility disorder with innervational dysgenesis. MRI improves our understanding of this disease by providing in vivo access to nerves and oculomotor muscles. The goal of this prospective study (2000-2008) was to analyze DRS clinically and neuroradiologically. Twenty-four patients (27 eyes) received a complete ophthalmologic evaluation and a brain-orbital MRI. The average age was 6.1 years. MRI was performed with 3D T2 CISS-weighted images through the brainstem to visualize the cisternal segments of the cranial nerves and the orbit (lateral and medial recti muscles). MRI anomalies were classified according to type I, II, and III and depending on their condition in the posterior fossa (absence, hypoplasia) and in the orbit (muscle anomalies). Of 27 eyes, 70% were type I, 19% type II, and 11% type III. MRI showed abducens nerve abnormalities in 93% of the cases (78% absence) and muscle abnormalities in 57.5% of the cases. A detailed description showed 100% abducens nerve abnormalities and 58% abnormal lateral rectus muscle in type I, 60% abducens nerve abnormalities and 60% abnormal lateral rectus muscle in type II, and 100% abducens nerve abnormalities and 66% abnormal lateral rectus in type III. This study presents two major findings: detection of abducens nerve abnormalities in most cases of DRS whatever the type, associated with muscle abnormalities, and the confirmation that this absence may exist in type II (2/5). Thus MRI proved to be a valuable tool for investigating these patients, improving the comprehension of the physiopathogenics of this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  7. Alpha oscillations in the pedunculopontine nucleus correlate with gait performance in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Thevathasan, Wesley; Pogosyan, Alek; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Jenkinson, Ned; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Bogdanovic, Marko; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu Z.

    2012-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus, a component of the reticular formation, is topographically organized in animal models and implicated in locomotor control. In Parkinson's disease, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging treatment for gait freezing. Local field potentials recorded from pedunculopontine nucleus electrodes in such patients have demonstrated oscillations in the alpha and beta frequency bands, reactive to self-paced movement. Whether these oscillations are topographically organized or relevant to locomotion is unknown. Here, we recorded local field potentials from the pedunculopontine nucleus in parkinsonian patients during rest and unconstrained walking. Relative gait speed was assessed with trunk accelerometry. Peaks of alpha power were present at rest and during gait, when they correlated with gait speed. Gait freezing was associated with attenuation of alpha activity. Beta peaks were less consistently observed across rest and gait, and did not correlate with gait speed. Alpha power was maximal in the caudal pedunculopontine nucleus region and beta power was maximal rostrally. These results indicate a topographic distribution of neuronal activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus region and concur with animal data suggesting that the caudal subregion has particular relevance to gait. Alpha synchronization, proposed to suppress ‘task irrelevant’ distraction, has previously been demonstrated to correlate with performance of cognitive tasks. Here, we demonstrate a correlation between alpha oscillations and improved gait performance. The results raise the possibility that stimulation of caudal and rostral pedunculopontine nucleus regions may differ in their clinical effects. PMID:22232591

  8. Is {sup 276}U a doubly magic nucleus?

    SciTech Connect

    Liliani, N., E-mail: netta.liliani@gmail.com; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-04-19

    We investigate a possible new doubly magic heavy nucleus by using a relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with the addition of a cross interaction term of omega-rho mesons and an electromagnetic exchange term. We propose that {sup 276}U is a doubly magic nucleus. The evidence for {sup 276}U being a doubly magic nucleus is shown through the two-nucleon gaps, the single-particle energies, and the neutron skin thickness of the nucleus. We have also found that the prediction of {sup 276}U as a doubly magic nucleus by the RMF model is not affected by the inclusion of isoscalar-isovector and electromagnetic exchange couplings.

  9. In Situ Live-Cell Nucleus Fluorescence Labeling with Bioinspired Fluorescent Probes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pan; Wang, Houyu; Song, Bin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent imaging techniques for visualization of nuclear structure and function in live cells are fundamentally important for exploring major cellular events. The ideal cellular labeling method is capable of realizing label-free, in situ, real-time, and long-term nucleus labeling in live cells, which can fully obtain the nucleus-relative information and effectively alleviate negative effects of alien probes on cellular metabolism. However, current established fluorescent probes-based strategies (e.g., fluorescent proteins-, organic dyes-, fluorescent organic/inorganic nanoparticles-based imaging techniques) are unable to simultaneously realize label-free, in situ, long-term, and real-time nucleus labeling, resulting in inevitable difficulties in fully visualizing nuclear structure and function in live cells. To this end, we present a type of bioinspired fluorescent probes, which are highly efficacious for in situ and label-free tracking of nucleus in long-term and real-time manners. Typically, the bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, served as fluorescent probes, can be readily synthesized in situ within live cell nucleus without any further modifications under physiological conditions (37 °C, pH ∼7.4). Compared with other conventional nuclear dyes (e.g., propidium iodide (PI), Hoechst), superior spectroscopic properties (e.g., quantum yield of ∼35.8% and high photostability) and low cytotoxicity of PDA-based probes enable long-term (e.g., 3 h) fluorescence tracking of nucleus. We also demonstrate the generality of this type of bioinspired fluorescent probes in different cell lines and complex biological samples.

  10. Observation of direct hadronic pairs in nucleus-nucleus collisions in JACEE emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of high energy ( or = 1 TeV/amu) nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) emulsion chambers, nonrandom spatial association of produced charged particles, mostly hadronic pairs, are observed. Similar narrow pairs are observed in about 100 events at much low energy (20 to 60 GeV/amu). Analysis shows that 30 to 50% of Pair abundances are understood by the Hambury-Brown-Twiss effect, and the remainder seems to require other explanations.

  11. Superscaling in electron-nucleus scattering and its link to CC and NC QE neutrino-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, M. B.; Amaro, J. E.; Caballero, J. A.

    2015-05-15

    The superscaling approach (SuSA) to neutrino-nucleus scattering, based on the assumed universality of the scaling function for electromagnetic and weak interactions, is reviewed. The predictions of the SuSA model for bot CC and NC differential and total cross sections are presented and compared with the MiniBooNE data. The role of scaling violations, in particular the contribution of meson exchange currents in the two-particle two-hole sector, is explored.

  12. Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

  13. Microtubules move the nucleus to quiescence.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Damien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus is a cellular compartment that hosts several macro-molecular machines displaying a highly complex spatial organization. This tight architectural orchestration determines not only DNA replication and repair but also regulates gene expression. In budding yeast microtubules play a key role in structuring the nucleus since they condition the Rabl arrangement in G1 and chromosome partitioning during mitosis through their attachment to centromeres via the kinetochore proteins. Recently, we have shown that upon quiescence entry, intranuclear microtubules emanating from the spindle pole body elongate to form a highly stable bundle that spans the entire nucleus. Here, we examine some molecular mechanisms that may underlie the formation of this structure. As the intranuclear microtubule bundle causes a profound re-organization of the yeast nucleus and is required for cell survival during quiescence, we discuss the possibility that the assembly of such a structure participates in quiescence establishment.

  14. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  15. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  16. The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and the dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita).

    PubMed

    Vargas, C D; Volchan, E; Nasi, J P; Bernardes, R F; Rocha-Miranda, C E

    1996-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected unilaterally into the pretectocollicular region of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita), primarily to investigate the existence of a commissural subcortical pathway but also to reveal afferents and efferents of the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) in this species. Labelled cells and terminals were observed in the contralateral NOT-DTN. Furthermore, HRP was injected bilaterally in the region of the inferior olive (IO) to verify if the distribution of labelled cells in the NOT-DTN overlapped the region of commissural labelled cells. The two subpopulations of retrogradely labelled cells coincided, being distributed within the retinal terminal field attributed to the NOT-DTN, as revealed by contralateral eye injections of HRP. The commissural cells were located slightly more ventral than the olivary cells in the optic tract. The pretectocollicular WGA-HRP injections also labelled cells and terminals bilaterally in the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN), interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior fibers (INSFp), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and superior colliculus (SC) and ipsilaterally in the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). In addition, further caudally, labelled cells and terminals were observed bilaterally in the nuclei prepositus hypoglossi (PH) and in the medial (MVN) and lateral (LVN) vestibular nuclei. Labelled terminals were found in the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) and in the IO with ipsilateral predominance. This study allowed an anatomical delimitation of the NOT-DTN in this opossum species, as defined by the olivary and commissural subpopulations, as well as a hodological evaluation of this region. The existence of some common anatomical aspects with other mammalian species is discussed.

  17. Dense TRPV2 immunoreactivity defines a subset of motoneurons in the dorsal lateral nucleus of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus and the trigeminal motor nucleus in rat

    PubMed Central

    LeWinter, Robin D.; Scherrer, Grégory; Basbaum, Allan I.

    2008-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel TRPV2 is a member of the TRPV family of proteins and is a homologue of the capsaicin/vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Like TRPV1, TRPV2 is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that project to superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Because noxious heat (>52°C) activates TRPV2 in transfected cells this channel has been implicated in the processing of high intensity thermal pain messages in vivo. In contrast to TRPV1, however, which is restricted to small diameter DRG neurons, there is significant TRPV2 immunoreactivity in a variety of CNS regions. The present report focuses on a subset of neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat including the dorsal lateral nucleus (DLN) of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus, and the motor trigeminal nucleus. Double label immunocytochemistry with markers of motoneurons, combined with retrograde labeling, established that these cells are, in fact, motoneurons. With the exception of their smaller diameter, these cells did not differ from other motoneurons, which are only lightly TRPV2-immunoreactive. As for the majority of DLN neurons, the densely-labeled populations co-express androgen receptor and follow normal DLN ontogeny. The functional significance of the very intense TRPV2 expression in these three distinct spinal cord and brainstem motoneurons groups remains to be determined. PMID:18063314

  18. Notochord to Nucleus Pulposus Transition.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lisa; Harfe, Brian D

    2015-10-01

    A tissue that commonly deteriorates in older vertebrates is the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebrae. Age-related changes in the intervertebral discs are thought to cause most cases of back pain. Back pain affects more than half of people over the age of 65, and the treatment of back pain costs 50-100 billion dollars per year in the USA. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of three distinct regions: a thick outer ring of fibrous cartilage called the annulus fibrosus, a gel-like material that is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus called the nucleus pulposus, and superior and inferior cartilaginous end plates. The nucleus pulposus has been shown to be critical for disc health and function. Damage to this structure often leads to disc disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the embryonic notochord, a rod-like structure present in the midline of vertebrate embryos, gives rise to all cell types found in adult nuclei pulposi. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of the notochord into nuclei pulposi is unknown. In this review, we discuss potential molecular and physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the notochord to nuclei pulposi transition.

  19. The nucleus parvocellularis reticularis regulates submandibular-sublingual salivary secretion in the rat: a pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J M; Puerto, A

    1988-09-01

    This experiment shows that activation of the nucleus parvocellularis reticularis in the rat brainstem provokes salivary hypersecretion by the submandibular-sublingual glands. The secretory effect is mediated by cholinergic mechanisms, as the administration of atropine blocked the flow of saliva evoked by stimulation of the nucleus parvocellularis. In contrast, injection of dihydroergotamine (an alpha-blocker) and/or propranolol (a beta-blocker) failed to significantly reduce submandibular and sublingual salivary secretion when compared to a control group injected with distilled water. The cholinergic nature of the salivary response suggests that the nucleus parvocellularis reticularis exerts its secretory effect on the salivary glands parasympathetically rather than through mechanisms associated with sympathetic pathways. The area of the brainstem activated in the present study closely overlaps the region in which cell bodies of superior salivatory neurons have recently been identified with retrograde transport of peroxidase. The data presented herein represent functional proof in support of the location of the superior salivatory nucleus within the parvocellularis reticular formation.

  20. Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

  1. Possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-01

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, 298114184, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus 304114 has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of low neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell correction energy recovers quickly. Secondly, owing to neutron emissions, the neutron number in the nucleus approaches that of the double closed shell and the nucleus attains a large fission barrier. Because of these two effects, the survival probability of 304114 does not decrease until the excitation energy E*=50 MeV. These properties lead to a rather high evaporation residue cross section.

  2. Cell Biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Fix, Orna; Askjaer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning. Moreover, the early C. elegans embryo is an excellent model to dissect the mitotic processes of nuclear disassembly and reformation with high spatiotemporal resolution. We review here several features of the C. elegans nucleus, including its composition, structure, and dynamics. We also discuss the spatial organization of chromatin and regulation of gene expression and how this depends on tight control of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Finally, the extensive connections of the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and their implications during development are described. Most processes of the C. elegans nucleus are evolutionarily conserved, highlighting the relevance of this powerful and versatile model organism to human biology. PMID:28049702

  3. Continuous nucleus extraction by optically-induced cell lysis on a batch-type microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Hung, Lien-Yu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-21

    The extraction of a cell's nucleus is an essential technique required for a number of procedures, such as disease diagnosis, genetic replication, and animal cloning. However, existing nucleus extraction techniques are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Therefore, this study presents an innovative, microfluidics-based approach featuring optically-induced cell lysis (OICL) for nucleus extraction and collection in an automatic format. In comparison to previous micro-devices designed for nucleus extraction, the new OICL device designed herein is superior in terms of flexibility, selectivity, and efficiency. To facilitate this OICL module for continuous nucleus extraction, we further integrated an optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) module with the OICL device within the microfluidic chip. This on-chip integration circumvents the need for highly trained personnel and expensive, cumbersome equipment. Specifically, this microfluidic system automates four steps by 1) automatically focusing and transporting cells, 2) releasing the nuclei on the OICL module, 3) isolating the nuclei on the ODEP module, and 4) collecting the nuclei in the outlet chamber. The efficiency of cell membrane lysis and the ODEP nucleus separation was measured to be 78.04 ± 5.70% and 80.90 ± 5.98%, respectively, leading to an overall nucleus extraction efficiency of 58.21 ± 2.21%. These results demonstrate that this microfluidics-based system can successfully perform nucleus extraction, and the integrated platform is therefore promising in cell fusion technology with the goal of achieving genetic replication, or even animal cloning, in the near future.

  4. Chloroplast-to-nucleus communication

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai Xun; Crisp, Peter Alexander; Estavillo, Gonzalo Martin

    2010-01-01

    In order for plant cells to function efficiently under different environmental conditions, chloroplastic processes have to be tightly regulated by the nucleus. It is widely believed that there is inter-organelle communication from the chloroplast to the nucleus, called retrograde signaling. Although some pathways of communication have been identified, the actual signals that move between the two cellular compartments are largely unknown. This review provides an overview of retrograde signaling including its importance to the cell, candidate signals, recent advances and current experimental systems. In addition, we highlight the potential of using drought stress as a model for studying retrograde signaling. PMID:21512326

  5. Actomyosin Pulls to Advance the Nucleus in a Migrating Tissue Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Kent, Ian A.; Shekhar, Nandini; Chancellor, T.J.; Mendonca, Agnes; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2014-01-01

    The cytoskeletal forces involved in translocating the nucleus in a migrating tissue cell remain unresolved. Previous studies have variously implicated actomyosin-generated pushing or pulling forces on the nucleus, as well as pulling by nucleus-bound microtubule motors. We found that the nucleus in an isolated migrating cell can move forward without any trailing-edge detachment. When a new lamellipodium was triggered with photoactivation of Rac1, the nucleus moved toward the new lamellipodium. This forward motion required both nuclear-cytoskeletal linkages and myosin activity. Apical or basal actomyosin bundles were found not to translate with the nucleus. Although microtubules dampen fluctuations in nuclear position, they are not required for forward translocation of the nucleus during cell migration. Trailing-edge detachment and pulling with a microneedle produced motion and deformation of the nucleus suggestive of a mechanical coupling between the nucleus and the trailing edge. Significantly, decoupling the nucleus from the cytoskeleton with KASH overexpression greatly decreased the frequency of trailing-edge detachment. Collectively, these results explain how the nucleus is moved in a crawling fibroblast and raise the possibility that forces could be transmitted from the front to the back of the cell through the nucleus. PMID:24411232

  6. Universal functions of nuclear proximity potential for Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction in a semiclassical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj K.; Singh, Dalip; Kumar, Raj; Greiner, Walter

    2009-07-01

    The universal function of the nuclear proximity potential is obtained for the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approach. This is obtained as a sum of the spin-orbit-density-independent and spin-orbit-density-dependent parts of the Hamiltonian density, since the two terms behave differently, the spin-orbit-density-independent part mainly attractive and the spin-orbit-density-dependent part mainly repulsive. The semiclassical expansions of kinetic energy density and spin-orbit density are allowed up to second order, and the two-parameter Fermi density, with its parameters fitted to experiments, is used for the nuclear density. The universal functions or the resulting nuclear proximity potential reproduce the 'exact' Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction potential in the semiclassical approach, within less than ~1 MeV of difference, both at the maximum attraction and in the surface region. An application of the resulting interaction potential to fusion excitation functions shows clearly that the parameterized universal functions of nuclear proximity potential substitute completely the 'exact' potential in the Skyrme energy density formalism based on the semiclassical ETF method, including also the modifications of interaction barriers at sub-barrier energies in terms of modifying the constants of the universal functions.

  7. Efferent connections of the parvalbumin-positive (PV1) nucleus in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Celio, Marco R.; Babalian, Alexander; Ha, Quan Hue; Eichenberger, Simone; Clément, Laurence; Marti, Christiane; Saper, Clifford B.

    2013-01-01

    A solitary cluster of parvalbumin-positive neurons - the PV1-nucleus - has been observed in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents. In the present study, we mapped the efferent connections of the rodent PV1-nucleus using non-specific antero- and retrograde tracers in rats, and chemoselective, Cre-dependent viral constructs in parvalbumin-Cre mice. In both species, the PV1-nucleus was found to project mainly to the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), preponderantly ipsilateral. Indirectly in rats and directly in mice, a discrete, longitudinally- orientated cylindrical column of terminal fields (PV1-CTF) was identified ventrolateral to the aqueduct on the edge of the PAG. The PV1-CTF, which is particularly dense in the rostral portion, located in the supraoculomotor nucleus (Su3), is spatially interrupted over a short stretch at the level of the trochlear nucleus and abuts caudally on a second parvalbum in-positive (PV2) nucleus. The rostral and the caudal portions of the PV1-CTF consist of axonal endings that stem from scattered neurons throughout the PV1-nucleus. Minor terminal fields were identified in a crescentic column of the lateral PAG, as well as in the Edinger-Westphal-, the lateral habenular- and the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. So far no obvious functions can be attributed to this small, circumscribed column ventrolateral to the aqueduct, the prime target of the PV1-nucleus. PMID:23787784

  8. In vitro and in silico investigations of disc nucleus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reitmaier, Sandra; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Bashkuev, Maxim; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Gloria, Antonio; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Currently, numerous hydrogels are under examination as potential nucleus replacements. The clinical success, however, depends on how well the mechanical function of the host structure is restored. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to and mechanisms by which surgery for nucleus replacements influence the mechanical behaviour of the disc. The effects of an annulus defect with and without nucleus replacement on disc height and nucleus pressure were measured using 24 ovine motion segments. The following cases were considered: intact; annulus incision repaired by suture and glue; annulus incision with removal and re-implantation of nucleus tissue repaired by suture and glue or plug. To identify the likely mechanisms observed in vitro, a finite-element model of a human disc (L4–L5) was employed. Both studies were subjected to physiological cycles of compression and recovery. A repaired annulus defect did not influence the disc behaviour in vitro, whereas additional nucleus removal and replacement substantially decreased disc stiffness and nucleus pressure. Model predictions demonstrated the substantial effects of reductions in replaced nucleus water content, bulk modulus and osmotic potential on disc height loss and pressure, similar to measurements. In these events, the compression load transfer in the disc markedly altered by substantially increasing the load on the annulus when compared with the nucleus. The success of hydrogels for nucleus replacements is not only dependent on the implant material itself but also on the restoration of the environment perturbed during surgery. The substantial effects on the disc response of disruptions owing to nucleus replacements can be simulated by reduced nucleus water content, elastic modulus and osmotic potential. PMID:22337630

  9. Plastid-Nucleus Distance Alters the Behavior of Stromules

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jessica L.; Kantek, Matthias; Schattat, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    Plastids send “retrograde” signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event. The source of this uncertainty stems from missing information regarding the relative distribution of all plastids and stromules within a given cell. A comprehensive analysis of the upper epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves was performed via a combination of still images and time-lapse movies of stromule formation in the context of the whole cell. This analysis could definitively confirm that stromule formation is not evenly distributed. Stromules are significantly more frequent within 8 μm of the nucleus, and approximately 90% of said stromules formed facing the nucleus. Time-lapse movies revealed that this enrichment of stromules is achieved via a 10-fold higher frequency of stromule initiation events within this 8 μm zone compared to the cell periphery. Following the movement of plastids and nuclei it became evident that movement and formation of stromules is correlated to nucleus movement. Observations suggest that stromules “connecting” to the nucleus are not necessarily the result of plastids sensing the nucleus and reaching out toward it, but are rather pulled out of the surface of nucleus associated plastids during opposing movement of these two organelles. This finding does not exclude the possibility that stromules could be transferring signals to the nucleus

  10. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction.

  11. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  12. Ultrastructural study of the GABAergic and cerebellar input to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis.

    PubMed

    Verveer, C; Hawkins, R K; Ruigrok, T J; De Zeeuw, C I

    1997-08-22

    The nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis is an intermediate of the cerebrocerebellar pathway and serves as a relay centre for sensorimotor and visual information. The central nuclei of the cerebellum provide a dense projection to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, but it is not known to what extent this projection is excitatory or inhibitory, and whether the terminals of this projection contact the neurons in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis that give rise to the mossy fibre collaterals innervating the cerebellar nuclei. In the present study the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis of the cat was investigated at the ultrastructural level following anterograde and retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin coupled to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) from the cerebellar nuclei combined with postembedding GABA immunocytochemistry. The neuropil of this nucleus was found to contain many WGA-HRP labeled terminals, cell bodies and dendrites, but none of these pre- or postsynaptic structures was double labeled with GABA. The vast majority of the WGA-HRP labeled terminals contained clear spherical vesicles, showed asymmetric synapses, and contacted intermediate or distal dendrites. Many of the postsynaptic elements of the cerebellar afferents in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis were retrogradely labeled with WGA-HRP, while relatively few were GABAergic. We conclude that all cerebellar terminals in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis of the cat are nonGABAergic and excitatory, and that they contact predominantly neurons that project back to the cerebellum. Thus, the reciprocal circuit between the cerebellar nuclei and the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis appears to be well designed to function as an excitatory reverberating loop.

  13. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  14. Experimental results on the ω- and η'-nucleus potential - on the way to mesic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Different experimental approaches to determine the meson-nucleus optical potential are discussed. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector system at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn and the Crystal Ball/TAPS at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Experimental results about the real and imaginary part of the η'- and ω-nucleus optical potential are presented. The imaginary part of the meson-nucleus optical potential is determined from the in-medium width of the meson by the measurement of the transparency ratio. Information on the real part of the optical potential is deduced from measurements of the excitation function and momentum distribution which are sensitive to the sign and depth of the potential. The results are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. The data for both mesons are consistent with a weakly attractive potential. The formation and population of ω-nucleus and η'-nucleus bound states is additionally discussed.

  15. Nucleus-size pinning for determination of nucleation free-energy barriers and nucleus geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Abhishek K.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2018-05-01

    Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus. The proposed technique is first validated by estimating the critical nucleation conditions for the disorder-to-order transition in hard spheres and then applied to simulate and characterize the highly non-trivial (prolate) morphology of the critical crystal nucleus in hard gyrobifastigia. A generalization of CNT is used to account for nucleus asphericity and predict nucleation free-energy barriers for gyrobifastigia. These predictions of nuclei shape and barriers are validated by independent umbrella sampling calculations.

  16. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    DOEpatents

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  17. Unveiling the nucleus of NGC 7172

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smajić, S.; Fischer, S.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) H + K European Southern Observatory SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7172. We investigate the central 800 pc, concentrating on excitation conditions, morphology, and stellar content. NGC 7172 was selected from a sample of the ten nearest Seyfert 2 galaxies from the Veron-Cetty & Veron catalogue. All objects were chosen as test cases for adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations that allow a detailed study (at high spatial and spectral resolution) of the nuclear and host environments. NGC 7172 has a prominent dustlane crossing the central galaxy region from east to west, which makes it an ideal candidate to investigate the effect of obscuration by strong galactic extinction on (active) galaxies and their classification. Methods: The NIR is less influenced by dust extinction than optical light and is sensitive to the mass-dominating stellar populations. SINFONI integral field spectroscopy combines NIR imaging and spectroscopy and provides us with the opportunity to analyze several emission and absorption lines to investigate the stellar populations and ionization mechanisms over the 4″ × 4″ field of view (FOV). Results: We present emission and absorption line measurements in the central 800 pc of NGC 7172. The detection of [Si vi] and broad Paα and Brγ components are clear signs of an accreting super-massive black hole hiding behind the prominent dustlane at visible wavelengths. Hot temperatures of about 1300 K are indicative of a dusty torus in the nuclear region. Narrow components of Paα and Brγ enable us to make an extinction measurement. Our measures of the molecular hydrogen lines, hydrogen recombination lines, and [Fe ii] indicate that the excitation of these lines is caused by an active galactic nucleus. The central region of the galactic disk is predominantly inhabited by gas, dust, and an old K-M type giant stellar population. The gaseous, molecular, and

  18. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  19. Commissural axons of the mouse cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Christian; Drottar, Marie; Benson, Thane E; Darrow, Keith

    2013-05-01

    The axons of commissural neurons that project from one cochlear nucleus to the other were studied after labeling with anterograde tracer. Injections were made into the dorsal subdivision of the cochlear nucleus in order to restrict labeling only to the group of commissural neurons that gave off collaterals to, or were located in, this subdivision. The number of labeled commissural axons in each injection was correlated with the number of labeled radiate multipolar neurons, suggesting radiate neurons as the predominant origin of the axons. The radiate commissural axons are thick and myelinated, and they exit the dorsal acoustic stria of the injected cochlear nucleus to cross the brainstem in the dorsal half, near the crossing position of the olivocochlear bundle. They enter the opposite cochlear nucleus via the dorsal and ventral acoustic stria and at its medial border. Reconstructions of single axons demonstrate that terminations are mostly in the core and typically within a single subdivision of the cochlear nucleus. Extents of termination range from narrow to broad along both the dorsoventral (i.e., tonotopic) and the rostrocaudal dimensions. In the electron microscope, labeled swellings form synapses that are symmetric (in that there is little postsynaptic density), a characteristic of inhibitory synapses. Our labeled axons do not appear to include excitatory commissural axons that end in edge regions of the nucleus. Radiate commissural axons could mediate the broadband inhibition observed in responses to contralateral sound, and they may balance input from the two ears with a quick time course. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Commissural Axons of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. Christian; Drottar, Marie; Benson, Thane E.; Darrow, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The axons of commissural neurons that project from one cochlear nucleus to the other were studied after labeling with anterograde tracer. Injections were made into the dorsal subdivision of the cochlear nucleus in order to restrict labeling only to the group of commissural neurons that gave off collaterals to, or were located in, this subdivision. The number of labeled commissural axons in each injection was correlated with the number of labeled radiate multipolar neurons, suggesting radiate neurons as the predominant origin of the axons. The radiate commissural axons are thick and myelinated, and they exit the dorsal acoustic stria of the injected cochlear nucleus to cross the brainstem in the dorsal half, near the crossing position of the olivocochlear bundle. They enter the opposite cochlear nucleus via the dorsal and ventral acoustic stria and at its medial border. Reconstructions of single axons demonstrate that terminations are mostly in the core and typically within a single subdivision of the cochlear nucleus. Extents of termination range from narrow to broad along both the dorso-ventral (i.e. tonotopic) and rostro-caudal dimensions. In the electron microscope, labeled swellings form synapses that are symmetric (in that there is little postsynaptic density), a characteristic of inhibitory synapses. Our labeled axons do not appear to include excitatory commissural axons that end in edge regions of the nucleus. Radiate commissural axons could mediate the broad-band inhibition observed in responses to contralateral sound, and they may balance input from the two ears on a quick time course. PMID:23124982

  1. Connections of the Auditory Brainstem in a Songbird, Taeniopygia guttata. II. Projections of Nucleus Angularis and Nucleus Laminaris to the Superior Olive and Lateral Lemniscal Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Krützfeldt, Nils O.E.; Logerot, Priscilla; Kubke, M. Fabiana; Wild, J. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Three nuclei of the lateral lemniscus are present in the zebra finch, ventral (LLV), intermediate (LLI), and dorsal (LLD). LLV is separate from the superior olive (OS): it lies closer to the spinal lemniscus and extends much further rostrally around the pontine periphery. LLI extends from a caudal position ventrolateral to the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (LLIc) to a rostral position medial to the ventrolateral parabrachial nucleus (LLIr). LLD consists of posterior (LLDp) and anterior (LLDa) parts, which are largely coextensive rostrocaudally, although LLDa lies medial to LLDp. All nuclei are identifiable on the basis of cytochrome oxidase activity. The cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) and the third-order nucleus laminaris (NL) project on OS predominantly ipsilaterally, on LLV and LLI predominantly contralaterally, and on LLD contralaterally only. The NA projections are heavier than those of NL and differ from them primarily in their terminations within LLD: NA projects to LLDp, whereas NL projects to LLDa. In this the projections are similar to those in the barn owl (Takahashi and Konishi [1988] J Comp Neurol 274:212–238), in which time and intensity pathways remain separate as far as the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (MLd). In contrast, in the zebra finch, although NA and NL projections remain separate within LLD, the projections of LLDa and LLDp become intermixed within MLd (Wild et al., J Comp Neurol, this issue), consistent with the intermixing of the direct NA and NL projections to MLd (Krützfeldt et al., J Comp Neurol, this issue). J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2135–2148, 2010. PMID:20394062

  2. Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Re-analysis of the Weizsacker-Williams method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic (EM) excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions were not definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allows definitive statements to be made concerning agreement or disagreement between WW theory and experiment.

  3. [Neuronal organization of thalamic nucleus reticularis in adult man].

    PubMed

    Berezhnaia, L A

    2005-01-01

    The neuronal content of human thalamic nucleus reticularis was studied in serial sections cut in sagittal and frontal projections and impregnated with silver nitrate using Golgi method. The neuronal content of human thalamic nucleus reticularis was found to be more diverse than previously reported in animals and man. Besides two types of sparsely-branched long-dendritic spineless R1 and R2 neurons, this nucleus contained spiny cells. Medium and small-sized sparsely-branched short-dendritic neurons and densely-branched spiny cells were demonstrated. The principle of organization of human thalamic nucleus reticularis is described.

  4. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  5. The function and response of an improved stratospheric condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Hyun, J. H.; Blackshear, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    An improved condensation nucleus counter (CNC) for use in the stratosphere is described. The University of Minnesota CNC (UMCNC) has a sequential saturator and condenser and uses n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid. The use of a coaxial saturator flow, with aerosol in the center and filtered, alcohol-laden air around it, speeds the response of this instrument and improves its stability as pressure changes. The counting efficiency has been studied as a function of particle size and pressure. The UMCNC provides an accurate measure of submicron aerosol concentration as long as the number distribution is not dominated by sub-0.02 micron diameter aerosol. The response of the UMCNC is compared with that of other stratospheric condensation nucleus counters, and the results of a (near) comparison with a balloon-borne condensation nucleus counter are presented. The UMCNC has operated 14 times on a NASA U-2 aircraft at altitudes from 8 to 21.5 km.

  6. Collateral projections of nucleus raphe dorsalis neurones to the caudate-putamen and region around the nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Y Q; Kaneko, T; Mizuno, N

    2001-02-16

    It was examined whether or not the nucleus raphe dorsalis (RD) neurons projecting to the caudate-putamen (CPu) might also project to the motor-controlling region around the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (Gia) in the rat. Single RD neurons projecting to the CPu and NRM/Gia by way of axon collaterals were identified by the retrograde double-labeling method with fluorescent dyes, Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow, which were injected respectively into the CPu and NRM/Gia. Then, serotonin (5-HT)-like immunoreactivity of the double-labeled RD neurons was examined immunohistochemically; approximately 60% of the double-labeled RD neurons showed 5-HT-like immunoreactivity. The results indicated that some of serotonergic and non-serotonergic RD neurons might control motor functions simultaneously at the levels of the CPu and NRM/Gia by way of axon collaterals.

  7. Does a continuous solid nucleus exist in comets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The implication of actual cometary observations for the physical nature of comets is briefly reviewed, bringing out the complete conflict with observation of the ice-dust solid nucleus model put forward in recent years as representing the fundamental structure of comets. That under increasing solar heat the nucleus develops an expanding atmosphere is inconsistent with the well-established phenomenon that the coma contracts with decreasing distance from the sun. Several comets remaining always beyond Mars have nevertheless been strongly active and produced fine tails. That some comets show at times a star-like point of light is readily explicable on the dust-cloud structure and by no means establishes that a solid nucleus exists. With the nucleus-area corresponding not to a small solid mass but to an optical phenomenon, there would be no reason to expect that it would describe a precise dynamical orbit. On the hypothesis of a nucleus, it is necessary to postulate further some internal jet-propulsion mechanism to account for the orbital deviations.

  8. A continuing controversy: Has the cometary nucleus been resolved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is presented for classifying cometary nuclei into two basic types, described by core mantle and coreless models. Mass loss related nongravitational effects in a comet's motion as a function of time are included in considering gradual evaporation of an icy envelope surrounding the meteoric matrix in the core of the nucleus.

  9. Efferent connections of the parvalbumin-positive (PV1) nucleus in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents.

    PubMed

    Celio, Marco R; Babalian, Alexandre; Ha, Quan Hue; Eichenberger, Simone; Clément, Laurence; Marti, Christiane; Saper, Clifford B

    2013-10-01

    A solitary cluster of parvalbumin-positive neurons--the PV1 nucleus--has been observed in the lateral hypothalamus of rodents. In the present study, we mapped the efferent connections of the PV1 nucleus using nonspecific antero- and retrograde tracers in rats, and chemoselective, Cre-dependent viral constructs in parvalbumin-Cre mice. In both species, the PV1 nucleus was found to project mainly to the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), predominantly ipsilaterally. Indirectly in rats and directly in mice, a discrete, longitudinally oriented cylindrical column of terminal fields (PV1-CTF) was identified ventrolateral to the aqueduct on the edge of the PAG. The PV1-CTF is particularly dense in the rostral portion, which is located in the supraoculomotor nucleus (Su3). It is spatially interrupted over a short stretch at the level of the trochlear nucleus and abuts caudally on a second parvalbumin-positive (PV2) nucleus. The rostral and the caudal portions of the PV1-CTF consist of axonal endings, which stem from neurons scattered throughout the PV1 nucleus. Topographically, the longitudinal orientation of the PV1-CTF accords with that of the likewise longitudinally oriented functional modules of the PAG, but overlaps none of them. Minor terminal fields were identified in a crescentic column of the lateral PAG, as well as in the Edinger-Westphal, the lateral habenular, and the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. So far, no obvious functions have been attributed to this small, circumscribed column ventrolateral to the aqueduct, the prime target of the PV1 nucleus. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Targeted delivery of peptide-conjugated biocompatible gold nanoparticles into cancer cell nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Curry, Taeyjuana; Che, Yong; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-02-01

    Nucleus remains a significant target for nanoparticles with diagnostic and therapeutic applications because both genetic information of the cell and transcription machinery reside there. Novel therapeutic strategies (for example, gene therapy), enabled by safe and efficient delivery of nanoparticles and drug molecules into the nucleus, are heralded by many as the ultimate treatment for severe and intractable diseases. However, most nanomaterials and macromolecules are incapable of reaching the cell nucleus on their own, because of biological barriers carefully honed by evolution including cellular membrane and nuclear envelope. In this paper, we have demonstrated an approach of fabrication of biocompatible gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based vehicles which can entering into cancer cell nucleus by modifying Au NPs with both PEG 5000 and two different peptides (RGD and nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide). The Au NPs used were fabricated via femtosecond laser ablation of Au bulk target in deionized water. The Au NPs produced by this method provide chemical free, virgin surface, which allows us to carry out "Sequential Conjugation" to modify their surface with PEG 5000, RGD, and NLS. "Sequential Conjugation" described in this presentation is very critical for the fabrication of Au NP-based vehicles capable of entering into cancer cell nucleus as it enables the engineering and tuning surface chemistries of Au NPs by independently adjusting amounts of PEG and peptides bound onto surface of Au NPs so as to maximize their nuclear targeting performance and biocompatibility regarding the cell line of interest. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to confirm the in vitro targeted nuclear delivery of peptide-conjugated biocompatible Au NPs by showing their presence in the cancer cell nucleus.

  11. Lifetime measurements in shape transition nucleus 188Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, C. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I. M.; Biswas, D. C.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear level lifetimes of high spin states in yrast and non-yrast bands of 188Pt nucleus have been measured using recoil distance plunger setup present at IUAC, Delhi. In the experiment nuclear states of interest were populated via 174Yb(18O,4 n)188Pt reaction at a beam energy of 79MeV provided by 15 UD Pelletron accelerator. The extracted B(E2\\downarrow) values show an initial rise up to 4+ state and then a nearly constant behavior with spin along yrast band, indicating change of nuclear structure in 188Pt at low spins. The good agreement between experimental and TPSM model B(E2\\downarrow) values up to 4^+ state suggests an increase in axial deformation of the nucleus. The average absolute β2 = 0.20 (3) obtained from measured B(E2\\downarrow) values matches well the values predicted by CHFB and IBM calculations for oblate ( β2 ˜ -0.19) and prolate (β2 ˜ 0.22) shapes. As the lifetime measurements do not yield the sign of β2, no definite conclusion can be drawn on the prolate or oblate collectivity of 188Pt on the basis of present measurements.

  12. Distinct roles of dopamine and subthalamic nucleus in learning and probabilistic decision making.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Elizabeth J; Bogacz, Rafal; Javed, Shazia; Mooney, Lucy K; Murphy, Gillian; Keeley, Sophie; Whone, Alan L

    2012-12-01

    Even simple behaviour requires us to make decisions based on combining multiple pieces of learned and new information. Making such decisions requires both learning the optimal response to each given stimulus as well as combining probabilistic information from multiple stimuli before selecting a response. Computational theories of decision making predict that learning individual stimulus-response associations and rapid combination of information from multiple stimuli are dependent on different components of basal ganglia circuitry. In particular, learning and retention of memory, required for optimal response choice, are significantly reliant on dopamine, whereas integrating information probabilistically is critically dependent upon functioning of the glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (computing the 'normalization term' in Bayes' theorem). Here, we test these theories by investigating 22 patients with Parkinson's disease either treated with deep brain stimulation to the subthalamic nucleus and dopaminergic therapy or managed with dopaminergic therapy alone. We use computerized tasks that probe three cognitive functions-information acquisition (learning), memory over a delay and information integration when multiple pieces of sequentially presented information have to be combined. Patients performed the tasks ON or OFF deep brain stimulation and/or ON or OFF dopaminergic therapy. Consistent with the computational theories, we show that stopping dopaminergic therapy impairs memory for probabilistic information over a delay, whereas deep brain stimulation to the region of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts decision making when multiple pieces of acquired information must be combined. Furthermore, we found that when participants needed to update their decision on the basis of the last piece of information presented in the decision-making task, patients with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus region did not slow down appropriately to revise their plan, a

  13. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  14. Nucleus-associated actin in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Berdieva, Mariia; Bogolyubov, Dmitry; Podlipaeva, Yuliya; Goodkov, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The presence, spatial distribution and forms of intranuclear and nucleus-associated cytoplasmic actin were studied in Amoeba proteus with immunocytochemical approaches. Labeling with different anti-actin antibodies and staining with TRITC-phalloidin and fluorescent deoxyribonuclease I were used. We showed that actin is abundant within the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of A. proteus cells. According to DNase I experiments, the predominant form of intranuclear actin is G-actin which is associated with chromatin strands. Besides, unpolymerized actin was shown to participate in organization of a prominent actin layer adjacent to the outer surface of nuclear envelope. No significant amount of F-actin was found in the nucleus. At the same time, the amoeba nucleus is enclosed in a basket-like structure formed by circumnuclear actin filaments and bundles connected with global cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton. A supposed architectural function of actin filaments was studied by treatment with actin-depolymerizing agent latrunculin A. It disassembled the circumnuclear actin system, but did not affect the intranuclear chromatin structure. The results obtained for amoeba cells support the modern concept that actin is involved in fundamental nuclear processes that have evolved in the cells of multicellular organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by stimulation of the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Imano, Sachie; Itoh, Hiromasa; Oku, Naoto

    2006-11-06

    Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala was examined using rat brain slices. The lateral and basolateral nuclei in the amygdala were evidently stained by Timm's sulfide-silver staining method. When the amygdala including both the nuclei was stimulated with 100 mM KCl by means of in vivo microdialysis, extracellular zinc concentration was increased significantly. Zinc release in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala innervated by the entorhinal cortex was next examined in brain slices double-stained with zinc and calcium indicators. Extracellular zinc signal (ZnAF-2) in the lateral nucleus was increased with intracellular calcium signal (calcium orange) during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex. Both the increases were completely inhibited by addition of 1 micro M tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker. Furthermore, calcium signal in the lateral nucleus during delivery of tetanic stimuli to the entorhinal cortex was increased in the presence of 10 micro M CNQX, an AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, and this increase was facilitated by addition of 1 mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The present study suggested that zinc is released in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by depolarization of the entorhinal neurons. In the lateral nucleus, zinc released may suppress the increase in presynaptic calcium signal.

