The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Ducksbury, P. G.; Kennedy, C.; Lock, Z.
Grammars have been used for the formal specification of programming languages, and there are a number of commercial products which now use grammars. However, these have tended to be focused mainly on flow control type applications. In this paper, we consider the potential use of picture grammars and inductive logic programming in generic image understanding applications, such as object recognition. A number of issues are considered, such as what type of grammar needs to be used, how to construct the grammar with its associated attributes, difficulties encountered with parsing grammars followed by issues of automatically learning grammars using a genetic algorithm. The concept of inductive logic programming is then introduced as a method that can overcome some of the earlier difficulties.
community effort. The theory here advanced is heavily influenced by the strategic thought of John Boyd, the idea of relative advantage developed by...logic and rules as grammar. Developing these ideas leads to an anatomy of strategy. This, in turn, paves the way to developing three forms of...strategyless” NSS: Strategy is built upon a logic encoded within a narrative.1 This first attempt to develop a theory of strategy formation was heavily
Abduction is the process of generating and choosing models, hypotheses and data analyzed in response to surprising findings. All good empirical economists abduct. Explanations usually evolve as studies evolve. The abductive approach challenges economists to step outside the framework of received notions about the “identification problem” that rigidly separates the act of model and hypothesis creation from the act of inference from data. It asks the analyst to engage models and data in an iterative dynamic process, using multiple models and sources of data in a back and forth where both models and data are augmented as learning evolves. PMID:29430020
Roeper, Tom W.
The core notion of modern Universal Grammar is that language ability requires abstract representation in terms of hierarchy, movement operations, abstract features on words, and fixed mapping to meaning. These mental structures are a step toward integrating representational knowledge of all kinds into a larger model of cognitive psychology. Examining first and second language at once provides clues as to how abstractly we should represent this knowledge. The abstract nature of grammar allows both the formulation of many grammars and the possibility that a rule of one grammar could apply to another grammar. We argue that every language contains Multiple Grammars which may reflect different language families. We develop numerous examples of how the same abstract rules can apply in various languages and develop a theory of how language modules (case-marking, topicalization, and quantification) interact to predict L2 acquisition paths. In particular we show in depth how Germanic Verb-second operations, based on Verb-final structure, can apply in English. The argument is built around how and where V2 from German can apply in English, seeking to explain the crucial contrast: “nothing” yelled out Bill/*“nothing” yelled Bill out in terms of the necessary abstractness of the V2 rule. PMID:26869945
Roeper, Tom W
The core notion of modern Universal Grammar is that language ability requires abstract representation in terms of hierarchy, movement operations, abstract features on words, and fixed mapping to meaning. These mental structures are a step toward integrating representational knowledge of all kinds into a larger model of cognitive psychology. Examining first and second language at once provides clues as to how abstractly we should represent this knowledge. The abstract nature of grammar allows both the formulation of many grammars and the possibility that a rule of one grammar could apply to another grammar. We argue that every language contains Multiple Grammars which may reflect different language families. We develop numerous examples of how the same abstract rules can apply in various languages and develop a theory of how language modules (case-marking, topicalization, and quantification) interact to predict L2 acquisition paths. In particular we show in depth how Germanic Verb-second operations, based on Verb-final structure, can apply in English. The argument is built around how and where V2 from German can apply in English, seeking to explain the crucial contrast: "nothing" yelled out Bill/(*)"nothing" yelled Bill out in terms of the necessary abstractness of the V2 rule.
Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.
Crawford, William J.
Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…
In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.
The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.
Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…
According to the author, most grammarians have been writing stratificational grammars without knowing it because they have dealt with units that are related to one another, but not simply as a whole to its parts, or as a class to its members. The question, then, is not whether a grammar is stratified but whether it is explicitly stratified. This…
Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James
This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…
Pierstorff, Don K.
Parodies holistic approaches to education. Explains an educational approach which simultaneously teaches grammar and arithmetic. Lauds the advantages of the approach as high student attrition, ease of grading, and focus on developing the reptilian portion of the brain. Points out common errors made by students. (AYC)
Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David
This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…
Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)
Forrest, David V
In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.
This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…
King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.
Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…
Mirza, Noeman A; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Martin, Lynn; Staples, Eric
To describe an analysis of the concept of abductive reasoning. In the discipline of nursing, abductive reasoning has received only philosophical attention and remains a vague concept. In addition to deductive and inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning is not recognized even in prominent nursing knowledge development literature. Therefore, what abductive reasoning is and how it can inform nursing practice and education was explored. Concept analysis. Combinations of specific keywords were searched in Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed, Medline and EMBASE. The analysis was conducted in June 2012 and only literature before this period was included. No time limits were set. Rodger's evolutionary method for conducting concept analysis was used. Twelve records were included in the analysis. The most common surrogate term was retroduction, whereas related terms included intuition and pattern and similarity recognition. Antecedents consisted of a complex, puzzling situation and a clinician with creativity, experience and knowledge. Consequences included the formation of broad hypotheses that enhance understanding of care situations. Overall, abductive reasoning was described as the process of hypothesis or theory generation and evaluation. It was also viewed as inference to the best explanation. As a new approach, abductive reasoning could enhance reasoning abilities of novice clinicians. It can not only incorporate various ways of knowing but also its holistic approach to learning appears to be promising in problem-based learning. As nursing literature on abductive reasoning is predominantly philosophical, practical consequences of abductive reasoning warrant further research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.
A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since
Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol
In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.
Fox, Richard K.; Hartigan, Julie
Abduction, inference to the best explanation, is an information-processing task that is useful for solving interpretation problems such as diagnosis, medical test analysis, legal reasoning, theory evaluation, and perception. The task is a generative one in which an explanation comprising of domain hypotheses is assembled and used to account for given findings. The explanation is taken to be an interpretation as to why the findings have arisen within the given situation. Research in abduction has led to the development of a general-purpose computational strategy which has been demonstrated on all of the above types of problems. This abduction strategy can be performed in layers so that different types of knowledge can come together in deriving an explanation at different levels of description. Further, the abduction strategy is tractable and offers a very useful tradeoff between confidence in the explanation and completeness of the explanation. This paper will describe this computational strategy for abduction and demonstrate its usefulness towards perceptual problems by examining problem-solving systems in speech recognition and natural language understanding.
Guinn, Dorothy Margaret
In the past, writers have chosen stylistic devices within the parameters of the traditional grammar of style, "Grammar A," characterized by analyticity, coherence, and clarity. But many contemporary writers are creating a new grammar of style, "Grammar B," characterized by synchronicity, discontinuity, and ambiguity, which…
How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…
A Papago grammar, intented to help Papago and other junior high, high school and college students learn and appreciate the language and give linguists an overview of the language, contains background information on the language and the book, two grammar units, a unit of five conversations in Papago, and a section of supplementary material. Text…
Thompson, Charles Lamar
This "new English grammar" textbook blends four systems of grammar: (1) the traditional, providing most of the terminology; (2) the historical, providing the historical background; (3) the structural, providing the sentence patterns; and (4) the transformational, providing the variations of the sentence patterns. The author points out the…
In this case study, I will show how directing a movie on grammar can help students improve their oral skills as well as their language competency, team working and planning skills, and also teach them about learning itself. I will present an innovative teaching project that uses the medium of film to get students engaged with grammar and that aims…
Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…
McCracken, Chelsea Leigh
This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…
Binary algorithmic logic may prove useful for teaching grammar, especially in the case of 'closed-system items.' (Text is in French.) Available from Instituut voor Toegepaste Linguistiek, Vesaliusstraat 2, B. 3000 Leuven, Belgium. (TL)
Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas
The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
Abstract We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples. PMID:19888348
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.
Arrive, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Claude
A historical perspective of French grammar is developed in this chronologically arranged reader. Part One includes material on French grammar from the 16th to the 19th century: (1) the "Premiere Epoque": 1530-1660, (2) the general grammar of Port-Royal, and (3) the "philosophical grammars" treating syntax, sentence structure, and discourse…
Mabry, John H.
The strong tradition of “school room” grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis. Finally, the relevance of stimulus control variables to some recurring questions about verbal behavior and, specifically grammar, were mentioned. PMID:22477082
Education needs to cultivate among students the habit of abductive reasoning, which requires the integration of mature theories into military work...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information...
Military Education needs to cultivate among students the habit of abductive reasoning, which requires the integration of mature theories into military...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this collection of information...
An elaboration of the official instruction on teaching French to native speakers in elementary school. The topics covered are: Methodological development of exercises; the linguistic ability and milieu of the students; operative criteria; and the question of a logical progression or spontaneous use of grammar exercises. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Greif, Geoffrey L.; Hegar, Rebecca L.