  16. Comparative differential gene expression analysis of nucleus-encoded proteins for Rafflesia cantleyi against Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Siuk-Mun; Lee, Xin-Wei; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Regulation of functional nucleus-encoded proteins targeting the plastidial functions was comparatively studied for a plant parasite, Rafflesia cantleyi versus a photosynthetic plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. This study involved two species of different feeding modes and different developmental stages. A total of 30 nucleus-encoded proteins were found to be differentially-regulated during two stages in the parasite; whereas 17 nucleus-encoded proteins were differentially-expressed during two developmental stages in Arabidopsis thaliana. One notable finding observed for the two plants was the identification of genes involved in the regulation of photosynthesis-related processes where these processes, as expected, seem to be present only in the autotroph.

  17. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medialmore » and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.« less

  18. Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus

    DOE PAGES

    Hagen, Gaute; Forssen, Christian; Nazarewicz, Witold; ...

    2015-11-02

    What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. Although the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. We present an ab initio calculation of the neutron distribution of the neutron-rich nucleus 48Ca. We show that the neutron skin (difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions)more » is significantly smaller than previously thought. We also make predictions for the electric dipole polarizability and the weak form factor; both quantities that are at present targeted by precision measurements. Here, based on ab initio results for 48Ca, we provide a constraint on the size of a neutron star.« less

  19. Attributed relational graphs for cell nucleus segmentation in fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2013-06-01

    More rapid and accurate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research has become possible with the development of automated microscopy imaging, for which cell nucleus segmentation commonly constitutes the core step. Although several promising methods exist for segmenting the nuclei of monolayer isolated and less-confluent cells, it still remains an open problem to segment the nuclei of more-confluent cells, which tend to grow in overlayers. To address this problem, we propose a new model-based nucleus segmentation algorithm. This algorithm models how a human locates a nucleus by identifying the nucleus boundaries and piecing them together. In this algorithm, we define four types of primitives to represent nucleus boundaries at different orientations and construct an attributed relational graph on the primitives to represent their spatial relations. Then, we reduce the nucleus identification problem to finding predefined structural patterns in the constructed graph and also use the primitives in region growing to delineate the nucleus borders. Working with fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm identifies nuclei better than previous nucleus segmentation algorithms.

  20. Creation of an injectable in situ gelling native extracellular matrix for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Rebecca A; Hoogenboezem, Ella N; Huda, Hammad I; Xin, Shangjing; Porvasnik, Stacy L; Schmidt, Christine E

    2017-03-01

    Disc degeneration is the leading cause of low back pain and is often characterized by a loss of disc height, resulting from cleavage of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the nucleus pulposus. Intact CSPGs are critical to water retention and maintenance of the nucleus osmotic pressure. Decellularization of healthy nucleus pulposus tissue has the potential to serve as an ideal matrix for tissue engineering of the disc because of the presence of native disc proteins and CSPGs. Injectable in situ gelling matrices are the most viable therapeutic option to prevent damage to the anulus fibrosus and future disc degeneration. The purpose of this research was to create a gentle decellularization method for use on healthy nucleus pulposus tissue explants and to develop an injectable formulation of this matrix to enable therapeutic use without substantial tissue disruption. Porcine nuclei pulposi were isolated, decellularized, and solubilized. Samples were assessed to determine the degree of cell removal, matrix maintenance, gelation ability, cytotoxic residuals, and native cell viability. Nuclei pulposi were decellularized using serial detergent, buffer, and enzyme treatments. Decellularized nuclei pulposi were solubilized, neutralized, and buffered. The efficacy of decellularization was assessed by quantifying DNA removal and matrix preservation. An elution study was performed to confirm removal of cytotoxic residuals. Gelation kinetics and injectability were quantified. Long-term in vitro experiments were performed with nucleus pulposus cells to ensure cell viability and native matrix production within the injectable decellularized nucleus pulposus matrices. This work resulted in the creation of a robust acellular matrix (>96% DNA removal) with highly preserved sulfated glycosaminoglycans (>47%), and collagen content and microstructure similar to native nucleus pulposus, indicating preservation of disc components. Furthermore, it was possible to create an

  1. Vestibular signals in the parasolitary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Barmack, N H; Yakhnitsa, V

    2000-06-01

    Vestibular primary afferents project to secondary vestibular neurons located in the vestibular complex. Vestibular primary afferents also project to the uvula-nodulus of the cerebellum where they terminate on granule cells. In this report we describe the physiological properties of neurons in a "new" vestibular nucleus, the parasolitary nucleus (Psol). This nucleus consists of 2,300 GABAergic neurons that project onto the ipsilateral inferior olive (beta-nucleus and dorsomedial cell column) as well as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis. These olivary neurons are the exclusive source of vestibularly modulated climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum. We recorded the activity of Psol neurons during natural vestibular stimulation in anesthetized rabbits. The rabbits were placed in a three-axis rate table at the center of a large sphere, permitting vestibular and optokinetic stimulation. We recorded from 74 neurons in the Psol and from 23 neurons in the regions bordering Psol. The activity of 72/74 Psol neurons and 4/23 non-Psol neurons was modulated by vestibular stimulation in either the pitch or roll planes but not the horizontal plane. Psol neurons responded in phase with ipsilateral side-down head position or velocity during sinusoidal stimulation. Approximately 80% of the recorded Psol neurons responded to static roll-tilt. The optimal response planes of evoked vestibular responses were inferred from measurement of null planes. Optimal response planes usually were aligned with the anatomical orientation of one of the two ipsilateral vertical semicircular canals. The frequency dependence of null plane measurements indicated a convergence of vestibular information from otoliths and semicircular canals. None of the recorded neurons evinced optokinetic sensitivity. These results are consistent with the view that Psol neurons provide the vestibular signals to the inferior olive that eventually reached the cerebellum in the form of modulated climbing fiber

  2. Nuclear matrix and structural and functional compartmentalization of the eucaryotic cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Razin, S V; Borunova, V V; Iarovaia, O V; Vassetzky, Y S

    2014-07-01

    Becoming popular at the end of the 20th century, the concept of the nuclear matrix implies the existence of a nuclear skeleton that organizes functional elements in the cell nucleus. This review presents a critical analysis of the results obtained in the study of nuclear matrix in the light of current views on the organization of the cell nucleus. Numerous studies of nuclear matrix have failed to provide evidence of the existence of such a structure. Moreover, the existence of a filamentous structure that supports the nuclear compartmentalization appears to be unnecessary, since this function is performed by the folded genome itself.

  3. Glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus regulates glucose intake

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed; Richardson, Errol; Ma, Yue; Holton, Christopher; De Backer, Ivan; Buckley, Niki; Dhillo, Waljit; Bewick, Gavin; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Bloom, Steve; Gardiner, James

    2014-01-01

    The brain relies on a constant supply of glucose, its primary fuel, for optimal function. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose delivery to the brain has been postulated to maintain glucose homeostasis; however, evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is involved in regulation of dietary glucose intake. In fasted rats, glucokinase activity was specifically increased in the arcuate nucleus but not other regions of the hypothalamus. Moreover, pharmacologic and genetic activation of glucokinase in the arcuate nucleus of rodent models increased glucose ingestion, while decreased arcuate nucleus glucokinase activity reduced glucose intake. Pharmacologic targeting of potential downstream glucokinase effectors revealed that ATP-sensitive potassium channel and P/Q calcium channel activity are required for glucokinase-mediated glucose intake. Additionally, altered glucokinase activity affected release of the orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y in response to glucose. Together, our results suggest that glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus specifically regulates glucose intake and that appetite for glucose is an important driver of overall food intake. Arcuate nucleus glucokinase activation may represent a CNS mechanism that underlies the oft-described phenomena of the “sweet tooth” and carbohydrate craving. PMID:25485685

  4. VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Wehrle, A. E.; Morabito, D. D.; Jauncey, D. L.; Batty, M. J.; Haynes, R. F.; Wright, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A made at 2.3 GHz on baselines with minimum fringe spacings of 0.15 and 0.0027 arcsec are presented. Results show that the nuclear component is elongated with a maximum extent of approximately 0.05 arcsec which is equivalent to a size of approximately 1 pc at the 5 Mpc distance of Centaurus A. The position angle of the nucleus is found to be 30 + or - 20 degrees, while the ratio of nuclear jet length to width is less than or approximately equal to 20. The nuclear flux density is determined to be 6.8 Jy, while no core component is found with an extent less than or approximately equal to 0.001 (less than or approximately equal to 0.02 pc) with a flux density of greater than or approximately equal to 20 mJy. A model of the Centaurus A nucleus composed of at least two components is developed on the basis of these results in conjunction with earlier VLBI and spectral data. The first component is an elongated source of approximately 0.05 arcsec (approximately 1 pc) size which contains most of the 2.3 GHz nuclear flux, while the second component is a source of approximately 0.0005 arcsec (approximately 0.01 pc) size which is nearly completely self-absorbed at 2.3 GHz but strengthens at higher frequencies.

  5. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner.

  6. Projections of the nucleus of the optic tract to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus in the pigmented rat as demonstrated by anterograde and retrograde transport methods.

    PubMed

    Korp, B G; Blanks, R H; Torigoe, Y

    1989-01-01

    The visual pathways from the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (ph) were studied following injections of tritiated leucine into the NOT of pigmented rats. The cell bodies of origin of the pretectal-NRTP, NRTP-ph, and pretectal-ph projections were determined using retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The pretectum projects strongly to the rostral two-thirds of the central and pericentral subdivisions of the NRTP and sends a remarkably smaller projection to the ph. Both are entirely ipsilateral. The fibers destined for the ph travel with the NOT-NRTP bundle, pass through the NRTP, traverse the medial longitudinal fasciculus, and are distributed to the rostral one-half of the ph. The retrograde HRP studies confirm these pathways. The pretectal projections to the NRTP arise from neurons in the rostromedial NOT; those to the ph are located primarily in the rostral NOT although small numbers are found within the anterior, posterior, and olivary pretectal nuclei. Of major importance is the fact that the ph injections retrogradely label neurons within the NRTP and the adjacent paramedian pontine reticular formation. This NRTP-ph projection is entirely bilateral and arises from parts of both subdivisions of the nucleus targeted by NOT afferents. Both the direct NOT-ph and indirect NOT-NRTP-ph connections provide the anatomical basis for the relay of visual (optokinetic) information to the perihypoglossal complex and, presumably, by virtue of reciprocal ph-vestibular nuclear connections, to the vestibular nuclei itself. Such pathways confirm previous physiological studies in rat and, in particular, clarify the contrasting effects of electrolytic lesions of NRTP in rat which completely abolishes optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) (Cazin et al., 1980a) vs kainic acid lesions which produce only minor effects on OKN slow velocity (Hess et al., 1988). Given these differential effects, one

  7. Mechano-adaptation of the stem cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Heo, Su-Jin; Cosgrove, Brian D; Dai, Eric N; Mauck, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Exogenous mechanical forces are transmitted through the cell and to the nucleus, initiating mechanotransductive signaling cascades with profound effects on cellular function and stem cell fate. A growing body of evidence has shown that the force sensing and force-responsive elements of the nucleus adapt to these mechanotransductive events, tuning their response to future mechanical input. The mechanisms underlying this "mechano-adaptation" are only just beginning to be elucidated, and it remains poorly understood how these components act and adapt in tandem to drive stem cell differentiation. Here, we review the evidence on how the stem cell nucleus responds and adapts to physical forces, and provide a perspective on how this mechano-adaptation may function to drive and enforce stem cell differentiation.

  8. Mechano-adaptation of the stem cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Su-Jin; Cosgrove, Brian D.; Dai, Eric N.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exogenous mechanical forces are transmitted through the cell and to the nucleus, initiating mechanotransductive signaling cascades with profound effects on cellular function and stem cell fate. A growing body of evidence has shown that the force sensing and force-responsive elements of the nucleus adapt to these mechanotransductive events, tuning their response to future mechanical input. The mechanisms underlying this “mechano-adaptation” are only just beginning to be elucidated, and it remains poorly understood how these components act and adapt in tandem to drive stem cell differentiation. Here, we review the evidence on how the stem cell nucleus responds and adapts to physical forces, and provide a perspective on how this mechano-adaptation may function to drive and enforce stem cell differentiation. PMID:29099288

  9. Brainstem efferents from the interface between the nucleus medialis and the nucleus interpositus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Buisseret-Delmas, C; Angaut, P; Compoint, C; Diagne, M; Buisseret, P

    1998-12-14

    In a previous report (Buisseret-Delmas et al. [1993] Neurosci. Res. 16:195-207), the authors identified the interface between the cerebellar nuclei medialis and interpositus as the origin of the nuclear output from cortical zone X. They named this nuclear interface the interstitial cell group (icg). In this study, the authors analyzed the icg efferents to the brainstem by using the anterograde and retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine. The main targets of these efferents are from rostral to caudal: 1) the accessory oculomotor nuclear region, essentially, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal; 2) the caudoventral region of the red nucleus; 3) a dorsal zone of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis; 4) restricted regions of the four main vestibular nuclei; and 5) three restricted areas in the inferior olive, one that is caudal in the medial accessory subnucleus and two others that are rostral and caudal in the dorsal accessory subnucleus, respectively. These data support the notion that the icg contributes to the control of gaze-orientation mechanisms, particularly those that are related to the vestibuloocular reflex.

  10. Finding of increased caudate nucleus in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Bohbot, V D; Bogdanovic, N; Selbaek, G; Braekhus, A; Engedal, K

    2018-02-01

    A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria. Demographic data, cognitive measures, and APOE-ɛ4 status were collected. Compared with non-dementia patients (SCI and MCI), AD patients were older, more of them were female, and they had a larger caudate nucleus volume and smaller hippocampus volume (P<.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, age and female sex were associated with larger caudate nucleus volume, but neither diagnosis nor memory function was. Age, gender, and memory function were associated with hippocampus volume, and age and memory function were associated with caudate nucleus/hippocampus ratio. A larger caudate nucleus volume in AD patients was partly explained by older age and being female. These results are further discussed in the context of (1) the caudate nucleus possibly serving as a mechanism for temporary compensation; (2) methodological properties of automated volumetry of this brain region; and (3) neuropathological alterations. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of the caudate nucleus in AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Fun-Dow; Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty H.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies have been carried out on organic and inorganic free radicals generated by gamma-ray and/or UV-irradiation and trapped in ice matrices. It is suggested that the concentration of these free radicals together with their thermal stability can be used as an accurate built-in geothermometer and radiation probe for returned comet nucleus sample studies. ESR studies have also been carried out on paramagnetic (Mn(2+), Ti(3+), and Fe(3+)) and ferromagnetic (ferric oxide and metallic iron) centers known to be present in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. The presence or absence of these magnetic centers coupled with their characteristic ESR lineshape can be used to investigate the shock effects, quenching/cooling rate and oxidation-reduction conditions in the formation and subsequent evolution of returned comet nucleus samples.

  12. In mammalian muscle, SIRT3 is present in mitochondria and not in the nucleus; and SIRT3 is upregulated by chronic muscle contraction in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Gurd, Brendon J; Holloway, Graham P; Yoshida, Yuko; Bonen, Arend

    2012-05-01

    In selected cell lines, it appears (a) that metabolic stressors induce the translocation of SIRT3 from the nucleus to mitochondria and (b) that SIRT3 may contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and/or fatty acid utilization. We have examined in mammalian muscle (1) the association between SIRT3 protein content and muscle oxidative capacity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, (2) the subcellular location of SIRT3, (3) whether exercise induces the translocation of SIRT3 from the nucleus to the mitochondria, and (4) the response of SIRT3 protein to stressors known to induce mitochondrial biogenesis (chronic muscle stimulation and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside administration). SIRT3 protein displayed hierarchical expression based on oxidative potential of muscle tissues (heart > red > white). In contrast to studies in some cell lines, metabolic stress (exercise) did not induce the translocation of SIRT3 from the nucleus to mitochondria, as SIRT3 was only present in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria, not in the nucleus. Chronic stimulation increased muscle mitochondrial content and SIRT3 protein in SS (+33%) and IMF (+27%) mitochondria (P < .05). In contrast, chronic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside administration, while inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, did not alter SS or IMF mitochondrial SIRT3 protein content. These studies have shown that, in muscle, SIRT3 (a) scales with muscle oxidative capacity and with enzymes regulating fatty acid oxidation, (b) in resting muscle is localized to SS and IMF mitochondria and not nuclei, (c) in contracting muscle is not acutely translocated to mitochondria, and (d) is upregulated with chronic stimulation in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-independent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal finasteride administration decreases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens after alcohol and food presentation in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The development of the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Patrick, James F; Busby, Peter A; Gibson, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus Freedom, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of Smart Sound to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming.

  15. Effect of beta-phenylethylamine on extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mikio; Katagiri, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Kota; Abe, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masago; Utsunomiya, Iku; Hoshi, Keiko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2009-05-07

    It is known that psychostimulants stimulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), a psychomotor-stimulating trace amine, on dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in freely moving rats, using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Intraperitoneal administration of beta-PEA (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The observed increase in the dopamine concentration in nucleus accumbens shell dialysate after intraperitoneal administration of 25 mg/kg beta-PEA was inhibited by pre-treatment with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR12909 (10 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, beta-PEA (25 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. Although a high dose of beta-PEA (50 mg/kg) significantly increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens core, the dopamine increasing effect of beta-PEA was more potent in the nucleus accumbens shell. Systemic administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg beta-PEA also increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex of rats. However, systemic 25 mg/kg beta-PEA-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels were not blocked by GBR12909 within the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that beta-PEA has a greater effect in the shell than in the core and low-dose beta-PEA stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell through uptake by a dopamine transporter. Similarly, beta-PEA increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, beta-PEA may increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic pathway.

  16. Structural-Functional Organization of the Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus and Transcription Regulation: Introduction to This Special Issue of Biochemistry (Moscow).

    PubMed

    Razin, S V

    2018-04-01

    This issue of Biochemistry (Moscow) is devoted to the cell nucleus and mechanisms of transcription regulation. Over the years, biochemical processes in the cell nucleus have been studied in isolation, outside the context of their spatial organization. Now it is clear that segregation of functional processes within a compartmentalized cell nucleus is very important for the implementation of basic genetic processes. The functional compartmentalization of the cell nucleus is closely related to the spatial organization of the genome, which in turn plays a key role in the operation of epigenetic mechanisms. In this issue of Biochemistry (Moscow), we present a selection of review articles covering the functional architecture of the eukaryotic cell nucleus, the mechanisms of genome folding, the role of stochastic processes in establishing 3D architecture of the genome, and the impact of genome spatial organization on transcription regulation.

  17. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Jessica S; Francis, W Loren; Eliason, Travis D; Bredbenner, Todd L; Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with the

  18. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Jessica S.; Francis, W. Loren; Eliason, Travis D.; Bredbenner, Todd L.; Stemper, Brian D.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3–L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3–L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with

  19. Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the workshop on the analysis of returned comet nucleus samples held in Milpitas, California, January 16 to 18, 1989. The abstracts deal with the nature of cometary ices, cryogenic handling and sampling equipment, origin and composition of samples, and spectroscopic, thermal and chemical processing methods of cometary nuclei. Laboratory simulation experimental results on dust samples are reported. Some results obtained from Halley's comet are also included. Microanalytic techniques for examining trace elements of cometary particles, synchrotron x ray fluorescence and instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA), are presented.

  20. The Nucleus Accumbens and Pavlovian Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to form associations between predictive environmental events and rewarding outcomes is a fundamental aspect of learned behavior. This apparently simple ability likely requires complex neural processing evolved to identify, seek, and utilize natural rewards and redirect these activities based on updated sensory information. Emerging evidence from both animal and human research suggests that this type of processing is mediated in part by the nucleus accumbens and a closely associated network of brain structures. The nucleus accumbens is required for a number of reward-related behaviors, and processes specific information about reward availability, value, and context. Additionally, this structure is critical for the acquisition and expression of most Pavlovian stimulus-reward relationships, and cues that predict rewards produce robust changes in neural activity in the nucleus accumbens. While processing within the nucleus accumbens may enable or promote Pavlovian reward learning in natural situations, it has also been implicated in aspects of human drug addiction, including the ability of drug-paired cues to control behavior. This article will provide a critical review of the existing animal and human literature concerning the role of the NAc in Pavlovian learning with non-drug rewards and consider some clinical implications of these findings. PMID:17404375

  1. Visible and Infrared Study of Comet 2P/Encke's Nucleus During Its 2013 Apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Yanga R.; Mueller, Beatrice E.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Woodney, Laura M.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-11-01

    The 2013 apparition of comet 2P/Encke provided an opportunity to study the comet while it was relatively close to Earth (0.48 AU on October 17, the closest pass until 2030). We initiated a multiwavelength observing campaign for September and October with the goal of further characterizing the physical, thermal, and rotational properties of 2P's nucleus. Spectral observations were timed to coincide with an equator-on view of the nucleus, a rarely-seen vantage point compared to previous data (e.g. [1,2,3,4]). The spectra span both Wien-side thermal emission and reflected sunlight, covering 0.7 to 2.5 μm, and sample all of the nucleus's rotational longitudes. They were obtained using the SpeX instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We will present results on thermal inertia and albedo from a preliminary analysis of these data. Visible observations over the past 13 years have shown that the rotation period of 2P's nucleus increases by ~4 minutes per orbit [5,6], and that the light curve has a two-humped shape but that the humps have quite different amplitudes (e.g. [7]). Thus the equator-on view gave us the chance to further investigate 2P's rotation state and shape. We used the CSUSB Murillo Family Observatory 0.5-meter telescope [8], the NOAO Kitt Peak 2.1-meter telescope, and the MORIS instrument at NASA/IRTF to obtain R-band, time-series photometry of the nucleus. We will present new, preliminary constraints on the secular changes in the nucleus's spin state and on the nucleus's shape based on these new data. We thank the allocation committees of the IRTF and NOAO telescopes for granting the time used for this project. References: [1] Y. R. Fernandez et al. 2000, Icarus 147, 145. [2] M. S. Kelley et al. 2006, ApJ 651, 1256. [3] Y. R. Fernandez et al. 2008, 40th Meeting of the DPS, #16.24. [4] P. Abell et al. 2009, 41st Meeting of the DPS, #20.02. [5] B. E. A. Mueller et al. 2008, 40th Meeting of the DPS, #16.25. [6] N. H. Samarasinha and B. E. A

  2. Dynamic, mechanical integration between nucleus and cell- where physics meets biology.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Richard B; Neelam, Srujana; Lele, Tanmay P

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear motions like rotation, translation and deformation suggest that the nucleus is acted upon by mechanical forces. Molecular linkages with the cytoskeleton are thought to transfer forces to the nuclear surface. We developed an approach to apply reproducible, known mechanical forces to the nucleus in spread adherent cells and quantified the elastic response of the mechanically integrated nucleus-cell. The method is sensitive to molecular perturbations and revealed new insight into the function of the LINC complex. While these experiments revealed elastic behaviors, turnover of the cytoskeleton by assembly/disassembly and binding/unbinding of linkages are expected to dissipate any stored mechanical energy in the nucleus or the cytoskeleton. Experiments investigating nuclear forces over longer time scales demonstrated the mechanical principle that expansive/compressive stresses on the nuclear surface arise from the movement of the cell boundaries to shape and position the nucleus. Such forces can shape the nucleus to conform to cell shapes during cell movements with or without myosin activity.

  3. Dynamic, mechanical integration between nucleus and cell- where physics meets biology

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Richard B; Neelam, Srujana; Lele, Tanmay P

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear motions like rotation, translation and deformation suggest that the nucleus is acted upon by mechanical forces. Molecular linkages with the cytoskeleton are thought to transfer forces to the nuclear surface. We developed an approach to apply reproducible, known mechanical forces to the nucleus in spread adherent cells and quantified the elastic response of the mechanically integrated nucleus-cell. The method is sensitive to molecular perturbations and revealed new insight into the function of the LINC complex. While these experiments revealed elastic behaviors, turnover of the cytoskeleton by assembly/disassembly and binding/unbinding of linkages are expected to dissipate any stored mechanical energy in the nucleus or the cytoskeleton. Experiments investigating nuclear forces over longer time scales demonstrated the mechanical principle that expansive/compressive stresses on the nuclear surface arise from the movement of the cell boundaries to shape and position the nucleus. Such forces can shape the nucleus to conform to cell shapes during cell movements with or without myosin activity. PMID:26338356

  4. Increased R2* in the caudate nucleus of asymptomatic welders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R.; Du, Guangwei; Li, Yunqing; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Herring, Amy H.; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Kong, Lan; Fry, Rebecca C.; Snyder, Amanda M.; Connor, James R.; Yang, Qing X.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Welding has been associated with neurobehavioral disorders. Welding fumes contain several metals including copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) that may interact to influence welding-related neuro-toxicity. Although welding-related airborne Fe levels are about ten-fold higher than Mn, previous studies have focused on Mn and its accumulation in the basal ganglia. This study examined differences in the apparent transverse relaxation rates [R2* (1/T2*), estimate of Fe accumulation] in the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) between welders and controls, and the dose-response relationship between estimated Fe exposure and R2* values. Occupational questionnaires estimated recent and lifetime Fe exposure, and blood Fe levels and brain MRI were obtained. Complete exposure and MRI R2* and R1 (1/T1: measure to estimate Mn accumulation) data from 42 subjects with welding exposure and 29 controls were analyzed. Welders had significantly greater exposure metrics and higher whole blood Fe levels compared to controls. R2* in the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in welders after controlling for age, body mass index, respirator use, caudate R1, and blood metals of Cu and Mn, whereas there was no difference in R1 values in the basal ganglia between groups. The R2* in the caudate nucleus was positively correlated with whole blood Fe concentration. The present study provides the first evidence of higher R2* in the caudate nucleus of welders, which is suggestive of increased Fe accumulation in this area. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings and determine the neurobehavioral relevance. PMID:27871916

  5. Directed Communication between Nucleus Accumbens and Neocortex in Humans Is Differentially Supported by Synchronization in the Theta and Alpha Band.

    PubMed

    Horschig, Jörn M; Smolders, Ruud; Bonnefond, Mathilde; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Cools, Roshan; Denys, Damiaan; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report evidence for oscillatory bi-directional interactions between the nucleus accumbens and the neocortex in humans. Six patients performed a demanding covert visual attention task while we simultaneously recorded brain activity from deep-brain electrodes implanted in the nucleus accumbens and the surface electroencephalogram (EEG). Both theta and alpha oscillations were strongly coherent with the frontal and parietal EEG during the task. Theta-band coherence increased during processing of the visual stimuli. Granger causality analysis revealed that the nucleus accumbens was communicating with the neocortex primarily in the theta-band, while the cortex was communicating the nucleus accumbens in the alpha-band. These data are consistent with a model, in which theta- and alpha-band oscillations serve dissociable roles: Prior to stimulus processing, the cortex might suppress ongoing processing in the nucleus accumbens by modulating alpha-band activity. Subsequently, upon stimulus presentation, theta oscillations might facilitate the active exchange of stimulus information from the nucleus accumbens to the cortex.

  6. The bare nucleus of comet Neujmin 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, Humberto; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mcfadden, Lucy-Ann

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous visible and infrared observations of comet P/Neujmin 1 1984c are presented which show that the comet has a large (mean radius 10 km), dark (geometric albedo 2-3 percent) nucleus with a surface which is mostly inert material but which still shows a low level of gaseous activity. This is the first physical evidence that cometary nuclei can leave behind an inert body after the coma activity ceases. No asteroid or asteroid class has been found to match the reflectance and albedo of this comet except possibly some D asteroids.

  7. Constraining in-medium nucleon-nucleon interactions via nucleus-nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca; White, Larz

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear equation of state is a broadly useful tool. Besides being the main input of stellar structure calculations, it allows a direct connection to the physics of nuclei. For instance, an energy functional (such as a mass formula), together with the energy/particle in nuclear matter, can be used to predict nuclear energies and radii [1]. The single-particle properties are also a key point to link infinite nuclear matter and actual nuclei. The parameters of the single-particle potential, in particular the effective mass, enter the calculations of, for instance, in-medium effective cross sections. From the well-known Glauber reaction theory, the total nucleus-nucleus reaction cross section is expressed in terms of the nuclear transparency, which, in turn, depends on the overlap of the nuclear density distributions and the elementary nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections. We explore the sensitivity of the reaction calculation to medium modifications of the NN cross sections to estimate the likelihood of constraining the latter through nuclear reactions. Ultimately, we wish to incorporate isospin asymmetry in the reaction model, having in mind connections with rare isotopes. [1] F. Sammarruca, arXiv:1002.00146 [nucl-th]; International Journal of Modern Physics, in press.

  8. Clonazepam responsive opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome: additional evidence in favour of fastigial nucleus disinhibition hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Chandra, Satish; Verma, Ritu; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2010-05-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen in 50% of children with neuroblastoma. Neural generator of opsoclonus and myoclonus is not known but evidences suggest the role of fastigial nucleus disinhibition from the loss of function of inhibitory (GABAergic) Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. We present a child with paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome who responded well to clonazepam. Response to clonazepam is an evidence for the involvement of GABAergic neural circuits in the genesis of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and is in agreement with fastigial nucleus disinhibition hypothesis.

  9. The chimeric eukaryote: origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Dolan, M. F.; Guerrero, R.

    2000-01-01

    We present a testable model for the origin of the nucleus, the membrane-bounded organelle that defines eukaryotes. A chimeric cell evolved via symbiogenesis by syntrophic merger between an archaebacterium and a eubacterium. The archaebacterium, a thermoacidophil resembling extant Thermoplasma, generated hydrogen sulfide to protect the eubacterium, a heterotrophic swimmer comparable to Spirochaeta or Hollandina that oxidized sulfide to sulfur. Selection pressure for speed swimming and oxygen avoidance led to an ancient analogue of the extant cosmopolitan bacterial consortium "Thiodendron latens." By eubacterial-archaebacterial genetic integration, the chimera, an amitochondriate heterotroph, evolved. This "earliest branching protist" that formed by permanent DNA recombination generated the nucleus as a component of the karyomastigont, an intracellular complex that assured genetic continuity of the former symbionts. The karyomastigont organellar system, common in extant amitochondriate protists as well as in presumed mitochondriate ancestors, minimally consists of a single nucleus, a single kinetosome and their protein connector. As predecessor of standard mitosis, the karyomastigont preceded free (unattached) nuclei. The nucleus evolved in karyomastigont ancestors by detachment at least five times (archamoebae, calonymphids, chlorophyte green algae, ciliates, foraminifera). This specific model of syntrophic chimeric fusion can be proved by sequence comparison of functional domains of motility proteins isolated from candidate taxa.

  10. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  11. Study of the peculiarities of multiparticle production via event-by-event analysis in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosimova, Anastasiya; Gaitinov, Adigam; Grushevskaya, Ekaterina; Lebedev, Igor

    2017-06-01

    In this work the study on the peculiarities of multiparticle production in interactions of asymmetric nuclei to search for unusual features of such interactions, is performed. A research of long-range and short-range multiparticle correlations in the pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles on the basis of analysis of individual interactions of nuclei of 197 Au at energy 10.7 AGeV with photoemulsion nuclei, is carried out. Events with long-range multiparticle correlations (LC), short-range multiparticle correlations (SC) and mixed type (MT) in pseudorapidity distribution of secondary particles, are selected by the Hurst method in accordance with Hurst curve behavior. These types have significantly different characteristics. At first, they have different fragmentation parameters. Events of LC type are processes of full destruction of the projectile nucleus, in which multicharge fragments are absent. In events of mixed type several multicharge fragments of projectile nucleus are discovered. Secondly, these two types have significantly different multiplicity distribution. The mean multiplicity of LC type events is significantly more than in mixed type events. On the basis of research of the dependence of multiplicity versus target-nuclei fragments number for events of various types it is revealed, that the most considerable multiparticle correlations are observed in interactions of the mixed type, which correspond to the central collisions of gold nuclei and nuclei of CNO-group, i.e. nuclei with strongly asymmetric volume, nuclear mass, charge, etc. Such events are characterised by full destruction of the target-nucleus and the disintegration of the projectile-nucleus on several multi-charged fragments.

  12. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation and Dysarthria in Parkinson's Disease: A PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Serge; Thobois, Stephane; Costes, Nicolas; Le Bars, Didier; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Pollak, Pierre; Gentil, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, functional imaging studies during limb motor tasks reveal cerebral activation abnormalities that can be reversed by subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The effect of STN stimulation on parkinsonian dysarthria has not, however, been investigated using PET. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of STN…

  13. The dynamic landscape of the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Bellini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of nuclear activities in both fixed and live cells. As a result, three major principles have emerged: first, the nucleus is not just a bag filled with nucleic acids and proteins. Rather, many distinct functional domains, including the chromosomes, resides within the confines of the nuclear envelope. Second, all these nuclear domains are highly dynamic, with molecules exchanging rapidly between them and the surrounding nucleoplasm. Finally, the motion of molecules within the nucleoplasm appears to be mostly driven by random diffusion. Here, the emerging roles of several subnuclear domains are discussed in the context of the dynamic functions of the cell nucleus.

  14. Genetic inactivation of glutamate neurons in the rat sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus recapitulates REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Lazarus, Michael; Grassi, Daniela; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    SEE SCHENCK AND MAHOWALD DOI101093/AWW329 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats. For this goal, we first injected two retrograde tracers in the intralaminar thalamus and ventral medulla to disentangle neuronal circuits in which sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus is involved; second we infused bilaterally in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus adeno-associated viruses carrying short hairpin RNAs targeting Slc17a6 mRNA [which encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)] to chronically impair glutamate synaptic transmission in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons. At the neuroanatomical level, sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep hypersomnia send descending efferents to glycine/GABA neurons within the ventral medulla, but not ascending projections to the intralaminar thalamus. These data suggest a crucial role of sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons rather in muscle atonia than in paradoxical sleep generation. In line with this hypothesis, 30 days after adeno-associated virus injections into sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus rats display a decrease of 30% of paradoxical sleep daily quantities, and a significant increase of muscle tone during paradoxical sleep concomitant to a tremendous increase of abnormal motor dream

  15. Neovascularization and neoinnervation of subcutaneously placed nucleus pulposus and the inhibitory effects of certain drugs.

    PubMed

    Olmarker, Kjell

    2005-07-01

    An experimental study in the pig with autologous transfer of nucleus pulpous and retroperitoneal fat to the subcutaneous space of the back. To evaluate if there is neovascularization or neoinnervation of subcutaneously placed nucleus pulposus, in comparison to retroperitoneal fat, and under simultaneous treatment by certain antiangiogenetic drugs. It has been suggested that intervertebral discs may be invaded by newly formed blood vessels and nerve fibers following injury of the anulus fibrosus. The nerve fibers have been considered to induce low back pain. However, it is still debated whether such ingrowth may occur and, if present, if this is based on the action of angiogenetic substances in the intervertebral disc or simply by normal would healing. In the first series, autologous nucleus pulposus and retroperitoneal fat was placed subcutaneously in 3 pigs. In the second series, autologous nucleus pulposus was placed subcutaneously with simultaneous treatment with methotrexate (n = 3), celecoxib (n = 3), doxycycline (n = 3), and infliximab (n = 3). After 7 days, the tissue was collected and processed immunohistochemically for the visualization of blood vessels and nerve fibers. There was a number of blood vessels and nerve fibers in the nucleus pulposus samples, while no vessels were observed in the fat samples. Neither methotrexate nor celecoxib seemed to be able to reduce the ingrowth of blood vessels (neovascularization) or nerve fibers (neoinnervation). Treatment by doxycycline and infliximab markedly reduced both neovascularization and neoinnervation. Subcutaneously placed autologous nucleus pulposus displays an ingrowth of newly formed blood vessels and nerve fibers within 7 days, in contrast to retroperitoneal fat. Such ingrowth seems to be reduced by doxycycline and infliximab, 2 cytokine inhibitors. The data suggest that the ingrowth may be induced by bioactive substances within the nucleus pulposus. The clinical importance of these data has yet to be

  16. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The chemical composition of cosmic ray nuclei above 1.3 GeV per nucleus and 23 GeV per nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Osborn, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements made with a balloon-borne counter telescope are reported. The telescope was flown from Palestine, Tex., during the fall of 1971 for a total of 10 hours under an average residual atmospheric depth of 4.4 g per sq cm. The data analysis indicates that the integral flux ratios above 1.3 GeV per nucleus and 23 GeV per nucleus are consistent with energy independence.

  18. Dense transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 2 (TRPV2) immunoreactivity defines a subset of motoneurons in the dorsal lateral nucleus of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus and the trigeminal motor nucleus in rat.

    PubMed

    Lewinter, R D; Scherrer, G; Basbaum, A I

    2008-01-02

    The transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 2 (TRPV2) is a member of the TRPV family of proteins and is a homologue of the capsaicin/vanilloid receptor (transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 1, TRPV1). Like TRPV1, TRPV2 is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that project to superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Because noxious heat (>52 degrees C) activates TRPV2 in transfected cells this channel has been implicated in the processing of high intensity thermal pain messages in vivo. In contrast to TRPV1, however, which is restricted to small diameter DRG neurons, there is significant TRPV2 immunoreactivity in a variety of CNS regions. The present report focuses on a subset of neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat including the dorsal lateral nucleus (DLN) of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus, and the motor trigeminal nucleus. Double label immunocytochemistry with markers of motoneurons, combined with retrograde labeling, established that these cells are, in fact, motoneurons. With the exception of their smaller diameter, these cells did not differ from other motoneurons, which are only lightly TRPV2-immunoreactive. As for the majority of DLN neurons, the densely-labeled populations co-express androgen receptor and follow normal DLN ontogeny. The functional significance of the very intense TRPV2 expression in these three distinct spinal cord and brainstem motoneurons groups remains to be determined.

  19. Satellite control system nucleus for the Brazilian complete space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguti, Wilson; Decarvalhovieira, Anastacio Emanuel; Deoliveira, Julia Leocadia; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo; Dacosta, Petronio Osorio

    1990-10-01

    The nucleus of the satellite control system for the Brazilian data collecting and remote sensing satellites is described. The system is based on Digital Equipment Computers and the VAX/VMS operating system. The nucleus provides the access control, the system configuration, the event management, history files management, time synchronization, wall display control, and X25 data communication network access facilities. The architecture of the nucleus and its main implementation aspects are described. The implementation experience acquired is considered.

  20. A study of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section of stable systems at intermediate energies: An application to 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liyuan; Song, Yushou; Hou, Yingwei; Liu, Huilan; Li, Hui

    2018-07-01

    A semi-microscopic analytical expression of the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross section (σR) was proposed based on the strong absorption model. It is suitable for stable nuclei at intermediate energies. The matter density distributions of nuclei and the nucleon-nucleon total cross section were both considered. Particularly, the Fermi motion effect of the nucleons in a nucleus was also taken into account. The parametrization of σR was applied to the colliding systems including 12C. The experimental data at energies from 30 to 1000 MeV/nucleon were well reproduced, according to which an approach of deriving σR without adjustable parameters was developed. The necessity of considering the Fermi motion effect in the parametrization was discussed.

  1. The Dependence of the Circumnuclear Coma Structure on the Properties of the Nucleus. IV. Structure of the Night-Side Gas Coma of a Strongly Sublimating Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crifo, J. F.; Rodionov, A. V.

    2000-12-01

    The structure of the nightside coma in the vicinity of a strongly active comet nucleus of pure ice is investigated by solving gasdynamic equations for the flow of water vapour sublimated from—or condensed onto—the nucleus surface. To guarantee the physical validity of the solution, both Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations are solved, and the solutions are compared. A spherical nucleus is considered first and then a triaxial ellipsoidal nucleus. The results show that (1) a fluid coma of significant extent and very complicated physical structure is formed; (2) for low heat conduction transfer across the nucleus from the dayside to the nightside surface, a narrow conical weak shock appears near to the antisolar axis; the whole nightside surface acts as a cold trap for the vapor, part of which recondenses onto it; (3) for intermediate heat conduction, part of the nightside surface becomes weakly sublimating, and a different weak shock pattern is formed; and (4) at high heat conduction, the whole nightside surface is weakly sublimating, and the resulting flow pattern becomes similar to that existing in a coma formed by diffusion from the nucleus interior (see Crifo, Rodionov and Bockelée-Morvan, 1999, Icarus138, 83-106). The results are compared to related model results by other authors, and a discussion is made of their relevance to the 1996 observation of the near-nucleus nightside coma of Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake.

  2. Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid Muscle Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-CR-0783 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid...ARL-CR-0783 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid Muscle...Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid Muscle Inhibition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 1120-1120-99 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  4. Determination of electron-nucleus collisions geometry with forward neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Aschenauer, E.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-29

    There are a large number of physics programs one can explore in electron-nucleus collisions at a future electron-ion collider. Collision geometry is very important in these studies, while the measurement for an event-by-event geometric control is rarely discussed in the prior deep-inelastic scattering experiments off a nucleus. This paper seeks to provide some detailed studies on the potential of tagging collision geometries through forward neutron multiplicity measurements with a zero degree calorimeter. As a result, this type of geometry handle, if achieved, can be extremely beneficial in constraining nuclear effects for the electron-nucleus program at an electron-ion collider.

  5. Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Hou, Chen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Pinglin; He, Xijing; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Haopeng

    2016-09-01

    Cannabidiol, a major component of marijuana, protects nerves, and exerts antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti‑anxiety effects. In the current study, the protective effect of cannabidiol was observed to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells. Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated from rats and cultured in vitro, and H2O2 was used to construct the nucleus pulposus cell model. Cell viability of the nucleus pulposus cells was assessed using a 3‑(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The ratio of apoptotic cells, and caspase‑3 or cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) mRNA expression was analyzed by annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium‑iodide staining and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The quantities of interleukin (IL)‑1β and interleukin‑6 were measured using a series of assay kits. B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression levels were analyzed using western blotting. The present study identified that cannabidiol enhanced cell viability and reduced apoptosis in H2O2‑treated nucleus pulposus cells in vitro using a lumbar disc herniation (LDH) model. In addition, cannabidiol reduced caspase‑3 gene expression and augmented the Bcl‑2 protein expression levels in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Pre‑treatment with cannabidiol suppressed the promotion of COX‑2, iNOS, IL‑1β and IL‑6 expression in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that cannabidiol potentially exerts its protective effect on LDH via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation and anti‑oxidative activities in nucleus pulposus cells.

  6. Synaptic loss and firing alterations in Axotomized Motoneurons are restored by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-B.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula M; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2018-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as VEGF-A, was discovered due to its vasculogenic and angiogenic activity, but a neuroprotective role for VEGF was later proven for lesions and disorders. In different models of motoneuronal degeneration, VEGF administration leads to a significant reduction of motoneuronal death. However, there is no information about the physiological state of spared motoneurons. We examined the trophic role of VEGF on axotomized motoneurons with recordings in alert animals using the oculomotor system as the experimental model, complemented with a synaptic study at the confocal microscopy level. Axotomy leads to drastic alterations in the discharge characteristics of abducens motoneurons, as well as to a substantial loss of their synaptic inputs. Retrograde delivery of VEGF completely restored the discharge activity and synaptically-driven signals in injured motoneurons, as demonstrated by correlating motoneuronal firing rate with motor performance. Moreover, VEGF-treated motoneurons recovered a normal density of synaptic boutons around motoneuronal somata and in the neuropil, in contrast to the low levels of synaptic terminals found after axotomy. VEGF also reduced the astrogliosis induced by axotomy in the abducens nucleus to control values. The administration of VEGF-B produced results similar to those of VEGF. This is the first work demonstrating that VEGF and VEGF-B restore the normal operating mode and synaptic inputs on injured motoneurons. Altogether these data indicate that these molecules are relevant synaptotrophic factors for motoneurons and support their clinical potential for the treatment of motoneuronal disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Emotion and basal ganglia (II): what can we learn from subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease?].

    PubMed

    Péron, J; Dondaine, T

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patient model seems to represent a unique opportunity for studying the functional role of the basal ganglia and notably the subthalamic nucleus in human emotional processing. Indeed, in addition to constituting a therapeutic advance for severely disabled Parkinson's disease patients, deep brain stimulation is a technique, which selectively modulates the activity of focal structures targeted by surgery. There is growing evidence of a link between emotional impairments and deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In this context, according to the definition of emotional processing exposed in the companion paper available in this issue, the aim of the present review will consist in providing a synopsis of the studies that investigated the emotional disturbances observed in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation Parkinson's disease patients. This review leads to the conclusion that several emotional components would be disrupted after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: subjective feeling, neurophysiological activation, and motor expression. Finally, after a description of the limitations of this study model, we discuss the functional role of the subthalamic nucleus (and the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which it is involved) in emotional processing. It seems reasonable to conclude that the striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are indeed involved in emotional processing and that the subthalamic nucleus plays a central in role the human emotional architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Placing the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus within the brain circuits that control behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirouac, Gilbert J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the anatomical connections of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and discusses some of the connections by which the PVT could influence behavior. The PVT receives neurochemically diverse projections from the brainstem and hypothalamus with an especially strong innervation from peptide producing neurons. Anatomical evidence is also presented which suggests that the PVT relays information from neurons involved in visceral or homeostatic functions. In turn, the PVT is a major source of projections to the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central nucleus of the amygdala as well as the cortical areas associated with these subcortical regions. The PVT is activated by conditions and cues that produce states of arousal including those with appetitive or aversive emotional valences. The paper focuses on the potential contribution of the PVT to circadian rhythms, fear, anxiety, food intake and drug-seeking. The information in this paper highlights the potential importance of the PVT as being a component of the brain circuits that regulate reward and defensive behavior with the hope of generating more research in this relatively understudied region of the brain. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineralogy and Petrology of COMET WILD2 Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Bland, Phil; Bradley, John; Brearley, Adrian; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald; Butterworth, Anna; Dai, Zurong; Ebel, Denton

    2006-01-01

    The sample return capsule of the Stardust spacecraft will be recovered in northern Utah on January 15, 2006, and under nominal conditions it will be delivered to the new Stardust Curation Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center two days later. Within the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain for detailed analysis. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have been analyzing selected removed grains for more than one month. This presentation will present the first results from the mineralogical and petrological analyses that will have been performed.

  10. The ionization cone, obscured nucleus, and gaseous outflow in NGC 3281 - A prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Wilson, Andrew S.; Baldwin, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-band images and long-slit spectroscopy of the central region of the highly inclined Seyfert galaxy NGC 3281 are presented. The image of the continuum-subtracted forbidden 4959 emission line shows a very clear conical morphology for the high-excitation gas. A possible similar structure can also be seen on the other side of the nucleus, but is dimmed by patchy obscuration in the dusk. The continuum images and long-slit spectroscopy are used to derive and map the extinction in the inner regions of NGC 3281; heavy obscuration is found along the present line of sight to the apex of the cone, suggesting that the true nucleus is located at the apex and is obscured. Low-resolution long-slit spectra are used to study the stellar population, which is found to be old, uniform within 2.5 kpc of the nucleus, and typical of the bulges of early-type galaxies. It is suggested that NGC3281 may be another example of a 'hidden' Seyfert 1, even though there is no direct evidence for a broad-line region in this particular galaxy.

  11. Microdosimetric study for nanosecond pulsed electric fields on a cell circuit model with nucleus.

    PubMed

    Denzi, Agnese; Merla, Caterina; Camilleri, Paola; Paffi, Alessandra; d'Inzeo, Guglielmo; Apollonio, Francesca; Liberti, Micaela

    2013-10-01

    Recently, scientific interest in electric pulses, always more intense and shorter and able to induce biological effects on both plasma and nuclear membranes, has greatly increased. Hence, microdosimetric models that include internal organelles like the nucleus have assumed increasing importance. In this work, a circuit model of the cell including the nucleus is proposed, which accounts for the dielectric dispersion of all cell compartments. The setup of the dielectric model of the nucleus is of fundamental importance in determining the transmembrane potential (TMP) induced on the nuclear membrane; here, this is demonstrated by comparing results for three different sets of nuclear dielectric properties present in the literature. The results have been compared, even including or disregarding the dielectric dispersion of the nucleus. The main differences have been found when using pulses shorter than 10 ns. This is due to the fact that the high spectral components of the shortest pulses are differently taken into account by the nuclear membrane transfer functions computed with and without nuclear dielectric dispersion. The shortest pulses are also the most effective in porating the intracellular structures, as confirmed by the time courses of the TMP calculated across the plasma and nuclear membranes. We show how dispersive nucleus models are unavoidable when dealing with pulses shorter than 10 ns because of the large spectral contents arriving above 100 MHz, i.e., over the typical relaxation frequencies of the dipolar mechanism of the molecules constituting the nuclear membrane and the subcellular cell compartments.

  12. Serotonergic innervation of mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neurons: a light and electron microscopic study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Xiong, K H; Li, Y Q; Kaneko, T; Mizuno, N

    2000-06-01

    Neurons of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) are considered to be homologous to mechanosensitive neurons in the sensory ganglia. The sites of origin of serotonin (5HT)-immunoreactive axons on neuronal cell bodies in the MTN were studied in the rat by combining immunofluorescence histochemical techniques with retrograde tracing of Fluoro-Gold (FG) and anterograde tracing of biotin-conjugated dextran amine (BDA). The tracing studies, which were combined with multiple-labeling immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, indicated that 5HT-immunoreactive axon terminals on the cell bodies of MTN neurons originated from the medullary raphe nuclei, such as the nucleus raphes magmus (RMg), alpha part of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (GiA) and nucleus raphes obscurus (ROb), as well as from the mesopontine raphe nuclei, such as the nucleus raphes dorsalis (DR), nucleus raphes pontis (PnR) and nucleus raphes medianus (MnR); mainly from the RMg, GiA and DR, and additionally from the ROb, PnR and MnR. The cell bodies in close apposition to 5HT-immunoreactive axon terminals were found through the whole rostrocaudal extent of the MTN. Electron microscopically a number of axon terminals that were labeled with BDA injected into the raphe nuclei were confirmed to be in asymmetric synaptic contact with the cell bodies of MTN neurons. It was also indicated that substance P existed in some of the 5HT-containing axosomatic terminals arising from the ROb, RMg and GiA. The present results indicated that proprioceptive sensory signals from the muscle spindles or periodontal ligament might be modulated at the level of the primary afferent cell bodies in the MTN by 5HT-containing axons from the mesopontine and medullary raphe nuclei including the GiA.

  13. A dependence of quasielastic charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dessel, N.; Jachowicz, N.; González-Jiménez, R.; Pandey, V.; Van Cuyck, T.

    2018-04-01

    Background: 12C has been and is still widely used in neutrino-nucleus scattering and oscillation experiments. More recently, 40Ar has emerged as an important nuclear target for current and future experiments. Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) possess various advantages in measuring electroweak neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Concurrent theoretical research is an evident necessity. Purpose: 40Ar is larger than 12C , and one expects nuclear effects to play a bigger role in reactions. We present inclusive differential and total cross section results for charged-current neutrino scattering on 40Ar and perform a comparison with 12C , 16O , and 56Fe targets, to find out about the A -dependent behavior of model predictions. Method: Our model starts off with a Hartree-Fock description of the nucleus, with the nucleons interacting through a mean field generated by an effective Skyrme force. Long-range correlations are introduced by means of a continuum random phase approximation approach. Further methods to improve the accuracy of model predictions are also incorporated in the calculations. Results: We present calculations for 12C , 16O , 40Ar , and 56Fe , showcasing differential cross sections over a broad range of kinematic values in the quasielastic regime. We furthermore show flux-folded results for 40Ar and we discuss the differences between nuclear responses. Conclusions: At low incoming energies and forward scattering we identify an enhancement in the 40Ar cross section compared to 12C , as well as in the high ω (low Tμ) region across the entire studied Eν range. The contribution to the folded cross section of the reaction strength at values of ω lower than 50 MeV for forward scattering is sizable.

  14. Topography of the 81/P Wild 2 Nucleus Derived from Stardust Stereoimages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Duxbury, T. C.; Horz, F.; Brownlee, D. E.; Newburn, R. L.; Tsou, P.

    2005-01-01

    On 2 January, 2004, the Stardust spacecraft flew by the nucleus of comet 81P/Wild 2 with a closest approach distance of approx. 240 km. During the encounter, the Stardust Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) obtained 72 images of the nucleus with exposure times alternating between 10 ms (near-optimal for most of the nucleus surface) and 100 ms (used for navigation, and revealing additional details in the coma and dark portions of the surface. Phase angles varied from 72 deg. to near zero to 103 deg. during the encounter, allowing the entire sunlit portion of the surface to be imaged. As many as 20 of the images near closest approach are of sufficiently high resolution to be used in mapping the nucleus surface; of these, two pairs of short-exposure images were used to create the nucleus shape model and derived products reported here. The best image resolution obtained was approx. 14 m/pixel, resulting in approx. 300 pixels across the nucleus. The Stardust Wild 2 dataset is therefore markedly superior from a stereomapping perspective to the Deep Space 1 MICAS images of comet Borrelly. The key subset of the latter (3 images) covered only about a quarter of the surface at phase angles approx. 50 - 60 and less than 50 x 160 pixels across the nucleus, yet it sufficed for groups at the USGS and DLR to produce digital elevation models (DEMs) and study the morphology and photometry of the nucleus in detail.

  15. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour. © The

  16. Response Properties of Cochlear Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G. Linn; Recio, A.

    2009-01-01

    Much of what is known about how the cochlear nuclei participate in mammalian hearing comes from studies of non-primate mammalian species. To determine to what extent the cochlear nuclei of primates resemble those of other mammalian orders, we have recorded responses to sound in three primate species: marmosets, Cynomolgus macaques, and squirrel monkeys. These recordings show that the same types of temporal firing patterns are found in primates that have been described in other mammals. Responses to tones of neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus have similar tuning, latencies, post-stimulus time and interspike interval histograms as those recorded in non-primate cochlear nucleus neurons. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, too, responses were similar. From these results it is evident that insights gained from non-primate studies can be applied to the peripheral auditory system of primates. PMID:19531377

  17. Neural progenitor cell implants modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat axotomized neurons.

    PubMed

    Talaverón, Rocío; Matarredona, Esperanza R; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2013-01-01

    Axotomy of central neurons leads to functional and structural alterations which largely revert when neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are implanted in the lesion site. The new microenvironment created by NPCs in the host tissue might modulate in the damaged neurons the expression of a high variety of molecules with relevant roles in the repair mechanisms, including neurotrophic factors. In the present work, we aimed to analyze changes in neurotrophic factor expression in axotomized neurons induced by NPC implants. For this purpose, we performed immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on brainstem sections from rats with axotomy of abducens internuclear neurons that received NPC implants (implanted group) or vehicle injections (axotomized group) in the lesion site. Control abducens internuclear neurons were strongly immunoreactive to VEGF and BDNF but showed a weak staining for NT-3 and NGF. Comparisons between groups revealed that lesioned neurons from animals that received NPC implants showed a significant increase in VEGF content with respect to animals receiving vehicle injections. However, the immunoreactivity for BDNF, which was increased in the axotomized group as compared to control, was not modified in the implanted group. The modifications induced by NPC implants on VEGF and BDNF content were specific for the population of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons since the neighboring abducens motoneurons were not affected. Similar levels of NT-3 and NGF immunolabeling were obtained in injured neurons from axotomized and implanted animals. Among all the analyzed neurotrophic factors, only VEGF was expressed by the implanted cells in the lesion site. Our results point to a role of NPC implants in the modulation of neurotrophic factor expression by lesioned central neurons, which might

  18. Muscimol inactivation of caudal fastigial nucleus and posterior interposed nucleus in monkeys with strabismus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anand C; Das, Vallabh E

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we showed that neurons in the supraoculomotor area (SOA), known to encode vergence angle in normal monkeys, encode the horizontal eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. The SOA receives afferent projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus (cFN) and the posterior interposed nucleus (PIN) in the cerebellum. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential roles of the cFN and PIN in 1) conjugate eye movements and 2) binocular eye alignment in strabismic monkeys. We used unilateral injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol to reversibly inactivate the cFN (4 injections in exotropic monkey S1 with ≈ 4° of exotropia; 5 injections in esotropic monkey S2 with ≈ 34° of esotropia) and the PIN (3 injections in monkey S1). cFN inactivation induced horizontal saccade dysmetria in all experiments (mean 39% increase in ipsilesional saccade gain and 26% decrease in contralesional gain). Also, mean contralesional smooth-pursuit gain was decreased by 31%. cFN inactivation induced a divergent change in eye alignment in both monkeys, with exotropia increasing by an average of 9.8° in monkey S1 and esotropia decreasing by an average of 11.2° in monkey S2 (P < 0.001). Unilateral PIN inactivation in monkey S1 resulted in a mean increase in the gain of upward saccades by 13% and also induced a convergent change in eye alignment, reducing exotropia by an average of 2.7° (P < 0.001). We conclude that cFN/PIN influences on conjugate eye movements in strabismic monkeys are similar to those postulated in normal monkeys and cFN/PIN play important and complementary roles in maintaining the steady-state misalignment in strabismus.

  19. Baroreflex failure in a patient with central nervous system lesions involving the nucleus tractus solitarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Whetsell, W. O.; Jobe, J.; Nadeau, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Animal studies have shown the importance of the nucleus tractus solitarii, a collection of neurons in the brain stem, in the acute regulation of blood pressure. Impulses arising from the carotid and aortic baroreceptors converge in this center, where the first synapse of the baroreflex is located. Stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarii provides an inhibitory signal to other brain stem structures, particularly the rostral ventrolateral medulla, resulting in a reduction in sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Conversely, experimental lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii lead to loss of baroreflex control of blood pressure, sympathetic activation, and severe hypertension in animals. In humans, baroreflex failure due to deafferentation of baroreceptors has been previously reported and is characterized by episodes of severe hypertension and tachycardia. We present a patient with an undetermined process of the central nervous system characterized pathologically by ubiquitous infarctions that were particularly prominent in the nucleus tractus solitarii bilaterally but spared the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Absence of a functioning baroreflex was evidenced by the lack of reflex tachycardia to the hypotensive effects of sodium nitroprusside, exaggerated pressor responses to handgrip and cold pressor test, and exaggerated depressor responses to meals and centrally acting alpha 2-agonists. This clinicopathological correlate suggests that the patient's baroreflex failure can be explained by the unique combination of the destruction of sympathetic inhibitory centers (ie, the nucleus tractus solitarii) and preservation of centers that exert a positive modulation on sympathetic tone (ie, the rostral ventrolateral medulla).

  20. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus identifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Glenda M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Kril, Jillian J; Mito, Remika; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hasegawa, Masato; McCann, Heather; Bartley, Lauren; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Kwok, John B J; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Tan, Rachel H

    2016-07-15

    The hypoglossal nucleus was recently identified as a key brain region in which the presence of TDP-43 pathology could accurately discriminate TDP-43 proteinopathy cases with clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of the present study was to assess the hypoglossal nucleus in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and determine whether TDP-43 in this region is associated with clinical ALS. Twenty-nine cases with neuropathological FTLD-TDP and clinical bvFTD that had not been previously assessed for hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology were included in this study. Of these 29 cases, 41% (n=12) had a dual diagnosis of bvFTD-ALS at presentation, all 100% (n=12) of which demonstrated hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Of the 59% (n=17) cohort that presented with pure bvFTD, 35% (n=6) were identified with hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Review of the case files of all pure bvFTD cases revealed evidence of possible or probable ALS in 5 of the 6 hypoglossal-positive cases (83%) towards the end of disease, and this was absent from all cases without such pathology. In conclusion, the present study validates grading the presence of TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus for the pathological identification of bvFTD cases with clinical ALS, and extends this to include the identification of cases with possible ALS at end-stage. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arecibo radar observations of 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák constrain the nucleus size and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Ellen S.; Lejoly, Cassandra; Taylor, Patrick A.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nolan, Michael C.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Aponte-Hernandez, Betzaida; Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Rodriguez Sanchez-Vahamonde, Carolina; Harris, Walter M.

    2017-10-01

    We obtained S-band (2380 MHz, 12.6-cm) radar echos from the nucleus of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini- Kresák using the Arecibo Observatory in March and May of 2017, obtaining constraints on its size and rotation state. We also reported delay-Doppler astrometric orbit corrections accurate at the 2 microsecond and 0.2 Hz level. The resulting orbital solution requires a significant non-gravitational acceleration to explain the pre- and post-perihelion observations. The radar bandwidth is a measure of the apparent differential motion of the nucleus about its rotation axis, projected into the line of sight. The apparent bandwidth of the comet nucleus was 30% larger in March than in May, but did not change significantly during May 5-14. A change in apparent periodicity from 19.9 to 27 hours in March, reported by Farnham et al., (CBET4375, 2017) and Knight et al., (CBET4377, 2017) was deduced from CN jet morphology. Bodewits et al. (CBET4400, 2017) report a repetition period of 42 +/- 1 hours by May 9 based on photometry using the UVOT of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. If this is the nucleus rotation period, our observation on May 9 requires the diameter of the nucleus to be at least 900m. A larger size is possible but requires an extremely low radar albedo to match the measured signal to noise ratio. If the nucleus is in an excited rotation state (non-principal axis rotation), as seems likely, these measurements will strongly constrain the nucleus size and rotation state. Further analysis will be presented.

  3. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors, beams

  4. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, R.; Awes, T. C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Claesson, G.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Dragon, L.; Ferguson, R. L.; Franz, A.; Garpman, S.; Glasow, R.; Gustafsson, H. Å.; Gutbrod, H. H.; Kampert, K. H.; Kolb, B. W.; Kristiansson, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Löhner, H.; Lund, I.; Obenshain, F. E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Peitzmann, T.; Persson, S.; Plasil, F.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Purschke, M.; Ritter, H. G.; Santo, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sorensen, S. P.; Stenlund, E.; Young, G. R.

    1988-03-01

    Target remnants with Z<3 from proton-nucleus and16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon were measured in the angular range from 30° to 160° (-1.7<η<1.3) employing the Plastic Ball detector. The excitation energy of the target spectator matter in central oxygen-induced collisions is found to be high enough to allow for complete disintegration of the target nucleus into fragments with Z<3. The average longitudinal momentum transfer per proton to the target in central collisions is considerably higher in the case of16O-induced reactions (≈300 MeV/c) than in proton-induced reactions (≈130 MeV/c). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calculations at 60 GeV/nucleon16O+Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeV/nucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse momenta of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target fragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1 2 GeV/nucleon.

  5. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  6. The Medial Paralemniscal Nucleus and Its Afferent Neuronal Connections in Rat

    PubMed Central

    VARGA, TAMÁS; PALKOVITS, MIKLÓS; USDIN, TED BJÖRN; DOBOLYI, ARPÁD

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we described a cell group expressing tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) in the lateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum, and referred to it as the medial paralemniscal nucleus (MPL). To identify this nucleus further in rat, we have now characterized the MPL cytoarchitectonically on coronal, sagittal, and horizontal serial sections. Neurons in the MPL have a columnar arrangement distinct from adjacent areas. The MPL is bordered by the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus nucleus laterally, the oral pontine reticular formation medially, and the rubrospinal tract ventrally, whereas the A7 noradrenergic cell group is located immediately mediocaudal to the MPL. TIP39-immunoreactive neurons are distributed throughout the cytoarchitectonically defined MPL and constitute 75% of its neurons as assessed by double labeling of TIP39 with a fluorescent Nissl dye or NeuN. Furthermore, we investigated the neuronal inputs to the MPL by using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit. The MPL has afferent neuronal connections distinct from adjacent brain regions including major inputs from the auditory cortex, medial part of the medial geniculate body, superior colliculus, external and dorsal cortices of the inferior colliculus, periolivary area, lateral preoptic area, hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus, lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, subparafascicular and posterior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, periaqueductal gray, and cuneiform nucleus. In addition, injection of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the auditory cortex and the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus confirmed projections from these areas to the distinct MPL. The afferent neuronal connections of the MPL suggest its involvement in auditory and reproductive functions. PMID:18770870

  7. The medial paralemniscal nucleus and its afferent neuronal connections in rat.

    PubMed

    Varga, Tamás; Palkovits, Miklós; Usdin, Ted Björn; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2008-11-10

    Previously, we described a cell group expressing tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) in the lateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum, and referred to it as the medial paralemniscal nucleus (MPL). To identify this nucleus further in rat, we have now characterized the MPL cytoarchitectonically on coronal, sagittal, and horizontal serial sections. Neurons in the MPL have a columnar arrangement distinct from adjacent areas. The MPL is bordered by the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus nucleus laterally, the oral pontine reticular formation medially, and the rubrospinal tract ventrally, whereas the A7 noradrenergic cell group is located immediately mediocaudal to the MPL. TIP39-immunoreactive neurons are distributed throughout the cytoarchitectonically defined MPL and constitute 75% of its neurons as assessed by double labeling of TIP39 with a fluorescent Nissl dye or NeuN. Furthermore, we investigated the neuronal inputs to the MPL by using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit. The MPL has afferent neuronal connections distinct from adjacent brain regions including major inputs from the auditory cortex, medial part of the medial geniculate body, superior colliculus, external and dorsal cortices of the inferior colliculus, periolivary area, lateral preoptic area, hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus, lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, subparafascicular and posterior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, periaqueductal gray, and cuneiform nucleus. In addition, injection of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the auditory cortex and the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus confirmed projections from these areas to the distinct MPL. The afferent neuronal connections of the MPL suggest its involvement in auditory and reproductive functions. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Improved Neuroimaging Atlas of the Dentate Nucleus.

    PubMed

    He, Naying; Langley, Jason; Huddleston, Daniel E; Ling, Huawei; Xu, Hongmin; Liu, Chunlei; Yan, Fuhua; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2017-12-01

    The dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum is the major output nucleus of the cerebellum and is rich in iron. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) provides better iron-sensitive MRI contrast to delineate the boundary of the DN than either T 2 -weighted images or susceptibility-weighted images. Prior DN atlases used T 2 -weighted or susceptibility-weighted images to create DN atlases. Here, we employ QSM images to develop an improved dentate nucleus atlas for use in imaging studies. The DN was segmented in QSM images from 38 healthy volunteers. The resulting DN masks were transformed to a common space and averaged to generate the DN atlas. The center of mass of the left and right sides of the QSM-based DN atlas in the Montreal Neurological Institute space was -13.8, -55.8, and -36.4 mm, and 13.8, -55.7, and -36.4 mm, respectively. The maximal probability and mean probability of the DN atlas with the individually segmented DNs in this cohort were 100 and 39.3%, respectively, in contrast to the maximum probability of approximately 75% and the mean probability of 23.4 to 33.7% with earlier DN atlases. Using QSM, which provides superior iron-sensitive MRI contrast for delineating iron-rich structures, an improved atlas for the dentate nucleus has been generated. The atlas can be applied to investigate the role of the DN in both normal cortico-cerebellar physiology and the variety of disease states in which it is implicated.

  9. Projected Shell Model Description of Positive Parity Band of 130Pr Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Suram; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Dhanvir; Sharma, Chetan; Bharti, Arun; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Theoretical investigation of positive parity yrast band of odd-odd 130Pr nucleus is performed by applying the projected shell model. The present study is undertaken to investigate and verify the very recently observed side band in 130Pr theoretically in terms of quasi-particle (qp) configuration. From the analysis of band diagram, the yrast as well as side band are found to arise from two-qp configuration πh 11/2 ⊗ νh 11/2. The present calculations are viewed to have qualitatively reproduced the known experimental data for yrast states, transition energies, and B( M1) / B( E2) ratios of this nucleus. The recently observed positive parity side band is also reproduced by the present calculations. The energy states of the side band are predicted up to spin 25+, which is far above the known experimental spin of 18+ and this could serve as a motivational factor for future experiments. In addition, the reduced transition probability B( E2) for interband transitions has also been calculated for the first time in projected shell model, which would serve as an encouragement for other research groups in the future.

  10. Comparison of Hi-C results using in-solution versus in-nucleus ligation.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Takashi; Várnai, Csilla; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Wingett, Steven W; Fraser, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Chromosome conformation capture and various derivative methods such as 4C, 5C and Hi-C have emerged as standard tools to analyze the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the nucleus. These methods employ ligation of diluted cross-linked chromatin complexes, intended to favor proximity-dependent, intra-complex ligation. During development of single-cell Hi-C, we devised an alternative Hi-C protocol with ligation in preserved nuclei rather than in solution. Here we directly compare Hi-C methods employing in-nucleus ligation with the standard in-solution ligation. We show in-nucleus ligation results in consistently lower levels of inter-chromosomal contacts. Through chromatin mixing experiments we show that a significantly large fraction of inter-chromosomal contacts are the result of spurious ligation events formed during in-solution ligation. In-nucleus ligation significantly reduces this source of experimental noise, and results in improved reproducibility between replicates. We also find that in-nucleus ligation eliminates restriction fragment length bias found with in-solution ligation. These improvements result in greater reproducibility of long-range intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal contacts, as well as enhanced detection of structural features such as topologically associated domain boundaries. We conclude that in-nucleus ligation captures chromatin interactions more consistently over a wider range of distances, and significantly reduces both experimental noise and bias. In-nucleus ligation creates higher quality Hi-C libraries while simplifying the experimental procedure. We suggest that the entire range of 3C applications are likely to show similar benefits from in-nucleus ligation.

  11. Effect of cochlear nerve electrocautery on the adult cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Iseli, Claire E; Merwin, William H; Klatt-Cromwell, Cristine; Hutson, Kendall A; Ewend, Matthew G; Adunka, Oliver F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    Electrocauterization and subsequent transection of the cochlear nerve induce greater injury to the cochlear nucleus than sharp transection alone. Some studies show that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients fit with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) fail to achieve speech perception abilities similar to ABI recipients without NF2. Reasons for these differences remain speculative. One hypothesis posits poorer performance to surgically induced trauma to the cochlear nucleus from electrocautery. Sustained electrosurgical depolarization of the cochlear nerve may cause excitotoxic-induced postsynaptic nuclear injury. Equally plausible is that cautery in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus induces necrosis. The cochlear nerve was transected in anesthetized adult gerbils sharply with or without bipolar electrocautery at varying intensities. Gerbils were perfused at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postoperatively; their brainstem and cochleas were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 10 μm. Alternate sections were stained with flourescent markers for neuronal injury or Nissl substance. In additional experiments, anterograde tracers were applied directly to a sectioned eighth nerve to verify that fluorescent-labeled profiles seen were terminating auditory nerve fibers. Cochlear nerve injury was observed from 72 hours postoperatively and was identical across cases regardless of surgical technique. Postsynaptic cochlear nucleus injury was not seen after distal transection of the nerve. By contrast, proximal transection was associated with trauma to the cochlear nucleus. Distal application of bipolar electrocautery seems safe for the cochlear nucleus. Application near the root entry zone must be used cautiously because this may compromise nuclear viability needed to support ABI stimulation.

  12. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  13. Nucleus model for periodic Comet Tempel 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    Observational data obtained primarily during 1988 are analyzed and synthesized to develop a comprehensive physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2, one of the best studied members of Jupiter's family of short-period comets. It is confirmed that a previous investigation provided reliable information on the comet's spin-axis orientation, which implies and obliquity of 54 degrees of the orbit plane to the equatorial plane and which appears to have varied little - if at all - with time. This conclusion is critical for fitting a triaxial ellipsoid to approximate the figure of the nucleus.

  14. Afferent and efferent projections of the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala. In addition, it receives dense projections from the midline and posterior intralaminar thalamus, and moderate projections from the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, mesocortical structures and the hippocampal formation. Remarkably, the ACo projects moderately to the central nuclei of the amygdala and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and densely to the lateral hypothalamus. Finally, minor connections are present with some midbrain and brainstem structures. The afferent projections of the ACo indicate that this nucleus might play a role in emotional learning involving chemosensory stimuli, such as olfactory fear conditioning. The efferent projections confirm this view and, given its direct output to the medial part of the central amygdala and the hypothalamic 'aggression area', suggest that the ACo can initiate defensive and aggressive responses elicited by olfactory or, to a lesser extent, vomeronasal stimuli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The nucleus is an intracellular propagator of tensile forces in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Samer G.; Lovett, David; Kim, Dae In; Roux, Kyle J.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear positioning is a crucial cell function, but how a migrating cell positions its nucleus is not understood. Using traction-force microscopy, we found that the position of the nucleus in migrating fibroblasts closely coincided with the center point of the traction-force balance, called the point of maximum tension (PMT). Positioning of the nucleus close to the PMT required nucleus–cytoskeleton connections through linker of nucleoskeleton-to-cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. Although the nucleus briefly lagged behind the PMT following spontaneous detachment of the uropod during migration, the nucleus quickly repositioned to the PMT within a few minutes. Moreover, traction-generating spontaneous protrusions deformed the nearby nucleus surface to pull the nuclear centroid toward the new PMT, and subsequent retraction of these protrusions relaxed the nuclear deformation and restored the nucleus to its original position. We propose that the protruding or retracting cell boundary transmits a force to the surface of the nucleus through the intervening cytoskeletal network connected by the LINC complexes, and that these forces help to position the nucleus centrally and allow the nucleus to efficiently propagate traction forces across the length of the cell during migration. PMID:25908852

  16. Pedunculopontine nucleus electric stimulation alleviates akinesia independently of dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Ned; Nandi, Dipankar; Oram, Rebecca; Stein, John F; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2006-04-24

    The symptom of Parkinson's disease that is most disabling and difficult to treat is akinesia. We have previously shown that low-frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus can alleviate such akinesia in a macaque rendered Parkinsonian using 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Here, we have extended that study to show that adding stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus to levodopa treatment in this Parkinsonian monkey increased its motor activity significantly more than levodopa alone. This additivity suggests that pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation may improve movement by acting at a site downstream from where levodopa therapy affects the basal ganglia.

  17. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  18. Correlation between concomitant theta waves in nucleus reticularis pontis oralis and in hippocampus, thalamus and neocortex during dreaming in rats.

    PubMed

    Simões, C A; Valle, A C; Timo-Iaria, C

    1996-12-01

    Theta waves, which are the main electrophysiological expression of dreaming activity in many brain structures of rats, often undergo specific changes in voltage and frequency according to the oniric patterns. Much is known about their mechanisms but little is known regarding their origin, which has been ascribed to a specific activation of either the reticular formation or the septal nuclei or nucleus reticularis pontis oralis. In the present study, rats were prepared for chronic recording of the electro-oscillograms of cortical areas 10, 3 and 17, of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields, of nucleus reticularis thalami, nucleus reticularis pontis oralis and occasionally of nucleus reticularis caudalis. Head, rostrum, eye and forelimb movements were also recorded, so that the oniric behaviors could be precisely identified. The scatter diagrams and the corresponding correlation coefficients (r) of the voltage of concomitant waves were determined for each possible pair of leads. The potentials were analyzed at a frequency of 256 Hz over a period of 1 to 3 sec. A very high degree of correlation was observed between theta waves in nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, hippocampal fields and nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis; sometimes r approached unity. Although these data cannot be taken as proof of nucleus reticularis pontis oralis being the source of theta waves, they are at least compatible with this hypothesis.

  19. Inclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelitsa, Dennis V.

    High-pT processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-pT probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-x partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes. Jet production is investigated in d+Au collisions at √s = 200 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and in p+Pb collisions at √s = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The measurements shown here utilize ∫Ldt = 23 nb-1 and 0.2 pb-1 of 200 GeV d+Au and pp data, respectively, recorded in 2007-8 at RHIC and ∫Ldt = 31 nb -1 and 4.1 pb-1 of 5.02 TeV p+Pb and 2.76 TeV pp data, respectively, recorded in 2013 at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed using the sigma=0.3 Gaussian filter and R=0.4, 0.6 anti-kT algorithms. Inclusive, centrality-dependent jet yields within |eta| < 0.35 and 10 GeV < p T < 40 GeV in 200 GeV d+Au and pp collisions are presented. The jet yield in d+Au collisions relative to the geometric expectation is found to be slightly suppressed (≍0.9) in central events and moderately enhanced (≍1.3) in peripheral events, with no modification when averaged over all d+Au events. Separately, inclusive, centrality-dependent jet yields within |y *| < 4.4 and 25 GeV < pT < 800 GeV in 5.02 TeV p+Pb and 2.76 TeV pp collisions are

  20. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat red nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Minbay, Zehra; Kocoglu, Sema Serter; Yurtseven, Duygu Gok; Eyigor, Ozhan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus. Specific staining was localized in the neuron bodies and processes. However, the pattern of immunoreactivity and the number of labeled neurons changed depending on the type of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and the localization of neurons in the red nucleus. The neurons localized in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA2, GluA4, GluK2/3, GluK5, GluN1, and GluN2A receptor proteins. In the parvocellular part of the red nucleus, ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of variable intensity (lightly to moderately stained) was detected in the neurons. These results suggest that red nucleus neurons in rat heterogeneously express ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits to form functional receptor channels. In addition, the likelihood of the coexpression of different subunits in the same subgroup of neurons suggests the formation of receptor channels with diverse structure by way of different subunit combination, and the possibility of various neuronal functions through these channels in the red nucleus. PMID:28027456

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Minbay, Zehra; Serter Kocoglu, Sema; Gok Yurtseven, Duygu; Eyigor, Ozhan

    2017-02-21

    In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus. Specific staining was localized in the neuron bodies and processes. However, the pattern of immunoreactivity and the number of labeled neurons changed depending on the type of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and the localization of neurons in the red nucleus. The neurons localized in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA2, GluA4, GluK2/3, GluK5, GluN1, and GluN2A receptor proteins. In the parvocellular part of the red nucleus, ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of variable intensity (lightly to moderately stained) was detected in the neurons. These results suggest that red nucleus neurons in rat heterogeneously express ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits to form functional receptor channels. In addition, the likelihood of the coexpression of different subunits in the same subgroup of neurons suggests the formation of receptor channels with diverse structure by way of different subunit combination, and the possibility of various neuronal functions through these channels in the red nucleus.

  3. Does Compound Nucleus remember its Isospin- An Evidence from the Fission Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Swati; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    We present an evidence of isospin effects in nuclear fission by comparing the fission widths for reactions involving different isospin states of the same compound nucleus (CN). Yadrovsky [1] suggested this possibility in 1975. Yadrovsky obtained the fission widths for two reaction data sets, namely 206Pb(α,f) and 209Bi(p,f), both leading to same CN, and concluded that "a nucleus remembers the isospin value of the nuclear states leading to fission". We obtain the fission decay widths for both the T0 + ½ and T0 - ½ states of CN by using two appropriate reaction data sets. We then compare the fission widths for the two isospin states of CN. More specifically, we have chosen the combination of 206Pb(α,f) and 209Bi(p,f) same as presented in Yadrovsky's paper [1] in this study. A significant difference between the ratios of fission decay widths to total decay widths for different isospin values suggests that isospin plays an important role in fission.

  4. Gas inflows towards the nucleus of NGC 1358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Nagar, Neil M.; Robinson, Andrew; Lena, Davide

    2017-11-01

    We use optical spectra from the inner 1.8 × 2.5 kpc2 of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1358, obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of ≈ 165 pc, to assess the feeding and feedback processes in this nearby active galaxy. Five gaseous kinematical components are observed in the emission line profiles. One of the components is present in the entire field-of-view and we interpret it as due to gas rotating in the disc of the galaxy. Three of the remaining components we interpret as associated with active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback: a compact unresolved outflow in the inner 1 arcsec and two gas clouds observed at opposite sides of the nucleus, which we propose have been ejected in a previous AGN burst. The disc component velocity field is strongly disturbed by a large-scale bar. The subtraction of a velocity model combining both rotation and bar flows reveals three kinematic nuclear spiral arms: two in inflow and one in outflow. We estimate the mass inflow rate in the inner 180 pc obtaining \\dot{M}_{in} ≈ 1.5 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, about 160 times larger than the accretion rate necessary to power this AGN.

  5. The vomeronasal cortex - afferent and efferent projections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Most mammals possess a vomeronasal system that detects predominantly chemical signals of biological relevance. Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. This cortical structure should therefore be considered the primary vomeronasal cortex. In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). This pattern of intracortical connections (with the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, mainly) and cortico-striatal excitatory projections (with the olfactory tubercle and septum) is consistent with its proposed nature as the primary vomeronasal cortex. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Computational prediction of strain-dependent diffusion of transcription factors through the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nava, Michele M; Fedele, Roberto; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear spreading plays a crucial role in stem cell fate determination. In previous works, we reported evidence of multipotency maintenance for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on three-dimensional engineered niche substrates, fabricated via two-photon laser polymerization. We correlated maintenance of multipotency to a more roundish morphology of these cells with respect to those cultured on conventional flat substrates. To interpret these findings, here we present a multiphysics model coupling nuclear strains induced by cell adhesion to passive diffusion across the cell nucleus. Fully three-dimensional reconstructions of cultured cells were developed on the basis of confocal images: in particular, the level of nuclear spreading resulted significantly dependent on the cell localization within the niche architecture. We assumed that the cell diffusivity varies as a function of the local volumetric strain. The model predictions indicate that the higher the level of spreading of the cell, the higher the flux across the nucleus of small solutes such as transcription factors. Our results point toward nuclear spreading as a primary mechanism by which the stem cell translates its shape into a fate decision, i.e., by amplifying the diffusive flow of transcriptional activators into the nucleus.