Conducted in-depth interviews with 17 parents (9 fathers and 8 mothers) who had abducted their own children. Reported reasons for abduction included unsatisfactory contact with court-related professionals, revenge, and fear for the child's safety. Some abductors, after the abduction had been resolved, had increased contact with their children.…
Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin
This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…
McAlexander, Patricia J.
Notes Rei Noguchi's recommendation of integrating grammar instruction with writing instruction and teaching only the most vital terms and the most frequently made errors. Presents a project that provides a review of the grammar lessons, applies many grammar rules specifically to the students' writing, and teaches students the effective use of the…
Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah
Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…
Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh
In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.
Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…
Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan
In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…
Finin, T.W.; Stone Palmer, M.
Logic based programming systems have enjoyed an increasing popularity in applied AI work in the last few years. One of the contributions to computational linguistics made by the logic programming paradigm has been the definite clause grammar. In comparing DCGS with previous parsing mechanisms such as ATNS, certain clear advantages are seen. The authors feel that the most important of these advantages are due to the use of logical variables with unification as the fundamental operation on them. To illustrate the power of the logical variable, they have implemented an experimental atn system which treats atn registers as logical variablesmore » and provides a unification operation over them. They aim to simultaneously encourage the use of the powerful mechanisms available in DCGS and demonstrate that some of these techniques can be captured without reference to a resolution theorem prover. 14 references.« less
The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…
Matthiessen, Christian; Kasper, Robert
Consisting of two separate papers, "Representational Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar," by Christian Matthiessen and "Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar," by Robert Kasper, this document deals with systemic aspects of natural language processing and linguistic theory and with computational applications of…
A tool wear model based on Abductive Networks, which consists of a network of `polynomial' nodes, is described. The model relates the cutting parameters, components of the cutting force, and machining time to flank wear. Thus real time measurements of the cutting force can be used to monitor the machining process. The model is obtained by a training process in which the connectivity between the network's nodes and the polynomial coefficients of each node are determined by optimizing a performance criteria. Actual wear measurements of coated and uncoated carbide inserts were used for training and evaluating the established model.
Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn
Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…
Beach, Matthew David
This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative…
Of the seven liberal arts, on which Western education was based, grammar has always been preeminent. Yet English teachers in recent years have belittled it to the point of an irrelevance. Not only has this higher illiteracy rendered Americans unable to extract ideas from sophisticated prose, David Mulroy worries, but also it leaves us with the…
The teaching of grammar has been in sad decline since medieval times, when it included the whole skill of creating in language. Our textbook community has moved through a series of ineffective fashions, from those of Fries to post-Chomsky. All have presumed to replace prescriptive rules with realistic explanations. But all have fallen, like the…
This reprint of a lecture published in 1976 examines the uses of history and literary stories for instructing children in grammar, creative dramatics, natural history, and prehistory, as well as literary analysis. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom.…
Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…
Nguyen, Tam Thi Minh
Bih is a Chamic (Austronesian) language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Southern highlands of Vietnam. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-based language documentation in Vietnam and written from a functional/typological perspective. The analysis in this work is…
Musgrave, J B; Houran, J
The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat.
CHAO, YUEN REN
THE AUTHOR OF THIS GRAMMAR STATES THAT THIS IS A "DISCUSSION BOOK" AND NOT AN INSTRUCTION BOOK FOR LEARNING CHINESE. HIS ANALYSIS OF CHINESE GRAMMAR IS BASED ON CURRENT LINGUISTIC METHODS AND ASSUMES THE READER HAS SOME KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTICS. THIS BOOK CONSTITUTES A REFERENCE WORK FOR LINGUISTS AND STUDENTS OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE. MAJOR…
Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth
This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…
The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…
Thu, Tran Hoang
This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…
Students will respond better to grammar instruction if the traditional heavy handbooks are replaced with light-weight paperbacks, each full of practical suggestions and clear examples. Several inexpensive paperbacks are available for instruction in grammar and usage, spelling, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. Unlike the conventional…
This Bemba grammar begins with an introduction which traces the history of the language, stresses the importance of learning it well and offers hints towards achieving this goal. The grammar itself is divided into three major sections: Part 1, "Phonetics," deals with the Bemba alphabet, tonality, and orthography; Part 2, "Parts of Speech,"…
Hammond, Ashley S; Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V
The ability to reconstruct hip joint mobility from femora and pelves could provide insight into the locomotion and paleobiology of fossil primates. This study presents a method for modeling hip abduction in anthropoids validated with in vivo data. Hip abduction simulations were performed on a large sample of anthropoids. The modeling approach integrates three-dimensional (3D) polygonal models created from laser surface scans of bones, 3D landmark data, and shape analysis software to digitally articulate and manipulate the hip joint. Range of femoral abduction (degrees) and the abducted knee position (distance spanned at the knee during abduction) were compared with published live animal data. The models accurately estimate knee position and (to a lesser extent) angular abduction across broad locomotor groups. They tend to underestimate abduction for acrobatic or suspensory taxa, but overestimate it in more stereotyped taxa. Correspondence between in vivo and in silico data varies at the specific and generic level. Our models broadly correspond to in vivo data on hip abduction, although the relationship between the models and live animal data is less straightforward than hypothesized. The models can predict acrobatic or stereotyped locomotor adaptation for taxa with values near the extremes of the range of abduction ability. Our findings underscore the difficulties associated with modeling complex systems and the importance of validating in silico models. They suggest that models of joint mobility can offer additional insight into the functional abilities of extinct primates when done in consideration of how joints move and function in vivo. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:529-548, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890... abduction splint is a device intended for medical purposes to stabilize the hips of a young child with...
learning in “ Big data ” domains. COMBINING MARKOV LOGIC AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR EVENT EXTRACTION Event extraction is the task of...and achieves stateoftheart performance. This makes it an ideal candidate for learning in “ Big data ...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the
Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie
The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of caring from a transcultural perspective and to develop the first outline of a theory. The theoretical perspective includes Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. Texts on caring by the transcultural theorists, including Campinha-Bacote, Kim-Godwin, Leininger and Ray, are analysed using content analysis. The overall theme that resulted from this analysis was that caring is a complex whole. Three main categories of caring emerged: inner caring, outer caring and the goal of caring. Inner caring consists of caring is a relationship, and caring and culture are seen in different dimensions. Outer caring refers to caring affected by educational, administrative and social and other structures. The goal of caring consists of caring leading to change towards health and well-being. The main categories include categories and subcategories that are compared with Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A model for intercultural caring is generated abductively. Caring and culture appear in three dimensions: caring as ontology independent of context; caring as a phenomenon emphasised differently in different cultures; caring as nursing care activities is unique. Caring alleviates suffering and leads to health and well-being. This model describes caring from an intercultural perspective as a mutual but asymmetric relationship between the nurse and the patient, including the patient's family and community. The patient's cultural background and acculturation influence caring. The cultural background, cultural competence and organisation of the nurse also influence caring. Caring is seen as a complex whole. This study integrates Campinha-Bacote's, Kim-Godwin's, Leininger's and Ray's views of caring with Eriksson's caritative caring and presents caring from a transcultural perspective in a new way as a model for intercultural caring, which can benefit nursing care, education, research and administration.
models is that they can handle both uncertainty and structured/ relational data. As a result, they are widely used in domains like social network...data. As a result, they are widely used in domains like social net- work analysis, biological data analysis, and natural language processing. Bayesian...the Story Understanding data set. (b) The logical representation of the observations. (c) The set of ground rules obtained from logical abduction
Gutierrez, Alma Rosa Aguilar; Duarte, Delma Gonzalez
A discussion of French grammar instruction looks at the relationship between linguistic competence and communicative competence. It offers exercises emphasizing the logic of language, using four different approaches. Three of the exercises use texts (included), and the fourth requires the student to describe a room. (MSE)
Kesselman-Turkel, Judi; Peterson, Franklynn
This grammar handbook emphasizes formal written usage, offering clues to help with comprehension. The seven sections discuss: (1) "Nouns" (e.g., most nouns can follow "the," and possessives can show more than possession); (2) "Pronouns" (e.g., pronouns come in small groups, and some pronouns defy logic); (3) "Verbs" (e.g., some plural subjects…
Mason, W Alex; Cogua-Lopez, Jasney; Fleming, Charles B; Scheier, Lawrence M
Current systems used to determine whether prevention programs are "evidence-based" rely on the logic of deductive reasoning. This reliance has fostered implementation of strategies with explicitly stated evaluation criteria used to gauge program validity and suitability for dissemination. Frequently, investigators resort to the randomized controlled trial (RCT) combined with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) as a means to rule out competing hypotheses and determine whether an intervention works. The RCT design has achieved success across numerous disciplines but is not without limitations. We outline several issues that question allegiance to the RCT, NHST, and the hypothetico-deductive method of scientific inquiry. We also discuss three challenges to the status of program evaluation including reproducibility, generalizability, and credibility of findings. As an alternative, we posit that extending current program evaluation criteria with principles drawn from an abductive theory of method (ATOM) can strengthen our ability to address these challenges and advance studies of drug prevention. Abductive reasoning involves working from observed phenomena to the generation of alternative explanations for the phenomena and comparing the alternatives to select the best possible explanation. We conclude that an ATOM can help increase the influence and impact of evidence-based prevention for population benefit.