  7. Descending projections from the nucleus accumbens shell excite activity of taste-responsive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Shu; Lu, Da-Peng; Cho, Young K

    2015-06-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) are the first and second relays in the rodent central taste pathway. A series of electrophysiological experiments revealed that spontaneous and taste-evoked activities of brain stem gustatory neurons are altered by descending input from multiple forebrain nuclei in the central taste pathway. The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is a key neural substrate of reward circuitry, but it has not been verified as a classical gustatory nucleus. A recent in vivo electrophysiological study demonstrated that the NAcSh modulates the spontaneous and gustatory activities of hamster pontine taste neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether activation of the NAcSh modulates gustatory responses of the NST neurons. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from medullary neurons in urethane-anesthetized hamsters. After taste response was confirmed by delivery of sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride to the anterior tongue, the NAcSh was stimulated bilaterally with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral NAcSh induced firings from 54 and 37 of 90 medullary taste neurons, respectively. Thirty cells were affected bilaterally. No inhibitory responses or antidromic invasion was observed after NAcSh activation. In the subset of taste cells tested, high-frequency electrical stimulation of the NAcSh during taste delivery enhanced taste-evoked neuronal firing. These results demonstrate that two-thirds of the medullary gustatory neurons are under excitatory descending influence from the NAcSh, which is a strong indication of communication between the gustatory pathway and the mesolimbic reward pathway. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS NEURONS DIFFERENTIALLY ENCODE EARLY AND LATE ASPECTS OF SPEECH PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Lipski, W J; Alhourani, A; Pirnia, T; Jones, P W; Dastolfo-Hromack, C; Helou, L B; Crammond, D J; Shaiman, S; Dickey, M W; Holt, L L; Turner, R S; Fiez, J A; Richardson, R M

    2018-05-22

    Basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops mediate all motor behavior, yet little detail is known about the role of basal ganglia nuclei in speech production. Using intracranial recording during deep brain stimulation surgery in humans with Parkinson's disease, we tested the hypothesis that the firing rate of subthalamic nucleus neurons is modulated in sync with motor execution aspects of speech. Nearly half of seventy-nine unit recordings exhibited firing rate modulation, during a syllable reading task across twelve subjects (male and female). Trial-to-trial timing of changes in subthalamic neuronal activity, relative to cue onset versus production onset, revealed that locking to cue presentation was associated more with units that decreased firing rate, while locking to speech onset was associated more with units that increased firing rate. These unique data indicate that subthalamic activity is dynamic during the production of speech, reflecting temporally-dependent inhibition and excitation of separate populations of subthalamic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The basal ganglia are widely assumed to participate in speech production, yet no prior studies have reported detailed examination of speech-related activity in basal ganglia nuclei. Using microelectrode recordings from the subthalamic nucleus during a single syllable reading task, in awake humans undergoing deep brain stimulation implantation surgery, we show that the firing rate of subthalamic nucleus neurons is modulated in response to motor execution aspects of speech. These results are the first to establish a role for subthalamic nucleus neurons in encoding of aspects of speech production, and they lay the groundwork for launching a modern subfield to explore basal ganglia function in human speech. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  9. Regular theta-firing neurons in the nucleus incertus during sustained hippocampal activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo; Luque-Garcia, Aina; Luque-Martinez, Aina; Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Guerrero-Martínez, Juan; Bataller-Mompeán, Manuel; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the existence of theta-coupled neuronal activity in the nucleus incertus (NI). Theta rhythm is relevant for cognitive processes such as spatial navigation and memory processing, and can be recorded in a number of structures related to the hippocampal activation including the NI. Strong evidence supports the role of this tegmental nucleus in neural circuits integrating behavioural activation with the hippocampal theta rhythm. Theta oscillations have been recorded in the local field potential of the NI, highly coupled to the hippocampal waves, although no rhythmical activity has been reported in neurons of this nucleus. The present work analyses the neuronal activity in the NI in conditions leading to sustained hippocampal theta in the urethane-anaesthetised rat, in order to test whether such activation elicits a differential firing pattern. Wavelet analysis has been used to better define the neuronal activity already described in the nucleus, i.e., non-rhythmical neurons firing at theta frequency (type I neurons) and fast-firing rhythmical neurons (type II). However, the most remarkable finding was that sustained stimulation activated regular-theta neurons (type III), which were almost silent in baseline conditions and have not previously been reported. Thus, we describe the electrophysiological properties of type III neurons, focusing on their coupling to the hippocampal theta. Their spike rate, regularity and phase locking to the oscillations increased at the beginning of the stimulation, suggesting a role in the activation or reset of the oscillation. Further research is needed to address the specific contribution of these neurons to the entire circuit. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microinfusion of nefazodone into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala enhances defensive behavior induced by NMDA stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Maisonnette, S; Villela, C; Carotti, A P; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2000-01-01

    The inferior colliculus is notably associated with defensive behavior. Electrical or pharmacological stimulation of the inferior colliculus induces aversive reactions such as running and jumping. Lesion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala decreases the threshold of aversive reactions induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. The present work examined the influence of microinjections of nefazodone, a serotonin (5-HT(2)) antagonist, into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala on aversive reactions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) microinjected into the inferior colliculus. Rats implanted with cannulae in the inferior colliculus and in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala were submitted to the open-field test where defensive behaviors were observed. Results indicated that microinjection of nefazodone into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala increases aversive responses induced by NMDA injections into the inferior colliculus. This result suggests that the inferior colliculus and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala have a functional relationship on the neural circuitry of defensive behavior. Moreover, 5-HT(2) receptors located at the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala seem to play an inhibitory role on defensive behaviors induced by inferior colliculus stimulation.

  11. The distinct roles of the nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in three-dimensional cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Khatau, Shyam B.; Bloom, Ryan J.; Bajpai, Saumendra; Razafsky, David; Zang, Shu; Giri, Anjil; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Marchand, Jorge; Celedon, Alfredo; Hale, Christopher M.; Sun, Sean X.; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Cells often migrate in vivo in an extracellular matrix that is intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) and the role of actin filament architecture in 3D cell migration is less well understood. Here we show that, while recently identified linkers of nucleoskeleton to cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes play a minimal role in conventional 2D migration, they play a critical role in regulating the organization of a subset of actin filament bundles – the perinuclear actin cap - connected to the nucleus through Nesprin2giant and Nesprin3 in cells in 3D collagen I matrix. Actin cap fibers prolong the nucleus and mediate the formation of pseudopodial protrusions, which drive matrix traction and 3D cell migration. Disruption of LINC complexes disorganizes the actin cap, which impairs 3D cell migration. A simple mechanical model explains why LINC complexes and the perinuclear actin cap are essential in 3D migration by providing mechanical support to the formation of pseudopodial protrusions. PMID:22761994

  12. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-12-22

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  13. Energy and Mass-Number Dependence of Hadron-Nucleus Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    We thoroughly investigate how proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections depend on the target mass number A and the proton incident energy. In doing so, we systematically analyze nuclear reaction data that are sensitive to nuclear size, namely, proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections and differential elastic cross sections, using a phenomenological black-sphere approximation of nuclei that we are developing. In this framework, the radius of the black sphere is found to be a useful length scale that simultaneously accounts for the observed proton-nucleus total reaction cross section and first diffraction peak in the proton elastic differential cross section. This framework, which is shown here to be applicable to antiprotons, is expected to be applicable to any kind of projectile that is strongly attenuated in the nucleus. On the basis of a cross-section formula constructed within this framework, we find that a less familiar A1/6 dependence plays a crucial role in describing the energy dependence of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections.

  14. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M. Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues1. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nuclear component of InsP3-mediated calcium signals begins in its locality. Stimulation of these receptors with a little InsP3 results in small calcium signals that are initiated in this region of the nucleus. Localized release of calcium in the nucleus causes nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) to translocate to the region of the nuclear envelope, whereas release of calcium in the cytosol induces translocation of cytosolic PKC to the plasma membrane. Our findings show that the nucleus contains a nucleoplasmic reticulum with the capacity to regulate calcium signals in localized subnuclear regions. The presence of such machinery provides a potential mechanism by which calcium can simultaneously regulate many independent processes in the nucleus. PMID:12717445

  15. The Nuclear Option: Evidence Implicating the Cell Nucleus in Mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Mauck, Robert L

    2017-02-01

    Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via microenvironmental properties (e.g., alignment and stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on cell function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechanosensitive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly established. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling. Our goal is to provide a reference detailing the progress that has been made and the areas that still require investigation regarding the role of nuclear mechanotransduction in cell biology. Additionally, we will briefly discuss the role that mathematical models of cell mechanics can play in testing these hypotheses and in elucidating how biophysical stimulation of the nucleus drives changes in cell behavior. While force-induced alterations in signaling pathways involving lamina-associated polypeptides (LAPs) (e.g., emerin and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)) and transcription factors (TFs) located at the nuclear envelope currently appear to be the most clearly supported mechanism of nuclear mechanotransduction, additional work is required to examine this process in detail and to more fully test alternative mechanisms. The combination of sophisticated experimental techniques and advanced mathematical models is necessary to enhance our understanding of the role of the nucleus in the mechanotransduction processes driving numerous critical cell functions.

  16. The Nuclear Option: Evidence Implicating the Cell Nucleus in Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via microenvironmental properties (e.g., alignment and stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on cell function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechanosensitive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly established. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling. Our goal is to provide a reference detailing the progress that has been made and the areas that still require investigation regarding the role of nuclear mechanotransduction in cell biology. Additionally, we will briefly discuss the role that mathematical models of cell mechanics can play in testing these hypotheses and in elucidating how biophysical stimulation of the nucleus drives changes in cell behavior. While force-induced alterations in signaling pathways involving lamina-associated polypeptides (LAPs) (e.g., emerin and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)) and transcription factors (TFs) located at the nuclear envelope currently appear to be the most clearly supported mechanism of nuclear mechanotransduction, additional work is required to examine this process in detail and to more fully test alternative mechanisms. The combination of sophisticated experimental techniques and advanced mathematical models is necessary to enhance our understanding of the role of the nucleus in the mechanotransduction processes driving numerous critical cell functions. PMID:27918797

  17. Alzheimer's disease detection via automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation using coupled dictionary learning with level set formulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood Salman; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for Alzheimer's disease classification via an automatic 3D caudate nucleus segmentation. The proposed method consists of segmentation and classification steps. In the segmentation step, we propose a novel level set cost function. The proposed cost function is constrained by a sparse representation of local image features using a dictionary learning method. We present coupled dictionaries: a feature dictionary of a grayscale brain image and a label dictionary of a caudate nucleus label image. Using online dictionary learning, the coupled dictionaries are learned from the training data. The learned coupled dictionaries are embedded into a level set function. In the classification step, a region-based feature dictionary is built. The region-based feature dictionary is learned from shape features of the caudate nucleus in the training data. The classification is based on the measure of the similarity between the sparse representation of region-based shape features of the segmented caudate in the test image and the region-based feature dictionary. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method over the state-of-the-art methods by achieving a high segmentation (91.5%) and classification (92.5%) accuracy. In this paper, we find that the study of the caudate nucleus atrophy gives an advantage over the study of whole brain structure atrophy to detect Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gradenigo's Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-09-28

    BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. CONCLUSIONS This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo's syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo's syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis (apical petrositis), and bacterial meningitis.

  19. Linking surface morphology, composition and activity on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hoang, Van Hong; Hasselmann, Pedro H.; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Feller, Clement; Prasanna Deshapriya, Jasinghege Don; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team

    2017-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for more than 2 years, getting an incredible amount of unique data of the comet nucleus and inner coma. This has enabled us to study its activity continuously from 4 AU inbound to 3.6 AU outbound, including the perihelion passage at 1.25 AU.This work focuses on the identification of the regions sources of faint jets and outbursts, and on the study of their spectrophotometric properties, from observations acquired with the OSIRIS/NAC camera during the July-October 2015 period, i.e. close to perihelion. More than 150 jets of different intensities were identified directly on the nucleus from NAC color sequences acquired in 7-11 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range, and their spectrophotometric properties studied for the first time. Some spectacular outbursts appear dominated by water ice particles, while fainter jets often show colors redder than the nucleus and appear dominated by dusty particles. Some jets are very faint and were identified on the nucleus thanks to the unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of the ROSETTA/OSIRIS observations. Some of them have an extremely short lifetime, appearing on the cometary surface during the color sequence observations, reaching their peak in flux and then vanishing in less than a couple of minutes.We will present the results on the location, duration, and colors of active sources on the 67P nucleus from the relatively low resolution (i.e. 6-10 m/pixel) images acquired close to the perihelion passage. Some of this active regions were observed and investigated in higher resolution (up to few dm per pixel) during other phases of the mission. These observations allow us to study the morphological and spectral evolution of the regions found to be active and to further investigate the link between morphology, composition, and activity on cometary nuclei.

  20. [Analysis of the Effect of Non-phacoemulsification Cataract Operation on Corneal Endothelial Cell Nucleus Division].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zufeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effect of non-phacoemulsification cataract operation in two different patterns of nucleus delivery on the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelial cells and postoperative visual acuity. Forty patients diagnosed with cataract underwent cataract surgery and were assigned into the direct nuclear delivery and semi-nuclear delivery groups. Lens density was measured and divided into the hard and soft lenses according to Emery-little lens nucleus grading system. Non-phacoemulsification cataract operation was performed. At 3 d after surgery, the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelium were counted and observed under corneal endothelial microscope. During 3-month postoperative follow-up, the endothelial cell loss rate, morphological changes and visual acuity were compared among four groups. Corneal endothelial cell loss rate in the direct delivery of hard nucleus group significantly differed from those in the other three groups before and 3 months after operation (P < 0.01), whereas no statistical significance was found among the direct delivery of soft nucleus, semi-delivery of hard nucleus and semi-delivery soft nucleus groups (all P > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative 2-d visual acuity did not differ between the semi-delivery of hard nucleus and direct delivery of soft nucleus groups (P = 0.49), significantly differed from those in the semi-delivery of soft nucleus (P = 0.03) and direct delivery of hard nucleus groups (P = 0.14). Visual acuity at postoperative four months did not differ among four groups (P = 0.067). During non-phacoemulsification cataract surgery, direct delivery of hard nucleus caused severe injury to corneal endothelium and semi-delivery of soft nucleus yielded mild corneal endothelial injury. Slight corneal endothelial injury exerted no apparent effect upon visual acuity and corneal endothelial morphology at three months after surgery.

  1. Criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to local effective potential-energy theories

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht; Graduate School of the City University of New York, 360 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016

    2003-01-01

    Local(multiplicative) effective potential energy-theories of electronic structure comprise the transformation of the Schroedinger equation for interacting Fermi systems to model noninteracting Fermi or Bose systems whereby the equivalent density and energy are obtained. By employing the integrated form of the Kato electron-nucleus cusp condition, we prove that the effective electron-interaction potential energy of these model fermions or bosons is finite at a nucleus. The proof is general and valid for arbitrary system whether it be atomic, molecular, or solid state, and for arbitrary state and symmetry. This then provides justification for all prior work in the literature based on themore » assumption of finiteness of this potential energy at a nucleus. We further demonstrate the criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to such theories by an example of the hydrogen molecule. We show thereby that both model system effective electron-interaction potential energies, as determined from densities derived from accurate wave functions, will be singular at the nucleus unless the wave function satisfies the electron-nucleus cusp condition.« less

  2. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-01-01

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation. PMID:26689549

  3. c-Met must translocate to the nucleus to initiate calcium signals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Dawidson A; Rodrigues, Michele A; Leite, M Fatima; Gomez, Marcus V; Varnai, Peter; Balla, Tamas; Bennett, Anton M; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and related activities. HGF acts through its receptor c-Met, which activates downstream signaling pathways. HGF binds to c-Met at the plasma membrane, where it is generally believed that c-Met signaling is initiated. Here we report that c-Met rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon stimulation with HGF. Ca(2+) signals that are induced by HGF result from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation within the nucleus rather than within the cytoplasm. Translocation of c-Met to the nucleus depends upon the adaptor protein Gab1 and importin beta1, and formation of Ca(2+) signals in turn depends upon this translocation. HGF may exert its particular effects on cells because it bypasses signaling pathways in the cytoplasm to directly activate signaling pathways in the nucleus.

  4. Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect ofmore » the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.« less

  5. Activation of the cerebellar cortex and the dentate nucleus in a prism adaptation fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Küper, Michael; Wünnemann, Meret J S; Thürling, Markus; Stefanescu, Roxana M; Maderwald, Stefan; Elles, Hans G; Göricke, Sophia; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2014-04-01

    During prism adaptation two types of learning processes can be distinguished. First, fast strategic motor control responses are predominant in the early course of prism adaptation to achieve rapid error correction within few trials. Second, slower spatial realignment occurs among the misaligned visual and proprioceptive sensorimotor coordinate system. The aim of the present ultra-highfield (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to explore cerebellar cortical and dentate nucleus activation during the course of prism adaptation in relation to a similar visuomotor task without prism exposure. Nineteen young healthy participants were included into the study. Recently developed normalization procedures were applied for the cerebellar cortex and the dentate nucleus. By means of subtraction analysis (early prism adaptation > visuomotor, early prism adaptation > late prism adaptation) we identified ipsilateral activation associated with strategic motor control responses within the posterior cerebellar cortex (lobules VIII and IX) and the ventro-caudal dentate nucleus. During the late phase of adaptation we observed pronounced activation of posterior parts of lobule VI, although subtraction analyses (late prism adaptation > visuomotor) remained negative. These results are in good accordance with the concept of a representation of non-motor functions, here strategic control, within the ventro-caudal dentate nucleus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PECULIAR NEAR-NUCLEUS OUTGASSING OF COMET 17P/HOLMES DURING ITS 2007 OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Chunhua; Gurwell, Mark A.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-01-20

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the outbursting Jupiter family comet 17P/Holmes on 2007 October 26-29, achieving a spatial resolution of 2.''5, or ∼3000 km at the comet distance. The observations resulted in detections of the rotational lines CO 3-2, HCN 4-3, H{sup 13}CN 4-3, CS 7-6, H{sub 2}CO 3{sub 1,} {sub 2}-2{sub 1,} {sub 1}, H{sub 2}S 2{sub 2,} {sub 0}-2{sub 1,} {sub 1}, and multiple CH{sub 3}OH lines, along with the associated dust continuum at 221 and 349 GHz. The continuum has a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.3, slightly steeper than blackbody emission from large dust particles.more » From the imaging data, we identify two components in the molecular emission. One component is characterized by a relatively broad line width (∼1 km s{sup –1} FWHM) exhibiting a symmetric outgassing pattern with respect to the nucleus position. The second component has a narrower line width (<0.5 km s{sup –1} FWHM) with the line center redshifted by 0.1-0.2 km s{sup –1} (cometocentric frame), and shows a velocity shift across the nucleus position with the position angle gradually changing from 66° to 30° within the four days of observations. We determine distinctly different CO/HCN ratios for each of the components. For the broad-line component we find CO/HCN < 7, while in the narrow-line component, CO/HCN = 40 ± 5. We hypothesize that the narrow-line component originates from the ice grain halo found in near-nucleus photometry, believed to be created by sublimating recently released ice grains around the nucleus during the outburst. In this interpretation, the high CO/HCN ratio of this component reflects the more pristine volatile composition of nucleus material released in the outburst.« less

  7. Optical image of a cometary nucleus: 1980 flyby of Comet Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C.; Benson, R. S.; Anderson, A. D.; Gal, G.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of obtaining optical images of a cometary nucleus via a flyby of Comet Encke. A physical model of the dust cloud surrounding the nucleus was developed by using available physical data and theoretical knowledge of cometary physics. Using this model and a Mie scattering code, calculations were made of the absolute surface brightness of the dust in the line of sight of the on-board camera and the relative surface brightness of the dust compared to the nucleus. The brightness was calculated as a function of heliocentric distance and for different phase angles (sun-comet-spacecraft angle).

  8. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal /sup 3/H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal /sup 3/H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotoninmore » agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens.« less

  9. Distinct roles of oxidative stress and antioxidants in the nucleus dorsalis and red nucleus following spinal cord hemisection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei; Yip, George Wai-Cheong; Gan, Le-Ting; Ng, Yee-Kong

    2005-09-07

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration after the acute central nervous system injury. We reported previously that increased nitric oxide (NO) production following spinal cord hemisection tends to lead to neurodegeneration in neurons of the nucleus dorsalis (ND) that normally lacks expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in opposition to those in the red nucleus (RN) that constitutively expresses nNOS. We wondered whether oxidative stress could be a mechanism underlying this NO involved neurodegeneration. In the present study, we examined oxidative damage evaluated by the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and iron accumulation and expression of putative antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in neurons of the ND and RN after spinal cord hemisection. We found that HNE expression was induced in neurons of the ipsilateral ND from 1 to 14 days following spinal cord hemisection. Concomitantly, iron staining was seen from 7 to 14 days after lesion. HO-1, however, was only transiently induced in ipsilateral ND neurons between 3 and 7 days after lesion. In contrast to the ND neurons, HNE was undetectable and iron level was unaltered in the RN neurons after spinal cord hemisection. HO-1, SOD-Cu/Zn and SOD-Mn were constitutively expressed in RN neurons, and lesion to the spinal cord did not change their expression. These results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the degeneration of the lesioned ND neurons; whereas constitutive antioxidant enzymes may protect the RN neurons from oxidative damage.

  10. Adhesion-Dependent Redistribution of MAP Kinase and MEK Promotes Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Signaling to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Barbara E.; Siniaia, Marina S.

    2008-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by extracellular signals, and translocate to the nucleus where they modulate transcription. Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is required for efficient transmission of MAPK-based signals initiated by growth factors. However, the modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by adhesion is less well understood. In the present study we assessed the impact of cell adhesion on MAPK activation by muscarinic M3 receptors. The muscarinic agonist carbachol more efficiently promoted stress fiber formation and tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion-associated proteins in M3 receptor-expressing cells adherent to fibronectin or collagen type I, as compared to polylysine. Overall MAPK activation was robust in cells adherent to all three substrata. However, total levels of MAPK and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) in the nucleus were significantly greater in cells adherent to ECM proteins for 2.5 hours, and levels of activated MAPK and MEK in the nuclei of these cells were higher following carbachol stimulation, relative to levels in cells adherent to polylysine. MEK inhibitors did not prevent adhesion-dependent translocation of MAPK and MEK to the nucleus, and increased nuclear phospho-MEK levels in carbachol-stimulated cells. The results suggest that adhesion of cells to ECM triggers the redistribution of MAPK and MEK to the nucleus, possibly as a result of the cytoskeletal rearrangements that accompany cell spreading. This may represent a mechanism for priming the nucleus with MEK and MAPK, leading to more rapid and pronounced increases in intranuclear phospho-MAPK upon GPCR stimulation. PMID:15779001

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and realmore » time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.« less

  12. Magnetic manipulation of nanorods in the nucleus of living cells.

    PubMed

    Celedon, Alfredo; Hale, Christopher M; Wirtz, Denis

    2011-10-19

    The organization of chromatin in the cell nucleus is crucial for gene expression regulation. However, physically probing the nuclear interior is challenging because high forces have to be applied using minimally invasive techniques. Here, magnetic nanorods embedded in the nucleus of living cells are subjected to controlled rotational forces, producing micron-sized displacements in the nuclear interior. The resulting time-dependent rotation of the nanorods is analyzed in terms of viscoelastic parameters of the nucleus, in wild-type and Lamin A/C deficient cells. This method and analysis reveal that Lamin A/C knockout, together perhaps with other changes that result from the knockout, induce significant decreases in the nuclear viscosity and elasticity. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aniracetam restores object recognition impaired by age, scopolamine, and nucleus basalis lesions.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, L; Casamenti, F; Pepeu, G

    1996-02-01

    Object recognition was investigated in adult and aging male rats in a two-trials, unrewarded, test that assessed a form of working-episodic memory. Exploration time in the first trial, in which two copies of the same object were presented, was recorded. In the second trial, in which one of the familiar objects and a new object were presented, the time spent exploring the two objects was separately recorded and a discrimination index was calculated. Adult rats explored the new object longer than the familiar object when the intertrial time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Rats older than 20 months of age did not discriminate between familiar and new objects. Object discrimination was lost in adult rats after scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg SC) administration and with lesions of the nucleus basalis, resulting in a 40% decrease in cortical ChAT activity. Both aniracetam (25, 50, 100 mg/kg os) and oxiracetam (50 mg/kg os) restored object recognition in aging rats, in rats treated with scopolamine, and with lesions of the nucleus basalis. In the rat, object discrimination appears to depend on the integrity of the cholinergic system, and nootropic drugs can correct its disruption.

  14. Development of injectable hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan D.

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been reported as the underlying cause for 75% of cases of lower back pain and is marked by dehydration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc. There have been many implant designs to replace the nucleus pulposus. Some researchers have proposed the replacement of the nucleus pulposus with hydrogel materials. The insertion of devices made from these materials further compromises the annulus of the disc. An ideal nucleus replacement could be injected into the disc space and form a solid in vivo. However, injectable replacements using curing elastomers and thermoplastic materials are not ideal because of the potentially harmful exothermic heat evolved from their reactions and the toxicity of the reactants used. We propose a hydrogel system that can be injected as a liquid at 25°C and solidified to yield a hydrogel within the intervertebral disc at 37°C. In aqueous solutions, these polymers have Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCST) between 25-37°C, making them unique candidate materials for this application. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is the most widely studied LCST polymer due to its drastic transition near body temperature. However, by itself, pure PNIPAAm forms a hydrogel that has low water content and can readily undergo plastic deformation. To increase the water content and impart elasticity to PNIPAAm hydrogels, grafted and branched hydrogel systems were created that incorporated the thermogelling PNIPAAm and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In this research, the effects of polymer composition and monomer to initiator ratio, which controls polymer MW, on the in vitro swelling properties (mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability) of hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of these polymers were evaluated. Immersion studies were also conducted in solutions to simulate the osmotic environment of the nucleus pulposus. The effects of repeated compression and unloading cycles

  15. [Time processing in the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11) and its link with the caudate nucleus].

    PubMed

    Gabriel Mounir, D; Debbané, M; Schaer, M; Glaser, B; Eliez, S

    2011-05-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11. Among other cognitive impairments and learning difficulties, affected individuals show difficulties in estimating time intervals (Debbané et al., 2005). Interestingly, neuroimaging studies have found an increased volume of the basal ganglia of people with VCFS (Eliez et al., 2002; Kates et al., 2004; Campbell et al., 2006). Given that the caudate nucleus represents a central component of the cerebral network underlying temporal perception skills, the present report proposes to examine potential relationships between cerebral alteration to the caudate nucleus and time estimation in individuals with VCFS. A group of 30 patients with VCFS and 38 age-matched healthy individuals participated in time perception and time reproduction tasks. In the time perception task, individuals listened to two sequential stimuli and had to choose the longer of both stimuli by pressing a button. In the time reproduction task, subjects listened to a succession of sounds and once this succession had stopped they had to reproduce the same rhythm with their dominant index. Cerebral MRI images were also obtained for each participant. A manual tracing procedure was performed to measure the basal ganglia volume. Participants with VCFS demonstrated significantly poorer performances during the time perception and time reproduction tasks in comparison to the control participants. Further, increased volume of the caudate nucleus was found in individuals with VCFS. Correlational analyses revealed a significant relationship between the caudate nucleus's volume and the performances obtained in the time perception task for control participants. This correlation was not found for individuals with VCFS. The present results suggest that cerebral alterations to the caudate nucleus in VCFS may alter the temporal perception function it sustains. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by

  16. Single-prolonged stress induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a life-threatening traumatic experience. Meta-analyses of the brainstem showed that midsagittal area of the pons was significantly reduced in patients with PTSD, suggesting a potential apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus after single-prolonged stress (SPS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether SPS induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in PTSD rats, which may be a possible mechanism of reduced volume of pons and density of gray matter. Methods In this study, rats were randomly divided into 1d, 7d and 14d groups after SPS along with the control group. The apoptosis rate was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled flow cytometry (FCM). Levels of Cytochrome c (Cyt-C) was examined by Western blotting. Expression of Cyt-C on mitochondria in the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron was determined by enzymohistochemistry under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The change of thiamine monophosphatase (TMP) levels was assessed by enzymohistochemistry under light microscope and TEM. Morphological changes of the ultrastructure of the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron were determined by TEM. Results Apoptotic morphological alterations were observed in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron for all SPS-stimulate groups of rats. The apoptosis rates were significantly increased in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of SPS rats, along with increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, increased expression of Cyt-C and TMP levels in the cytoplasm, which reached to the peak of increase 7 days of SPS. Conclusions The results indicate that SPS induced Cyt-C released from mitochondria into cytosol and apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of rats. Increased TMP in cytoplasm facilitated the clearance of apoptotic cells. We propose that this presents one of the mechanisms that lead to reduced volume of pons and gray matter associated with PTSD. PMID

  17. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193; Chang, Chia-Chun

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthasemore » 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.« less

  18. Numerical simulations of elastic capsules with nucleus in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad Banaei, Arash; Loiseau, Jean-Christophe; Lashgari, Iman; Brandt, Luca

    2017-03-01

    The shear-induced deformation of a capsule with a stiff nucleus, a model of eukaryotic cells, is studied numerically. The membrane of the cell and of its nucleus are modelled as a thin elastic material obeying a Neo-Hookean constitutive law. The fluid-structure coupling is obtained using an immersed boundary method. The variations induced by the presence of the nucleus on the cell deformation are investigated when varying the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids, the membrane elasticity and its bending stiffness. The deformation of the eukaryotic cell is smaller than that of the prokaryotic one. The reduction in deformation increases for larger values of the capillary number. The eukaryotic cell remains thicker in its middle part compared to the prokaryotic one, thus making it less flexible to pass through narrow capillaries. For a viscosity ratio of 5, the deformation of the cell is smaller than in the case of uniform viscosity. In addition, for non-zero bending stiffness of the membrane, the deformation decreases and the shape is closer to an ellipsoid. Finally, we compare the results obtained modelling the nucleus as an inner stiffer membrane with those obtained using a rigid particle.

  19. Multi-Epoch 8.4GHz VLBI Observations of the Nucleus of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, David L.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of several 8.4 GHz VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A. We fing that the source possesses a classical core-jet structure with the inner portion of the jet expanding at a proper motion of 4.o mas yr or an apparet velocity of 0.26c along the jet.

  20. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2014: Workshop for young scientists on the physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-05-01

    The 6th edition of the Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2014) was held in Las Negras, Spain from 21-28 September 2014. Following the traditions of the conference, this meeting gathered more than 70 participants in the first years of their scientific careers. The present issue contains the proceedings of this workshop. As in the past, the Hot Quarks workshop offered a unique atmosphere for a lively discussion and interpretation of the current measurements from high energy nuclear collisions. Recent results and upgrades at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were presented. Recent theoretical developments were also extensively discussed as well as the perspectives for future facilities such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt and the Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven. The conference's goal to provide a platform for young researchers to learn and foster their interactions was successfully met. We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2014 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), CPAN (Spain), Czech Science Foundation (GACR) under grant 13-20841S (Czech Republic), European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Switzerland), European Research Council under grant 259612 (EU), ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI (Germany), Helmholtz Association and GSI under grant VH-NG-822, Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), National Science Foundation under grant No.1359622 (USA), Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR (Czech Republic), Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife (Spain) and the Universidad de Granada (Spain). Javier López Albacete, Universidad de Granada (Spain) Jana Bielcikova, Nuclear Physics Inst. and Academy of Sciences (Czech Republic) Rainer J. Fries, Texas A&M University (USA) Raphaël Granier de Cassagnac, CNRS-IN2P3 and École polytechnique (France

  1. Nucleus positioning within Drosophila egg chamber.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Fred; Lepesant, Jean-Antoine; Guichet, Antoine

    2017-10-19

    Both types of Drosophila egg chamber germ cells, i.e. oocyte and nurse cells, have to control their nucleus positions in order to produce a viable gamete. Interestingly, while actin microfilaments are crucial to position the nuclei in nurse cells, these are the microtubules that are important for oocyte nucleus to migrate and adopt the correct position. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying these positioning processes in the two cell types with respect to the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule skeleton. In the nurse cells it is essential to keep firmly the nuclei in a central position to prevent them from obstructing the ring canals when the cytoplasmic content of the cells is dumped into the oocyte cells toward the end of oogenesis. This is achieved by the assembly of thick filopodia-like actin cables anchored to the plasma membrane, which grow inwardly and eventually encase tightly the nuclei in a cage-like structure. In the oocyte, the migration at an early stage of oogenesis of the nucleus from a posterior location to an anchorage site at an asymmetric anterior position, is an essential step in the setting up of the dorsoventral polarity axis of the future embryo. This process is controlled by an interplay between MT networks that just start to be untangled. Although both mechanisms have evolved to fulfill cell-type specific cell processes in the context of fly oogenesis, interesting parallels can be drawn with other nuclear positioning mechanisms in the mouse oocyte and the developing muscle respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Abnormalities in hemispheric specialization of caudate nucleus connectivity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sophia; Wang, Danhong; Pan, Ruiqi; Holt, Daphne J.; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    Importance Hemispheric specialization of the human brain is a marker of successful neurodevelopment. Altered brain asymmetry that has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia may represent consequences of disrupted neurodevelopment in the disorder. However, a complete picture of functional specialization in the schizophrenic brain and its connectional substrates are yet to be unveiled. Objective We aimed to quantify intrinsic hemispheric specialization at a cortical and subcortical level and to reveal potential disease effects in schizophrenia. Design/Participants Resting-state functional connectivity MRI has been previously used to quantitatively measure hemispheric specialization in healthy subjects, in a reliable manner. Here we quantified the intrinsic hemispheric specialization at the whole brain level in 31 patients with schizophrenia and 37 demographically matched healthy control subjects using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Results The caudate nucleus, and cortical regions with connections to the caudate nucleus, showed markedly abnormal hemispheric specialization in schizophrenia. Compared to healthy controls, patients exhibited weaker specialization in the left, but the opposite pattern in the right, caudate nucleus. Schizophrenia patients also displayed a disruption of the inter-hemispheric coordination among the cortical regions with connections to the caudate nucleus. A linear classifier based on the specialization of the caudate nucleus distinguished patients from controls with a classification accuracy of 74%. Conclusions and Relevance These data suggested that hemispheric specialization could serve as a potential imaging biomarker of schizophrenia that, compared to task-based fMRI measures, is less prone to the confounding effects of variation in task compliance, cognitive ability, and command of language. PMID:25830688

  3. Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in star-nosed moles.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-10-01

    Somatosensory inputs from the face project to multiple regions of the trigeminal nuclear complex in the brainstem. In mice and rats, three subdivisions contain visible representations of the mystacial vibrissae, the principal sensory nucleus, spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris, and subnucleus caudalis. These regions are considered important for touch with high spatial acuity, active touch, and pain and temperature sensation, respectively. Like mice and rats, the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a somatosensory specialist. Given the visible star pattern in preparations of the star-nosed mole cortex and the principal sensory nucleus, we hypothesized there were star patterns in the spinal trigeminal nucleus subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis. In sections processed for cytochrome oxidase, we found star-like segmentation consisting of lightly stained septa separating darkly stained patches in subnucleus interpolaris (juvenile tissue) and subnucleus caudalis (juvenile and adult tissue). Subnucleus caudalis represented the face in a three-dimensional map, with the most anterior part of the face represented more rostrally than posterior parts of the face. Multiunit electrophysiological mapping was used to map the ipsilateral face. Ray-specific receptive fields in adults matched the CO segmentation. The mean areas of multiunit receptive fields in subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis were larger than previously mapped receptive fields in the mole's principal sensory nucleus. The proportion of tissue devoted to each ray's representation differed between the subnucleus interpolaris and the principal sensory nucleus. Our finding that different trigeminal brainstem maps can exaggerate different parts of the face could provide new insights for the roles of these different somatosensory stations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in Star-Nosed Moles

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory inputs from the face project to multiple regions of the trigeminal nuclear complex in the brainstem. In mice and rats three subdivisions contain visible representations of the mystacial vibrissae: the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris and subnucleus caudalis. These regions are considered important for touch with high spatial acuity, active touch, and pain and temperature sensation, respectively. Like mice and rats, the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a somatosensory specialist. Given the visible star pattern in preparations of the star-nosed mole cortex and the principal sensory nucleus, we hypothesized there were star patterns in the spinal trigeminal nucleus subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis. In sections processed for cytochrome oxidase we found star-like segmentation consisting of lightly stained septa separating darkly stained patches in subnucleus interpolaris (juvenile tissue) and subnucleus caudalis (juvenile and adult tissue). Subnucleus caudalis represented the face in a three-dimensional map with the most anterior part of the face represented more rostrally than posterior parts of the face. Multi-unit electrophysiological mapping was used to map the ipsilateral face. Ray-specific receptive fields in adults matched the CO-segmentation. The mean areas of multiunit receptive fields in subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis were larger than previously mapped receptive fields in the mole's principal sensory nucleus. The proportion of tissue devoted to each ray's representation differed between subnucleus interpolaris and the principal sensory nucleus. Our finding that different trigeminal brainstem maps can exaggerate different parts of the face could provide new insights for the roles of these different somatosensory stations. PMID:24715542

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ryang; Kanda, Fumio; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2006-11-07

    We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman. The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves. Brain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an ill-defined mass with abnormal enhancement around the sella turcica. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed that the mass involved the clivus, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex. On contrast-enhanced MRI with gadolinium-chelated contrast medium, the mass showed inhomogeneous intermediate enhancement. The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations. Further studies may provide insights into various methods for diagnosing HCC metastasizing to the craniospinal area.

  6. The central nucleus of the amygdala modulates gut-related neurons in the dorsal vagal complex in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueguo; Cui, Jinjuan; Tan, Zhenjun; Jiang, Chunhui; Fogel, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Using retrograde tract-tracing and electrophysiological methods, we characterized the anatomical and functional relationship between the central nucleus of the amygdala and the dorsal vagal complex. Retrograde tract-tracing techniques revealed that the central nucleus of the amygdala projects to the dorsal vagal complex with a topographic distribution. Following injection of retrograde tracer into the vagal complex, retrogradely labelled neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala were clustered in the central portion at the rostral level and in the medial part at the middle level of the nucleus. Few labelled neurons were seen at the caudal level. Electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala altered the basal firing rates of 65 % of gut-related neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Eighty-one percent of the neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and 47 % of the neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus were inhibited. Electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala also modulated the response of neurons in the dorsal vagal complex to gastrointestinal stimuli. The predominant effect on the neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract was inhibition. These results suggest that the central nucleus of the amygdala influences gut-related neurons in the dorsal vagal complex and provides a neuronal circuitry that explains the regulation of gastrointestinal activity by the amygdala. PMID:14555729

  7. DNA Damage Related Crosstalk Between the Nucleus and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Mohammad; Prakash, Aishwarya

    2017-01-01

    The electron transport chain is the primary pathway by which a cell generates energy in the form of ATP. Byproducts of this process produce reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. If not properly repaired, the accumulation of DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction linked to several human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are able to combat oxidative DNA damage via repair mechanisms that are analogous to those found in the nucleus. Of the repair pathways currently reported in the mitochondria, the base excision repair pathway is the most comprehensively described. Proteins that are involved with the maintenance of mtDNA are encoded by nuclear genes and translocate to the mitochondria making signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria imperative. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of mitochondrial DNA repair mechanisms and also highlight the sensors and signaling pathways that mediate crosstalk between the nucleus and mitochondria in the event of mitochondrial stress. PMID:27915046

  8. From Cytoskeleton to Gene Expression: Actin in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Viita, Tiina; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    Although most people still associate actin mainly with the cytoskeleton, several lines of evidence, with the earliest studies dating back to decades ago, have emphasized the importance of actin also inside the cell nucleus. Actin has been linked to many gene expression processes from gene activation to chromatin remodeling, but also to maintenance of genomic integrity and intranuclear movement of chromosomes and chromosomal loci. Recent advances in visualizing different forms and dynamic properties of nuclear actin have clearly advanced our understanding of the basic concepts by which actin operates in the nucleus. In this chapter we address the different breakthroughs in nuclear actin studies, as well as discuss the regulation nuclear actin and the importance of nuclear actin dynamics in relation to its different nuclear functions. Our aim is to highlight the fact that actin should be considered as an essential component of the cell nucleus, and its nuclear actions should be taken into account also in experiments on cytoplasmic actin networks.

  9. The nucleus of Comet Borrelly: A study of morphology and surface brightness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberst, J.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R.; Soderblom, L.; Buratti, B.; Hicks, M.; Nelson, R.; Britt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Stereo images obtained during the DS1 flyby were analyzed to derive a topographic model for the nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly for morphologic and photometric studies. The elongated nucleus has an overall concave shape, resembling a peanut, with the lower end tilted towards the camera. The bimodal character of surface-slopes and curvatures support the idea that the nucleus is a gravitational aggregate, consisting of two fragments in contact. Our photometric modeling suggests that topographic shading effects on Borrelly's surface are very minor (<10%) at the given resolution of the terrain model. Instead, albedo effects are thought to dominate Borrelly's large variations in surface brightness. With 90% of the visible surface having single scattering albedos between 0.008 and 0.024, Borrelly is confirmed to be among the darkest of the known Solar System objects. Photometrically corrected images emphasize that the nucleus has distinct, contiguous terrains covered with either bright or dark, smooth or mottled materials. Also, mapping of the changes in surface brightness with phase angle suggests that terrain roughness at subpixel scale is not uniform over the nucleus. High surface roughness is noted in particular near the transition between the upper and lower end of the nucleus, as well as near the presumed source region of Borrelly's main jets. Borrelly's surface is complex and characterized by distinct types of materials that have different compositional and/or physical properties. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Double-peaked broad line emission from the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Baldwin, Jack A.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1993-01-01

    We report the recent appearance of a very broad component in the H-alpha and H-beta emission lines of the weakly active nucleus of the Sersic-Pastoriza galaxy NGC 1097. The FWZI of the broad component is about 21,000 km/s, and its profile is double-peaked; the presence of a blue, featureless continuum in the nucleus is also suggested. The broad component was first observed in H-alpha in November 2, 1991, and confirmed 11 months later. The H-alpha profile and flux did not change in this time interval. Comparison with previously published spectral data indicates that the broad lines have only recently appeared. Together with the relatively high X-ray luminosity and the compact nuclear radio source, our results characterize the presence of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a galaxy which had previously shown only LINER characteristics. Obscuring material along our line of sight to the nucleus appears to have recently cleared, permitting a direct view of the active nucleus. We discuss two possible structures for the broad line region, biconical outflow and an accretion disk, that could give rise to the observed profile.

  11. Noumeavirus replication relies on a transient remote control of the host nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Elisabeth; Jeudy, Sandra; Santini, Sébastien; Legendre, Matthieu; Trauchessec, Mathieu; Couté, Yohann; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent. However, instead of delivering their DNA to the nucleus, the Marseilleviridae initiate their replication by transiently recruiting the nuclear transcription machinery to their cytoplasmic viral factory. The nucleus recovers its integrity after becoming leaky at an early stage. This work highlights the importance of virion proteomic analyses to complement genome sequencing in the elucidation of the replication scheme and evolution of large dsDNA viruses. PMID:28429720

  12. Isolated photon production in proton-nucleus collisions at forward rapidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloué, B.; Lappi, T.; Mäntysaari, H.

    2018-03-01

    We calculate isolated photon production at forward rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions in the color glass condensate framework. Our calculation uses dipole cross sections solved from the running coupling Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with an initial condition fit to deep inelastic scattering data. For comparison, we also update the results for the nuclear modification factor for pion production in the same kinematics. We present predictions for future forward RHIC and LHC measurements at √{sN N}=200 GeV and √{sN N}=8 TeV .

  13. Response properties of nucleus reticularis lateralis neurons after electroacupuncture stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Moritaka, Kentaro; Zeredo, Jorge L; Kimoto, Mari; Nasution, Fajar H; Hirano, Takafumi; Toda, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A descending inhibitory mechanism from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) to the spinal cord through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is strongly involved in endogenous analgesic system produced by acupuncture stimulation. In addition to the PAG to NRM system which descends in the medial pathway of the brain stem, the nucleus reticularis lateralis (NRL) situated in the lateral part of the brain stem is reported to play an important role in modulating centrifugal antinociceptive action. In the present study, to clarify the role of NRL in acupuncture analgesia, we investigated the response properties of NRL neurons to acupuncture stimulation. The majority of NRM-projecting NRL neurons were inhibited by electroacupuncture stimulation. This effect was antagonized by ionophoretic application of naloxone, indicating that endogenous opioids act directly onto these NRL neurons. By contrast, about half of spinal projecting NRL neurons were excited by electroacupuncture stimulation, suggesting that part of the NRL neurons may modulate pain transmission directly at the spinal level.

  14. The Nucleus and the Simple Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brian J.

    1982-01-01

    The 150th anniversary of the naming of the nucleus by Robert Brown in 1831 was commemorated by re-creating some of his most important observations using two of his microscopes. Comments on Brown's career and the microtechnique employed during his time are provided. (Author/JN)

  15. Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Salamone, J D; Correa, M; Farrar, A; Mingote, S M

    2007-04-01

    Over the last several years, it has become apparent that there are critical problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Hypotheses related to DA function are undergoing a substantial restructuring, such that the classic emphasis on hedonia and primary reward is giving way to diverse lines of research that focus on aspects of instrumental learning, reward prediction, incentive motivation, and behavioral activation. The present review discusses dopaminergic involvement in behavioral activation and, in particular, emphasizes the effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens DA and associated forebrain circuitry. The effects of accumbens DA depletions on food-seeking behavior are critically dependent upon the work requirements of the task. Lever pressing schedules that have minimal work requirements are largely unaffected by accumbens DA depletions, whereas reinforcement schedules that have high work (e.g., ratio) requirements are substantially impaired by accumbens DA depletions. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related decision making. Rats with accumbens DA depletions reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead, these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Along with prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, nucleus accumbens is a component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related functions. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue, or anergia in depression.

  16. False labelling of dopaminergic terminals in the rabbit caudate nucleus: uptake and release of [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, T J; Hertting, G; Lupp, A; Neufang, B

    1986-07-01

    was performed in the presence of I microM or 1O microM nomifensine, the modulation of 5-HT release via D2- receptors was reduced or abolished, respectively. In the hippocampus both LY 171555 and domperidone were completely ineffective in modulating 5-HT release regardless of the absence or presence of nomifensine. 5 The present results indicate that an inverse cross labelling of [3H]-5-HT into dopaminergic and of [3H]-dopamine into 5-hydroxytryptaminergic terminals may occur despite the low concentration (0.1 microM) oftritiated transmitters used. Such cross labelling, as demonstrated with the incubation period of 60 min in the caudate nucleus, may falsely indicate the existence of D2-dopamine receptors modulating [3H]-5-HT release. If both 5-hydroxytryptaminergic and dopaminergic terminals are present within the brain region under investigation false labelling can be corrected using neuronally specific uptake inhibitors.

  17. Topographical organization of the facial motor nucleus in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Vaughn, Susan D; Sarko, Diana K; Reep, Roger L

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) possess modified vibrissae that are used in conjunction with specialized perioral musculature to manipulate vegetation for ingestion, and aid in the tactile exploration of their environment. Therefore it is expected that manatees possess a large facial motor nucleus that exhibits a complex organization relative to other taxa. The topographical organization of the facial motor nucleus of five adult Florida manatees was analyzed using neuroanatomical methods. Cresyl violet and hematoxylin staining were used to localize the rostrocaudal extent of the facial motor nucleus as well as the organization and location of subdivisions within this nucleus. Differences in size, length, and organization of the facial motor nucleus among mammals correspond to the functional importance of the superficial facial muscles, including perioral musculature involved in the movement of mystacial vibrissae. The facial motor nucleus of Florida manatees was divided into seven subnuclei. The mean rostrocaudal length, width, and height of the entire Florida manatee facial motor nucleus was 6.6 mm (SD 8 0.51; range: 6.2-7.5 mm), 4.7 mm (SD 8 0.65; range: 4.0-5.6 mm), and 3.9 mm (SD 8 0.26; range: 3.5-4.2 mm), respectively. It is speculated that manatees could possess direct descending corticomotorneuron projections to the facial motornucleus. This conjecture is based on recent data for rodents, similiarities in the rodent and sirenian muscular-vibrissal complex, and the analogous nature of the sirenian cortical Rindenkerne system with the rodent barrel system. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Chandra X-ray Study of Cygnus A. 2; The Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Andrew J.; Wilson, Andrew; Terashima, Yuichi; Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the nearby, powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, with the present paper focusing on the properties of the active nucleus. In the Chandra observation, the hard (less than a few keV) X-ray emission is spatially unresolved with a size is approximately 1" (1.5 kpc, H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) and coincides with the radio and near-infrared nuclei. In contrast, the soft (less than 2 keV) emission exhibits a bipolar nebulosity that aligns with the optical bipolar continuum and emission-line structures and approximately with the radio jet. In particular, the soft X-ray emission corresponds very well with the [O III] (lambda)5007 and H(alpha) + [N II] lambda(lambda)6548, 6583 nebulosity imaged with Hubble Space Telescope. At the location of the nucleus, there is only weak soft X-ray emission, an effect that may be intrinsic or result from a dust lane that crosses the nucleus perpendicular to the source axis. The spectra of the various X-ray components have been obtained by simultaneous fits to the six detectors. The compact nucleus is detected to 100 keV and is well described by a heavily absorbed power-law spectrum with Gamma(sub h) = 1.52(sup + 0.12, sub -0.12) (similar to other 0.12 narrow-line radio galaxies) and equivalent hydrogen column N(sub H)(nuc) = 2.0(sup +0.1, sub -0.1) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This 0.2 column is compatible with the dust obscuration to the near-infrared source for a normal gas-to-dust ratio. The soft (less than 2 keV) emission from the nucleus may be described by a power-law spectrum with the same index (i.e., Gamma(sub l) = Gamma(sub h), although direct fits suggest a slightly larger value for Gamma(sub l). Narrow emission lines from highly ionized neon and silicon, as well as a "neutral" Fe K(alpha) line, are detected in the nucleus and its vicinity (r approximately less than 2 kpc). The equivalent width (EW) of the Fe K(alpha) line

  19. Specific nuclear localizing sequence directs two myosin isoforms to the cell nucleus in calmodulin-sensitive manner.

    PubMed

    Dzijak, Rastislav; Yildirim, Sukriye; Kahle, Michal; Novák, Petr; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear myosin I (NM1) was the first molecular motor identified in the cell nucleus. Together with nuclear actin, they participate in crucial nuclear events such as transcription, chromatin movements, and chromatin remodeling. NM1 is an isoform of myosin 1c (Myo1c) that was identified earlier and is known to act in the cytoplasm. NM1 differs from the "cytoplasmic" myosin 1c only by additional 16 amino acids at the N-terminus of the molecule. This amino acid stretch was therefore suggested to direct NM1 into the nucleus. We investigated the mechanism of nuclear import of NM1 in detail. Using over-expressed GFP chimeras encoding for truncated NM1 mutants, we identified a specific sequence that is necessary for its import to the nucleus. This novel nuclear localization sequence is placed within calmodulin-binding motif of NM1, thus it is present also in the Myo1c. We confirmed the presence of both isoforms in the nucleus by transfection of tagged NM1 and Myo1c constructs into cultured cells, and also by showing the presence of the endogenous Myo1c in purified nuclei of cells derived from knock-out mice lacking NM1. Using pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays we identified importin beta, importin 5 and importin 7 as nuclear transport receptors that bind NM1. Since the NLS sequence of NM1 lies within the region that also binds calmodulin we tested the influence of calmodulin on the localization of NM1. The presence of elevated levels of calmodulin interfered with nuclear localization of tagged NM1. We have shown that the novel specific NLS brings to the cell nucleus not only the "nuclear" isoform of myosin I (NM1 protein) but also its "cytoplasmic" isoform (Myo1c protein). This opens a new field for exploring functions of this molecular motor in nuclear processes, and for exploring the signals between cytoplasm and the nucleus.

  20. Specific Nuclear Localizing Sequence Directs Two Myosin Isoforms to the Cell Nucleus in Calmodulin-Sensitive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Dzijak, Rastislav; Yildirim, Sukriye; Kahle, Michal; Novák, Petr; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear myosin I (NM1) was the first molecular motor identified in the cell nucleus. Together with nuclear actin, they participate in crucial nuclear events such as transcription, chromatin movements, and chromatin remodeling. NM1 is an isoform of myosin 1c (Myo1c) that was identified earlier and is known to act in the cytoplasm. NM1 differs from the “cytoplasmic” myosin 1c only by additional 16 amino acids at the N-terminus of the molecule. This amino acid stretch was therefore suggested to direct NM1 into the nucleus. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the mechanism of nuclear import of NM1 in detail. Using over-expressed GFP chimeras encoding for truncated NM1 mutants, we identified a specific sequence that is necessary for its import to the nucleus. This novel nuclear localization sequence is placed within calmodulin-binding motif of NM1, thus it is present also in the Myo1c. We confirmed the presence of both isoforms in the nucleus by transfection of tagged NM1 and Myo1c constructs into cultured cells, and also by showing the presence of the endogenous Myo1c in purified nuclei of cells derived from knock-out mice lacking NM1. Using pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays we identified importin beta, importin 5 and importin 7 as nuclear transport receptors that bind NM1. Since the NLS sequence of NM1 lies within the region that also binds calmodulin we tested the influence of calmodulin on the localization of NM1. The presence of elevated levels of calmodulin interfered with nuclear localization of tagged NM1. Conclusions/Significance We have shown that the novel specific NLS brings to the cell nucleus not only the “nuclear” isoform of myosin I (NM1 protein) but also its “cytoplasmic” isoform (Myo1c protein). This opens a new field for exploring functions of this molecular motor in nuclear processes, and for exploring the signals between cytoplasm and the nucleus. PMID:22295092

  1. A deep NuSTAR observation of M51: Investigating its Compton-thick nucleus, LINER companion and ULXs above 10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Annuar, Ady; Alexander, David M.; Earnshaw, Hannah; Gandhi, Poshak; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Lehmer, Bret; Ptak, Andrew; Rangelov, Blagoy; Roberts, Tim P.; Stern, Daniel; Zezas, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    We present the results from a deep 200ks observation of M51 with NuSTAR. This observation was taken simultaneously with Chandra to provide soft-X-ray-coverage as well as to resolve the different point sources. We detect the Compton-thick nucleus of M51a, the LINER nucleus of M51b and several ultraluminous X-ray sources located in the galaxies above 10 keV. From X-ray torus modeling, we find that the covering factor of the torus in the nucleus of M51a is ~40% and supports a decline in the obscured fration at low X-ray luminosities. We find that the X-ray spectrum of the intermediate mass black hole candidate, ULX-7, is consistent with a power-law up to high energies, supporting its IMBH status. We further resolve the nucleus of M51b into two X-ray sources with Chandra, and measure its X-ray luminosity.

  2. Role of Arcuate Nucleus in the Regulation of Feeding Behavior in the Process of Altitude Acclimatization in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Wen; Yin, Jie; Ma, Qi-Sheng; Qi, Chu-Chu; Mu, Ji-Ying; Zhang, Lang; Gao, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Liu, Xiang-Wen, Jie Yin, Qi-Sheng Ma, Chu-Chu Qi, Ji-Ying Mu, Lang Zhang, Li-Ping Gao, and Yu-Hong Jing. Role of arcuate nucleus in the regulation of feeding behavior in the process of altitude acclimatization in rats. High Alt Med Biol. 18:234-241, 2017.-Highly efficient energy utilization and metabolic homeostasis maintenance rely on neuromodulation. Altitude exposure is known to stimulate neuroendocrine systems to respond to acute hypoxia and adaptive acclimatization. However, limited data on how the adaptive regulation of the arcuate nucleus performs in the process of altitude acclimatization are available. In the present study, male Sprague Dawley rats were transported to Huashixia, Qinghai (with an altitude of 4400 m) from Xian (with an altitude of 300 m) by air; rats were consistently raised in Xian as control. Food uptake and body weight were measured consecutively after being subjected to high-altitude condition. Contents of plasma leptin and ghrelin were analyzed by the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kits. Brain coronal sections were obtained, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocotin (POMC), and c-fos immunoreactivity in arcuate nucleus were observed. Arcuate nucleus was isolated from the hypothalamus, and the mRNA of NPY and POMC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed both food consumption and body weight decreased in the high plateau compared with rats raised in the low-altitude condition. Plasma leptin increased at the early stage, and ghrelin decreased at a later stage after reaching the high plateau. The peak of c-fos immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus was at day 3 after reaching the high plateau. The expression level of NPY increased, and POMC decreased in the arcuate nucleus at day 7 after reaching the high plateau compared with the plain control group. These results indicate that the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus performs an important function in regulating feeding behavior

  3. Abnormalities in hemispheric specialization of caudate nucleus connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Wang, Danhong; Pan, Ruiqi; Holt, Daphne J; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-06-01

    Hemispheric specialization of the human brain is a marker of successful neurodevelopment. Altered brain asymmetry that has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia may represent consequences of disrupted neurodevelopment in the disorder. However, a complete picture of functional specialization in the schizophrenic brain and its connectional substrates is yet to be unveiled. To quantify intrinsic hemispheric specialization at cortical and subcortical levels and to reveal potential disease effects in schizophrenia. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging has been previously used to quantitatively measure hemispheric specialization in healthy individuals in a reliable manner. We quantified the intrinsic hemispheric specialization at the whole brain level in 31 patients with schizophrenia and 37 demographically matched healthy controls from November 28, 2007, through June 29, 2010, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The caudate nucleus and cortical regions with connections to the caudate nucleus had markedly abnormal hemispheric specialization in schizophrenia. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited weaker specialization in the left, but the opposite pattern in the right, caudate nucleus (P < .001). Patients with schizophrenia also had a disruption of the interhemispheric coordination among the cortical regions with connections to the caudate nucleus. A linear classifier based on the specialization of the caudate nucleus distinguished patients from controls with a classification accuracy of 74% (with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 78%). These data suggest that hemispheric specialization could serve as a potential imaging biomarker of schizophrenia that, compared with task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging measures, is less prone to the confounding effects of variation in task compliance, cognitive ability, and command of language.

  4. [Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in lenticular nucleus of Bipolar II disorder and its relation with cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Shenglin; Wang, Jihui; Cheng, Minfeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-03-10

    To explore the magnetic resonance spectroscopy characteristics of lenticular nucleus in Bipolar II disorder and its relation with cognitive function. Thirty Bipolar II disorder patients in hospital from 2012 September to 2013 April and twenty healthy controls were evaluated with Multi-Voxel 1H-MRS scans on lenticular nucleus to assess the NAA, Cho, Cr and MI. All subjects were assessed for attention using the Stroop Test and executive function by Wisconsin card sorting test. NAA, Cho, Cr in right lenticular nucleus and Cr in left lenticular nucleus were lower than healthy controls (P < 0.05). The patients showed significant cognitive impairment in all aspects of Stroop Test and Wisconsin card sorting test (P < 0.05). NAA in right lenticular nucleus was positively correlated with correct number of Stroop-CW. Neural dysfunction in right lenticular nucleus of Bipolar II disorder may influence attention function. Cellular energy metabolism rate was reduced in bilateral lenticular nucleus.

  5. In Vivo Dentate Nucleus Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Concentration in Essential Tremor vs. Controls.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Hernandez, Nora; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun E; Dydak, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Despite its high prevalence, essential tremor (ET) is among the most poorly understood neurological diseases. The presence and extent of Purkinje cell (PC) loss in ET is the subject of controversy. PCs are a major storehouse of central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), releasing GABA at the level of the dentate nucleus. It is therefore conceivable that cerebellar dentate nucleus GABA concentration could be an in vivo marker of PC number. We used in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA concentrations in two cerebellar volumes of interest, left and right, which included the dentate nucleus, comparing 45 ET cases to 35 age-matched controls. 1 H MRS was performed using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. The MEGA-PRESS J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two cerebellar volumes of interest (left and right) that included the dentate nucleus. The two groups did not differ with respect to our primary outcome of GABA concentration (given in institutional units). For the right dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 2.01 ± 0.45 and [GABA] in controls = 1.86 ± 0.53, p = 0.17. For the left dentate nucleus, [GABA] in ET cases = 1.68 ± 0.49 and [GABA] controls = 1.80 ± 0.53, p = 0.33. The controls had similar dentate nucleus [GABA] in the right vs. left dentate nucleus (p = 0.52); however, in ET cases, the value on the right was considerably higher than that on the left (p = 0.001). We did not detect a reduction in dentate nucleus GABA concentration in ET cases vs. One interpretation of the finding is that it does not support the existence of PC loss in ET; however, an alternative interpretation is the observed pattern could be due to the effects of terminal sprouting in ET (i.e., collateral sprouting from surviving PCs making up for the loss of GABA-ergic terminals from PC degeneration). Further research is needed.

  6. AN EMBEDDED ACTIVE NUCLEUS IN THE OH MEGAMASER GALAXY IRAS16399–0937

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.

    2015-01-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS16399–0937, based on new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F814W and Hα+[N II] images and archive data from HST, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and the Very Large Array. This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of ∼6'' (3.4 kpc) and have previously been identified based on optical spectra as a low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) and starburst nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation is mostlymore » heavily obscured. The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, but deep silicate and molecular absorption features are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus. The 0.435-500 μm spectral energy distribution was fitted with a model including stellar, interstellar medium and active galactic nucleus (AGN) torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, CLUMPYDREAM. The results indicate that the IRAS16399N contains an AGN (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction ≈1. We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OHM emission in IRAS16399–0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks (v ∼ 100-200 km s{sup –1}). We infer that the ∼10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} black hole in IRAS16399N is accreting at a small fraction (∼1%) of its Eddington rate. The low accretion rate and modest nuclear star formation rates suggest that while the gas-rich major merger forming the IRAS16399–0937 system has triggered widespread star formation, the massive gas inflows expected from merger simulations have not yet fully developed.« less

  7. An infrared jet in Centaurus A (NGC 5128): Evidence for interaction between the active nucleus and the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Harvey, P. M.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Mcgregor, P. J.; Hyland, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    In the present study, higher resolution near infrared images of the visually-obscured central region of Centaurus A were obtained in order to investigate the effects of the active nucleus on the surrounding galaxy. Researchers present J(1.25 microns), H(1.65 microns), and K(2.2 microns) images of the central 40 seconds of the galaxy, taken with the Univ. of Texas InSb array camera on the Anglo Australian 3.9 meter telescope. These images reveal a jet extending approx. 10 arcseconds to the northeast of the nucleus at the same position angle as the x ray and radio jets. The infrared jet is most prominent at the shortest wavelength (1.25 microns), where its brightness surpasses that of the nucleus. The blue appearance of the infrared jet is remarkable considering the heavy obscuration that is evident at visual wavelengths. The amount of reddening in the vicinity of the jet is determined from the measured colors of the stellar core of the galaxy, and this value is used to generate an extinction-corrected energy distribution. In contrast to previously studied optical and infrared jets in active nuclei, the short-wavelength prominence of the Cen A jet indicates that it cannot be attributed to synchrotron emission from a beam of relativistic electrons. The remaining viable mechanisms involve an interaction between the interstellar medium and the active nucleus: the infrared radiation from the jet may be due to emission from interstellar gas that has been entrained and heated by the flow of relativistic particles from the nucleus; alternatively, luminous blue stars may have been created by compression of interstellar material by the relativistic plasma. To investigate these proposed mechanisms, near-infrared spectroscopic studies of Cen A are in progress to look for collisionally excited molecular hydrogen emission lines and recombination lines from ionized gas.

  8. Strange and non-strange particle production in antiproton-nucleus collisions in the UrQMD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limphirat, Ayut; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Bleicher, Marcus; Yan, Yupeng; Stöcker, Horst

    2009-06-01

    The capabilities of the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model in describing antiproton-nucleus collisions are presented. The model provides a good description of the experimental data on multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions and rapidity distributions in antiproton-nucleus collisions. Special emphasis is put on the comparison of strange particles in reactions with nuclear targets ranging from 7Li, 12C, 32S, 64Cu to 131Xe because of the important role of strangeness for the exploration of hypernuclei at PANDA-FAIR. The productions of the double strange baryons Ξ- and \\bar{\\Xi}^+ , which may be used to produce double Λ hypernuclei, are predicted in this work for the reactions \\skew2\\bar{p} + 24Mg, 64Cu and 197Au.

  9. Individual Differences in Dopamine Efflux in Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Core during Instrumental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Jingjun; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2006-01-01

    Combined activation of dopamine D1- and NMDA-glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens has been strongly implicated in instrumental learning, the process in which an individual learns that a specific action has a wanted outcome. To assess dopaminergic activity, we presented rats with two sessions (30 trials each) of a one-lever appetitive…

  10. Stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in Parkinson's disease: effects on speech and intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Serge; Ferraye, Murielle; Espesser, Robert; Fraix, Valérie; Maillet, Audrey; Guirchoum, Jennifer; Layani-Zemour, Deborah; Ghio, Alain; Chabardès, Stéphan; Pollak, Pierre; Debû, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Improvement of gait disorders following pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease has previously been reported and led us to propose this surgical treatment to patients who progressively developed severe gait disorders and freezing despite optimal dopaminergic drug treatment and subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The outcome of our prospective study on the first six patients was somewhat mitigated, as freezing of gait and falls related to freezing were improved by low frequency electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in some, but not all, patients. Here, we report the speech data prospectively collected in these patients with Parkinson's disease. Indeed, because subthalamic nucleus surgery may lead to speech impairment and a worsening of dysarthria in some patients with Parkinson's disease, we felt it was important to precisely examine any possible modulations of speech for a novel target for deep brain stimulation. Our results suggested a trend towards speech degradation related to the pedunculopontine nucleus area surgery (off stimulation) for aero-phonatory control (maximum phonation time), phono-articulatory coordination (oral diadochokinesis) and speech intelligibility. Possibly, the observed speech degradation may also be linked to the clinical characteristics of the group of patients. The influence of pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation per se was more complex, depending on the nature of the task: it had a deleterious effect on maximum phonation time and oral diadochokinesis, and mixed effects on speech intelligibility. Whereas levodopa intake and subthalamic nucleus stimulation alone had no and positive effects on speech dimensions, respectively, a negative interaction between the two treatments was observed both before and after pedunculopontine nucleus area surgery. This combination effect did not seem to be modulated by pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation. Although limited in our group of

  11. Photoperiodic differences in a forebrain nucleus involved in vocal plasticity: enkephalin immunoreactivity reveals volumetric variation in song nucleus lMAN but not NIf in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the volume of various song control nuclei in many passerine species remains one of the best examples of naturally occurring adult neuroplasticity among vertebrates. The lateral portion of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN) is a song nucleus that is important for song learning and seems to be critical for inducing variability in the song structure that is later pruned via a feedback process to produce adult crystallized song. To date, lMAN has not been shown to exhibit seasonal changes in volume, probably because it is difficult to resolve the boundaries of lMAN when employing histological methods based on Nissl staining. Here, lMANcore volumes were examined in intact photostimulated (i.e. breeding), castrated photostimulated and photorefractory (i.e. non-breeding) male starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to investigate the degree of seasonal variation in brain morphology. We present data demonstrating that the volumes of the total MAN and lMANcore delineated by enkephalin immunoreactivity are greater in photostimulated male starlings as compared to photorefractory males. Moreover, two other regions associated with the song system that have not been investigated previously in the context of seasonal plasticity namely i) the medial portion of MAN (mMAN), and ii) the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) did not display significant volumetric variation. We propose that greater lMANcore volumes are associated with the increase in vocal plasticity which is generally observed prior to production of stereotyped song. PMID:20556824

  12. Photoperiodic differences in a forebrain nucleus involved in vocal plasticity: enkephalin immunoreactivity reveals volumetric variation in song nucleus lMAN but not NIf in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F

    2010-09-15

    Seasonal variation in the volume of various song control nuclei in many passerine species remains one of the best examples of naturally occurring adult neuroplasticity among vertebrates. The lateral portion of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN) is a song nucleus that is important for song learning and seems to be critical for inducing variability in the song structure that is later pruned via a feedback process to produce adult crystallized song. To date, lMAN has not been shown to exhibit seasonal changes in volume, probably because it is difficult to resolve the boundaries of lMAN when employing histological methods based on Nissl staining. Here, lMAN(core) volumes were examined in intact photostimulated (i.e., breeding), castrated photostimulated and photorefractory (i.e., nonbreeding) male starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to investigate the degree of seasonal variation in brain morphology. We present data demonstrating that the volumes of the total MAN and lMAN(core) delineated by enkephalin immunoreactivity are greater in photostimulated male starlings as compared to photorefractory males. Moreover, two other regions associated with the song system that have not been investigated previously in the context of seasonal plasticity namely (i) the medial portion of MAN (mMAN), and (ii) the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) did not display significant volumetric variation. We propose that greater lMAN(core) volumes are associated with the increase in vocal plasticity that is generally observed prior to production of stereotyped song.

  13. Soft photon and two hard jets forward production in proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Armesto, Néstor; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael; Petreska, Elena

    2018-04-01

    We calculate the cross section for production of a soft photon and two hard jets in the forward rapidity region in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies. The calculation is performed within the hybrid formalism. The hardness of the final particles is defined with respect to the saturation scale of the nucleus. We consider both the correlation limit of small momentum imbalance and the dilute target limit where the momentum imbalance is of the order of the hardness of the jets. The results depend on the first two transversemomentum-dependent (TMD) gluon distributions of the nucleus.

  14. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1997-12-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  15. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  16. Translational Diffusion of Macromolecule-sized Solutes in Cytoplasm and Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Seksek, Olivier; Biwersi, Joachim; Verkman, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to quantify the translational diffusion of microinjected FITC-dextrans and Ficolls in the cytoplasm and nucleus of MDCK epithelial cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Absolute diffusion coefficients (D) were measured using a microsecond-resolution FRAP apparatus and solution standards. In aqueous media (viscosity 1 cP), D for the FITC-dextrans decreased from 75 to 8.4 × 10−7 cm2/s with increasing dextran size (4–2,000 kD). D in cytoplasm relative to that in water (D/Do) was 0.26 ± 0.01 (MDCK) and 0.27 ± 0.01 (fibroblasts), and independent of FITC-dextran and Ficoll size (gyration radii [RG] 40–300 Å). The fraction of mobile FITC-dextran molecules (fmob), determined by the extent of fluorescence recovery after spot photobleaching, was >0.75 for RG < 200 Å, but decreased to <0.5 for RG > 300 Å. The independence of D/Do on FITC-dextran and Ficoll size does not support the concept of solute “sieving” (size-dependent diffusion) in cytoplasm. Photobleaching measurements using different spot diameters (1.5–4 μm) gave similar D/Do, indicating that microcompartments, if present, are of submicron size. Measurements of D/Do and fmob in concentrated dextran solutions, as well as in swollen and shrunken cells, suggested that the low fmob for very large macromolecules might be related to restrictions imposed by immobile obstacles (such as microcompartments) or to anomalous diffusion (such as percolation). In nucleus, D/Do was 0.25 ± 0.02 (MDCK) and 0.27 ± 0.03 (fibroblasts), and independent of solute size (RG 40–300 Å). Our results indicate relatively free and rapid diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes up to approximately 500 kD in cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:9214387

  17. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  18. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R

    2013-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum.

  19. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the normal ferret and its postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Linden, D C; Guillery, R W; Cucchiaro, J

    1981-12-01

    The anterograde transport of 3H proline and of horseradish peroxidase has been used to study the retinogeniculate pathway in normal adult ferrets and in young ferrets during postnatal development. the lateral geniculate nucleus in adults shows a characteristic "carnivore" pattern, with layers A, A1, C, C1, C2, and C3, and a medial interlaminar nucleus recognizable either cytoarchitectonically or on the basis ofth retinogeniculate innervation. In addition, there is a well-defined, rather large perigeniculate nucleus. At birth the lateral geniculate nucleus is unlaminated and essentially all parts are reached by afferents from both eyes. The crossed component is by far the larger. It extends from the optic tract medially well into the perigeniculate field, in contrast to the uncrossed component which barely reaches the perigeniculate field. During the first 3 postnatal days the uncrossed fibers restrict their arbors to a small posterior and medial region, the precursor of the biocular segment of the nucleus. The crossed fibers gradually retreat from the region within which the uncrossed fibers have concentrated. Between the fourth and eighth postnatal days the field occupied by the ipsilateral component expands again to form a major focus that will define lamina A1 and a minor focus that will define C1. At this stage the crossed and the uncrossed fibers overlap at the borders of lamina A1 and the whole region of lamina C1 is also occupied by arbors of the crossed component. The perigeniculate field becomes clearly distinguishable from the lateral geniculate nucleus and the medial interlaminar nucleus is becoming clearly recognizable between days 3 and 8. Between days 8 and 15 the cytoarchitectonic borders between layers A and A1 become clearly defined, but the retinogeniculate axons from each eye still extend across this border. These axons retreat into their appropriate lamina after the 15th postnatal day an the nucleus reaches its essentially adult structure by

  20. Galaxy IC 3639 with Obscured Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-07

    IC 3639, a galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, is seen in this image combining data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory. This galaxy contains an example of a supermassive black hole hidden by gas and dust. Researchers analyzed NuSTAR data from this object and compared them with previous observations from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Japanese-led Suzaku satellite. The findings from NuSTAR, which is more sensitive to higher energy X-rays than these observatories, confirm the nature of IC 3639 as an active galactic nucleus that is heavily obscured, and intrinsically much brighter than observed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21087

  1. Direct observation of nanoparticle-cancer cell nucleus interactions.

    PubMed

    Dam, Duncan Hieu M; Lee, Jung Heon; Sisco, Patrick N; Co, Dick T; Zhang, Ming; Wasielewski, Michael R; Odom, Teri W

    2012-04-24

    We report the direct visualization of interactions between drug-loaded nanoparticles and the cancer cell nucleus. Nanoconstructs composed of nucleolin-specific aptamers and gold nanostars were actively transported to the nucleus and induced major changes to the nuclear phenotype via nuclear envelope invaginations near the site of the construct. The number of local deformations could be increased by ultrafast, light-triggered release of the aptamers from the surface of the gold nanostars. Cancer cells with more nuclear envelope folding showed increased caspase 3 and 7 activity (apoptosis) as well as decreased cell viability. This newly revealed correlation between drug-induced changes in nuclear phenotype and increased therapeutic efficacy could provide new insight for nuclear-targeted cancer therapy.

  2. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  3. Momentum dependence of the imaginary part of the ω- and η^'-nucleus optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, S.; Nanova, M.; Metag, V.; Afzal, F. N.; Bayadilov, D.; Bantes, B.; Beck, R.; Becker, M.; Böse, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Crede, V.; Drexler, P.; Eberhardt, H.; Elsner, D.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Ch.; Gottschall, M.; Grüner, M.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, Ch.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Honisch, Ch.; Jude, T.; Kaiser, D.; Kalischewski, F.; Keshelashvili, I.; Klein, F.; Koop, K.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Makonyi, K.; Messi, F.; Müller, J.; Müllers, J.; Piontek, D.-M.; Rostomyan, T.; Schaab, D.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schmitz, R.; Seifen, T.; Sokhoyan, V.; Sowa, C.; Spieker, K.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; Triffterer, T.; Urban, M.; van Pee, H.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Werthmüller, D.; Wiedner, U.; Wilson, A.; Witthauer, L.; Wunderlich, Y.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2016-09-01

    The photoproduction of ω and η^' mesons off carbon and niobium nuclei has been measured as a function of the meson momentum for incident photon energies of 1.2-2.9GeV at the electron accelerator ELSA. The mesons have been identified via the ω → π0 γ → 3 γ and η^' → π0 π0η → 6 γ decays, respectively, registered with the CBELSA/TAPS detector system. From the measured meson momentum distributions the momentum dependence of the transparency ratio has been determined for both mesons. Within a Glauber analysis the in-medium ω and η^' widths and the corresponding absorption cross sections have been deduced as a function of the meson momentum. The results are compared to recent theoretical predictions for the in-medium ω width and η^'-N absorption cross sections. The energy dependence of the imaginary part of the ω- and η^'-nucleus optical potential has been extracted. The finer binning of the present data compared to the existing data allows a more reliable extrapolation towards the production threshold. The modulus of the imaginary part of the η^'-nucleus potential is found to be about three times smaller than recently determined values of the real part of the η^'-nucleus potential, which makes the η^' meson a suitable candidate for the search for meson-nucleus bound states. For the ω meson, the modulus of the imaginary part near threshold is comparable to the modulus of the real part of the potential. As a consequence, only broad structures can be expected, which makes the observation of ω mesic states very difficult experimentally.

  4. [Optimization of labeling and localizing bacterial membrane and nucleus with FM4-64 and Hoechst dyes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Han, Yanping; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Xingxu

    2015-08-04

    To observe cell membrane and nucleus in bacteria for subcellular localization. FM4-64 and Hoechst were dyed that can label cell membrane and nucleus, respectively. Both dyes were used to co-stain the membranes and nucleus of eight bacterial strains ( Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia pestis, Legionella pneumonia, Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus anthracis). E. coli was dyed with different dye concentrations and times and then observed by confocal fluorescence microscopic imaging. Fluorescence intensity of cell membrane and nucleus is affected by dye concentrations and times. The optimal conditions were determined as follows: staining cell membrane with 20 μg/mL FM4-64 for 1 min and cell nucleus with 20 μg/mL Hoechst for 20 min. Gram-negative bacteria were dyed better than gram-positive bacteria with FM4-64dye. FM4-64 and Hoechst can be used to stain membrane and nucleus in different types of bacteria. Co-staining bacterial membrane and nucleus provides the reference to observe cell structure in prokaryotes for studying subcellular localization.

  5. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion) forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete "territories" for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a "crumpled globule" with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates). This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter-intuitive consequences.

  6. Review on DTU-parton model for hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.B.

    1980-08-01

    The parton picture of color separation of dual string and its subsequent breakup is used to motivate the DTU-parton model for high energy small p/sub T/ multiparticle productions in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions. A brief survey on phenomenological applications of the model: such as the inclusive spectra for various hh processes and central plateau heights predicted, hA inclusive spectra and the approximate anti v-universalities is presented.

  7. Role of Reuniens Nucleus Projections to the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and to the Hippocampal Pyramidal CA1 Area in Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Eleore, Lyndell; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place during the acquisition of a classical eyeblink conditioning and following high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the reuniens nucleus in behaving mice. Synaptic changes in strength were studied at the reuniens-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the reuniens-CA1 synapses. Input/output curves and a paired-pulse study enabled determining the functional capabilities of the two synapses and the optimal intensities to be applied at the reuniens nucleus during classical eyeblink conditioning and for HFS applied to the reuniens nucleus. Animals were conditioned using a trace paradigm, with a tone as conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock to the trigeminal nerve as unconditioned stimulus (US). A single pulse was presented to the reuniens nucleus to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in mPFC and CA1 areas during the CS-US interval. No significant changes in synaptic strength were observed at the reuniens-mPFC and reuniens-CA1 synapses during the acquisition of eyelid conditioned responses (CRs). Two successive HFS sessions carried out during the first two conditioning days decreased the percentage of CRs, without evoking any long-term potentiation (LTP) at the recording sites. HFS of the reuniens nucleus also prevented the proper acquisition of an object discrimination task. A subsequent study revealed that HFS of the reuniens nucleus evoked a significant decrease of paired-pulse facilitation. In conclusion, reuniens nucleus projections to prefrontal and hippocampal circuits seem to participate in the acquisition of associative learning through a mechanism that does not required the development of LTP. PMID:21858159

  8. Projections of the optic tectum and the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis nigropunctatus).

    PubMed

    Ebbesson, S O

    1981-01-01

    Fibers undergoing Wallerian degeneration following tectal lesions were demonstrated with the Nauta and Fink-Heimer methods and traced to their termination. Four of the five distinct fiber paths originating in the optic tectum appear related to vision, while one is related to the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus. The latter component of the tectal efferents distributes fibers to 1) the main sensory nucleus of the trigeminus, 2) the motor nucleus of the trigeminus, 3) the nucleus of tractus solitarius, and 4) the intermediate gray of the cervical spinal cord. The principal ascending bundle projects to the nucleus rotundus, three components of the ventral geniculate nucleus and the nucleus ventromedialis anterior ipsilaterally, before it crosses in the supraoptic commissure and terminates in the contralateral nucleus rotundus, ventral geniculate nucleus and a hitherto unnamed region dorsal to the nucleus of the posterior accessory optic tract. Fibers leaving the tectum dorso-medially terminate in the posterodorsal nucleus ipsilaterally and the stratum griseum periventriculare of the contralateral tectum. The descending fiber paths terminate in medial reticular cell groups and the rostral spinal cord contralaterally and in the torus and the lateral reticular regions ipsilaterally. The ipsilateral fascicle also issues fibers to the magnocellular nucleus isthmi.

  9. The Nucleus Accumbens: Mechanisms of Addiction across Drug Classes Reflect the Importance of Glutamate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Heinsbroek, J. A.; Gipson, C. D.; Kupchik, Y. M.; Spencer, S.; Smith, A. C. W.; Roberts-Wolfe, D.; Kalivas, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is a major input structure of the basal ganglia and integrates information from cortical and limbic structures to mediate goal-directed behaviors. Chronic exposure to several classes of drugs of abuse disrupts plasticity in this region, allowing drug-associated cues to engender a pathologic motivation for drug seeking. A number of alterations in glutamatergic transmission occur within the nucleus accumbens after withdrawal from chronic drug exposure. These drug-induced neuroadaptations serve as the molecular basis for relapse vulnerability. In this review, we focus on the role that glutamate signal transduction in the nucleus accumbens plays in addiction-related behaviors. First, we explore the nucleus accumbens, including the cell types and neuronal populations present as well as afferent and efferent connections. Next we discuss rodent models of addiction and assess the viability of these models for testing candidate pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Then we provide a review of the literature describing how synaptic plasticity in the accumbens is altered after exposure to drugs of abuse and withdrawal and also how pharmacological manipulation of glutamate systems in the accumbens can inhibit drug seeking in the laboratory setting. Finally, we examine results from clinical trials in which pharmacotherapies designed to manipulate glutamate systems have been effective in treating relapse in human patients. Further elucidation of how drugs of abuse alter glutamatergic plasticity within the accumbens will be necessary for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of addiction across all classes of addictive substances. PMID:27363441

  10. The Nucleus Accumbens: Mechanisms of Addiction across Drug Classes Reflect the Importance of Glutamate Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Scofield, M D; Heinsbroek, J A; Gipson, C D; Kupchik, Y M; Spencer, S; Smith, A C W; Roberts-Wolfe, D; Kalivas, P W

    2016-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens is a major input structure of the basal ganglia and integrates information from cortical and limbic structures to mediate goal-directed behaviors. Chronic exposure to several classes of drugs of abuse disrupts plasticity in this region, allowing drug-associated cues to engender a pathologic motivation for drug seeking. A number of alterations in glutamatergic transmission occur within the nucleus accumbens after withdrawal from chronic drug exposure. These drug-induced neuroadaptations serve as the molecular basis for relapse vulnerability. In this review, we focus on the role that glutamate signal transduction in the nucleus accumbens plays in addiction-related behaviors. First, we explore the nucleus accumbens, including the cell types and neuronal populations present as well as afferent and efferent connections. Next we discuss rodent models of addiction and assess the viability of these models for testing candidate pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Then we provide a review of the literature describing how synaptic plasticity in the accumbens is altered after exposure to drugs of abuse and withdrawal and also how pharmacological manipulation of glutamate systems in the accumbens can inhibit drug seeking in the laboratory setting. Finally, we examine results from clinical trials in which pharmacotherapies designed to manipulate glutamate systems have been effective in treating relapse in human patients. Further elucidation of how drugs of abuse alter glutamatergic plasticity within the accumbens will be necessary for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of addiction across all classes of addictive substances. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. [The relationships among raphe magnus nucleus, locus coeruleus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus in the descending regulation of gastric motility].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng; Xu, Chang

    2011-02-01

    To explore the interrelationship among dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe magnus nucleus (NRM) in the mechanism of the descending regulation on gastric motility, which may constitute a parasympathetic local circuit, work as a neural center of gastric modulation in brainstem. Using nucleus location, electric stimulation and lesion, together with microinjection, and recording the inter-gastric pressure. (1) LC stimulation could inhibit the gastric motility significantly (P < 0.01), DMV lesion weaken this effect, while blocking the a receptor on DMV could reverse the effect. (2) NRM stimulation reduced the amplitude of gastric constriction (P < 0.01), DMV lesion could abolish the effect, but blocking the 5-HT2A receptor on DMV depressed the gastric motility heavily (P < 0.01) like NRM stimulation. While LC lesion could abolish the effect of NRM stimulation, and microinjection of ritanserin into LC could likewise abolish it. (1) LC inhibit the gastric motility via a receptor in DMV, and meanwhile may excite it through 5-HT2A receptor in DMV, these two ways work together to keeping the gastric motility amplitude normally. (2) NRM inhibit the gastric motility via 5-HT2A receptor in LC.

  12. Topics in nuclear chromodynamics: Color transparency and hadronization in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    The nucleus plays two complimentary roles in quantum chromodynamics: (1) A nuclear target can be used as a control medium or background field to modify or probe quark and gluon subprocesses. Some novel examples are color transparency, the predicted transparency of the nucleus to hadrons participating in high momentum transfer exclusive reactions, and formation zone phenomena, the absence of hard, collinear, target-induced radiation by a quark or gluon interacting in a high momentum transfer inclusive reaction if its energy is large compared to a scale proportional to the length of the target. (Soft radiation and elastic initial state interactions inmore » the nucleus still occur.) Coalescence with co-moving spectators is discussed as a mechanism which can lead to increased open charm hadroproduction, but which also suppresses forward charmonium production (relative to lepton pairs) in heavy ion collisions. Also discussed are some novel features of nuclear diffractive amplitudes--high energy hadronic or electromagnetic reactions which leave the entire nucleus intact and give nonadditive contributions to the nuclear structure function at low /kappa cur//sub Bj/. (2) Conversely, the nucleus can be studied as a QCD structure. At short distances, nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions necessarily involve hidden color, degrees of freedom orthogonal to the channels described by the usual nucleon or isobar degrees of freedom. At asymptotic momentum transfer, the deuteron form factor and distribution amplitude are rigorously calculable. One can also derive new types of testable scaling laws for exclusive nuclear amplitudes in terms of the reduced amplitude formalism.« less

  13. Proton-Nucleus Total Cross Sections in Coupled-Channel Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross sections in the medium have been extracted directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the Langley Research Center. In the present study the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium was investigated. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions.