Lim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jung Seok; Mun, Byeong Mu; Kim, Tae Ho
[Purpose] This study examined the differences in the activities of three parts of the trapezius muscle—the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT)—among three different rotation conditions of the shoulders, while subjects performed prone horizontal abduction (PHA) at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this experimental study were 16 healthy male adults. Surface electromyography was used to collect data on the activity of each part of the trapezius. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the activities of each area of the trapezius—the UT, MT, and LT—among internal rotation (IR), the neutral position (NP), and external rotation (ER) of the shoulders during PHA with shoulder abduction of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. [Results] Activity of the UT, MT, and LT significantly increased as the shoulder abduction angle increased during PHA. There was a significant difference only in the activity of the LT, with change in shoulder rotation. In addition, the muscle activity of the LT was highest during shoulder IR at 120°. [Conclusion] Although activity of the LT was the highest during IR at 120 abduction, PHA accompanied by ER at an abduction angle of 120° would be effective at eliciting high activity in the LT when PHA is performed. Nonetheless, at an early stage of rehabilitation, PHA accompanied by ER at low abduction angles of 30° and 60° would be desirable to elicit low activity of the UT and high activity of the LT. PMID:25642047
Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min
Duane retraction syndrome consists of abduction deficit and palpebral fissure narrowing, upshoots, or downshoots on adduction. Infants with abduction deficit should be considered to have Duane retraction syndrome until disproven, because congenital abducens nerve palsy is extremely rare. The abducens nerve on the affected side is absent in type 1 Duane retraction syndrome and in some type 3 patients. The authors present a 7-month-old girl who showed limitation of abduction simulating Duane retraction syndrome. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed atrophic lateral rectus and present abducens nerve. This report is important because this case showed that congenital abducens nerve palsy exists, although it is extremely rare, and high-resolution MRI could be pivotal for the differentiation of Duane retraction syndrome and congenital abducens nerve palsy in infancy. © The Author(s) 2014.
McCord, Michael C.
This paper concerns the theory of systemic grammar developed by Halliday, Hudson and others. It suggests modifications of Hudson's generative version, and the model presented resembles transformational grammar. (CHK)
LIEBERMAN, D.; AND OTHERS
SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO. 1 OF THIS PROJECT CONTAINS FOUR PARTS. THE FIRST, BY P. ROSENBAUM AND D. LOCHAK, PRESENTS AND EXPLAINS THE "IBM CORE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH" AND GIVES A SET OF 66 DERIVATIONS CONSTRUCTED IN TERMS OF THE CORE GRAMMAR. PART II, "DESIGN OF A GRAMMAR TESTER" BY D. LIEBERMAN, SUMMARIZES THE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF…
Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…
This journal article focuses on the return of grammar in composition teaching. After about 2 decades of virtual banishment from the higher reaches of English teaching theory, grammar has returned as a subject of serious discussion. This is the result in part of a new assertiveness by a group of people who never lost interest in grammar as part of…
Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas
In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…
Gessell, Donna A.
When writing, few students have any concept that word placement affects the content of their writing. They seldom rework their papers at the sentence level in order to assure that their grammar reflects and enhances their content. Recognizing the relationship of grammar to meaning, composition researchers are reasserting the place of grammar in…
Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.
Le Balleur, J. C.
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
If the arc Is followed. language L(G) is said to be structurally complete if The power of an augmented transition network (Am) is each rewriting rule ...Clearly, a context-sensitive grammar can be represented as a context—free grarmar plus a set of transformationDbbbbb Eabbbbbb Dbb~~bb Ebbbbbb rules ...are the foun— as a CFG (base) and a set of transformationa l rules . datIons of grammars of different complexities. The The CSL Is obtained by appl
This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…
Ahmed, Sohaib; Parsons, David
Recent advancements in digital technology have attracted the interest of educators and researchers to develop technology-assisted inquiry-based learning environments in the domain of school science education. Traditionally, school science education has followed deductive and inductive forms of inquiry investigation, while the abductive form of…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign state...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign state...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign state...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign state...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Miscellaneous § 40.103 International child... under such paragraph if the U.S. citizen child in question is physically located in a foreign state...
Gold, Jeff; Walton, John; Cureton, Peter; Anderson, Lisa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which…
Gunby, Kristin V.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.
Three children with autism were taught abduction-prevention skills using behavioral skills training with in situ feedback. All children acquired the skills, which were maintained at a 1-month follow-up assessment. In addition, 1 of the children demonstrated the skills during a stimulus generalization probe in a community setting. (Contains 1…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890...
Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Vekris, Marios; Lykissas, Marios; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Mitsionis, Gregory; Beris, Alexander
In upper brachial plexus palsy patients, loss of shoulder function and elbow flexion is obvious as the result of paralysed muscles innervated by the suprascapular, axillary and musculocutaneus nerve. Shoulder stabilisation, restoration of abduction and external rotation are important as more distal functions will be affected by the shoulder situation. Between 2005 and 2011, eleven patients with upper type brachial plexus palsy were operated on with triceps nerve branch transfer to anterior axillary nerve branch and spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for shoulder abduction and external rotation restoration. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. All patients were men with ages ranged from 21 to 35 years (average, 27.4 years). The interval between injury and surgery ranged from 4 to 11 months (average, 7.2 months). Atrophy of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscle and subluxation at the glenohumeral joint was obvious in all patients preoperatively. During the pre-op examination all patients had at least muscle grading 4 on the triceps muscle. The mean post-operative value of shoulder abduction was 112.2° (range: 60-170°) while preoperatively none of the patients was able for abduction (p<0.001). The mean post-operative value of shoulder external rotation was 66° (range: 35-110°) while preoperatively none of them was able for external rotation (p<0.001). Postoperative values of shoulder abduction were significantly better that those of external rotation (p=0.0004). The postoperative average muscle grading for shoulder abduction according the MRC scale was 3.6±0.5 and for the shoulder external rotation was 3.2±0.4. Combined nerve transfer by using the spinal accessory nerve for suprascapular nerve neurotisation and one of the triceps nerve branches for axillary nerve and teres minor branch neurotisation is an excellent choice for shoulder abduction and external rotation restoration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier
the child or prejudice to interested parties; (3) secure the voluntary return of the child or to bring about an amicable resolution of the issues, and...FOREIGN AFFAIRS Specific Action Plan Needed to Improve Response to Parental Child Abductions DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...International Parental Child Abduction 17 Page 1 GAO/NSIAD-00-10 Parental Child Abduction Page 2 GAO/NSIAD-00-10 Parental Child Abduction GAP
Gibbs, Mary Jo L.
This is a descriptive study that examined parental abductions from the perspective of the abductee. The results will help counseling professionals better to understand the psychological consequences of parental abduction, coping mechanisms that were used by the abducted children and counseling techniques and strategies that helped the children…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United... CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.6 Procedures for children abducted to the United States. The U.S. Central Authority... to all Hague Convention applications seeking the return of children wrongfully removed to or retained...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7 Section 94.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States. Upon receipt of an...
Finkelhor, David; And Others
Used a national survey of households with children, a national survey of police records, and an analysis of FBI homicide data to estimate the incidence of nonfamily abductions of children. Offers a definition of abduction, analyzes problems in compiling abduction statistics, and discusses public policy on prevention and response. (RJM)
Bhola, H. S.
This paper examines the process of intervention design as it relates to the grammar of artifactual action. In his discussion, the author identifies three separate elements of artifactual action. These elements include defining the situation of action and the change agent's relationship to the situation; generating typical expectations about…
Sokolik, M. E.
While several checklists exist for the evaluation of ESL/EFL textbooks, none includes suggestions for looking for specific biases, especially those found in the content of examples and sample sentences. Growing awareness in publishing has reduced problems in the presentation of gender-based and racial biases in most ESL/EFL grammar textbooks, but…
Pappenhagen, Ronald W.