  14. The suprachiasmatic nucleus in the sheep: retinal projections and cytoarchitectural organization.

    PubMed

    Tessonneaud, A; Cooper, H M; Caldani, M; Locatelli, A; Viguier-Martinez, M C

    1994-10-01

    The retinal innervation, cytoarchitectural, and immunohistochemical organization of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was studied in the domestic sheep. The SCN is a large elongated nucleus extending rostrocaudally for roughly 3 mm in the hypothalamus. The morphology is unusual in that the rostral part of the nucleus extends out of the main mass of the hypothalamus onto the dorsal aspect of the optic chiasm. Following intraocular injection of wheat-germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase or tritiated amino acids, anterograde label is distributed throughout the SCN. Retinal innervation of the SCN is bilaterally symmetric or predominantly ipsilateral. Quantitative image analysis demonstrates that, although the amount of autoradiographic label is greatest in the ventral and central parts of the nucleus, density varies progressively between different regions. In addition to the SCN, retinal fibers are also seen in the medial preoptic area, the anterior and lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, the retrochiasmatic area, and the basal telencephalon. Whereas the SCN can be identified using several techniques, complete delineation of the nucleus requires combined tract tracing, cytoarchitectural, and histochemical criteria. Compared with the surrounding hypothalamic regions, the SCN contains smaller, more densely packed neurons, and is largely devoid of myelinated fibers. Cell soma sizes are smaller in the ventral SCN than in the dorsal or lateral parts, but an obvious regional transition is lacking. Using Nissl, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase staining, the SCN can be clearly distinguished in the rostral and medial regions, but is less differentiated toward the caudal pole. Immunohistochemical demonstration of several neuropeptides shows that the neurochemical organization of the sheep SCN is heterogeneous, but that it lacks a distinct compartmental organization. Populations of different neuropeptide-containing cells are found

  15. The nucleus raphe magnus suppresses vomiting, and the solitary nucleus and 5-HT are not involved in this suppression.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yuka; Hamaguchi, Chie; Yamada, Yuko; Urayama, Yukiko; Nakamura, Emi; Koga, Tomoshige; Fukuda, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-15

    In previous paper, we reported that stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus (stim-NRM) inhibits the induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers (VAs). We performed the present study to identity the transmitter of inhibition and then the site. The following results were obtained in decerebrated and paralyzed dogs. 1) The induction of fictive retching was suppressed by i.v. injection of 5-HT, and by 4th ventricular administration of 5-HT or a 5-HT3-receptor (R) agonist, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanade hydrochloride (m-CPBG). 2) Both forms of suppression were antagonized by i.v. injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3-R antagonist. 3) Administration of the antagonist into the 4th ventricle did not affect the induction or its suppression by stim-NRM. These results suggest that the transmission from VAs to neurons in the nucleus solitarius (NTS) is suppressed by 5-HT via 5-HT3-R. However, these results also suggest that both the transmitter and receptor are not involved in the induction of retching by VAs or in its suppression by the NRM. Next, we examined the site of suppression. Unitary firings of NTS neurons in response to pulse-train stimulation of VAs were not inhibited by NRM stimulation. Moreover, the firing of NTS neurons during the induction of retching by vagal stimulation did not significantly decrease with the superimposition of stim-NRM, although the induction of retching was completely suppressed. These results suggest that suppression of the induction of retching by the descending inhibitory system of pain did not occur in the synapse between afferent vagal fibers and NTS neurons. The site of suppression is discussed.

  16. Determining the meson-nucleus potential - on the way to mesic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metag, Volker

    2015-08-01

    Experimental approaches to determine the real and imaginary part of the meson-nucleus potential are described. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) and the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector at MAMI (Mainz). Measuring the transparency ratio as well as the excitation function and momentum distribution for photo production of ω and η' mesons, the imaginary part of the η'-nucleus potential is found to be smaller than the real part. In case of the ω meson the opposite is observed. This makes the η' meson a good candidate for the search for meson-nucleus bound states while no resolved ω mesic states can be expected. The results are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. An outlook on future experiments is given.

  17. Ancient class of translocated oomycete effectors targets the host nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schornack, Sebastian; van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cano, Liliana M; Smoker, Matthew; Thines, Marco; Gaulin, Elodie; Kamoun, Sophien; Huitema, Edgar

    2010-10-05

    Pathogens use specialized secretion systems and targeting signals to translocate effector proteins inside host cells, a process that is essential for promoting disease and parasitism. However, the amino acid sequences that determine host delivery of eukaryotic pathogen effectors remain mostly unknown. The Crinkler (CRN) proteins of oomycete plant pathogens, such as the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, are modular proteins with predicted secretion signals and conserved N-terminal sequence motifs. Here, we provide direct evidence that CRN N termini mediate protein transport into plant cells. CRN host translocation requires a conserved motif that is present in all examined plant pathogenic oomycetes, including the phylogenetically divergent species Aphanomyces euteiches that does not form haustoria, specialized infection structures that have been implicated previously in delivery of effectors. Several distinct CRN C termini localized to plant nuclei and, in the case of CRN8, required nuclear accumulation to induce plant cell death. These results reveal a large family of ubiquitous oomycete effector proteins that target the host nucleus. Oomycetes appear to have acquired the ability to translocate effector proteins inside plant cells relatively early in their evolution and before the emergence of haustoria. Finally, this work further implicates the host nucleus as an important cellular compartment where the fate of plant-microbe interactions is determined.

  18. Direct Observation of Nanoparticle-Cancer Cell Nucleus Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Duncan Hieu M.; Lee, Jung Heon; Sisco, Patrick N.; Co, Dick T.; Zhang, Ming; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Odom, Teri W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the direct visualization of interactions between drug-loaded nanoparticles and the cancer cell nucleus. Nanoconstructs composed of nucleolin-specific aptamers and gold nanostars were actively transported to the nucleus and induced major changes to the nuclear phenotype via nuclear envelope invaginations near the site of the construct. The number of local deformations could be increased by ultra-fast, light-triggered release of the aptamers from the surface of the gold nanostars. Cancer cells with more nuclear envelope folding showed increased caspase 3 and 7 activity (apoptosis) as well as decreased cell viability. This newly revealed correlation between drug-induced changes in nuclear phenotype and increased therapeutic efficacy could provide new insight for nuclear-targeted cancer therapy. PMID:22424173

  19. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus, aromatase, and sexual partner preferences in sheep.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2010-02-28

    We are using the domestic ram as an experimental model to examine the role of aromatase in the development of sexual partner preferences. This interest has arisen because of the observation that as many as 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to estrous ewes (female-oriented). Our findings demonstrate that aromatase expression is enriched in a cluster of neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus called the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). The size of the oSDN is associated with a ram's sexual partner preference, such that the nucleus is 2-3 times larger in rams that are attracted to females (female-oriented) than in rams that are attracted to other rams (male-oriented). Moreover, the volume of the oSDN in male-oriented rams is similar to the volume in ewes. These volume differences are not influenced by adult concentrations of serum testosterone. Instead, we found that the oSDN is already present in late gestation lamb fetuses (approximately day 135 of gestation) when it is approximately 2-fold greater in males than in females. Exposure of genetic female fetuses to exogenous testosterone during the critical period for sexual differentiation masculinizes oSDN volume and aromatase expression when examined subsequently on day 135. The demonstration that the oSDN is organized prenatally by testosterone exposure suggests that the brain of the male-oriented ram may be under-androgenized during development. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Homologous upregulation of sst2 somatostatin receptor expression in the rat arcuate nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, G S; Turner, J; Guo, F; Videau, C; Epelbaum, J; Beaudet, A

    2001-07-01

    In vitro studies using various cell systems have provided conflicting results regarding homologous regulation of somatostatin (SRIH) receptors, and information on whether SRIH regulates the expression of its own receptors in vivo is lacking. In the present study we examined, by in situ hybridization, the effects of pretreatment with the sst2-preferring SRIH analog, octreotide, in vivo, on mRNA levels of two SRIH receptor subtypes, sst1 and sst2, in rat brain and pituitary. (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding was also measured in these regions. Three hours after the iv injection of 50 microg octreotide to conscious adult male rats, there was a 46% increase (p < 0.01) in the labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus compared to normal saline-pretreated controls, but not in any of the other brain regions examined. Computer-assisted image analysis revealed that 3 h exposure to octreotide significantly (p < 0.01) augmented both the number and labeling density of sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus, compared to those in saline-treated controls. By contrast, within the anterior pituitary gland, in vivo exposure to octreotide did not affect the expression of sst2 mRNA. No changes in sst1 mRNA-expressing cells were observed after octreotide treatment in any of the regions measured, indicating that the observed effects were homologous, i.e. specific of the receptor subtype stimulated. Octreotide pretreatment was also without effect on the density of (125)I-[DTrp(8)]-SRIH binding in either the arcuate nucleus or pituitary. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that SRIH preexposure in vivo upregulates the expression of a subtype of its own receptors, sst2, within the central nervous system. They further suggest that pretreatment with SRIH in vivo does not cause sst2 receptor desensitization in arcuate nucleus and pituitary. Such homologous regulatory mechanisms may play an important role in the neuroendocrine control

  1. Biophysical assays to probe the mechanical properties of the interphase cell nucleus: substrate strain application and microneedle manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria L; Zwerger, Monika; Lammerding, Jan

    2011-09-14

    complement this assay and can yield additional information on intracellular force transmission between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Studying nuclear mechanics in intact living cells preserves the normal intracellular architecture and avoids potential artifacts that can arise when working with isolated nuclei. Furthermore, substrate strain application presents a good model for the physiological stress experienced by cells in muscle or other tissues (e.g., vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to vessel strain). Lastly, while these tools have been developed primarily to study nuclear mechanics, they can also be applied to investigate the function of cytoskeletal proteins and mechanotransduction signaling.

  2. Eta-mesic nuclei: Past, present, future

    DOE PAGES

    Haider, Q.; Liu, Lon -Chang

    2015-09-23

    Eta-mesic nucleus or the quasibound nuclear state of an eta (η) meson in a nucleus is caused by strong interaction force alone. This new type of nuclear species, which extends the landscape of nuclear physics, has been extensively studied since its prediction in 1986. We review and analyze in great detail the models of the fundamental η–nucleon interaction leading to the formation of an η–mesic nucleus, the methods used in calculating the properties of a bound η, and the approaches employed in the interpretation of the pertinent experimental data. In view of the successful observation of the η–mesic nucleus 25Mgmore » η and other promising experimental results, future direction in searching for more η–mesic nuclei is suggested.« less

  3. Heterogeneity of cell firing properties and opioid sensitivity in the thalamic reticular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Brunton, J; Charpak, S

    1997-05-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus receives afferents from the dorsal thalamus, cortex and brainstem, and projects back onto most cortically projecting thalamic nuclei thus playing a key role in the synchronization of the thalamocortical network. Although this nucleus was initially thought to consist of a homogeneous population of cells using GABA as a transmitter, and sharing identical intrinsic membrane properties, some heterogeneity was subsequently reported. The morphological diversity is generally acknowledged, but only two studies have shown functional differences between two classes of cells which vary in their ability to discharge in bursts. However, the location of the non-bursting cells was not characterized with anatomical techniques. Our recent work on the action of mu-opioid agonists in the thalamus revealed a widespread K+-mediated inhibition of most, if not all, thalamic relay and diffuse projection neurons. However, in the reticular nucleus, preliminary experiments suggested that the opioid sensitivity was variable. Based on these results and on observations of a discrete localization of mu-opioid receptors in the reticular nucleus, we investigated cellular heterogeneity within the nucleus using opioid agonists as markers. Using the whole cell patch clamp technique in young rat thalamic slices, we tested the responses of 28 neurons to opioids, the intrinsic membrane properties of each cell, and their relative location within the nucleus. Two types of intrinsic membrane properties underlying distinct discharge behaviours were seen in neurobiotin-labelled cells clearly located in the reticular nucleus: type I with the typical bursting behaviour previously reported in reticularis neurons, and type II in which bursting was greatly reduced or absent. Each class of cell could be further divided into subpopulations based on their opioid sensitivity. About half of both bursting (20) and non-bursting or tonic (8) cells were strongly inhibited by the mu

  4. Orofacial inflammatory pain affects the expression of MT1 and NADPH-d in rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen; Fan, Wenguo; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Hongyu; Cheng, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the role of melatonin in the trigeminal system, including the function of melatonin receptor 1. In the present study, adult rats were injected with formaldehyde into the right vibrissae pad to establish a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. The distribution of melatonin receptor 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal ganglion was determined with immunohistochemistry and histochemistry. The results show that there are significant differences in melatonin receptor 1 expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expression in the trigeminal ganglia and caudal spinal nucleus during the early stage of orofacial inflammatory pain. Our findings suggest that when melatonin receptor 1 expression in the caudal spinal nucleus is significantly reduced, melatonin's regulatory effect on pain is attenuated. PMID:25206619

  5. Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q'. 21Jul94 Last Look at the Q-nuclei First image - March 30, 1994. Two Q-nuclei and a split nucleus, P. Second image - July 20, 1994. at T - 10 hours. Both nuclei still show no sign of further fragmentation, although the coma near each is being stretched out along the direction of motion. Both images were taken with the WFPC2 Planetary Camera using a red filter. Credit: H. A. Weaver and T. E. Smith

  6. Mechanical stability of the cell nucleus: roles played by the cytoskeleton in nuclear deformation and strain recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Liu, Haijiao; Zhu, Min; Cao, Changhong; Xu, Zhensong; Tsatskis, Yonit; Lau, Kimberly; Kuok, Chikin; Filleter, Tobin; McNeill, Helen; Simmons, Craig A; Hopyan, Sevan; Sun, Yu

    2018-05-18

    Extracellular forces transmitted through the cytoskeleton can deform the cell nucleus. Large nuclear deformation increases the risk of disrupting the nuclear envelope's integrity and causing DNA damage. Mechanical stability of the nucleus defines its capability of maintaining nuclear shape by minimizing nuclear deformation and recovering strain when deformed. Understanding the deformation and recovery behavior of the nucleus requires characterization of nuclear viscoelastic properties. Here, we quantified the decoupled viscoelastic parameters of the cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and the nucleus. The results indicate that the cytoskeleton enhances nuclear mechanical stability by lowering the effective deformability of the nucleus while maintaining nuclear sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Additionally, the cytoskeleton decreases the strain energy release rate of the nucleus and might thus prevent shape change-induced structural damage to chromatin. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Calculating TMDs of a large nucleus: Quasi-classical approximation and quantum evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2015-12-24

    We set up a formalism for calculating transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) of a large nucleus using the tools of saturation physics. By generalizing the quasi-classical Glauber–Gribov–Mueller/McLerran–Venugopalan approximation to allow for the possibility of spin–orbit coupling, we show how any TMD can be calculated in the saturation framework. This can also be applied to the TMDs of a proton by modeling it as a large “nucleus.” To illustrate our technique, we calculate the quark TMDs of an unpolarized nucleus at large-x: the unpolarized quark distribution and the quark Boer–Mulders distribution. Here, we observe that spin–orbit coupling leads to mixing betweenmore » different TMDs of the nucleus and of the nucleons. We then consider the evolution of TMDs: at large-x, in the double-logarithmic approximation, we obtain the Sudakov form factor. At small-x the evolution of unpolarized-target quark TMDs is governed by BK/JIMWLK evolution, while the small-x evolution of polarized-target quark TMDs appears to be dominated by the QCD Reggeon.« less

  8. Rosetta/OSIRIS - Nucleus morphology and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rickman, Hans; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission arrived on August 6, 2014, at target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations. OSIRIS imaged the nucleus and coma of the comet from the arrival throughout the mapping phase, PHILAE landing, early escort phase and close fly-by. The overview paper will discuss the surface morpholo-gy and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets as well as small scale structures in the local topography.

  9. Herschel spectroscopic observations of the compact obscured nucleus in Zw 049.057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falstad, N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Aalto, S.; van der Werf, P. P.; Fischer, J.; Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Farrah, D.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The luminous infrared galaxy Zw 049.057 contains a compact obscured nucleus where a considerable amount of the galaxy's luminosity is generated. This nucleus contains a dusty environment that is rich in molecular gas. One approach to probing this kind of environment and to revealing what is hidden behind the dust is to study the rotational lines of molecules that couple well with the infrared radiation emitted by the dust. Aims: We probe the physical conditions in the core of Zw 049.057 and establish the nature of its nuclear power source (starburst or active galactic nucleus). Methods: We observed Zw 049.057 with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory in rotational lines of H2O, H218O, OH, 18OH, and [O I]. We modeled the unresolved core of the galaxy using a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. To account for the different excitation requirements of the various molecular transitions, we use multiple components and different physical conditions. Results: We present the full high-resolution SPIRE FTS spectrum of Zw 049.057, along with relevant spectral scans in the PACS range. We find that a minimum of two different components (nuclear and extended) are required in order to account for the rich molecular line spectrum of Zw 049.057. The nuclear component has a radius of 10-30 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (~1014L⊙kpc-2), warm dust (Td > 100 K), and a very large H2 column density (NH2 = 1024-1025 cm-2). The modeling also indicates high nuclear H2O (~5 × 10-6) and OH (~4 × 10-6) abundances relative to H2 as well as a low 16O/18O-ratio of 50-100. We also find a prominent infall signature in the [O I] line. We tentatively detect a 500 km s-1 outflow in the H2O 313 → 202 line. Conclusions: The high surface brightness of the core indicates the presence of either a buried active galactic nucleus or a very dense nuclear

  10. Macromolecular Transport between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm: Advances in Mechanism and Emerging Links to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Elizabeth J.; King, Megan C.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2014-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is critical for the function of all eukaryotic cells. Large macromolecular channels termed nuclear pore complexes that span the nuclear envelope mediate the bidirectional transport of cargoes between the nucleus and cytoplasm. However, the influence of macromolecular trafficking extends past the nuclear pore complex to transcription and RNA processing within the nucleus and signaling pathways that reach into the cytoplasm and beyond. At the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport biennial meeting held from October 18-23, 2013 in Woods Hole, MA, researchers in the field met to report on their recent findings. The work presented highlighted significant advances in understanding nucleocytoplasmic trafficking including how transport receptors and cargoes pass through the nuclear pore complex, the many signaling pathways that impinge on transport pathways, interplay between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes, and transport pathways, and numerous links between transport pathways and human disease. The goal of this review is to highlight newly emerging themes in nuclear transport and underscore the major questions that are likely to be the focus of future research in the field. PMID:25116306

  11. Oral alprazolam acutely increases nucleus accumbens perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Smith, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines treat anxiety, but can also produce euphoric effects, contributing to abuse. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct evidence in humans that alprazolam (Xanax) acutely increases perfusion in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward-processing region linked to addiction. PMID:23070072

  12. The plant cell nucleus: a true arena for the fight between plants and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Laurent; Rivas, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is a fundamental feature shared by both plant and animal cells. Cellular factors involved in the transport of macromolecules through the nuclear envelope, including nucleoporins, importins and Ran-GTP related components, are conserved among a variety of eukaryotic systems. Interestingly, mutations in these nuclear components compromise resistance signalling, illustrating the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking in plant innate immunity. Indeed, spatial restriction of defence regulators by the nuclear envelope and stimulus-induced nuclear translocation constitute an important level of defence-associated gene regulation in plants. A significant number of effectors from different microbial pathogens are targeted to the plant cell nucleus. In addition, key host factors, including resistance proteins, immunity components, transcription factors and transcriptional regulators shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and their level of nuclear accumulation determines the output of the defence response, further confirming the crucial role played by the nucleus during the interaction between plants and pathogens. Here, we discuss recent findings that situate the nucleus at the frontline of the mutual recognition between plants and invading microbes.

  13. Neuroanatomical dysmorphology of the medial superior olivary nucleus in sudden fetal and infant death

    PubMed Central

    Lavezzi, Anna M.; Matturri, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    This study expands our understanding of the organization of the human caudal pons, providing a morphologic characterization of the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), component of the superior olivary complex (SOC) that plays an important role in the processing of acoustic information. We examined victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and controls (n = 75), from 25 gestational weeks to 8 months of postnatal age, by complete autopsy and in-depth autonomic nervous system histological examination, particularly of the MSO nucleus, the focus of this study. Peculiar cytoarchitectural features of the MSO nucleus were found in sudden death cases, such as hypoplasia/agenesis and immature hypercellularity, frequently related to dysgenesis of contiguous structures involved in respiratory rhythm-generating circuit, in particular to hypoplasia of the retrotrapezoid and the facial nuclei. We propose the involvement of this nucleus in more important functions than those related to hearing, as breathing and, more extensively, all the vital activities. Besides, we highlight the fundamental role of the maternal smoking in pregnancy as etiological factor in the dysmorphic neuroanatomical development of the MSO nucleus. PMID:23205011

  14. A strategy for detecting the conservation of folding-nucleus residues in protein superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Michnick, S W; Shakhnovich, E

    1998-01-01

    Nucleation-growth theory predicts that fast-folding peptide sequences fold to their native structure via structures in a transition-state ensemble that share a small number of native contacts (the folding nucleus). Experimental and theoretical studies of proteins suggest that residues participating in folding nuclei are conserved among homologs. We attempted to determine if this is true in proteins with highly diverged sequences but identical folds (superfamilies). We describe a strategy based on comparisons of residue conservation in natural superfamily sequences with simulated sequences (generated with a Monte-Carlo sequence design strategy) for the same proteins. The basic assumptions of the strategy were that natural sequences will conserve residues needed for folding and stability plus function, the simulated sequences contain no functional conservation, and nucleus residues make native contacts with each other. Based on these assumptions, we identified seven potential nucleus residues in ubiquitin superfamily members. Non-nucleus conserved residues were also identified; these are proposed to be involved in stabilizing native interactions. We found that all superfamily members conserved the same potential nucleus residue positions, except those for which the structural topology is significantly different. Our results suggest that the conservation of the nucleus of a specific fold can be predicted by comparing designed simulated sequences with natural highly diverged sequences that fold to the same structure. We suggest that such a strategy could be used to help plan protein folding and design experiments, to identify new superfamily members, and to subdivide superfamilies further into classes having a similar folding mechanism.

  15. Basal forebrain amnesia: does the nucleus accumbens contribute to human memory?

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, G.; Schuri, U.; Gromminger, O.; Arnold, U.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse amnesia caused by basal forebrain lesions.
METHODS—A single case study of a patient with amnesia after bleeding into the anterior portion of the left basal ganglia. Neuropsychological examination included tests of attention, executive function, working memory, recall, and recognition of verbal and non-verbal material, and recall from remote semantic and autobiographical memory. The patient's MRI and those of other published cases of basal forebrain amnesia were reviewed to specify which structures within the basal forebrain are crucial for amnesia.
RESULTS—Attention and executive function were largely intact. There was anterograde amnesia for verbal material which affected free recall and recognition. With both modes of testing the patient produced many false positive responses and intrusions when lists of unrelated words had been memorised. However, he confabulated neither on story recall nor in day to day memory, nor in recall from remote memory. The lesion affected mainly the nucleus accumbens, but encroached on the inferior limb of the capsula interna and the most ventral portion of the nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus, and there was evidence of some atrophy of the head of the caudate nucleus. The lesion spared the nucleus basalis Meynert, the diagnonal band, and the septum, which are the sites of cholinergic cell concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS—It seems unlikely that false positive responses were caused by insufficient strategic control of memory retrieval. This speaks against a major role of the capsular lesion which might disconnect the prefrontal cortex from the thalamus. It is proposed that the lesion of the nucleus accumbens caused amnesia.

 PMID:10406982

  16. [The pedunculopontine nucleus. A structure involved in motor and emotional processing].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lezcano, L; Pavón-Fuentes, N; Serrano-Sánchez, T; Blanco-Lezcano, V; Coro-Grave de Peralta, Y; Joseph-Bouza, Y

    There is currently a growing interest for conducting studies into the electrical and neurochemical activity of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) due to the privileged position occupied by this structure in the flow of information to and from the cortex. This nucleus acts as a relay, not only for the motor information that is processed in the basal ganglia but also for information of an emotional type, whose main centre is the nucleus accumbens. It is also strongly linked with the aspects that determine the mechanisms governing addiction to certain drugs. We conduct a detailed analysis of the main findings from studies of the role played by the PPN in the physiopathology of Parkinsonism, namely the study of metabolic activity, immunohistochemical studies with different tracers, electrophysiological studies that have confirmed the immunohistochemical observations, as well as deep electrical stimulation carried out in non human primates. Furthermore, we also examine the part played by this structure in the processing of emotional information associated with different learning tasks. Overall, the authors grant the PPN a privileged position in the physiopathology of the axial disorders related to Parkinson s disease; its most important afference, stemming from the subthalamic nucleus, appears to play a key role in the understanding of the part played by the PPN in Parkinsonism.

  17. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dependence of the Circumnuclear Coma Structure on the Properties of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crifo, J. F.; Rodionov, A. V.

    1997-06-01

    A new step of development of the 3-D circumnuclear coma (“CNC”) model described in Crifoet al.(1995) is presented: now the gas and dust production are computed from an explicit dusty-ice sublimation model and a realistic dust mass spectrum is used. For the first time, (1) a clear distinction is made betweennucleus active area fraction gandactive surface icy area fraction f; (2) the dependence of the dusty ice sublimation rate onfand that offon the heliocentric distancerhdue to the evolution of the dust cover are explicitly taken into account; (3) the 3-D structure of the CNC is described thoroughly instead of only in one symmetry plane; (4) the 3-D CNC model is quantitatively fitted to observational data; (5) a detailed comparison is made between the CNC structures resulting from two alternative assumptions concerning the nucleus. The first assumed nucleus is a homogeneous sphere of dusty ice (g= 1). We show that, in this case: (1) The maximum ejectable mass of spherical dust grains has a ∝f(rh) cosz/r2hdependence upon solar zenith anglezand uponrh. (2) The terminal ejected dust velocities have an approximate ∝coszdependence onzand a strong ∝f(rh)/rhdependence onrh. Fitting-for definiteness-the model to the light curve of the weak Comet P/Wirtanen (P/W), target of the future Rosetta mission, we find, assuming an upper limit nucleus radius of 1.4 km, that: (1)fdecreases from about 14% at perihelion to possibly 0.025% atrh= 3 AU; (2) forrh≤ 2.5 AU all or most of the sunward circumnuclear CNC is in fluid regime; (3) for 2.5 ≤rh≤ 3 AU, most of the sunward CNC is in the so-called “transition regime”; (4) due to their dependence uponf, the dust velocities are in absolute value much smaller than expected from the usually accepted algorithms (which assumef≡ 1) and decrease strongly with increasingrh. The physical significance of these results is discussed. The second assumed nucleus fitted to P/W is an inhomogeneous sphere of dusty ice, most of the

  19. Effects of systemic L-tyrosine on dopamine release from rat corpus striatum and nucleus accumbens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Intracerebral dialysis was used to monitor extracellular fluid from rat striatum and nucleus accumbens following the intraperitoneal administration of tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates from both the striatum and the nucleus accumbens increased significantly in response to the tyrosine. The magnitude of the tyrosine effect was greater in the nucleus accumbens than in the striatum. Hence, mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons may be especially responsive to precursor availability.

  20. Coma morphology of comet 67P controlled by insolation over irregular nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Hu, X.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Keller, H. U.; Rose, M.; Güttler, C.; Fulle, M.; Fornasier, S.; Agarwal, J.; Pajola, M.; Tubiana, C.; Bodewits, D.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Toth, I.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2018-05-01

    While the structural complexity of cometary comae is already recognizable from telescopic observations1, the innermost region, within a few radii of the nucleus, was not resolved until spacecraft exploration became a reality2,3. The dust coma displays jet-like features of enhanced brightness superposed on a diffuse background1,4,5. Some features can be traced to specific areas on the nucleus, and result conceivably from locally enhanced outgassing and/or dust emission6-8. However, diffuse or even uniform activity over topographic concavity can converge to produce jet-like features9,10. Therefore, linking observed coma morphology to the distribution of activity on the nucleus is difficult11,12. Here, we study the emergence of dust activity at sunrise on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using high-resolution, stereo images from the OSIRIS camera onboard the Rosetta spacecraft, where the sources and formation of the jet-like features are resolved. We perform numerical simulations to show that the ambient dust coma is driven by pervasive but non-uniform water outgassing from the homogeneous surface layer. Physical collimations of gas and dust flows occur at local maxima of insolation and also via topographic focusing. Coma structures are projected to exhibit jet-like features that vary with the perspective of the observer. For an irregular comet such as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, near-nucleus coma structures can be concealed in the shadow of the nucleus, which further complicates the picture.

  1. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:24470815

  2. Hedonic and Nucleus Accumbens Neural Responses to a Natural Reward Are Regulated by Aversive Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, Mitchell F.; Wheeler, Robert A.; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.; Roitman, Jamie D.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli. Learning can alter the hedonic valence of a given stimulus, and it remains unclear how the NAc encodes this shift. The present study examined whether the population response of NAc neurons to a taste stimulus is plastic using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA)…

  3. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-01-01

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse. PMID:27327255

  4. Neutrino-nucleus interactions at the LBNF near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an {sup 40}Ar nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistentmore » footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.« less

  5. Control of cell nucleus shapes via micropillar patterns.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhen; Yan, Ce; Peng, Rong; Zhao, Yingchun; He, Yao; Ding, Jiandong

    2012-02-01

    We herein report a material technique to control the shapes of cell nuclei by the design of the microtopography of substrates to which the cells adhere. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) micropillars or micropits of a series of height or depth were fabricated, and some surprising self deformation of the nuclei of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was found in the case of micropillars with a sufficient height. Despite severe nucleus deformation, BMSCs kept the ability of proliferation and differentiation. We further demonstrated that the shapes of cell nuclei could be regulated by the appropriate micropillar patterns. Besides circular and elliptoid shapes, some unusual nucleus shapes of BMSCs have been achieved, such as square, cross, dumbbell, and asymmetric sphere-protrusion. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The cellular mastermind(?) – Mechanotransduction and the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Ashley; Fedorchak, Gregory R.; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimulation by activation of specific signaling pathways and genes that allow the cell to adapt to its dynamic physical environment. How cells sense the various mechanical inputs and translate them into biochemical signals remains an area of active investigation. Recent reports suggest that the cell nucleus may be directly implicated in this cellular mechanotransduction process. In this chapter, we discuss how forces applied to the cell surface and cytoplasm induce changes in nuclear structure and organization, which could directly affect gene expression, while also highlighting the complex interplay between nuclear structural proteins and transcriptional regulators that may further modulate mechanotransduction signaling. Taken together, these findings paint a picture of the nucleus as a central hub in cellular mechanotransduction—both structurally and biochemically—with important implications in physiology and disease. PMID:25081618

  7. Gradenigo’s Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Bacterial meningitis Symptoms: Altered mental status • headache • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Gradenigo’s syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo’s syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo’s syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). Case Report: A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. Conclusions: This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo’s syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo’s syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis

  8. SF-1 in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus: A key regulator of homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) regulates food intake and body weight homeostasis. The nuclear receptor NR5A1 (steroidogenic factor 1; SF-1) is a transcription factor whose expression is highly restricted in the VMH and is required for the development of the nucleus. Neurons expressing...

  9. The Second Nucleus of NGC 7727: Direct Evidence for the Formation and Evolution of an Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, François; Seitzer, Patrick; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Villanueva, Edward V.

    2018-01-01

    We present new observations of the late-stage merger galaxy NGC 7727, including Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images and long-slit spectra obtained with the Clay telescope. NGC 7727 is relatively luminous ({M}V = ‑21.7) and features two unequal tidal tails, various bluish arcs and star clusters, and two bright nuclei 480 pc apart in projection. These two nuclei have nearly identical redshifts, yet are strikingly different. The primary nucleus, hereafter Nucleus 1, fits smoothly into the central luminosity profile of the galaxy and appears—at various wavelengths—“red and dead.” In contrast, Nucleus 2 is very compact, has a tidal radius of 103 pc, and exhibits three signs of recent activity: a post-starburst spectrum, an [O III] emission line, and a central X-ray point source. Its emission-line ratios place it among Seyfert nuclei. A comparison of Nucleus 2 ({M}V = ‑15.5) with ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) suggests that it may be the best case yet for a massive UCD having formed through tidal stripping of a gas-rich disk galaxy. Evidence for this comes from its extended star formation history, long blue tidal stream, and elevated dynamical-to-stellar-mass ratio. While the majority of its stars formed ≳ 10 {Gyr} ago, ∼1/3 formed during starbursts in the past 2 Gyr. Its weak active galactic nucleus activity is likely driven by a black hole of mass 3× {10}6-8 {M}ȯ . We estimate that the former companion’s initial mass was less than half that of then NGC 7727, implying a minor merger. By now this former companion has been largely shredded, leaving behind Nucleus 2 as a freshly minted UCD that probably moves on a highly eccentric orbit. Based in part on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  10. Transition between order and chaos in a composite disk galaxy model with a massive nucleus and a dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caranicolas, Nicolaos D.; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the transition from regular to chaotic motion in a composite galaxy model with a disk-halo, a massive dense nucleus and a dark halo component. We obtain relationships connecting the critical value of the mass of the nucleus or the critical value of the angular momentum Lzc, with the mass Mh of the dark halo, where the transition from regular motion to chaos occurs. We also present 3D diagrams connecting the mass of nucleus the energy and the percentage of stars that can show chaotic motion. The fraction of the chaotic orbits observed in the (r,pr) phase plane, as a function of the mass of the dark halo is also computed. We use a semi-numerical method, that is a combination of theoretical and numerical procedure. The theoretical results obtained using the version 8.0 of the Mathematica package, while all the numerical calculations were made using a Bulirsch-Stöer FORTRAN routine in double precision. The results can be obtained in semi-numerical or numerical form and give good description for the connection of the physical quantities entering the model and the transition between regular and chaotic motion. We observe that the mass of the dark halo, the mass of the dense nucleus and the Lz component of the angular momentum, are important physical quantities, as they are linked to the regular or chaotic character of orbits in disk galaxies described by the model. Our numerical experiments suggest, that the amount of the dark matter plays an important role in disk galaxies represented by the model, as the mass of the halo affects, not only the regular or chaotic nature of motion but it is also connected with the existence of the different families of regular orbits. Comparison of the present results with earlier work is also presented.

  11. The Nucleus of Comet 22P/Kopff and Its Inner Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P. L.; Toth, I.; Jorda, L.; Groussin, O.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Weaver, H. A.

    2002-04-01

    We report the detection of the nucleus of Comet 22P/Kopff with the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and with the Infrared Camera of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISOCAM). The HST observations were performed on 18 July 1996, 16 days after its perihelion passage of 2 July 1996, when it was at Rh=1.59 AU from the Sun and Δ=0.57 AU from the Earth. A sequence of images taken with four broad-band filters was repeated eight times over a 12-h time interval. The ISOCAM observations were performed on 15 October 1996, 106 days after the perihelion passage, when the comet was at Rh=1.89 AU from the Sun and Δ=1.32 AU from the Earth. Seven images were obtained with a broad-band filter centered at 11.5 μm. In both instances, the spatial resolution was appropriate to separate the signal of the nucleus from that of the coma. We determine the Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI magnitudes of the nucleus. The visible lightcurves constrain neither the rotation period nor the ratio of semiaxes. We favor the solution of a rather spherical nucleus, although the situation of a pole-on view of an irregular body cannot be excluded. The systematic decreasing trend of the lightcurves could suggest a period of several days. Combining the visible and infrared observations, we find that an ice-dust mixed model is ruled out, while the standard thermal model leads to a nuclear radius of Rn=1.67±0.18 km of albedo pv=0.042±0.006. The red color of the nucleus is characterized by a nearly constant gradient of S'=14±5% per kÅ from 400 to 800 nm. We estimate a fractional active area of 0.35 which places 22P/Kopff in the class of highly active short-period comets. At Rh=1.59 AU, the dust coma is characterized by a red color with a reflectivity gradient S'=17±3% per kÅ, compatible with that of the nucleus, and Afρ=545 cm, yielding a dust production rate of Qd=130 kg sec -1.

  12. A Dynamical Model Reveals Gene Co-Localizations in Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ye; Lin, Wei; Hennessy, Conor; Fraser, Peter; Feng, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Co-localization of networks of genes in the nucleus is thought to play an important role in determining gene expression patterns. Based upon experimental data, we built a dynamical model to test whether pure diffusion could account for the observed co-localization of genes within a defined subnuclear region. A simple standard Brownian motion model in two and three dimensions shows that preferential co-localization is possible for co-regulated genes without any direct interaction, and suggests the occurrence may be due to a limitation in the number of available transcription factors. Experimental data of chromatin movements demonstrates that fractional rather than standard Brownian motion is more appropriate to model gene mobilizations, and we tested our dynamical model against recent static experimental data, using a sub-diffusion process by which the genes tend to colocalize more easily. Moreover, in order to compare our model with recently obtained experimental data, we studied the association level between genes and factors, and presented data supporting the validation of this dynamic model. As further applications of our model, we applied it to test against more biological observations. We found that increasing transcription factor number, rather than factory number and nucleus size, might be the reason for decreasing gene co-localization. In the scenario of frequency- or amplitude-modulation of transcription factors, our model predicted that frequency-modulation may increase the co-localization between its targeted genes. PMID:21760760

  13. The Ionization Source in the Nucleus of M84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Quillen, A. C.; Danks, A.; Malumuth, E. M.; Gull, T.; Woodgate, B.; Hutchings, J.; Joseph, C.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of M84, a nearby massive elliptical galaxy whose nucleus contains a approximately 1.5 X 10(exp 9) solar mass dark compact object, which presumably is a supermassive black hole. Our Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectrum provides the first clear detection of emission lines in the blue (e.g., [0 II] lambda 3727, HBeta and [0 III] lambda lambda4959,5007), which arise from a compact region approximately 0".28 across centered on the nucleus. Our Near Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrometer (NICMOS) images exhibit the best view through the prominent dust lanes evident at optical wavelengths and provide a more accurate correction for the internal extinction. The relative fluxes of the emission lines we have detected in the blue together with those detected in the wavelength range 6295 - 6867 A by Bower et al. indicate that the gas at the nucleus is photoionized by a nonstellar process, instead of hot stars. Stellar absorption features from cool stars at the nucleus are very weak. We update the spectral energy distribution of the nuclear point source and find that although it is roughly flat in most bands, the optical to UV continuum is very red, similar to the spectral energy distribution of BL Lac. Thus, the nuclear point source seen in high-resolution optical images is not a star cluster but is instead a nonstellar source. Assuming isotropic emission from this source, we estimate that the ratio of bolometric luminosity to Eddington luminosity is about 5 x 10(exp -7). However, this could be underestimated if this source is a misaligned BL Lac object, which is a possibility suggested by the spectral energy distribution and the evidence of optical variability we describe.

  14. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEUS OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre; Weaver, Harold A., E-mail: philippe.lamy@lam.fr

    2014-10-10

    We report on the analysis of several sequences of broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope on 2013 April 10, May 8, October 9, and November 1 in an attempt to detect and characterize its nucleus. Whereas the overwhelming coma precluded the detection of the nucleus in the first two sequences, the contrast was sufficient in early October to unambiguously retrieve the signal from the nucleus. Two images taken within a few minutes led to similar V magnitudes for the nucleus of 21.97 and 22.0 with amore » 1σ uncertainty of 0.065. Assuming a standard value for the geometric albedo (0.04) and a linear phase function with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg{sup –1}, these V values imply that the nucleus radius is 0.68 ± 0.02 km. Although this result does depend on these two assumptions, we argue that the radius most likely lies in the range 0.6-0.9 km. This result is consistent with the constraints derived from the water production rates reported by Combi et al. The last sequence of images in 2013 November revealed temporal variation of the innermost coma. If attributed to a single rotating jet, this coma brightness variation suggests the rotational period of the nucleus may be close to ∼10.4 hr.« less

  16. Retrograde movement of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hussam H.; Hopper, Anita K.

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes, tRNAs transcribed in the nucleus function in cytoplasmic protein synthesis. The Ran-GTP-binding exportin, Los1p/Xpo-t, and additional pathway(s) mediate tRNA transport to the cytoplasm. Although tRNA movement was thought to be unidirectional, recent reports that yeast precursor tRNA splicing occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas fully spliced tRNAs can reside in the nucleus, require that either the precursor tRNA splicing machinery or mature tRNAs move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our data argue against the first possibility and strongly support the second. Combining heterokaryon analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that a foreign tRNA encoded by one nucleus can move from the cytoplasm to a second nucleus that does not encode the tRNA. We also discovered nuclear accumulation of endogenous cytoplasmic tRNAs in haploid yeast cells in response to nutritional deprivation. Nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic tRNA requires Ran and the Mtr10/Kap111 member of the importin-β family. Retrograde tRNA nuclear import may provide a novel mechanism to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. PMID:16040803

  17. Retrograde movement of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Hussam H; Hopper, Anita K

    2005-08-09

    In eukaryotes, tRNAs transcribed in the nucleus function in cytoplasmic protein synthesis. The Ran-GTP-binding exportin, Los1p/Xpo-t, and additional pathway(s) mediate tRNA transport to the cytoplasm. Although tRNA movement was thought to be unidirectional, recent reports that yeast precursor tRNA splicing occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas fully spliced tRNAs can reside in the nucleus, require that either the precursor tRNA splicing machinery or mature tRNAs move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our data argue against the first possibility and strongly support the second. Combining heterokaryon analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that a foreign tRNA encoded by one nucleus can move from the cytoplasm to a second nucleus that does not encode the tRNA. We also discovered nuclear accumulation of endogenous cytoplasmic tRNAs in haploid yeast cells in response to nutritional deprivation. Nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic tRNA requires Ran and the Mtr10/Kap111 member of the importin-beta family. Retrograde tRNA nuclear import may provide a novel mechanism to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes.