An outline of the grammar of Kanasi, a non-Austronesian language in the Indo-Pacific family of the Daga branch and spoken in Papua New Guinea, includes analysis of noun phrases (numerals and descriptive modifiers, genitive constructions, and adpositions); verbs (affixes; tense, aspect, and moods; and causation); predicate nominals; existential,…
Lanz, Linda A.
This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…
Lester, Mark, Ed.
This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…
An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…
The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…
Pothos, Emmanuel M.
Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together…
Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)
According to theoretical concepts like constructivism, each learner has to build up knowledge on his or her own. The learner creates hypotheses in order to explain "facts". Hypotheses do not guarantee certainty. They have to be verified. In this article, a theoretical framework will be presented which can help to understand and analyse the…
help of the optical flows (Lucas 75 and Kanade, 1981). 76 3.2 Atomic Propositions 77 isAt (ti, Oj, Lk) Object Oj is at location Lk at time...simultaneously at two locations in the same frame. This can 84 be represented mathematically as: 85 isAt (ti, Oj, Lk... isAt (ti, Oj, Lm) Lk Lm
possibilities for abstracting the leaf nodes in using apprenticeship learning techniques. In LTCAI.E the proof tree. Morgan Kaufmann, 1987. A detailed...ibm.com Abstract planation process and compute particular operational A major limitation of explanation-based learn - descriptions of the target...for the learning that would be difficult or impos- 3n educated, somewhat abstract guess at why the pro- sible using abduction. I position is likely to
The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) Γ and an input formula F are given, and the goal is to construct a formula with certain properties which is equivalent to F, given Γ and a set of permitted assumptions. If the LDT is of a certain specified type, whose formulas are either conditional equivalences or Horn-clauses, we show that the AET problem can be reduced to a goal-directed inference method. We present an abstract description of this method, and sketch its realization in Prolog. The relationship between AET and several problems previously discussed in the literature is discussed. In particular, we show how AET can provide a simple and elegant solution to the so-called ``Doctor on Board'' problem, and in effect allows a ``relativization'' of the Closed World Assumption. The ideas in the thesis have all been implemented concretely within the SRI CLARE project, using a real projects and payments database. The LDT for the example database is described in detail, and examples of the types of functionality that can be achieved within the example domain are presented.
Livingston, Sue; Toce, Andi; Casey, Toce; Montoya, Fernando; Hart, Bonny R.; O'Flaherty, Carmela
This study first briefly describes an instructional approach to teaching grammar known as X-Word Grammar and then compares its effectiveness in assisting students in achieving grammatical accuracy with traditionally taught grammar. Two groups of L2 pre-college students were taught using curricula and practice procedures in two different grammar…
7 2. A Type 2 Grammar for Ada Identifiers . . . . . . .... 8 3. The Chomsky erarchy......... ...... 10 4. Some Hypernotions Used in...Ada Language Reference Manual. The Chomsky Hierarchy (4:9-20, 7:217-232). In the 1950s, Noam Chomsky defined five classes of phrase structure grammars ...describing valid language tokens. For example a Type 3 grammar for Ada identifiers is shown in Figure 1. Type 2 Chomsky Languages are the Context-free
Culicover, Peter W; Jackendoff, Ray; Audring, Jenny
There is ample evidence that speakers' linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions (MWCs) to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight the central role that grammar plays in licensing MWCs in the lexicon and the creation of novel MWCs, and they help to clarify how the lexicon articulates with the rest of the grammar. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas
We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings.
Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis
Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430
Zadeh, Lofti A.
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck
Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…
Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas
We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…
Nguyen, Luan Viet
Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…
The word "grammar" can be used in many ways: a general theory of language description; a theory for describing one language; a description of a particular language, either in the form of a book (an "English grammar") or the contents of that book; an ideal as opposed to actual description of a language; the properties and processes of a language…
Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno
The role of grammar teaching in foreign language education is a controversial one both in second language acquisition (SLA) research and language pedagogy and, as a result, a potential source of confusion to student teachers. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the beliefs on grammar teaching of student teachers of English as a…
Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.
This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…
This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…
Jurhill, Dennis A.
"O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of…
Kuehner, Alison V.
Correct grammar is important for precise, accurate, academic prose, but the traditional skills-based approach to teaching grammar is not effective if the goal is good writing. The sentence-combining approach shows promise. However, sentence modeling is more likely to produce strong writing and enhance reading comprehension. Through sentence…
Provides examples of a journey the author has recently experienced to consider if understanding the rules of grammar impact how a struggling adolescent reads. Suggests that the study of grammar will help her students become better users of the language. Notes that they will become effective listeners and speakers, but more importantly proficient…
The study enlightens the effectiveness of Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar at standard VI. A Video Game package was prepared and it consisted of self-learning activities in play way manner which attracted the minds of the young learners. Chief objective: Find out the effectiveness of Video-Game based learning in English grammar.…
A discussion of textual, as contrasted with traditional, grammar for French second-language instruction argues that textual grammar is essential for acquisition of communicative competence because it identifies grammatical facts relevant to everyday communication and allows the student to experience the construction of meaning through them. (MSE)
Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina
A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…
Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon
This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…
Carney, Brian T; Minter, Christin L
The purpose of this study was to document the ability of a nonsurgical program to improve restricted passive hip abduction in children with Perthes disease. Containment as a form of treatment was recommended if passive hip abduction of 30 degrees or more could be achieved. Medical records and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed for 74 children. Age at admission and onset, side, length of stay, and measurement of passive hip abduction at admission/discharge were recorded. The average increase in abduction with the hip extended was 13 degrees. Forty-two children achieved 30 degrees or more of abduction with the hip extended. Average length of stay was 13 days. Management of restricted abduction in an inpatient setting can allow consideration of containment in 61% of children previously not thought to have the required motion.
It has been widely assumed that the full meaning of a linguistic expression can be grasped only within a situation, the context of the utterance. There is even agreement that certain factors within the situation are particularly significant, including gestures and facial expressions of the participants, their social roles, the setting of the exchange, the objects surrounding the participants, the linguistic, cultural and educational backgrounds of the participants, their beliefs, including those concerning the situation, the social procedures and conventions that regulate the situation. Finally, there is some agreement that context is dynamic, reflexive (the speakers are mutually aware of their beliefs), not limited to linguistics actions, and last but not least, a psychological construct. This definition of context is not (very) controversial, but it leaves out two major problems, which will be addressed in this paper: how is context arrived at? And, since a perfectly natural interpretation of the above definition could be that the context of each utterance is the entire universe, how is the relevant context delimited? Four related concepts will provide the answer to both questions: abductive reasoning, driven by relevance and cooperation, and bounded rationality and the principle of charity. Simply put, context is derived abductively by the speakers assuming that for the speakers to behave the way they behave and do so rationally, a given context must be available to them. The context is bounded by the simple requirement that speakers not try to optimize their interpretation/calculation, but rather satisfice, i.e., find the first acceptable solution and by the need to follow the principle of charity, which forces intersubjective agreement. Thus, abductive reasoning and bounded rationality will be shown to be sufficient to calculate the relevant context of utterances (or other rationality-driven interactions) and to effectively delimit the potentially infinite
It has been widely assumed that the full meaning of a linguistic expression can be grasped only within a situation, the context of the utterance. There is even agreement that certain factors within the situation are particularly significant, including gestures and facial expressions of the participants, their social roles, the setting of the exchange, the objects surrounding the participants, the linguistic, cultural and educational backgrounds of the participants, their beliefs, including those concerning the situation, the social procedures and conventions that regulate the situation. Finally, there is some agreement that context is dynamic, reflexive (the speakers are mutually aware of their beliefs), not limited to linguistics actions, and last but not least, a psychological construct. This definition of context is not (very) controversial, but it leaves out two major problems, which will be addressed in this paper: how is context arrived at? And, since a perfectly natural interpretation of the above definition could be that the context of each utterance is the entire universe, how is the relevant context delimited? Four related concepts will provide the answer to both questions: abductive reasoning, driven by relevance and cooperation, and bounded rationality and the principle of charity. Simply put, context is derived abductively by the speakers assuming that for the speakers to behave the way they behave and do so rationally, a given context must be available to them. The context is bounded by the simple requirement that speakers not try to optimize their interpretation/calculation, but rather satisfice, i.e., find the first acceptable solution and by the need to follow the principle of charity, which forces intersubjective agreement. Thus, abductive reasoning and bounded rationality will be shown to be sufficient to calculate the relevant context of utterances (or other rationality-driven interactions) and to effectively delimit the potentially infinite
The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use of analogical reasoning and the application of exploratory factor analysis leave us with too many candidate theories to choose from, and explanatory coherence cannot be expected to save the day. The author ends with some suggestions to remedy the permissiveness and lack of normative force in ATOM, deriving from the experimental practice within which psychological data are produced.
Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.
The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.
Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)
synthesis procedures; a ’best’ method is definitely established. (2) ’Symmetry Types for Threshold Logic’ is a tutorial expositon including a careful...development of the Goto-Takahasi self-dual type ideas. (3) ’Best Threshold Gate Decisions’ reports a comparison, on the 2470 7-argument threshold ...interpretation is shown best. (4) ’ Threshold Gate Networks’ reviews the previously discussed 2-algorithm in geometric terms, describes our FORTRAN
Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina
This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic (‘parametric’) variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed. PMID:24019867
in a completely different manner. [Ref. 5:pp. 81-883 ; "C. CASE GRAMMAR When Chomsky published his Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 0 many linguists...approach was developed at Stanford University .[Ref. 7:pp. 187-2473 E. FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR Shortly after Transformational Grammar and Case Grammar ... Grammar is a radical approach to linguistic theory when looked at from the Chomsky point of view. However, it compares favorably with the traditional
García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan
This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.
A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.
Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujita, Kosuke; Kusano, Ken; Nishishita, Satoru; Araki, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanase, Ko; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle, which involve shoulder horizontal abduction or scapular retraction, are performed in clinical and sports settings because the tightness of this muscle may contribute to scapular dyskinesis. The effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle is unclear in vivo. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. Elongation of the pectoralis minor muscle was measured for 3 stretching maneuvers (shoulder flexion, shoulder horizontal abduction, and scapular retraction) at 3 shoulder elevation angles (30°, 90°, and 150°). The shear elastic modulus, used as the index of muscle elongation, was computed using ultrasonic shear wave elastography for the 9 aforementioned stretching maneuver-angle combinations. The shear elastic modulus was highest in horizontal abduction at 150°, followed by horizontal abduction at 90°, horizontal abduction at 30°, scapular retraction at 30°, scapular retraction at 90°, scapular retraction at 150°, flexion at 150°, flexion at 90°, and flexion at 30°. The shear elastic moduli of horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150° were significantly higher than those of other stretching maneuvers. There was no significant difference between horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150°. This study determined that shoulder horizontal abduction at an elevation of 90° and horizontal abduction at an elevation of 150° were the most effective stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
a. REPORT U b . ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std...logic encryption and IC testing – (a) fault excitation, ( b ) propagation, and (c) masking…………………………………………......…………………………………….. 8 Figure 6: A...distance between the outputs of designs on applying the correct key and a random wrong key: (a) Random insertion of XORs in ISCAS designs [6,7,11], ( b
Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.; Liu, Yan
This article proposes and demonstrates a methodology for test score validation through abductive reasoning. It describes how abductive reasoning can be utilized in support of the claims made about test score validity. This methodology is demonstrated with a real data example of the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program…
Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Jeon, Hye-Seon
To investigate how the erector spinae (ES) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscle activity and the anterior pelvic tilt angle change with different hip abduction angles during a bridging exercise. Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females, aged 21.6 ± 1.6) voluntarily participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the ES and GM during bridging at three hip abduction angles: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Simultaneously, the anterior pelvic tilt angle was measured using Image J software. The EMG amplitude of the GM muscle and the GM/ES EMG ratio were greatest at 30° hip abduction, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during the bridging exercise. In contrast, the ES EMG amplitude at 30° hip abduction was significantly lesser than that at 0° and 15° abduction. Additionally, the anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower at 30° hip abduction than at 0° or 15°. Bridging with 30° hip abduction can be recommended as an effective method to selectively facilitate GM muscle activity, minimize compensatory ES muscle activity, and decrease the anterior pelvic tilt angle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rivera, F. D.; Becker, Joanne Rossi
The article deals with issues concerning the abductive-inductive reasoning of 42 preservice elementary majors on patterns that consist of figural and numerical cues. We discuss: ways in which the participants develop generalizations about classes of abstract objects; abductive processes they exhibit which support their induction leading to a…
Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue
In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches.
Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma
In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
presumed. Basic references on the systemic framework include [Berry 75, Berry 77, Halliday 76a, Halliday 76b, Hudson 76, Halliday 81, de Joia 80...Edinburgh, 1979. [do Joia 80] de Joia , A., and A. Stanton, Terms in Systemic Linguistics, Batsford Academic and Educational, Ltd., London, 1980. -’C...1 A Grammar for Text Generation- -The Challenge ................................. 1 *1.2 A Grammar for Text Generation--The Design
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Everett (2016b) criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a,b) on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett’s concerns are directed toward the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG) principles. Contrary to Everett’s logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett’s arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype), and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett’s arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis. PMID:27471480
Butler, Christopher S.
The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…
Examines how application of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and information technology can be used to overcome "grammar deficit" seen in many British undergraduate German students. A combination of explicit, implicit, and exploratory grammar teaching approaches uses diverse resources, including word processing packages,…
Vannestal, Maria Estling; Lindquist, Hans
Corpora have been used for pedagogical purposes for more than two decades but empirical studies are relatively rare, particularly in the context of grammar teaching. The present study focuses on students' attitudes towards grammar and how these attitudes are affected by the introduction of concordancing. The principal aims of the project were to…
Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza
A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.
The teaching of grammar provides more options for teacher strategies than almost any other area of language teaching, but because of the nature of grammar and classroom language instruction, using a variety of approaches is a more appropriate strategy. (MSE)
Paradowski, Michal B.
The chapter reports the results of a controlled experiment which suggest that foreign-language grammar instruction that forges explicit connections with the grammar of the students' mother tongue aids learning, at least as far as students' application of discrete-point grammar rules is concerned. (Contains 2 figures and 3 notes.) [This document…
The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is…
Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for…
Collis, Peter; Hollo, Carmella; Mar, Juliet
Reports findings from a critical analysis of English grammar books and language books with grammar content used in New South Wales (Australia) elementary and secondary schools. Books surveyed showed a low level of awareness of developments in contemporary linguistics, particularly the structural approach to grammar instruction. (Author/MSE)
O'Donnell, Roy C.
Formal grammar study is important in schools above the elementary level because it can lead to improved understanding of the nature and functions of language. Although newer grammars, based on structural linguistics and transformational-generative grammar, have not met the needs of the schools, their potential should not be ignored with a return…
The research examined the impact on teachers of the grammar element of a new statutory test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG) in primary schools in England. The research aimed to evaluate the nature and the extent of changes to the teaching of grammar and to wider literacy teaching since the introduction of the test in 2013. The research…
Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather
This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…
Lima, Thaís; Alves, Cyntia; Funayama, Carolina A R
It is difficult to precisely measure articular arc movement in newborns using a goniometer. This article proposes an objective method based on trigonometry for the evaluation of lower limb abduction. With the newborn aligned in the dorsal decubitus position, 2 points are marked at the level of the medial malleolus, one on the sagittal line and the other at the end of the abduction. Using the right-sided line between these 2 points and a line from the medial malleolus to the reference point at the anterior superior iliac spine or umbilical scar, an isosceles triangle is drawn, and half of the inferential abduction angle is obtained by calculating the sine. Twenty healthy full-term newborns comprise the study cohort. Intersubject and intrasubject variability among the abduction angle values (mean [SD], 37 degrees  degrees) is low. This method is advantageous because the measurement is precise and because the sine can be used without approximation.
Sutherlin, Mark A; Hart, Joseph M
Individuals with a history of low back pain (LBP) may present with decreased hip-abduction strength and increased trunk or gluteus maximus (GMax) fatigability. However, the effect of hip-abduction exercise on hip-muscle function has not been previously reported. To compare hip-abduction torque and muscle activation of the hip, thigh, and trunk between individuals with and without a history of LBP during repeated bouts of side-lying hip-abduction exercise. Repeated measures. Clinical laboratory. 12 individuals with a history of LBP and 12 controls. Repeated 30-s hip-abduction contractions. Hip-abduction torque, normalized root-mean-squared (RMS) muscle activation, percent RMS muscle activation, and forward general linear regression. Hip-abduction torque reduced in all participants as a result of exercise (1.57 ± 0.36 Nm/kg, 1.12 ± 0.36 Nm/kg; P < .001), but there were no group differences (F = 0.129, P = .723) or group-by-time interactions (F = 1.098, P = .358). All participants had increased GMax activation during the first bout of exercise (0.96 ± 1.00, 1.18 ± 1.03; P = .038). Individuals with a history of LBP had significantly greater GMax activation at multiple points during repeated exercise (P < .05) and a significantly lower percent of muscle activation for the GMax (P = .050) at the start of the third bout of exercise and for the biceps femoris (P = .039) at the end of exercise. The gluteal muscles best predicted hip-abduction torque in controls, while no consistent muscles were identified for individuals with a history of LBP. Hip-abduction torque decreased in all individuals after hip-abduction exercise, although individuals with a history of LBP had increased GMax activation during exercise. Gluteal muscle activity explained hip-abduction torque in healthy individuals but not in those with a history of LBP. Alterations in hip-muscle function may exist in individuals with a history of LBP.
Tétreault, Patrice; Levasseur, Annie; Lin, Jenny C; de Guise, Jacques; Nuño, Natalia; Hagemeister, Nicola
The purpose of this study is to compare shoulder joint biomechanics during abduction with and without intact non-functioning rotator cuff tissue. A cadaver model was devised to simulate the clinical findings seen in patients with a massive cuff tear. Eight full upper limb shoulder specimens were studied. Initially, the rotator cuff tendons were left intact, representing a non-functional rotator cuff, as seen in suprascapular nerve paralysis or in cuff repair with a patch. Subsequently, a massive rotator cuff tear was re-created. Three-dimensional kinematics and force requirements for shoulder abduction were analyzed for each condition using ten abduction cycles in the plane of the scapula. Mediolateral displacements of the glenohumeral rotation center (GHRC) during abduction with an intact non-functioning cuff were minimal, but massive cuff tear resulted in significant lateral displacement of the GHRC (p < 0.013). Similarly, massive cuff tear caused increased superior migration of the GHRC during abduction compared with intact non-functional cuff (p < 0.01). From 5 to 30° of abduction, force requirements were significantly less with an intact non-functioning cuff than with massive cuff tear (p < 0.009). During abduction, an intact but non-functioning rotator cuff resulted in decreased GHRC displacement in two axes as well as lowered the force requirement for abduction from 5 to 30° as compared with the results following a massive rotator cuff tear. This provides insight into the potential biomechanical effect of repairing massive rotator cuff tears with a biological or synthetic "patch," which is a new treatment for massive cuff tear.
In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005) three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012). Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 ; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b). Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011) hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative) than purely synchronic accounts. PMID:28824474
Petty, Michael Eugene
Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science
Adhia, Divya Bharatkumar; Tumilty, Steve; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D
The primary aim of the study is to determine if Hip Abduction and External Rotation (HABER) test is capable of reproducing familiar pain in individuals with low back pain (LBP) of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) origin (SIJ-positive) when compared with LBP of Non-SIJ origin (SIJ-negative). If so, the secondary aim is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of HABER test against the reference standard of pain provocation tests, and to determine which increments of the HABER test has highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying SIJ-positive individuals. Single-blinded diagnostic accuracy study. Participants [n(122)] between ages of 18-50 y, suffering from chronic non-specific LBP (≥3 months) volunteered in the study. An experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapist evaluated and classified participants into either SIJ-positive [n(45)] or SIJ-negative [n(77)], based on reference standard of pain provocation tests [≥3 positive tests = SIJ-positive]. Another musculoskeletal physiotherapist, blinded to clinical groups, evaluated participants for reproduction of familiar pain during each increment (10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50°) of HABER test. The HABER test reproduced familiar pain in SIJ-positive individuals when compared with SIJ-negative individuals [p (0.001), R(2) (0.38), Exp(β) (5.95-10.32)], and demonstrated moderate level of sensitivity (67%-78%) and specificity (71%-72%) for identifying SIJ-positive individuals. Receiver operator curve analysis demonstrated that the HABER increments of ≥30° have the highest sensitivity (83%-100%) and specificity (52%-64%). The HABER test is capable of reproducing familiar pain in SIJ-positive LBP individuals and has moderate levels of sensitivity and specificity for identifying SIJ-positive LBP individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke
The task of inducing grammar structures has received a great deal of attention. The reasons why researchers have studied are different; to use grammar induction as the first stage in building large treebanks or to make up better language models. However, grammar induction has inherent computational complexity. To overcome it, some grammar induction algorithms add new production rules incrementally. They refine the grammar while keeping their computational complexity low. In this paper, we propose a new efficient grammar induction algorithm. Although our algorithm is similar to algorithms which learn a grammar incrementally, our algorithm uses the graphical EM algorithm instead of the Inside-Outside algorithm. We report results of learning experiments in terms of learning speeds. The results show that our algorithm learns a grammar in constant time regardless of the size of the grammar. Since our algorithm decreases syntactic ambiguities in each step, our algorithm reduces required time for learning. This constant-time learning considerably affects learning time for larger grammars. We also reports results of evaluation of criteria to choose nonterminals. Our algorithm refines a grammar based on a nonterminal in each step. Since there can be several criteria to decide which nonterminal is the best, we evaluate them by learning experiments.
Silva, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus
Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased…
Allan, Edward Jay
A detailed grammar of Buem, one of the Togo-Remnant Languages spoken in Ghana's Volta region, describes the major structures and many minor structures occurring in informal and semi-formal speech. The phonetics and much of the phonology are described in taxonomic terms, and the vowel harmony system, syntax, and morphology are described in a…
This dissertation makes substantial contributions to both the theoretical and computational treatment of information structure, with an eye toward creating natural language processing applications such as multilingual machine translation systems. The aim of the present dissertation is to create a grammar library of information structure for the…
Lefkowitz, Lee Michael
Research in phonetics has established the grammatical status of gradient phonetic patterns in language, suggesting that there is a component of the grammar that governs systematic relationships between discrete phonological representations and gradiently continuous acoustic or articulatory phonetic representations. This dissertation joins several…
Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic
This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.
Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…
PART OF A SERIES OF FOUR RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF GRAMMARS OF IRANIAN LANGUAGES, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE TAJIK LANGUAGE OF THE INHABITANTS OF TAJIK SSR, AND IS THE FIRST TO APPEAR IN ENGLISH. (THE ORIGINAL TEXT WAS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE RAHIMI-USPENSKAYA "TAJIK-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY," MOSCOW, 1954.) ALL TAJIK FORMS ARE GIVEN IN…
This editorial introduction to "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education" "ACT" 16 (3) explores institutions as sites of paradox whose mission statements (or constitutions in the case of government) suggest concerns for diversity and inclusion but whose "grammars" (Bonilla-Silva 2011) frame thought and action…
Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.
In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…
Originally an editorial for "English in Education," this short article summarises key issues in the imposition of a separate test for grammar, punctuation and spelling. It illustrates the poor foundations, lack of clarity and distortion of curriculum which invalidate the test.
Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.
This three-paper report describes Nigel, a large, programmed grammar of English which has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday, and which, in addition to specifying functions and structures of English, has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations for use of each grammatical feature. The…
Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…
Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan
This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…
Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom
This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…
John Henry Newman is probably known best for "The Idea of a University." In his most philosophical work, "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent," however, he undertakes a detailed investigation of different ways of knowing and understanding in a manner that is of clear pertinence for philosophical enquiry into education. He…
Paterson, Laura Louise
In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English…
Gumpert, Gary; Cathcart, Robert
Argues that people are connected or separated more by media experience than by chronological years. Examines how media develop their own grammars, how individuals acquire media literacy, and the effects of media literacy on ways people relate to each other. (PD)
Baker, B. S.
If G is a grammar such that in each noncontext-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side; then the language generated by G is context-free. Six previous results follow as simple corollaries of this theorem.
Kliman, Bernice W.
Nassau Community College (NCC) offers a grammar course as a humanities option that may be taken instead of a literature course. The approach to the course incorporates reader-response theory, feminist criticism, new historicism, and journal writing as the key means for enabling students to learn. Each student has a notebook divided into sections…
THROUGH THEIR LOSS OF FAITH IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR, MEN HAVE "SINNED" AND CONTRIBUTED SLIGHTLY BUT IMPORTANTLY TO THE CREATION OF AN AMORAL AND RELATIVISTIC SOCIETY. PROMPTED BY THE SIN OF INTELLECTUAL PRIDE, SOME LINGUISTS SEEM TO ASSUME THAT GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY RATIOCINATION ALONE. IGNORANCE OF THE PAST--ANOTHER SIN--AND…
A technique for teaching French grammar that involves reading, rereading, and analyzing the language in authentic materials is discussed. The student is led to recognition and generalization of structures in the text. Text examples used here include a comic strip and a publicity blurb for a French city. (MSE)
Apart from one amalgamation there are as many grammar schools in England as when Labour took office in 1997. Selection at age 11 still influences English education and unless there are changes its effect is likely to increase. Legislation introduced in 1998 which could have ended selection had no effect. The pressure from the right-wing minority…
Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer
This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…
This reference grammar is a description of the speech of educated people of the Bangalore/Mysore area of Karnataka State in South India. This particular dialect is used in films and, to some extent, on the radio. The four sections of the book deal with: (1) phonology, (2) the noun phrase, (3) the verb phrase, and (4) syntax. Each item that is…
Thomas, Earl W.