  18. Identification of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific enhancer region of Kiss1 gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Teppei; Tomikawa, Junko; Ikegami, Kana; Minabe, Shiori; Abe, Hitomi; Fukanuma, Tatsuya; Imamura, Takuya; Takase, Kenji; Sanbo, Makoto; Tomita, Koichi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile secretion of GnRH plays a pivotal role in follicular development via stimulating tonic gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Kisspeptin neurons, located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are considered to be an intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. The present study aimed to determine ARC-specific enhancer(s) of the Kiss1 gene by an in vivo reporter assay. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs (long, medium length, and short) were generated by insertion of GFP cDNA at the Kiss1 locus. Transgenic female mice bearing the long and medium-length constructs showed apparent GFP signals in kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in both the ARC and anteroventral periventricular nucleus, in which another population of kisspeptin neurons are located. On the other hand, transgenic mice bearing 5'-truncated short construct showed few GFP signals in the ARC kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells, whereas they showed colocalization of GFP- and kisspeptin-immunoreactivities in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture assays revealed recruitment of unoccupied estrogen receptor-α in the 5'-upstream region and intricate chromatin loop formation between the 5'-upstream and promoter regions of Kiss1 locus in the ARC. Taken together, the present results indicate that 5'-upstream region of Kiss1 locus plays a critical role in Kiss1 gene expression in an ARC-specific manner and that the recruitment of estrogen receptor-α and formation of a chromatin loop between the Kiss1 promoter and the 5' enhancer region may be required for the induction of ARC-specific Kiss1 gene expression. These results suggest that the 5'-upstream region of Kiss1 locus functions as an enhancer for ARC Kiss1 gene expression in mice.

  19. Semi-inclusive charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W.; Van Orden, J. W.; ...

    2014-07-17

    The general, universal formalism for semi-inclusive charged-current (anti)neutrino-nucleus reactions is given for studies of any hadronic system, namely, either nuclei or the nucleon itself. The detailed developments are presented with the former in mind and are further specialized to cases where the final-state charged lepton and an ejected nucleon are presumed to be detected. General kinematics for such processes are summarized and then explicit expressions are developed for the leptonic and hadronic tensors involved and for the corresponding responses according to the usual charge, longitudinal and transverse projections, keeping finite the masses of all particles involved. In the case ofmore » the hadronic responses, general symmetry principles are invoked to determine which contributions can occur. As a result, the general leptonic-hadronic tensor contraction is given as well as the cross section for the process.« less

  20. The pupillary and ciliary components of the cat Edinger-Westphal nucleus: a transsynaptic transport investigation.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Jonathan T; May, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of preganglionic motoneurons supplying the ciliary ganglion in the cat was defined both qualitatively and quantitatively. These cells were retrogradely labeled directly, following injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the ciliary ganglion, or were transsynaptically labeled following injections of WGA into the vitreous chamber. Almost half of the cells are distributed rostral to the oculomotor nucleus, both in and lateral to the anteromedian nucleus. Of the remaining preganglionic motoneurons, roughly 20% of the total are located dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus. Strikingly few of these neurons are actually found within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus proper. Instead, the majority are found in the adjacent supraoculomotor area or along the midline between the two somatic nuclei. An additional population, roughly 30% of the total, is located ventral to the oculomotor nucleus. This study also provides evidence for a functional subdivision of this preganglionic population. Pupil-related preganglionic motoneurons were transsynaptically labeled by injecting WGA into the anterior chamber, while lens-related preganglionic motoneurons were transsynaptically labeled by injecting WGA into the ciliary muscle. The results suggest that the pupil-related preganglionic motoneurons, that is, those controlling the iris sphincter pupillae muscle, are located rostrally, in and lateral to the anteromedian nucleus. In contrast, lens-related preganglionic motoneurons, that is, those controlling the ciliary muscle are particularly prevalent caudally, both dorsal and ventral to the oculomotor nucleus. Thus, the cat intraocular muscle preganglionic innervation is spatially organized with respect to function, despite the dispersed nature of its distribution.

  1. Analysis about the force of electrons revolve around the nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    1, Let's compare the difference of two algorithms: the electrostatic force between protons and electrons, F1 = ke2 / r2, r is the radius of the electron around the nucleus movement - within 10-10 meters; Electronic movement speed is close to the light- about 107 meters per second, the size of the centripetal force F2 = v2m/r. F1 should be approximately equal to F2,calculate the ratio of F1 and F2, F2 / F1 = (v2m/r) (ke2 / r2) / = (107 * 107 * 0.91 * 10-30 / r)/(9 * 109 * 1.6* 10-19*1.6*10-19 / r2) = 4 x 103.The calculation shows that not only the electrostatic force and other force. 2, The radius of the electron orbiting around the nucleus named r, F = Ke2 / r2 = 9 x 109 x #¨1.6 x 10 -19) 2 / r2 = v2m/r, r = 2.5 x 10-14 meters, namely that the radius of hydrogen atom is about 2.5 x 10- 14 meters, that is different with the observed result (10-10 meters).Electrons revolve around the nucleus may faster than 107 m/s, can almost reach 108 meters per second, if the electronic moves by 108 meters per second, hydrogen atom radius is approximately 2. 5 x 10 -16 meters, has converged in the interior of the nucleus, it is not possible. Use density to instead of electricity, can solve this problem. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790

  2. Action at a Distance in the Cell's Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondev, Jane

    Various functions performed by chromosomes involve long-range communication between DNA sequences that are tens of thousands of bases apart along the genome, and microns apart in the nucleus. In this talk I will discuss experiments and theory relating to two distinct modes of long-range communication in the nucleus, chromosome looping and protein hopping along the chromosome, both in the context of DNA-break repair in yeast. Yeast is an excellent model system for studies that link chromosome conformations to their function as there is ample experimental evidence that yeast chromosome conformations are well described by a simple, random-walk polymer model. Using a combination of polymer physics theory and experiments on yeast cells, I will demonstrate that loss of polymer entropy due to chromosome looping is the driving force for homology search during repair of broken DNA by homologous recombination. I will also discuss the spread of histone modifications along the chromosome and away from the DNA break point in the context of simple physics models based on chromosome looping and kinase hopping, and show how combining physics theory and cell-biology experiment can be used to dissect the molecular mechanism of the spreading process. These examples demonstrate how combined theoretical and experimental studies can reveal physical principles of long-range communication in the nucleus, which play important roles in regulation of gene expression, DNA recombination, and chromatin modification. This work was supported by the NSF DMR-1206146.

  3. Effect of meter-scale heterogeneities inside 67P nucleus on CONSERT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Valérie; Lasue, Jérémie; Lemonnier, Florentin; Kofman, Wlodek; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Herique, Alain; Guiffaut, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Since their arrival at comet 67P in August 2014, a number of instruments onboard Rosetta's main spacecraft and Philae lander have been observing the surface of the nucleus and revealed details of amazing surficial structures (hundreds of meters deep pits and cliffs, surface roughness of the order of a couple of meters in size, non-continuous apparent layers on both lobes of the comet). After two years of observations, the activity of the comet has also been better constrained, while the origin of sporadic jet activities remains debated. This surficial information is complemented by relevant measurements assessing the nucleus internal structure that have been collected by the CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) experiment in order to constrain the nucleus formation and evolution.The CONSERT experiment is a bistatic radar with receivers and transmitters on-board both Rosetta's main spacecraft and the Philae lander. The instrument transmits electromagnetic waves at 90 MHz (10 MHz bandwidth) between Philae and Rosetta. The signal propagated through the small lobe of 67P over distances ranging from approximately 200 to 800 meters depending on the spacecraft location and probed a maximum depth of about one hundred meters in the vicinity of the final landing site Abydos. The CONSERT data have been used to obtain an estimate of the permittivity mean value. Thanks to the 10 MHz frequency bandwidth of the signal used by the instrument, a spatial resolution around 10m is obtained inside the sounded volume of the nucleus.In this work, we analyze the effect of internal heterogeneities of 67P on the CONSERT data by simulating the propagation of the signal through a fractal model of the comet interior. We considered for the simulations a range of realistic permittivity values and characteristic sizes of the material heterogeneities. The different parameters values used have an impact on the width of the signal propagating through the modeled

  4. Determination of the η‧-nucleus optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, M.; Metag, V.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Bayadilov, D.; Bantes, B.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Böse, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Challand, Th.; Crede, V.; Dahlke, T.; Dietz, F.; Drexler, P.; Eberhardt, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Friedrich, S.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Ch.; Gottschall, M.; Gridnev, A.; Grüner, M.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, Ch.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Honisch, Ch.; Jaegle, I.; Kaiser, D.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kleber, V.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Lopatin, I. V.; Maghrbi, Y.; Makonyi, K.; Müller, J.; Odenthal, T.; Piontek, D.; Schaepe, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schmitz, R.; Seifen, T.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; van Pee, H.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Wiedner, U.; Wilson, A.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.

    2013-12-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of η‧ mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on 12C in the energy range of 1250-2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the η‧-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of -(37±10(stat)±10(syst)) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the η‧-nucleus potential of -(10±2.5) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved η‧-bound states appears promising.

  5. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  6. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  7. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized

  8. Vesicular glutamate transporters in the lateral geniculate nucleus: expression of VGLUT2 by retinal terminals.

    PubMed

    Land, Peter W; Kyonka, E; Shamalla-Hannah, L

    2004-01-23

    We used immunohistochemistry to localize vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus. The lateral geniculate nucleus is intensely immunoreactive for both transporters. Monocular eye removal abolished staining for VGLUT2 in a pattern corresponding to the distribution of terminals from the missing eye, without affecting distribution of VGLUT1 immunoreactivity. These data indicate retinal ganglion cells are the source of VGLUT2-containing synapses in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

  9. Depopulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the diabetic Chinese hamster.

    PubMed

    Garris, D R; Diani, A R; Smith, C; Gerritsen, G C

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and the size, density and area of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) was studied in the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. Matched diabetic and non-diabetic control chinese hamsters were perfused, the hypothalamus collected, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. The mid-point of each VMH nucleus was located, photographed and enlarged for morphometric analysis. Each neuron that possessed a nucleolus and was located within the confines of a VMH was counted, and subsequently the area of each nucleus and the density of neurons per area of VMH were calculated. The results indicated that both the area and absolute number of neurons within the VMH of diabetic hamsters were significantly reduced compared to control values (P less than 0.01) The density of neurons per unit area of VMH was similar in both groups. These data suggest that the VMH experiences a neuronal depopulation in diabetic hamsters which may have a functional influence on the hypothalamic-pancreatic axis in this species.

  10. Toxic effects of mercury on the cell nucleus of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Boatti, Lara; Rapallo, Fabio; Viarengo, Aldo; Marsano, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Governmental agencies (www.epa.gov/mercury) and the scientific community have reported on the high toxicity due to mercury. Indeed, exposure to mercury can cause severe injury to the central nervous system and kidney in humans. Beyond its recognized toxicity, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of this heavy metal. Mercury has been also observed to form insoluble fibrous protein aggregates in the cell nucleus. We used D. discoideum to evaluate micronuclei formation and, since mercury is able to induce oxidative stress that could bring to protein aggregation, we assessed nuclear protein carbonylation by Western Blot. We observed a significant increase in micronuclei formation and 14 carbonylated proteins were identified. Moreover, we used isotope-coded protein label (ICPL) and mass spectrometry analysis of proteins obtained by lysis of purified nuclei, before of tryptic digestion to quantify nuclear proteins affected by mercury. In particular, we examined the effects of mercury that associate a classical genotoxic assay to proteomic effects into the nucleus. The data present direct evidences for mercury genotoxicity, nuclear protein carbonylation, quantitative change in core histones, and the involvement of pseudouridine synthase in mercury toxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 417-425, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine are segregated within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Sellings, Laurie H L; Baharnouri, Golriz; McQuade, Lindsey E; Clarke, Paul B S

    2008-07-01

    Forebrain dopamine plays a critical role in motivated behavior. According to the classic view, mesolimbic dopamine selectively guides behavior motivated by positive reinforcers. However, this has been challenged in favor of a wider role encompassing aversively motivated behavior. This controversy is particularly striking in the case of nicotine, with opposing claims that either the rewarding or the aversive effect of nicotine is critically dependent on mesolimbic dopamine transmission. In the present study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core vs. medial shell on intravenous nicotine conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion were examined in male adult rats. Dopaminergic denervation in accumbens medial shell was associated with decreased nicotine conditioned place preference. Conversely, denervation in accumbens core was associated with an increase in conditioned place preference. In addition, dopaminergic denervation of accumbens core but not medial shell abolished conditioned taste aversion for nicotine. We conclude that nucleus accumbens core and medial shell dopaminergic innervation exert segregated effects on rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine. More generally, our findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission may mediate or enable opposing motivational processes within functionally distinct domains of the accumbens.

  12. Multidimensional Characterization and Differentiation of Neurons in the Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Typlt, Marei; Englitz, Bernhard; Sonntag, Mandy; Dehmel, Susanne; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Cornelia; Ruebsamen, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Multiple parallel auditory pathways ascend from the cochlear nucleus. It is generally accepted that the origin of these pathways are distinct groups of neurons differing in their anatomical and physiological properties. In extracellular in vivo recordings these neurons are typically classified on the basis of their peri-stimulus time histogram. In the present study we reconsider the question of classification of neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) by taking a wider range of response properties into account. The study aims at a better understanding of the AVCN's functional organization and its significance as the source of different ascending auditory pathways. The analyses were based on 223 neurons recorded in the AVCN of the Mongolian gerbil. The range of analysed parameters encompassed spontaneous activity, frequency coding, sound level coding, as well as temporal coding. In order to categorize the unit sample without any presumptions as to the relevance of certain response parameters, hierarchical cluster analysis and additional principal component analysis were employed which both allow a classification on the basis of a multitude of parameters simultaneously. Even with the presently considered wider range of parameters, high number of neurons and more advanced analytical methods, no clear boundaries emerged which would separate the neurons based on their physiology. At the current resolution of the analysis, we therefore conclude that the AVCN units more likely constitute a multi-dimensional continuum with different physiological characteristics manifested at different poles. However, more complex stimuli could be useful to uncover physiological differences in future studies. PMID:22253838

  13. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, B. J.; Shintani, T.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs.

  14. Convergence of limb, visceral, and vertical semicircular canal or otolith inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Jian, B J; Shintani, T; Emanuel, B A; Yates, B J

    2002-05-01

    The major goal of this study was to determine the patterns of convergence of non-labyrinthine inputs from the limbs and viscera onto vestibular nucleus neurons receiving signals from vertical semicircular canals or otolith organs. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether the effects of non-labyrinthine inputs on the activity of vestibular nucleus neurons is affected by bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions. The majority (72%) of vestibular nucleus neurons in labyrinth-intact animals whose firing was modulated by vertical rotations responded to electrical stimulation of limb and/or visceral nerves. The activity of even more vestibular nucleus neurons (93%) was affected by limb or visceral nerve stimulation in chronically labyrinthectomized preparations. Some neurons received non-labyrinthine inputs from a variety of peripheral sources, including antagonist muscles acting at the same joint, whereas others received inputs from more limited sources. There was no apparent relationship between the spatial and dynamic properties of a neuron's responses to tilts in vertical planes and the non-labyrinthine inputs that it received. These data suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs elicited during movement will modulate the processing of information by the central vestibular system, and may contribute to the recovery of spontaneous activity of vestibular nucleus neurons following peripheral vestibular lesions. Furthermore, some vestibular nucleus neurons with non-labyrinthine inputs may be activated only during particular behaviors that elicit a specific combination of limb and visceral inputs.

  15. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2012: Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleicher, Markus; Caines, Helen; Calderón de la Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Fries, Rainer; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphaël; Hippolyte, Boris; Mischke, André; Mócsy, Ágnes; Petersen, Hannah; Ruan, Lijuan; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2013-09-01

    The 5th edition of the Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2012) was held in Copamarina, Puerto Rico from 14-20 October 2012. As in previous years, this meeting gathered more than 70 participants in the early years of their scientific careers. This issue contains the proceedings of the workshop. As in the past, the Hot Quarks workshop offered a unique atmosphere for a lively discussion and interpretation of the current measurements from high energy nuclear collisions. Recent results and upgrades at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were presented. Measurements from the proton-led run at the CERN-LHC were shown for the first time at this meeting. Recent theoretical developments were also extensively discussed, as well as the proposals for future facilities such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, the Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven, and the LHeC. The conference's goal to provide a platform for young researchers to learn and foster their interactions was successfully met. We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2012 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Switzerland), European Research Council (EU), ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI (Germany), Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), IN2P3/CNRS (France) and the European Research Council via grant #259612, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (USA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), National Science Foundation (USA), and Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Netherlands). Marcus BleicherAndré Mischke Goethe-University Frankfurt and HIC4FAIRUtrecht University and Nikhef Amsterdam GermanyThe Netherlands Helen CainesÁgnes Mócsy Yale UniversityPratt Institute and Brookhaven National

  16. Electrolytic lesion of the nucleus raphe magnus reduced the antinociceptive effects of bilateral morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis in rats.

    PubMed

    Haghparast, Abbas; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Maryam

    2008-06-27

    Several lines of investigation show that the rostral ventromedial medulla is a critical relay for midbrain regions, including the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), which control nociception at the spinal cord. There is some evidence that local stimulation or morphine administration into the CnF produces the effective analgesia through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). The present study tries to determine the effect of morphine-induced analgesia following microinjection into the CnF in the absence of NRM. Seven days after the cannulae implantation, morphine was microinjected bilaterally into the CnF at the doses of 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 microg/0.3 microl saline per side. The morphine-induced antinociceptive effect measured by tail-flick test at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after microinjection. The results showed that bilateral microinjection of morphine into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). The 50% effective dose of morphine was determined and microinjected into the CnF (2.5 microg/0.3 microl saline per side) in rats after NRM electrolytic lesion (1 mA, 30 s). Lesion of the NRM significantly decreased TFLs, 30 (P<0.01) and 60 (P<0.05) but not 90-120 min after morphine microinjection into the CnF, compared with sham-lesion group. We concluded that morphine induces the analgesic effects through the opioid receptors in the CnF. It is also appeared that morphine-induced antinociception decreases following the NRM lesion but it seems that there are some other descending pain modulatory pathways that activate in the absence of NRM.

  17. Roles of the anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus during exposure to a live predator and to a predator-associated context.

    PubMed

    Bindi, Ricardo Passoni; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2018-04-16

    The basolateral amygdala complex, which includes the lateral, basolateral and basomedial nuclei, has been implicated in innate and contextual fear responses to predator threats. In the basolateral complex, the lateral and posterior basomedial nuclei are able to process predator odor information, and they project to the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit; lesions in these amygdalar sites reduce innate responses and practically abolish contextual fear responses to predatory threats. In contrast to the lateral and posterior basomedial nuclei, the basolateral nucleus does not receive direct information from predator olfactory cues and has no direct link to the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit. No attempt has previously been made to determine the specific role of the basolateral nucleus in fear responses to predatory threats, and we currently addressed this question by making bilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions in the anterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLAa), which is often regarded as being contiguous with the lateral amygdalar nucleus, and tested both innate and contextual fear in response to cat exposure. Accordingly, BLAa lesions decreased both innate and contextual fear responses to predator exposure. Considering the targets of the BLAa, the nucleus accumbens appears to be a potential candidate to influence innate defensive responses to predator threats. The present findings also suggest that the BLAa has a role in fear memory of predator threat. The BLAa is likely involved in memory consolidation, which could potentially engage BLAa projection targets, opening interesting possibilities in the investigation of how these targets could be involved in the consolidation of predator-related fear memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shape of Caudate Nucleus and Its Cognitive Correlates in Neuroleptic-Naive Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, James J.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Nestor, Paul G.; Estepar, Raul S.J.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Background We measured the shape of the head of the caudate nucleus with a new approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects in whom we previously reported decreased caudate nucleus volume. We believe MRI shape analysis complements traditional MRI volume measurements. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure the shape of the caudate nucleus in 15 right-handed male subjects with SPD, who had no prior neuroleptic exposure, and in 14 matched normal comparison subjects. With MRI processing tools, we measured the head of the caudate nucleus using a shape index, which measured how much a given shape deviates from a sphere. Results In relation to comparison subjects, neuroleptic never-medicated SPD subjects had significantly higher (more “edgy”) head of the caudate shape index scores, lateralized to the right side. Additionally, for SPD subjects, higher right and left head of the caudate SI scores correlated significantly with poorer neuropsychological performance on tasks of visuospatial memory and auditory/verbal working memory, respectively. Conclusions These data confirm the value of measuring shape, as well as volume, of brain regions of interest and support the association of intrinsic pathology in the caudate nucleus, unrelated to neuroleptic medication, with cognitive abnormalities in the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:14732598

  19. Maps of interaural delay in the owl's nucleus laminaris

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sahil; McColgan, Thomas; Ashida, Go; Kuokkanen, Paula T.; Brill, Sandra; Kempter, Richard; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Axons from the nucleus magnocellularis form a presynaptic map of interaural time differences (ITDs) in the nucleus laminaris (NL). These inputs generate a field potential that varies systematically with recording position and can be used to measure the map of ITDs. In the barn owl, the representation of best ITD shifts with mediolateral position in NL, so as to form continuous, smoothly overlapping maps of ITD with iso-ITD contours that are not parallel to the NL border. Frontal space (0°) is, however, represented throughout and thus overrepresented with respect to the periphery. Measurements of presynaptic conduction delay, combined with a model of delay line conduction velocity, reveal that conduction delays can account for the mediolateral shifts in the map of ITD. PMID:26224776

  20. One pot synthesis of highly luminescent polyethylene glycol anchored carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide for cell nucleus imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Jiang, Weihua; Qiu, Lipeng; Jiang, Xuewei; Zuo, Daiying; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2015-04-14

    Strong blue fluorescent polyethylene glycol (PEG) anchored carbon nitride dots (CDs@PEG) with a high quantum yield (QY) of 75.8% have been synthesized by a one step hydrothermal treatment. CDs with a diameter of ca. 6 nm are well dispersed in water and present a graphite-like structure. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that CDs display excitation-dependent behavior and are stable under various test conditions. Based on the as-prepared CDs, we designed novel cell nucleus targeting imaging carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide. The favourable biocompatibilities of CDs and NLS modified CDs (NLS-CDs) are confirmed by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Importantly, intracellular localization experiments in MCF7 and A549 cells demonstrate that NLS-CDs could be internalized in the nucleus and show blue light, which indicates that CDs may serve as cell nucleus imaging probes.

  1. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling.

    PubMed

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-12-10

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition.

  2. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition. PMID:24262146

  3. Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    Filacchione, G; De Sanctis, M C; Capaccioni, F; Raponi, A; Tosi, F; Ciarniello, M; Cerroni, P; Piccioni, G; Capria, M T; Palomba, E; Bellucci, G; Erard, S; Bockelee-Morvan, D; Leyrat, C; Arnold, G; Barucci, M A; Fulchignoni, M; Schmitt, B; Quirico, E; Jaumann, R; Stephan, K; Longobardo, A; Mennella, V; Migliorini, A; Ammannito, E; Benkhoff, J; Bibring, J P; Blanco, A; Blecka, M I; Carlson, R; Carsenty, U; Colangeli, L; Combes, M; Combi, M; Crovisier, J; Drossart, P; Encrenaz, T; Federico, C; Fink, U; Fonti, S; Ip, W H; Irwin, P; Kuehrt, E; Langevin, Y; Magni, G; McCord, T; Moroz, L; Mottola, S; Orofino, V; Schade, U; Taylor, F; Tiphene, D; Tozzi, G P; Beck, P; Biver, N; Bonal, L; Combe, J-Ph; Despan, D; Flamini, E; Formisano, M; Fornasier, S; Frigeri, A; Grassi, D; Gudipati, M S; Kappel, D; Mancarella, F; Markus, K; Merlin, F; Orosei, R; Rinaldi, G; Cartacci, M; Cicchetti, A; Giuppi, S; Hello, Y; Henry, F; Jacquinod, S; Reess, J M; Noschese, R; Politi, R; Peter, G

    2016-01-21

    Although water vapour is the main species observed in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and water is the major constituent of cometary nuclei, limited evidence for exposed water-ice regions on the surface of the nucleus has been found so far. The absence of large regions of exposed water ice seems a common finding on the surfaces of many of the comets observed so far. The nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears to be fairly uniformly coated with dark, dehydrated, refractory and organic-rich material. Here we report the identification at infrared wavelengths of water ice on two debris falls in the Imhotep region of the nucleus. The ice has been exposed on the walls of elevated structures and at the base of the walls. A quantitative derivation of the abundance of ice in these regions indicates the presence of millimetre-sized pure water-ice grains, considerably larger than in all previous observations. Although micrometre-sized water-ice grains are the usual result of vapour recondensation in ice-free layers, the occurrence of millimetre-sized grains of pure ice as observed in the Imhotep debris falls is best explained by grain growth by vapour diffusion in ice-rich layers, or by sintering. As a consequence of these processes, the nucleus can develop an extended and complex coating in which the outer dehydrated crust is superimposed on layers enriched in water ice. The stratigraphy observed on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is therefore the result of evolutionary processes affecting the uppermost metres of the nucleus and does not necessarily require a global layering to have occurred at the time of the comet's formation.

  4. Sonographic alteration of lenticular nucleus in focal task-specific dystonia of musicians.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Buttkus, Franziska; Benecke, Reiner; Grossmann, Annette; Dressler, Dirk; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    In distinct movement disorders, transcranial sonography detects alterations of deep brain structures with higher sensitivity than other neuroimaging methods. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography, thought to be caused by increased local copper content, has been reported as a characteristic finding in primary spontaneous dystonia. Here, we wanted to find out whether deep brain structures are altered in task-specific dystonia. The frequency of sonographic brainstem and basal ganglia changes was studied in an investigator-blinded setting in 15 musicians with focal task-specific hand dystonia, 15 musicians without dystonia, and 15 age- and sex-matched nonmusicians without dystonia. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 musicians with task-specific dystonia, but only in 3 nondystonic musicians (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001) and 2 nonmusicians (p < 0.001). The degree of lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in affected musicians correlated with age, but not with duration of music practice or duration of dystonia. In 2 of 3 affected musicians with normal echogenic lenticular nucleus, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was found. Our findings support the idea of a pathogenetic link between primary spontaneous and task-specific dystonia. Sonographic basal ganglia alteration might indicate a risk factor that in combination with extensive fine motor training promotes the manifestation of task-specific dystonia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Reciprocal Efficiency of RNQ1 and Polyglutamine Detoxification in the Cytosol and Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M.; Summers, Daniel W.; Ren, Hong-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Onset of proteotoxicity is linked to change in the subcellular location of proteins that cause misfolding diseases. Yet, factors that drive changes in disease protein localization and the impact of residence in new surroundings on proteotoxicity are not entirely clear. To address these issues, we examined aspects of proteotoxicity caused by Rnq1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a huntingtin's protein exon-1 fragment with an expanded polyglutamine tract (Htt-103Q), which is dependent upon the intracellular presence of [RNQ+] prions. Increasing heat-shock protein 40 chaperone activity before Rnq1-GFP expression, shifted Rnq1-GFP aggregation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Assembly of Rnq1-GFP into benign amyloid-like aggregates was more efficient in the nucleus than cytosol and nuclear accumulation of Rnq1-GFP correlated with reduced toxicity. [RNQ+] prions were found to form stable complexes with Htt-103Q, and nuclear Rnq1-GFP aggregates were capable of sequestering Htt-103Q in the nucleus. On accumulation in the nucleus, conversion of Htt-103Q into SDS-resistant aggregates was dramatically reduced and Htt-103Q toxicity was exacerbated. Alterations in activity of molecular chaperones, the localization of intracellular interaction partners, or both can impact the cellular location of disease proteins. This, in turn, impacts proteotoxicity because the assembly of proteins to a benign state occurs with different efficiencies in the cytosol and nucleus. PMID:19656852

  6. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased R2* in the Caudate Nucleus of Asymptomatic Welders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R.; Du, Guangwei; Li, Yunqing; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Herring, Amy H.; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Kong, Lan; Fry, Rebecca C.; Snyder, Amanda M.; Connor, James R.; Yang, Qing X.; Mailman, Richard B.; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Welding has been associated with neurobehavioral disorders. Welding fumes contain several metals including copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) that may interact to influence welding-related neurotoxicity. Although welding-related airborne Fe levels are about 10-fold higher than Mn, previous studies have focused on Mn and its accumulation in the basal ganglia. This study examined differences in the apparent transverse relaxation rates [R2* (1/T2*), estimate of Fe accumulation] in the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) between welders and controls, and the dose–response relationship between estimated Fe exposure and R2* values. Occupational questionnaires estimated recent and lifetime Fe exposure, and blood Fe levels and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained. Complete exposure and MRI R2* and R1 (1/T1: measure to estimate Mn accumulation) data from 42 subjects with welding exposure and 29 controls were analyzed. Welders had significantly greater exposure metrics and higher whole-blood Fe levels compared with controls. R2* in the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in welders after controlling for age, body mass index, respirator use, caudate R1, and blood metals of Cu and Mn, whereas there was no difference in R1 values in the basal ganglia between groups. The R2* in the caudate nucleus was positively correlated with whole-blood Fe concentration. This study provides the first evidence of higher R2* in the caudate nucleus of welders, which is suggestive of increased Fe accumulation in this area. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings and determine the neurobehavioral relevance. PMID:26769335

  8. Optimizing the design of small-sized nucleus breeding programs for dairy cattle with minimal performance recording.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, C M; Komen, H; Kahi, A K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    Dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries are constrained by minimal and erratic pedigree and performance recording on cows on commercial farms. Small-sized nucleus breeding programs offer a viable alternative. Deterministic simulations using selection index theory were performed to determine the optimum design for small-sized nucleus schemes for dairy cattle. The nucleus was made up of 197 bulls and 243 cows distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 sires and 100 dams were selected to produce the next generation of male and female selection candidates. Conception rates and sex ratio were fixed at 0.90 and 0.50, respectively, translating to 45 male and 45 female candidates joining the nucleus per year. Commercial recorded dams provided information for genetic evaluation of selection candidates (bulls) in the nucleus. Five strategies were defined: nucleus records only [within-nucleus dam performance (DP)], progeny records in addition to nucleus records [progeny testing (PT)], genomic information only [genomic selection (GS)], dam performance records in addition to genomic information (GS+DP), and progeny records in addition to genomic information (GS+PT). Alternative PT, GS, GS+DP, and GS+PT schemes differed in the number of progeny per sire and size of reference population. The maximum number of progeny records per sire was 30, and the maximum size of the reference population was 5,000. Results show that GS schemes had higher responses and lower accuracies compared with other strategies, with the higher response being due to shorter generation intervals. Compared with similar sized progeny-testing schemes, genomic-selection schemes would have lower accuracies but these are offset by higher responses per year, which might provide additional incentive for farmers to participate in recording. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus: A processor of somatosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Keller, Asaf

    2008-04-20

    The laterodorsal (LD) nucleus of the thalamus has been considered a "higher order" nucleus that provides inputs to limbic cortical areas. Although its functions are largely unknown, it is often considered to be involved in spatial learning and memory. Here we provide evidence that LD is part of a hitherto unknown pathway for processing somatosensory information. Juxtacellular and extracellular recordings from LD neurons reveal that they respond to vibrissa stimulation with short latency (median = 7 ms) and large magnitude responses (median = 1.2 spikes/stimulus). Most neurons (62%) had large receptive fields, responding to six and more individual vibrissae. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus interpolaris (SpVi) evoked short latency responses (median = 3.8 ms) in vibrissa-responsive LD neurons. Labeling produced by anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers confirmed that LD neurons receive direct inputs from SpVi. Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical analyses revealed also that LD projects upon the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, but has only sparse projections to the barrel cortex. These findings suggest that LD is part of a novel processing stream involved in spatial orientation and learning related to somatosensory cues. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Laterodorsal Nucleus of the Thalamus: A Processor of Somatosensory Inputs

    PubMed Central

    BEZDUDNAYA, TATIANA; KELLER, ASAF

    2009-01-01

    The laterodorsal (LD) nucleus of the thalamus has been considered a “higher order” nucleus that provides inputs to limbic cortical areas. Although its functions are largely unknown, it is often considered to be involved in spatial learning and memory. Here we provide evidence that LD is part of a hitherto unknown pathway for processing somatosensory information. Juxtacellular and extracellular recordings from LD neurons reveal that they respond to vibrissa stimulation with short latency (median = 7 ms) and large magnitude responses (median = 1.2 spikes/stimulus). Most neurons (62%) had large receptive fields, responding to six and more individual vibrissae. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus interpolaris (SpVi) evoked short latency responses (median = 3.8 ms) in vibrissa-responsive LD neurons. Labeling produced by anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers confirmed that LD neurons receive direct inputs from SpVi. Electrophysiological and neuroanatomical analyses revealed also that LD projects upon the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, but has only sparse projections to the barrel cortex. These findings suggest that LD is part of a novel processing stream involved in spatial orientation and learning related to somatosensory cues. PMID:18273888

  11. Analgesia induced by morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus: effects on tonic pain.

    PubMed

    Dualé, Christian; Sierralta, Fernando; Dallel, Radhouane

    2007-07-01

    One of the possible sites of action of the analgesic effect of morphine is the Nucleus Raphe Magnus, as morphine injected into this structure induces analgesia in transient pain models. In order to test if morphine in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is also analgesic in a tonic pain model, 5 microg of morphine or saline (control) were microinjected into the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of the rat. Analgesic effects were assessed following nociceptive stimulation using transient heating of the tail (phasic pain) and subcutaneous orofacial injection of 1.5 % formalin (tonic pain). While morphine was strongly analgesic for the tail-flick response (p <0.0001 compared to control), analgesia on the response to formalin was also observed for both early (p = 0.007) and late responses (p = 0.02). However, the response to formalin was not completely blunted. These results suggest that the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is not the exclusive site of action of morphine-induced analgesia in clinical conditions.

  12. In vitro measurement of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure: A new technique for studies of spinal adaptation to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Glover, M. G.; Mahmood, M. M.; Gott, S.; Garfin, S. R.; Ballard, R.; Murthy, G.; Brown, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Swelling of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus is altered by posture and gravity. We have designed and tested a new osmometer for in vitro determination of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure. The functional principle of the osmometer involves compressing a sample of nucleus pulposus with nitrogen gas until saline pressure gradients across a 0.45 microns Millipore filter are eliminated. Swelling pressure of both pooled dog and pooled pig lumbar disc nucleus pulposus were measured on the new osmometer and compared to swelling pressures determined using the equilibrium dialysis technique. The osmometer measured swelling pressures comparable to those obtained by the dialysis technique. This osmometer provides a rapid, direct, and accurate measurement of swelling pressure of the nucleus pulposus.

  13. Vesicular and non-vesicular glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens in conditions of a forced change of behavioral strategy.

    PubMed

    Saul'skaya, N B; Mikhailova, M O

    2005-09-01

    Studies on Sprague-Dawley rats used intracerebral dialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography to identify sources of glutamate release into the intercellular space of the nucleus accumbens during forced correction of food-related behavior, i.e., on presentation to the feeding rat of a conditioned signal previously combined with a pain stimulus or on replacement of a food reinforcement with an inedible food substitute. The results showed that glutamate release observed in the nucleus accumbens during these tests can be prevented by tetrodotoxin (1 microM), which blocks exocytosis, but not by (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (5 microM), which blocks non-vesicular glutamate release. Conversely, administration of (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine halved baseline glutamate release, while administration of tetrodotoxin had no effect on this process. These data provide evidence that different mechanisms control glutamate release into the intercellular space of this nucleus in baseline conditions and in conditions of evoked correction of feeding behavior: the source of baseline glutamate release is non-vesicular glutamate release, while glutamate release seen during forced correction of feeding behavior results from increases in synaptic release.

  14. Neutrino-nucleus scattering of {sup 95,97}Mo and {sup 116}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Ydrefors, E.; Almosly, W.; Suhonen, J.

    2013-12-30

    Accurate knowledge about the nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos for relevant nuclear targets is important both for neutrino detection and for astrophysical applications. In this paper we discuss the cross sections for the charged-current neutrino-nucleus scatterings off {sup 95,97}Mo and {sup 116}Cd. The microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model is adopted for the odd-even nuclei {sup 95,97}Mo. In the case of {sup 116}Cd we present cross sections both for the Bonn one-boson-exchange potential and self-consistent calculations based on modern Skyrme interactions.

  15. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadhri, Comandur; Pinar, Ali; Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account formore » overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.« less

  16. By moonlighting in the nucleus, villin regulates epithelial plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Srinivas; George, Sudeep P.; Pham, Eric; Roy, Swati; Singh, Kanchan; Mariadason, John M.; Khurana, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Villin is a tissue-specific, actin-binding protein involved in the assembly and maintenance of microvilli in polarized epithelial cells. Conversely, villin is also linked with the loss of epithelial polarity and gain of the mesenchymal phenotype in migrating, invasive cells. In this study, we describe for the first time how villin can switch between these disparate functions to change tissue architecture by moonlighting in the nucleus. Our study reveals that the moonlighting function of villin in the nucleus may play an important role in tissue homeostasis and disease. Villin accumulates in the nucleus during wound repair, and altering the cellular microenvironment by inducing hypoxia increases the nuclear accumulation of villin. Nuclear villin is also associated with mouse models of tumorigenesis, and a systematic analysis of a large cohort of colorectal cancer specimens confirmed the nuclear distribution of villin in a subset of tumors. Our study demonstrates that nuclear villin regulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Altering the nuclear localization of villin affects the expression and activity of Slug, a key transcriptional regulator of EMT. In addition, we find that villin directly interacts with a transcriptional corepressor and ligand of the Slug promoter, ZBRK1. The outcome of this study underscores the role of nuclear villin and its binding partner ZBRK1 in the regulation of EMT and as potential new therapeutic targets to inhibit tumorigenesis. PMID:26658611

  17. Characteristics of family nucleus as correlates of regular participation in sports among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rômulo A; Reichert, Felipe F; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Ronque, Enio Ricardo V; de Oliveira, Arli R

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between family nucleus and sport practice among adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study carried out with 1,752 Brazilian adolescents (812 male and 940 female), aged 11-17 years. Characteristics of the family nucleus (parental education, socioeconomic status and number of siblings) and sport practice (≥240 min/week) were assessed by questionnaires. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression models. The overall prevalence of sport practice was 14.8% (boys 21.2% and girls 9.4%, P = 0.001). Higher socioeconomic status, number of siblings and parents' educational level were associated with more sport practice. Despite the low engagement, family nucleus plays an essential role in the sport practice of our sample of Brazilian adolescents.

  18. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized within the

  19. The rhizoplast of chrysomonads, a basal body-nucleus connector that polarises the dividing spindle.

    PubMed

    Brugerolle, G; Mignot, J-P

    2003-09-01

    An ultrastructure study of the rhizoplast in Synura petersenii, Mallomonas fastigiata, and M. insignis shows that it consists of 15-20 striated rootlets that form a claw or an incomplete cone over the nucleus. These rootlets course along one face of the nucleus between the nuclear membrane and the cis-face of the Golgi stack of cisternae. They converge and merge above the nucleus, forming a stub attached to the proximal section of the two basal bodies. These cross-striated rootlets are composed of closely packed longitudinal microfibrils. By immunofluorescence, the basal bodies and the rootlets forming the claw were decorated by the anti-centrin monoclonal antibody ICL19 raised against the Paramecium tetraurelia acidic centrin protein and by two antibodies raised against the striated parabasal and costal striated fibres of trichomonads. Only the anti-centrin monoclonal antibody 20H5 raised against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin strongly labelled the 20-22 kDa protein bands from the extracted cytoskeleton of S. petersenii by immunoblotting. Electron micrographs of mitosis in S. petersenii cells revealed that the segregated pairs of basal bodies are linked by the striated rootlets of the rhizoplast to the poles of the mitotic spindle. The spindle microtubules arise perpendicularly from the striated rootlets of the basal body-nucleus connector forming the centrosome. In conclusion, in these cells there is a basal body-nucleus connector similar to that of C. reinhardtii and other chlorophytes. It contains centrin proteins, it is involved in the linkage of the basal bodies to the nucleus and is a component of the spindle pole body or centrosome in the dividing cell.

  20. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K.; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26300300

  1. Difference in Energy Metabolism of Annulus Fibrosus and Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Salvatierra, Jessica Czamanski; Yuan, Tai Yi; Fernando, Hanan; Castillo, Andre; Gu, Wei Yong; Cheung, Herman S.; Huant, C.-Y. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. One of the main signs of degeneration is the inability to maintain extracellular matrix integrity. Extracellular matrix synthesis is closely related to production of adenosine triphosphate (i.e. energy) of the cells. The intervertebral disc is composed of two major anatomical regions: annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, which are structurally and compositionally different, indicating that their cellular metabolisms may also be distinct. The objective of this study was to investigate energy metabolism of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells with and without dynamic compression, and examine differences between the two cell types. Porcine annulus and nucleus tissues were harvested and enzymatically digested. Cells were isolated and embedded into agarose constructs. Dynamically loaded samples were subjected to a sinusoidal displacement at 2 Hz and 15% strain for 4 h. Energy metabolism of cells was analyzed by measuring adenosine triphosphate content and release, glucose consumption, and lactate/nitric oxide production. A comparison of those measurements between annulus and nucleus cells was conducted. Annulus and nucleus cells exhibited different metabolic pathways. Nucleus cells had higher adenosine triphosphate content with and without dynamic loading, while annulus cells had higher lactate production and glucose consumption. Compression increased adenosine triphosphate release from both cell types and increased energy production of annulus cells. Dynamic loading affected energy metabolism of intervertebral disc cells, with the effect being greater in annulus cells. PMID:21625336

  2. The reorientation of cell nucleus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity in migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maninová, Miloslava; Klímová, Zuzana; Parsons, J Thomas; Weber, Michael J; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The establishment of cell polarity is an essential step in the process of cell migration. This process requires precise spatiotemporal coordination of signaling pathways that in most cells create the typical asymmetrical profile of a polarized cell with nucleus located at the cell rear and the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) positioned between the nucleus and the leading edge. During cell polarization, nucleus rearward positioning promotes correct microtubule organizing center localization and thus the establishment of front-rear polarity and directional migration. We found that cell polarization and directional migration require also the reorientation of the nucleus. Nuclear reorientation is manifested as temporally restricted nuclear rotation that aligns the nuclear axis with the axis of cell migration. We also found that nuclear reorientation requires physical connection between the nucleus and cytoskeleton mediated by the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex. Nuclear reorientation is controlled by coordinated activity of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-mediated activation of GTPase Rho and the activation of integrin, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling pathway. Integrin signaling is spatially induced at the leading edge as FAK and p190RhoGAP are predominantly activated or localized at this location. We suggest that integrin activation within lamellipodia defines cell front, and subsequent FAK, Src, and p190RhoGAP signaling represents the polarity signal that induces reorientation of the nucleus and thus promotes the establishment of front-rear polarity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of Galectin-3 in the Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Spronk, Kimberly J.; Voss, Patricia G.; Patterson, Ronald J.; Wang, John L.; Arnoys, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes selected studies on galectin-3 (Gal3) as an example of the dynamic behavior of a carbohydrate-binding protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Within the 15-member galectin family of proteins, Gal3 (Mr ~30,000) is the sole representative of the chimera subclass in which a proline- and glycine-rich NH2-terminal domain is fused onto a COOH-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain responsible for binding galactose-containing glycoconjugates. The protein shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus on the basis of targeting signals that are recognized by importin(s) for nuclear localization and exportin-1 (CRM1) for nuclear export. Depending on the cell type, specific experimental conditions in vitro, or tissue location, Gal3 has been reported to be exclusively cytoplasmic, predominantly nuclear, or distributed between the two compartments. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of the protein must reflect, then, some balance between nuclear import and export, as well as mechanisms of cytoplasmic anchorage or binding to a nuclear component. Indeed, a number of ligands have been reported for Gal3 in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Most of the ligands appear to bind Gal3, however, through protein-protein interactions rather than through protein-carbohydrate recognition. In the cytoplasm, for example, Gal3 interacts with the apoptosis repressor Bcl-2 and this interaction may be involved in Gal3’s anti-apoptotic activity. In the nucleus, Gal3 is a required pre-mRNA splicing factor; the protein is incorporated into spliceosomes via its association with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. Although the majority of these interactions occur via the carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal3 and saccharide ligands such as lactose can perturb some of these interactions, the significance of the protein’s carbohydrate-binding activity, per se, remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:19616076

  4. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Lesions of the amygdala central nucleus abolish lipoprivic-enhanced responding during oil-predicting conditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Benoit, S C; Morell, J R; Davidson, T L

    1999-12-01

    T. L. Davidson, A. M. Altizer, S. C. Benoit, E. K. Walls, and T. L. Powley (1997) reported that rats show facilitated responding to conditioned stimuli (CSs) that predict oil, after administration of the lipoprivic agent, Na-2-mercaptoacetate (MA). This facilitation was blocked by vagal deafferentation. The present article extends that investigation to another structure, the amygdala central nucleus (CN). The CN receives inputs from dorsal vagal nuclei, and neurotoxic lesions of this nucleus are reported to abolish feeding in response to lipoprivic challenges. In Experiment 1, rats with ibotenic acid (IBO) lesions of the CN failed to show enhanced appetitive responding during oil-predicting CSs after administration of MA. Experiment 2 used a conditioned taste-aversion procedure to establish that rats with IBO lesions of the CN were able to discriminate the tastes of sucrose and peanut oil and had intact CS-US representations. It is concluded that the amygdala CN is a necessary structure for the detection of lipoprivic challenges.

  6. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Štastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-03-10

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well.

  7. Cell Autonomy and Synchrony of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Circadian Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Mohawk, Jennifer A.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. The individual cells of the SCN are capable of functioning independently from one another and therefore must form a cohesive circadian network through intercellular coupling. The network properties of the SCN lead to coordination of circadian rhythms among its neurons and neuronal subpopulations. There is increasing evidence for multiple interconnected oscillators within the SCN, and in this Review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the complex organization and function of the cellular and network-level SCN clock. Understanding the way in which synchrony is achieved between cells in the SCN will provide insight into the means by which this important nucleus orchestrates circadian rhythms throughout the organism. PMID:21665298

  8. Markarian 315: A test case for the active galactic nucleus-merger hypothesis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenty, John W.; Simkin, Susan M.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ulvestad, James S.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1994-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field/Planetary Camera, (WF/PC) we have detected a diffuse continuum knot in the inner regions of the Seyfert galaxy Markarian 315. This knot may be a remnant nucleus. It is associated with a complex, ringlike structure in both the continuum and ionized gas emission. We have measured the kinematics of the ionized gas in two position angles and find velocities which are consistent with a nonaxisymmetric gravitational disturbance. The galaxy is associated with an extended ionized filament, or tidal tail, and our measurements show that the ionized gas in this feature is redshifted by up to 500 km/s in the line of sight relative to the Seyfert nucleus. This combination of morphological and kinematic features suggests that Mrk 315 has suffered a disruptive, tidal interaction which has significantly influenced regions within 1 kpc of its nucleus.

  9. Elimination of neurons from the rhesus monkey's lateral geniculate nucleus during development.

    PubMed

    Williams, R W; Rakic, P

    1988-06-15

    The timing, magnitude, and spatial distribution of neuron elimination was studied in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of 57 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) ranging in age from the 48th day of gestation to maturity. Normal and degenerating cells were counted in Nissl-stained sections by using video-enhanced differential interference contrast optics and video-overlay microscopy. Before embryonic day 60 (E60), the geniculate nucleus contains 2,200,000 +/- 100,000 neurons. Roughly 800,000 of these neurons are eliminated over a 40- to 50-day period spanning the middle third of gestation. Neurons are lost at an average rate of 300 an hour between E48 and E60, and at an average rate of 800 an hour between E60 and E100. Very few neurons are lost after E100, and as early as E103 the population has fallen to the adult average of 1,400,000 +/- 90,000. Degenerating neurons are far more common in the magnocellular part of the nucleus than in the parvicellular part. In 20 of 29 cases, the number of neurons is greater on the right than on the left side. The right-left asymmetry averages about 8.5% and the difference is statistically significant (phi 2 = 38, p less than .001). The period of cell death occurs before the emergence of cell layers in the geniculate nucleus, before the establishment of geniculocortical connections, and before the formation of ocular dominance columns (Rakic, '76). Most important, the depletion of neurons in the geniculate nucleus begins long before the depletion of retinal axons. The number of geniculate neurons is probably a key factor controlling the number of the retinal cells that survive to maturity.

  10. Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Grinevich, Valentina P.; Chappell, Ann M.; Deal, Alex L.; Bonin, Keith D.; Weiner, Jeff L.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward. Using a two bottle choice paradigm (sucrose vs. water), the experiments revealed that tonic optogenetic stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission significantly decreased reward consummatory behaviors. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the number of bouts, licks and amount of sucrose obtained during the drinking session. Notably, activation of VTA dopamine cell bodies or dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens resulted in identical behavioral consequences. No changes in the water intake were evident under the same experimental conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tonic optogenetic stimulation of VTA-nucleus accumbens dopamine release is sufficient to inhibit reward consummatory behavior, possibly by preventing this circuit from engaging in phasic activity that is thought to be essential for reward-based behaviors. PMID:27421228

  11. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181–190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. PMID:25878159

  12. Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M; Khan, Arshad M; Fekete, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  13. Investigation of a central nucleus of the amygdala/dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic circuit implicated in fear-potentiated startle.

    PubMed

    Spannuth, B M; Hale, M W; Evans, A K; Lukkes, J L; Campeau, S; Lowry, C A

    2011-04-14

    Serotonergic systems are thought to play an important role in control of motor activity and emotional states. We used a fear-potentiated startle paradigm to investigate the effects of a motor-eliciting stimulus in the presence or absence of induction of an acute fear state on serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and cells in subdivisions of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CE), a structure that plays an important role in fear responses, using induction of the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-Fos. In Experiment 1 we investigated the effects of fear conditioning training, by training rats to associate a light cue (conditioned stimulus, CS; 1000 lx, 2 s) with foot shock (0.5 s, 0.5 mA) in a single session. In Experiment 2 rats were given two training sessions identical to Experiment 1 on days 1 and 2, then tested in one of four conditions on day 3: (1) placement in the training context without exposure to either the CS or acoustic startle (AS), (2) exposure to 10 trials of the 2 s CS, (3) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials, or (4) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials with 10 of the trials preceded by and co-terminating with the CS. All treatments were conducted during a 20 min session. Fear conditioning training, by itself, increased c-Fos expression in multiple subdivisions of the CE and throughout the DR. In contrast, fear-potentiated startle selectively increased c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the CE and in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). These data are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that fear-related stimuli selectively activate DRD serotonergic neurons. Further studies of this mesolimbocortical serotonergic system could have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of a central nucleus of the amygdala/dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic circuit implicated in fear-potentiated startle

    PubMed Central

    Spannuth, Benjamin M.; Hale, Matthew W.; Evans, Andrew K.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Campeau, Serge; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonergic systems are thought to play an important role in control of motor activity and emotional states. We used a fear-potentiated startle paradigm to investigate the effects of a motor-eliciting stimulus in the presence or absence of induction of an acute fear state on serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and cells in subdivisions of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CE), a structure that plays an important role in fear responses, using induction of the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. In Experiment 1 we investigated the effects of fear conditioning training, by training rats to associate a light cue (conditioned stimulus, CS; 1000 lx, 2 sec) with foot shock (0.5 s, 0.5 mA) in a single session. In Experiment 2 rats were given two training sessions identical to Experiment 1 on days 1 and 2, then tested in one of four conditions on day 3: 1) placement in the training context without exposure to either the CS or acoustic startle (AS), 2) exposure to 10 trials of the 2 s CS, 3) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials, or 4) exposure to 40 110 dB AS trials with 10 of the trials preceded by and co-terminating with the CS. All treatments were conducted during a 20 min session. Fear conditioning training, by itself, increased c-Fos expression in multiple subdivisions of the CE and throughout the DR. In contrast, fear-potentiated startle selectively increased c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the CE and in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). These data are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that fear-related stimuli selectively activate DRD serotonergic neurons. Further studies of this mesolimbocortical serotonergic system could have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. PMID:21277950

  15. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654; Mizuno, Rie

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules.more » Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.« less

  16. New high resolution measurements of open and hidden charm production in proton-nucleus collisions at √{ s} = 110GeV with LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Émilie; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Open and hidden charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered as a key probe of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation. In the search of specific QGP effects, proton-nucleus collisions are used as the reference as they account for the corresponding Cold Nuclear Matter (CNM) effects. The LHCb experiment, thanks to its System for Measuring Overlap with Gas (SMOG) can be operated in a fixed target mode with the LHC beams, at an intermediate center-of-mass energy between nominal SPS and RHIC energies. In 2015, for the first time, reactions of incident LHC proton beams on noble gas targets have been recorded by the LHCb experiment at a center-of-mass energy of 110 GeV and within the center-of-mass rapidity range - 2.77

  17. Nuclear surface diffuseness revealed in nucleon-nucleus diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Horiuchi, W.; Kohama, A.

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear surface provides useful information on nuclear radius, nuclear structure, as well as properties of nuclear matter. We discuss the relationship between the nuclear surface diffuseness and elastic scattering differential cross section at the first diffraction peak of high-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering as an efficient tool in order to extract the nuclear surface information from limited experimental data involving short-lived unstable nuclei. The high-energy reaction is described by a reliable microscopic reaction theory, the Glauber model. Extending the idea of the black sphere model, we find one-to-one correspondence between the nuclear bulk structure information and proton-nucleus elastic scattering diffraction peak. This implies that we can extract both the nuclear radius and diffuseness simultaneously, using the position of the first diffraction peak and its magnitude of the elastic scattering differential cross section. We confirm the reliability of this approach by using realistic density distributions obtained by a mean-field model.

  18. GFAP immunoreactivity within the rat nucleus ambiguus after laryngeal nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Vega, G; Arias-Gil, G; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Davies, D C; Vázquez, T; Pascual-Font, A

    2014-01-01

    Changes that occur in astroglial populations of the nucleus ambiguus after recurrent (RLN) or superior (SLN) laryngeal nerve injury have hitherto not been fully characterised. In the present study, rat RLN and SLN were lesioned. After 3, 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of survival, the nucleus ambiguus was investigated by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence or a combination of GFAP immunofluorescence and the application of retrograde tracers. GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly increased 3 days after RLN resection and it remained significantly elevated until after 28 days post injury (dpi). By 56 dpi it had returned to basal levels. In contrast, following RLN transection with repair, GFAP immunoreactivity was significantly elevated at 7 dpi and remained significantly elevated until 14 dpi. It had returned to basal levels by 28 dpi. Topographical analysis of the distribution of GFAP immunoreactivity revealed that after RLN injury, GFAP immunoreactivity was increased beyond the area of the nucleus ambiguus within which RLN motor neuron somata were located. GFAP immunoreactivity was also observed in the vicinity of neuronal somata that project into the uninjured SLN. Similarly, lesion of the SLN resulted in increased GFAP immunoreactivity around the neuronal somata projecting into it and also in the vicinity of the motor neuron somata projecting into the RLN. The increase in GFAP immunoreactivity outside of the region containing the motor neurons projecting into the injured nerve, may reflect the onset of a regenerative process attempting to compensate for impairment of one of the laryngeal nerves and may occur because of the dual innervation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. This dual innervation of a very specialised muscle could provide a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying axonal regeneration process and the results of the current study could provide the basis for studies into functional regeneration

  19. Cholinergic, Glutamatergic, and GABAergic Neurons of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Have Distinct Effects on Sleep/Wake Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Daniel; Ferrari, Loris L.; Mahoney, Carrie E.; Arrigoni, Elda

    2017-01-01

    The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remain unknown. Using a chemogenetic approach in three Cre-driver mouse lines, we found that selective activation of glutamatergic PPT neurons induced prolonged cortical activation and behavioral wakefulness, whereas inhibition reduced wakefulness and increased non-REM (NREM) sleep. Activation of cholinergic PPT neurons suppressed lower-frequency electroencephalogram rhythms during NREM sleep. Last, activation of GABAergic PPT neurons slightly reduced REM sleep. These findings reveal that glutamatergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic PPT neurons differentially influence cortical activity and sleep/wake states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT More than 40 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disruption, and the development of effective treatments requires a more detailed understanding of the neuronal mechanisms controlling sleep and arousal. The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been considered a key site for regulating wakefulness and REM sleep. This is mainly because of the cholinergic neurons contained in the PPT nucleus. However, the PPT nucleus also contains glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons that likely contribute to the regulation of cortical activity and sleep–wake states. The chemogenetic experiments in the present study reveal that cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic PPT neurons each have distinct effects on sleep/wake behavior

  20. Cholinergic, Glutamatergic, and GABAergic Neurons of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Have Distinct Effects on Sleep/Wake Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Daniel; Ferrari, Loris L; Petit, Gaetan; Mahoney, Carrie E; Fuller, Patrick M; Arrigoni, Elda; Scammell, Thomas E

    2017-02-01

    The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remain unknown. Using a chemogenetic approach in three Cre-driver mouse lines, we found that selective activation of glutamatergic PPT neurons induced prolonged cortical activation and behavioral wakefulness, whereas inhibition reduced wakefulness and increased non-REM (NREM) sleep. Activation of cholinergic PPT neurons suppressed lower-frequency electroencephalogram rhythms during NREM sleep. Last, activation of GABAergic PPT neurons slightly reduced REM sleep. These findings reveal that glutamatergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic PPT neurons differentially influence cortical activity and sleep/wake states. More than 40 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disruption, and the development of effective treatments requires a more detailed understanding of the neuronal mechanisms controlling sleep and arousal. The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been considered a key site for regulating wakefulness and REM sleep. This is mainly because of the cholinergic neurons contained in the PPT nucleus. However, the PPT nucleus also contains glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons that likely contribute to the regulation of cortical activity and sleep-wake states. The chemogenetic experiments in the present study reveal that cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic PPT neurons each have distinct effects on sleep/wake behavior, improving our

  1. Neurons within the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus encode for the kinematic parameters of the whisker pad macrovibrissae.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Ombretta; Caria, Marcello A; Biagi, Francesca; Zedda, Marco; Farina, Vittorio

    2017-05-01

    It has been recently shown in rats that spontaneous movements of whisker pad macrovibrissae elicited evoked responses in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5). In the present study, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical experiments were performed in anesthetized rats to evaluate whether, besides the whisker displacement per se, the Me5 neurons are also involved in encoding the kinematic properties of macrovibrissae movements, and also whether, as reported for the trigeminal ganglion, even within the Me5 nucleus exists a neuroanatomical representation of the whisker pad macrovibrissae. Extracellular electrical activity of single Me5 neurons was recorded before, during, and after mechanical deflection of the ipsilateral whisker pad macrovibrissae in different directions, and with different velocities and amplitudes. In several groups of animals, single or multiple injections of the tracer Dil were performed into the whisker pad of one side, in close proximity to the vibrissae follicles, in order to label the peripheral terminals of the Me5 neurons innervating the macrovibrissae (whisking-neurons), and therefore, the respective perikaria within the nucleus. Results showed that: (1) the whisker pad macrovibrissae were represented in the medial-caudal part of the Me5 nucleus by a single cluster of cells whose number seemed to match that of the macrovibrissae; (2) macrovibrissae mechanical deflection elicited significant responses in the Me5 whisking-neurons, which were related to the direction, amplitude, and frequency of the applied deflection. The specific functional role of Me5 neurons involved in encoding proprioceptive information arising from the macrovibrissae movements is discussed within the framework of the whole trigeminal nuclei activities. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. The Evolution of the Globular Cluster System in a Triaxial Galaxy: Can a Galactic Nucleus Form by Globular Cluster Capture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    1993-10-01

    Among the possible phenomena inducing evolution of the globular cluster system in an elliptical galaxy, dynamical friction due to field stars and tidal disruption caused by a central nucleus is of crucial importance. The aim of this paper is the study of the evolution of the globular cluster system in a triaxial galaxy in the presence of these phenomena. In particular, the possibility is examined that some galactic nuclei have been formed by frictionally decayed globular clusters moving in a triaxial potential. We find that the initial rapid growth of the nucleus, due mainly to massive clusters on box orbits falling in a short time scale into the galactic center, is later slowed by tidal disruption induced by the nucleus itself on less massive clusters in the way described by Ostriker, Binney, and Saha. The efficiency of dynamical friction is such to carry to the center of the galaxy enough globular cluster mass available to form a compact nucleus, but the actual modes and results of cluster-cluster encounters in the central potential well are complicated phenomena which remains to be investigated. The mass of the resulting nucleus is determined by the mutual feedback of the described processes, together with the initial spatial, velocity, and mass distributions of the globular cluster family. The effect on the system mass function is studied, showing the development of a low- and high-mass turnover even with an initially flat mass function. Moreover, in this paper is discussed the possibility that the globular cluster fall to the galactic center has been a cause of primordial violent galactic activity. An application of the model to M31 is presented.

  3. Long-Term Synaptic Changes in Two Input Pathways into the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Underlie Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Junchol; Choi, June-Seek

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity in two input pathways into the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the sensory thalamus, have been suggested to underlie extinction, suppression of a previously acquired conditioned response (CR) following repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, little is known about…

  4. Lamb shift of electronic states in neutral muonic helium, an electron-muon-nucleus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshenboim, Savely G.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.; Amusia, Miron

    2015-03-01

    Neutral muonic helium is an exotic atomic system consisting of an electron, a muon, and a nucleus. Being a three-body system, it possesses a clear hierarchy. This allows us to consider it as a hydrogenlike atom with a compound nucleus, which is, in turn, another hydrogenlike system. There are a number of corrections to the Bohr energy levels, all of which can be treated as contributions of generic hydrogenlike theory. While the form of those contributions is the same for all hydrogenlike atoms, their relative numerical importance differs from atom to atom. Here, the leading contribution to the (electronic) Lamb shift in neutral muonic helium is found in a closed analytic form together with the most important corrections. We believe that the Lamb shift in neutral muonic hydrogen is measurable, at least through a measurement of the (electronic) 1 s -2 s transition. We present a theoretical prediction for the 1 s -2 s transitions with an uncertainty of 3 ppm (9 GHz ), as well as for the 2 s -2 p Lamb shift with an uncertainty of 1.3 GHz .

  5. Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Nucleus with Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, Erich

    2006-10-01

    Despite more than fifty years of study, many questions about now nuclei are put together remain. While nuclei near the valley of stability have provided a wealth of information, they are not sufficient to provide us with a comprehensive and unified description of the nucleus. Especially lacking is an accurate picture of those exotic species that are the basis of cosmic alchemy. The missing pieces in the puzzle can be filled in with a determined experimental and theoretical effort focusing on nuclei lying far from the valley of stability. Here, I will outline the intellectual challenges that can be addressed by proposed exotic-beam facilities, and how new experimental data will quide and refine theoretical descriptions of the nucleus.

  6. Bilateral innervation of syringeal muscles by the hypoglossal nucleus in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Naoki; Kamata, Naoki; Nagasawa, Miyuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-08-01

    Bird vocalizations are produced by contractions of syringeal muscles, which are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus. In oscines, syringeal muscles are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus ipsilaterally, whereas syringeal innervation is bilateral in non-oscines. We have determined the course of hypoglossal nerves in the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos. Our results indicate a cross-over of the hypoglossal nerve from the left side to the right side on the trachea 7 mm rostral to the Musculus sternotrachealis. We also investigated the innervation of the syringeal muscles of jungle crows from the hypoglossal nucleus using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. After HRP was injected into the syringeal muscles on each side, HRP-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the hypoglossal nerve. These results suggest that the syringeal muscles of jungle crows are innervated bilaterally from the hypoglossal nucleus, although these birds are categorized as oscines.

  7. Bilateral innervation of syringeal muscles by the hypoglossal nucleus in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Naoki; Kamata, Naoki; Nagasawa, Miyuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2009-01-01

    Bird vocalizations are produced by contractions of syringeal muscles, which are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus. In oscines, syringeal muscles are controlled by the hypoglossal nucleus ipsilaterally, whereas syringeal innervation is bilateral in non-oscines. We have determined the course of hypoglossal nerves in the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos. Our results indicate a cross-over of the hypoglossal nerve from the left side to the right side on the trachea 7 mm rostral to theMusculus sternotrachealis. We also investigated the innervation of the syringeal muscles of jungle crows from the hypoglossal nucleus using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. After HRP was injected into the syringeal muscles on each side, HRP-labeled cells were found bilaterally in the hypoglossal nerve. These results suggest that the syringeal muscles of jungle crows are innervated bilaterally from the hypoglossal nucleus, although these birds are categorized as oscines. PMID:19490396

  8. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to interobserver variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literature. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation.

  9. VIRTIS/Rosetta Observes Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Nucleus and Coma Derived Composition and Physical Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Erard, S.; Arnold, G.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Tosi, F.; Ciarniello, M.; Raponi, A.; Migliorini, A.; Quirico, E.; Rinaldi, G.; Schmitt, B.; Carlson, R. W.; Combi, M. R.; Fink, U.; Tozzi, G. P.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Formisano, M.; Debout, V.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.; Fougere, N.

    2015-12-01

    The paper will describe the major results obtained throughout the nominal mission by the instrument VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer), the dual channel spectrometer onboard Rosetta, on the surface composition and thermal properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and on the 2D distribution of H2O and CO2 in the coma. VIRTIS is a dual channel spectrometer; VIRTIS-M (M for Mapper) is a hyper spectral imager covering a wide spectral range from 0.25 through 5μm. VIRTIS-M uses a slit and a scan mirror to generate images with spatial resolution of 250 μrad over a FOV of 3.7°. The second channel is VIRTIS-H (H for High-resolution), a point spectrometer with high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ=3000 @3μm) in the range 2-5 μm. The nucleus observations have been performed in a wide range of conditions with best spatial resolution of 2.5m. The surface temperature has been determined since the first distant observations when the nucleus filled one single VIRTIS-M pixel and continuously monitored since. Maximum temperature determined until April 2015 are as high as 300K at the subsolar point. Modeling of the thermophysical properties allowed to derive the thermal inertia of the crust. The VIRTIS composition analysis has showed evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 μm), the spectral slopes in VIS and IR ranges (5-25 and 1.5-5 % kÅ-1) and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-3.6 μm range present across the entire illuminated surface, are compatible with a surface crust made of a complex mixture of dark disordered poly-aromatic compounds, opaque minerals and several chemical species containing: -COOH, CH2 / CH3, -OH (in Alcohols) and possibly NH4+. Both channels are contributing to the determination of the spatial distribution of H2O and CO2 in the coma; their abundances as a function of altitude

  10. An Overview of the Comet Nucleus TOUR Discovery Mission and a Description of Neutral Gas and Ion Measurements Planned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Veverka, Joe; Niemann, Hasso; Harpold, Dan; Chiu, Mary; Reynolds, Edward; Owen, Toby; Kasprzak, Wayne; Patrick, Ed; Raaen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The CONTOUR (Comet Nucleus TOUR) Mission led by its Principal Investigator Professor Joseph Veverka of Cornell is presently under development at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for launch in July of 2002 with a flyby of Comet Encke scheduled for November 3, 2003 at a solar distance of 1.07 au. A robust Whipple dust shield is designed to allow a close nucleus approach distance (less than 150 km). The 2nd nominal CONTOUR target is Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, although the spacecraft can alternately be directed to a new comet if such an interesting target is discovered. CONTOUR contains 4 instruments: an imaging spectrometer (CRISP) developed at APL that will obtain both high resolution nucleus images through 8 filters and IR spectra (800 to 2550 nm) of the nucleus, a narrow field of view forward imager (CFI) to locate the target days before the encounter, a dust composition time of flight mass spectrometer (CIDA) provided by Dr. J. Kissel and von Hoemer & Sulger, GmbH, and a mass spectrometer (NGIMS) provided by Goddard Space Flight Center to measure neutral gas and ambient ions. Laboratory calibration of the NGIMS has now been completed. NGIMS also includes an in-flight calibration system that we plan to exercise before and after each comet encounter. We will provide an overview of the CONTOUR Mission and discuss more specifically the NGIMS measurement goals for this mission.

  11. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats.

    PubMed

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: evidence for effectiveness and limitations from 12 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Anne Y Y; Yeung, Jonas H M; Mok, Vincent C T; Ip, Vincent H L; Wong, Adrian; Kuo, S H; Chan, Danny T M; Zhu, X L; Wong, Edith; Lau, Claire K Y; Wong, Rosanna K M; Tang, Venus; Lau, Christine; Poon, W S

    2014-12-01

    To present the result and experience of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Case series. Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. A cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease received subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation from September 1998 to January 2010. Patient assessment data before and after the operation were collected prospectively. Forty-one patients (21 male and 20 female) with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and were followed up for a median interval of 12 months. For the whole group, the mean improvements of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II and III were 32.5% and 31.5%, respectively (P<0.001). Throughout the years, a multidisciplinary team was gradually built. The deep brain stimulation protocol evolved and was substantiated by updated patient selection criteria and outcome assessment, integrated imaging and neurophysiological targeting, refinement of surgical technique as well as the accumulation of experience in deep brain stimulation programming. Most of the structural improvement occurred before mid-2005. Patients receiving the operation before June 2005 (19 cases) and after (22 cases) were compared; the improvements in UPDRS part III were 13.2% and 55.2%, respectively (P<0.001). There were three operative complications (one lead migration, one cerebral haematoma, and one infection) in the group operated on before 2005. There was no operative mortality. The functional state of Parkinson's disease patients with motor disabilities refractory to best medical treatment improved significantly after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. A dedicated multidisciplinary team building, refined protocol for patient selection and assessment, improvement of targeting methods, meticulous surgical technique, and experience in programming are the key factors contributing to the improved outcome.

  13. Long-range azimuthal correlations in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest parton–parton cross-section of σ = 1.5 – 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Organization of cerebellar and area "y" projections to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stanton, G B

    2001-04-02

    Axonal projections to the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (RTP) were studied in 11 macaque monkeys by mapping axonal degeneration from lesions centered in the dentate and interpositus anterior (IA) nuclei and by mapping anterograde transport of tritiated amino acid precursors injected into the dentate nucleus. Projections from the dentate and IA nuclei overlap in central parts of the body of RTP, but the terminal field of dentate axons extends dorsomedial and rostral to the terminal field of IA axons, and IA terminal fields extend more ventrolaterally. A caudal to rostral topography of projections from each nucleus onto dorsal to ventral parts of RTP was seen. Projections from rostral parts of both nuclei terminate in a sublemniscal part of the nucleus. The topography of dentate and IA projections onto central to ventrolateral RTP appears to match somatotopic maps of these cerebellar nuclei with the somatotopic map of projections to RTP from primary motor cortex. Projections from caudal and ventral parts of the dentate nucleus appear to overlap oculomotor inputs to rostral, dorsal, and medial RTP from the frontal and supplementary eye fields, the superior colliculus, and the oculomotor region of the caudal fastigial nucleus. Projections to the paramedian part of RTP from vestibular area "y" were also found in two cases that correlated with projections to vertical oculomotor motoneurons. The maps of dentate and IA projections onto RTP correlate predictably with maps of dentate and IA projections to the ventrolateral thalamus and subnuclei of the red nucleus that were made from these same cases (Stanton [1980b] J. Comp. Neurol. 192:377-385). Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferationmore » (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.« less

  16. Nucleus caudalis lesioning: Case report of chronic traumatic headache relief

    PubMed Central

    Sandwell, Stephen E.; El-Naggar, Amr O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery is used to treat intractable central craniofacial pain. This is the first journal publication of DREZ lesioning used for the long-term relief of an intractable chronic traumatic headache. Case Description: A 40-year-old female experienced new-onset bi-temporal headaches following a traumatic head injury. Despite medical treatment, her pain was severe on over 20 days per month, 3 years after the injury. The patient underwent trigeminal nucleus caudalis DREZ lesioning. Bilateral single-row lesions were made at 1-mm interval between the level of the obex and the C2 dorsal nerve roots, using angled radiofrequency electrodes, brought to 80°C for 15 seconds each, along a path 1 to 1.2 mm posterior to the accessory nerve rootlets. The headache improved, but gradually returned. Five years later, her headaches were severe on over 24 days per month. The DREZ surgery was then repeated. Her headaches improved and the relief has continued for 5 additional years. She has remained functional, with no limitation in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: The nucleus caudalis DREZ surgery brought long-term relief to a patient suffering from chronic traumatic headache. PMID:22059123

  17. New aspects in nucleon-nucleus collisions and EAS properties around 10(6) GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Gawin, J.

    1985-01-01

    At energies higher than 2 x 10 to the 5 GeV, very little information exists on detailed properties of nucleon-nucleon collision; the rare elements are coming from jets, and, as nondirect improvements from gamma-ray families. The results exhibit some conflicting features, or, at least, very large fluctuations like copious production of gamma-rays in opposition to Centauro-like events, sometimes suggest that phase transition to quark gluon plasma occurs in nucleus-nucleus collisions and even in nucleon-nucleus collision. The multicluster phenomenological model (MPM) extrapolated for extensive air showers EAS simulation up to 5 x 10 to the 6 GeV to put in evidence some significant deviation between experimental data and prediction.

  18. The Low-Power Nucleus of PKS 1246-410 in the Centaurus Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NRAO, Socorro /New Mexico U.; Sanders, J.S.

    2005-10-21

    We present Chandra, Very Large Array (VLA), and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the nucleus of NGC 4696, a giant elliptical in the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. Like M87 in the Virgo cluster, PKS 1246-410 in the Centaurus cluster is a nearby example of a radio galaxy in a dense cluster environment. In analyzing the new X-ray data we have found a compact X-ray feature coincident with the optical and radio core. While nuclear emission from the X-ray source is expected, its luminosity is low, < 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. We estimate the Bondi accretion radius tomore » be 30 pc and the accretion rate to be 0.01 M{sub {circle_dot}} y{sup -1} which under the canonical radiative efficiency of 10% would overproduce by 3.5 orders of magnitude the radiative luminosity. Much of this energy can be directed into the kinetic energy of the jet, which over time inflates the observed cavities seen in the thermal gas. The VLBA observations reveal a weak nucleus and a broad, one-sided jet extending over 25 parsecs in position angle -150 degrees. This jet is deflected on the kpc-scale to a more east-west orientation (position angle of -80 degrees).« less

  19. On M31's Double Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, B. F.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The recent HST discovery of a double nucleus in M31 brings into prominence the question how long, a second core can survive within the nuclear regions of a galaxy. Physical conditions in the nuclear regions of a typical galaxy help a second core survive, so it can orbit for a long time. possibly for thousands of orbits. Given the nearly uniform mass density in a core, tidal forces within a core radius are compressive in all directions and help the core survive the buffeting it takes as it orbits near the center of the galaxy. We use numerical experiments to illustrate these physical principles. Our method allows the full power of the experiments to be concentrated on the nuclear regions. Spatial resolution of about 0.2 pc comfortably resolves detail within the 1.4 parsec core radius of the second, but brighter core (P1) in M31. We use these physical principles to discuss M31's double nucleus, but they apply to other galaxies as well. and in other astronomical situations such as dumbbell galaxies. galaxies orbiting near the center of a galaxy cluster, and subclustering in galaxy clusters. The experiments also illustrate that galaxy encounters and merging are quite sensitive to external tidal forces, such as those produced by the gravitational potential in a group or cluster of galaxies.

  20. AN OFF-CENTERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: robertobm@astro.iag.usp.br

    2014-11-20

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an Hα luminosity of L {sub Hα} = (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}. Our analysismore » revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of ∼0.''29 ± 0.''05 (corresponding to ∼14.3 ± 2.5 pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the displaced black hole is the merged remnant of the binary system coalescence, after the ''kick'' caused by the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves. We propose that certain features in the stellar velocity dispersion map are the result of perturbations caused by the off-centered AGN.« less

  1. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  2. Opposite roles for neuropeptide S in the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in learned helplessness rats.

    PubMed

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Ishima, Tamaki; Oda, Yasunori; Okamura, Naoe; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-09-15

    The role of neuropeptide S (NPS) in depression remains unclear. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of NPS infusions into the shell or core regions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusions of NPS (10 pmol/side) into the NAc shell, but not the NAc core and BNST, exerted antidepressant-like effects in the LH paradigm. Implying that behavioral deficits could be improved in the conditioned avoidance test. Coinfusion of SHA68 (an NPS receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/side) with NPS into the NAc shell blocked these effects. In contrast, NPS receptor antagonism by SHA68 in the BNST induced antidepressant-like effects. Infusions of NPS into the NAc shell or SHA68 into the BNST did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. These results suggest that excitatory and inhibitory actions by the NPS system are integral to the depression in LH animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat.

    PubMed

    Smit, Jasper V; Jahanshahi, Ali; Janssen, Marcus L F; Stokroos, Robert J; Temel, Yasin

    2017-01-01

    Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS) and low frequency stimulation (LFS) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n  = 5) or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n  = 5). Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I-III, III-V, I-V) and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  4. Spinally projecting neurons of the dorsal column nucleus in a reptile: locus of origin and trajectory of termination.

    PubMed

    Pritz, M B

    1996-01-01

    Interconnections between the dorsal column nucleus and the spinal cord were investigated in a reptile, Caiman crocodilus. After placement of an anterograde tracer into the dorsal column nucleus, descending fibers are seen to leave this nucleus to enter the dorsal funiculus where they course ventrally to terminate in lamina V of the spinal cord as far caudally as C2. Placement of a retrograde tracer into cut fibers of the cervical spinal cord identified the relay cells of the dorsal column nucleus that project to the spinal cord. These neurons were mainly clustered in a caudal and ventral part of this nucleus. The soma of these spinally projecting cells were small and were generally round or oval in shape. A number of these neurons had the long axis of their soma oriented dorsoventrally, with a primary dendrite extending dorsally. Fibers in the dorsal funiculus that originated from the spinal cord enter the caudal part of the dorsal column nucleus and turn ventral. In the dorsal column nucleus, these axons run parallel to the vertically oriented dendrites of these spinally projecting cells before termination in close relation to the cell bodies of these neurons. Quantitative observations (mean +/- standard error) were made on well labeled neurons and included several measurements: area, perimeter, and degree of eccentricity (greatest width/greatest length) in both the transverse as well as the sagittal plane. These spinally projecting neurons in Caiman are located in the dorsal column nucleus in a position similar to that of spinally projecting cells in cats.

  5. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181-190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Physical Properties of Cometary Nucleus Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Hillman, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal we aim to study the physical properties of the Centaurs and the dead comets, these being the precursors to, and the remnants from, the active cometary nuclei. The nuclei themselves are very difficult to study, because of the contaminating effects of near-nucleus coma. Systematic investigation of the nuclei both before they enter the zone of strong sublimation and after they have depleted their near-surface volatiles should neatly bracket the properties of these objects, revealing evolutionary effects.

  7. Robust Nucleus/Cell Detection and Segmentation in Digital Pathology and Microscopy Images: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Digital pathology and microscopy image analysis is widely used for comprehensive studies of cell morphology or tissue structure. Manual assessment is labor intensive and prone to inter-observer variations. Computer-aided methods, which can significantly improve the objectivity and reproducibility, have attracted a great deal of interest in recent literatures. Among the pipeline of building a computer-aided diagnosis system, nucleus or cell detection and segmentation play a very important role to describe the molecular morphological information. In the past few decades, many efforts have been devoted to automated nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the recent state-of-the-art nucleus/cell segmentation approaches on different types of microscopy images including bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC), fluorescence, and electron microscopies. In addition, we discuss the challenges for the current methods and the potential future work of nucleus/cell detection and segmentation. PMID:26742143

  8. Changing patterns of peanut agglutinin labelling in the dorsal cochlear nucleus correspond to axonal ingrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, G H; Schweitzer, L

    1994-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that glycoconjugates may influence connectivity and lamination in the developing central nervous system and may function as barriers to neuritic extension. It has been proposed that the peanut agglutinin lectin labels a glycoconjugate subserving a barrier function. We chose to investigate the distribution of this peanut-agglutinin-labelled glycoconjugate in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the developing hamster since the development of the dorsal cochlear nucleus is well characterised and its axons obey laminar boundaries. The distribution of peanut agglutinin label throughout the cochlear nucleus delineated zones that cochlear axons fail to invade. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, laminar differences were reduced on postnatal d 13 and virtually disappearing by postnatal d 23. Label in the molecular layer dissipated as axons and dendrites grew into this layer. These patterns of peanut agglutinin binding correspond to axonal ingrowth and are consistent with a barrier function for glycoconjugates in the molecular layer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7961144

  9. A Helical Structural Nucleus Is the Primary Elongating Unit of Insulin Amyloid Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Roessle, Manfred; Kastrup, Jette S; van de Weert, Marco; Flink, James M; Frokjaer, Sven; Gajhede, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2007-01-01

    Although amyloid fibrillation is generally believed to be a nucleation-dependent process, the nuclei are largely structurally uncharacterized. This is in part due to the inherent experimental challenge associated with structural descriptions of individual components in a dynamic multi-component equilibrium. There are indications that oligomeric aggregated precursors of fibrillation, and not mature fibrils, are the main cause of cytotoxicity in amyloid disease. This further emphasizes the importance of characterizing early fibrillation events. Here we present a kinetic x-ray solution scattering study of insulin fibrillation, revealing three major components: insulin monomers, mature fibrils, and an oligomeric species. Low-resolution three-dimensional structures are determined for the fibril repeating unit and for the oligomer, the latter being a helical unit composed of five to six insulin monomers. This helical oligomer is likely to be a structural nucleus, which accumulates above the supercritical concentration used in our experiments. The growth rate of the fibrils is proportional to the amount of the helical oligomer present in solution, suggesting that these oligomers elongate the fibrils. Hence, the structural nucleus and elongating unit in insulin amyloid fibrillation may be the same structural component above supercritical concentrations. A novel elongation pathway of insulin amyloid fibrils is proposed, based on the shape and size of the fibrillation precursor. The distinct helical oligomer described in this study defines a conceptually new basis of structure-based drug design against amyloid diseases. PMID:17472440

  10. Aperture synthesis observations of CO emission from the Nucleus of IC 342

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, K.Y.; Berge, G.L.; Claussen, M.J.

    1984-07-15

    We present the first aperture synthesis maps of lambda2.6 mm CO (J = 1-0) emission from an external galaxy, IC 342. The 7'' resolution maps of the nuclear region were made with the Owens Valley Millimeter-Wave Interferometr. They reveal that the CO source is distributed in a bar, 300 pc x > or approx. =1500 pc, with a veloity gradient across the width of the bar. The observations suggest that the molecular gas in the nucleus is moving in response to an oval gravitational potential. The implications of an oval potential on enhanced star formation and other activities are discussed.

  11. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Aicher, Sue A

    2014-11-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central