This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…
Ford, Kevin R; Shapiro, Robert; Myer, Gregory D; Van Den Bogert, Antonie J; Hewett, Timothy E
The objective of this study was to determine whether biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors related to abnormal movement patterns increased in females, but not males, during the adolescent growth spurt. A total of 315 subjects participated in two testing sessions approximately 1 yr apart. Male and female subjects were classified on the basis of their maturation status as pubertal or postpubertal. Three trials of a drop vertical jump (DVJ) were collected. Maximum knee abduction angle and external moments were calculated during the DVJ deceleration phase using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Changes in knee abduction from the first to second year were compared among four subject groups (female pubertal, female postpubertal, male pubertal, and male postpubertal). There were no sex differences in peak knee abduction angle or moment during DVJ between pubertal males and females (P > 0.05). However, pubertal females increased peak abduction angle from first to second year (P < 0.001), whereas males demonstrated no similar change (P = 0.90) in the matched developmental stages. After puberty, the peak abduction angle and moment were greater in females relative to males (angle: female -9.3° ± 5.7°, male -3.6° ± 4.6°, P < 0.001; moment: female -21.9 ± 13.5 N·m, male -13.0 ± 12.0 N·m, P = 0.017). This study identified, through longitudinal analyses, that knee abduction angle was significantly increased in pubertal females during rapid adolescent growth, whereas males showed no similar change. In addition, knee abduction motion and moments were significantly greater for the subsequent year in young female athletes, after rapid adolescent growth, compared with males. The combination of longitudinal, sex, and maturational group differences indicates that early puberty seems to be a critical phase related to the divergence of increased anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors.
Josephson, John R.
A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.
Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise
High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Peak knee abduction moments and time-to-peak knee abduction moments were calculated using Visual 3D. High-arched athletes had smaller peak knee abduction moments compared to low-arched athletes during walking (KAM1: p=0.019; KAM2: p=0.015) and running (p=0.010). No differences were observed in time-to-peak knee abduction moment during walking (KAM1: p=0.360; KAM2: p=0.085) or running (p=0.359). These findings demonstrate that foot type is associated with altered frontal plane knee kinetics which may contribute to patellofemoral pain. Future research should address the efficacy of clinical interventions including orthotics and rehabilitation programs in these athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John
The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.
Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y
Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
The design and construction of a 16 variable threshold logic gate with adaptable weights is described. The operating characteristics of tape wound...and sizes as well as for the 16 input adaptive threshold logic gate. (Author)
OncoLogicTM - A Computer System to Evaluate the Carcinogenic Potential of Chemicals
OncoLogicTM is a software program that evaluates the likelihood that a chemical may cause cancer. OncoLogicTM has been peer reviewed and is being rele...
Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Torkian, Pooya; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Faghihi, Mohammad; Sheibani, Kourosh
To determine the relationship between abduction deficit and reoperation among patients with infantile esotropia (IET). The records of 216 patients (432 eyes) with IET who underwent surgery, from 2010 to 2015 were studied. Patients with IET whose deviation appeared before 6mo of age and had stable preoperative deviation in two examinations with at least 2wk apart and a minimum 3mo postoperative follow up were included. Cases with early onset accommodative esotropia, congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), manifest nystagmus, fundus lesions, neurologic and ophthalmic anomalies, 6 th nerve palsy and Duane's syndrome were excluded. Preoperative abduction deficit was considered from -1 to -3 grading scale. Three months after surgery, children were classified into no-need reoperation [deviation≤15 prism diopters (PD)], and need-reoperation groups (deviation>15 PD). In this retrospective study, 117 female and 99 male patients with the mean surgical age of 4.7±6.4y were included. Reoperation rate was 33.3% and 16.0% in IET patients with and without abduction deficit, respectively in patients who had a history of late surgery. Abduction deficit increased the odds of reoperation by 82% [OR=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.05 to 3.19, P =0.003] in patients who had a history of late surgery (>2 years old, P =0.021). Abduction deficit was improved significantly after operation ( P <0.001). Based on our results, abduction deficit can be considered as a risk factor of reoperation in IET patients who are operated at the age of more than 2y.
34 76b, Hudson 76, Halliday 81, de Joia 80, Fawcett 80].3 1.2. Design Goals for the Grammar Three kinds of goals have guided the work of creating Nigel...Davey 79] Davey, A., Discourse Production, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1979. [ de Joia 80] de Joia , A., and A. Stenton, Terms in Systemic...1 1.1. The Text Generation Task as a Stimulus for Grammar Design .........................1I -1.2. Design Goals for the Grammar
Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon
Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example.
Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.
This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…
Finkelhor, David; And Others
What has in the past been called the missing children problem is in reality a set of at least five distinct problems, each of which needs to be researched, analyzed, and treated separately. The problems are family abductions, nonfamily abductions, runaways, thrownaways, and lost, injured, or otherwise missing children. Many of the children in at…
Beck, Kimberly V.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
Child abduction is a serious problem; therefore, it is essential that researchers evaluate the efficacy of commercially available abduction-prevention programs. A multiple baseline design across participants (ages 6 to 8 years) was used to evaluate the effects of a training program, The Safe Side. Experimenters assessed safety responses in situ in…
Medeiros, David P.
A central concern of generative grammar is the relationship between hierarchy and word order, traditionally understood as two dimensions of a single syntactic representation. A related concern is directionality in the grammar. Traditional approaches posit process-neutral grammars, embodying knowledge of language, put to use with infinite facility both for production and comprehension. This has crystallized in the view of Merge as the central property of syntax, perhaps its only novel feature. A growing number of approaches explore grammars with different directionalities, often with more direct connections to performance mechanisms. This paper describes a novel model of universal grammar as a one-directional, universal parser. Mismatch between word order and interpretation order is pervasive in comprehension; in the present model, word order is language-particular and interpretation order (i.e., hierarchy) is universal. These orders are not two dimensions of a unified abstract object (e.g., precedence and dominance in a single tree); rather, both are temporal sequences, and UG is an invariant real-time procedure (based on Knuth's stack-sorting algorithm) transforming word order into hierarchical order. This shift in perspective has several desirable consequences. It collapses linearization, displacement, and composition into a single performance process. The architecture provides a novel source of brackets (labeled unambiguously and without search), which are understood not as part-whole constituency relations, but as storage and retrieval routines in parsing. It also explains why neutral word order within single syntactic cycles avoids 213-like permutations. The model identifies cycles as extended projections of lexical heads, grounding the notion of phase. This is achieved with a universal processor, dispensing with parameters. The empirical focus is word order in noun phrases. This domain provides some of the clearest evidence for 213-avoidance as a cross
Johnson, Brigitte M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda
Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not all children learn the skills. This study compared BST only to BST with an added in situ training component to teach abduction-prevention skills in a small-group format to schoolchildren. Results showed that both programs were effective in teaching abduction-prevention skills. In addition, the scores for the group that received in situ training were significantly higher than scores for the group that received BST alone at the 3-month follow-up assessment. PMID:16602383
Kwon, Yong-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Su; Park, Yun-Bok
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that student's abductive reasoning skills play an important role in the generation of hypotheses on pendulum motion tasks. To test the hypothesis, a hypothesis-generating test on pendulum motion, and a prior-belief test about pendulum motion were developed and administered to a sample of…
Plass, Peggy S.; And Others
Examines influences surrounding two specific outcomes of family abduction events: duration of the episode and the likelihood of emotional trauma to children involved. Findings indicate duration is influenced by preparedness, planning and intent, and with difficulty in physically locating the child. Emotional harm is associated with child…
Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old). We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction) and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides) with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers. PMID:21819566
Oh, Phil Seok
The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle
Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…
Smith, Geoffrey C S; Lam, Patrick H
The self-reinforcement mechanism after double row suturebridge rotator cuff repair generates increasing compressive forces at the tendon footprint with increasing tendon load. Passive range of motion is usually allowed after rotator cuff repair. The mechanism of self-reinforcement could be adversely affected by shoulder abduction. Rotator cuff tears were created ex vivo in nine pairs of ovine shoulders. Two different repair techniques were used. One group was repaired using a double row 'suturebridge' construct with tied horizontal medial row mattress sutures (Knotted repair group). The other group was repaired identically except that medial row knots were not tied (Knotless repair group). Footprint compression was measured at varying amounts of abduction and under tendon loads of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60N. The rate of increase of contact pressure (degree of self-reinforcement) was calculated for each abduction angle. Abduction diminishes footprint contact pressure in both knotted and knotless double row suturebridge constructs. Progressive abduction from 0 to 40 abduction in the knotless group and 0-30 in the knotted group results in a decrease in self-reinforcement. Abduction beyond this does not cause a further decrease in self-reinforcement. There was no difference in the rate of increase of footprint contact pressure at each angle of abduction when comparing the knotted and knotless groups. In the post-operative period, high tendon load combined with minimal abduction would be expected to generate the greatest amount of footprint compression which may improve tendon healing. Therefore, to maximize footprint compression the use of abduction pillows should be avoided while early isometric strengthening should be used.
Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Ohyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Boram
The direction of fiber alignment within a muscle is known to influence the effectiveness of muscle contraction. However, most of the commonly used clinical gluteus maximus (GM) exercises do not consider the direction of fiber alignment within the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hip abduction position on the EMG (electromyography) amplitude and onset time of the GM and hamstrings (HAM) during prone hip extension with knee flexion (PHEKF) exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the GM and HAM during PHEKF exercise in three hip abduction positions: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Thirty healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The results show that GM EMG amplitude was greatest in the 30° hip abduction position, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during PHEKF exercise. On the other hand, the HAM EMG amplitude at 0° hip abduction was significantly greater than at 15° and 30° hip abduction. Additionally, GM EMG onset firing was delayed relative to that of the HAM at 0° hip abduction. On the contrary, the GM EMG onset occurred earlier than the HAM in the 15° and 30° hip abduction positions. These findings indicate that performing PHEKF exercise in the 30° hip abduction position may be recommended as an effective way to facilitate the GM muscle activity and advance the firing time of the GM muscle in asymptomatic individuals. This finding provides preliminary evidence that GM EMG amplitude and onset time can be modified by the degree of hip abduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many researchers believe that there is a logical problem at the center of language acquisition theory. According to this analysis, the input to the learner is too inconsistent and incomplete to determine the acquisition of grammar. Moreover, when corrective feedback is provided, children tend to ignore it. As a result, language learning must rely on additional constraints from universal grammar. To solve this logical problem, theorists have proposed a series of constraints and parameterizations on the form of universal grammar. Plausible alternatives to these constraints include: conservatism, item-based learning, indirect negative evidence, competition, cue construction, and monitoring. Careful analysis of child language corpora has cast doubt on claims regarding the absence of positive exemplars. Using demonstrably available positive data, simple learning procedures can be formulated for each of the syntactic structures that have traditionally motivated invocation of the logical problem. Within the perspective of emergentist theory (MacWhinney, 2001), the operation of a set of mutually supportive processes is viewed as providing multiple buffering for developmental outcomes. However, the fact that some syntactic structures are more difficult to learn than others can be used to highlight areas of intense grammatical competition and processing load. PMID:15658750
Sakaguchi, Masanori; Ogawa, Haruna; Shimizu, Norifumi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo
The knee is the most common site of running injuries, particularly prevalent in females. The purpose of this study was to clarify gender differences in the lower extremity kinematics during running, with a specific emphasis on the relationships between the distal and proximal factors and the knee joint kinematics. Eleven female and 11 male runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional marker positions were recorded with a motion analysis system while the subjects ran along a 25 m runway at a speed of 3.5 m/s. Kinematic variables were analyzed for the stance phase of the right leg. Female runners demonstrated significantly greater peak knee abduction (P<0.05), hip adduction (P<0.01) and internal rotation (P<0.05), whereas male runners demonstrated significantly greater peak rearfoot eversion (P<0.01). The knee abduction angles were positively correlated with hip adduction angles (r=0.49, P<0.05) and negatively correlated with rearfoot eversion (r= -0.69, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in normalised step width between genders (P>0.05). Smaller rearfoot eversion and greater hip adduction related closely to the greater knee abduction as the distal and proximal factors, respectively. These relationships are thought to be the compensatory joint motions in the frontal plane, because there was no significant difference in the normalised step width between females and males. The current results suggest that if the step width is identical, the subjects with greater knee abduction had smaller rearfoot eversion to compensate for greater hip adduction, which were more apparent in females. This explains greater knee abduction found in female runners, which can be linked to a high risk of knee injury.
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
Preston, K., Jr.
The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.
ASTON, KATHARINE O.
THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANT PART PLAYED BY THE COMPONENT OF GRAMMAR. THE NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH POSSESSES AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULES OF GRAMMAR AND YET CANNOT EXPLAIN WHAT HIS INTUITION KNOWS. THEREFORE, A PRECISE, ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE MECHANISM AND HOW IT FUNCTIONS…
This workbook is a supplement to Harold Van Winkle's "Elements of English Grammar: Rules Explained Simply," a book intended for self-instruction which presents the basic rules of standard English grammar in an easy-to-understand manner. The workbook's six chapters correspond to those in the book and contain exercises on: (1) The…
Demir, Sezgin; Erdogan, Ayse
Grammar; while originating from the natural structure of the language also is the system which makes it possible for different language functions meet within the body of common rules especially communication. Having command of the language used, speaking and writing it correctly require strong grammar knowledge actually. However only knowing the…
Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny
Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…
University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993
In this volume, five working papers are presented. "Minimal Signs and Grammar" (Lars Hellan) proposes that a significant part of the "production" of grammar is incremental, building larger and larger constructs, with lexical objects called minimal signs as the first steps. It also suggests that the basic lexical information in…
Functional grammar has received more and more attention from domestic scholars in the world of linguistics since 1970s, but it is still new to most EFL teachers. In spite of controversies about its applications into classroom teaching, this new grammar model has its own advantages and can facilitate EFL students to achieve academic success. This…
Robinson, Lisa; Feng, Jay
Grammar Instruction has an important role to play in helping students to speak and write more effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct grammar instruction on the quality of student's writing skills. The participants in this study included 18 fifth grade students and two fifth grade teachers. Based on the results…
Booij, Geert; Audring, Jenny
This article presents a systematic exposition of how the basic ideas of Construction Grammar (CxG) (Goldberg, 2006) and the Parallel Architecture (PA) of grammar (Jackendoff, 2002]) provide the framework for a proper account of morphological phenomena, in particular word formation. This framework is referred to as Construction Morphology (CxM). As…
A study examined 3 grammar teaching methods to understand why some methods may carry over into writing better than others. E. Bialystok and E. B. Ryan's (1985) metacognitive model of language skills was adapted to plot traditional grammar, sentence combining, and the functional/inductive approach according to the amount of analyzed knowledge and…
Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna
This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…
The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of Jigsaw I technique on students' academic success and attitude towards the course in teaching Turkish grammar. For that purpose, three grammar topics (spelling and punctuation marks rules) were determined and an experimental study conforming to "control group preliminary-testing final…
Suggests that the current "return" to grammar will fail unless educators can come to terms with definitions of fundamental grammatical concepts. Considers how educators cannot go back to teaching the traditional, because the traditional no longer exists. Argues that pedagogical grammar currently has too many cooks, all trying to prepare the same…
Rule, Hannah J.
This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…
Al-wossabi, Sami A.
Recent studies in corpus linguistics have revealed apparent inconsistencies between the prescriptive grammar presented in EFL textbooks and the type of grammar used in the speech of native speakers. Such variations and learning gaps deprive EFL learners of the actual use of English and delay their oral/aural developmental processes. The focus of…
Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee
This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…
English language learners are often more grammatically accurate in writing than in speaking. As students focus on meaning while speaking, their spoken fluency comes at a cost: their grammatical accuracy decreases. The author wanted to find a way to help her students improve their oral grammar; that is, she wanted them to focus on grammar while…
Hedjazi Moghari, Mona; Marandi, S. Susan
It is usually the case that learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) are exposed to language materials in class only, and of course in such a short space of time, they do not always find enough chance to practice English grammar features and become aware of their grammar mistakes. As a potential solution to this problem, the current study…
Shafer, Robert E.
In Arizona, beginning teachers applying for certification must take the Arizona Teacher Proficiency Examination which tests professional knowledge, reading, mathematics, and grammar. The high failure rate on the grammar test has caused a great deal of concern; 40 percent of the examinees, and a higher percentage of minority groups, failed it in…
The history of grammar instruction includes two approaches: the handbook approach, which is practiced today, and the textbook approach. The handbook approach focuses on rules for correct writing and is an error-based view, while the textbook approach would treat grammar holistically and interpretively and would systematically explain new concepts…
English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…
This article outlines an approach to explicit grammar instruction that uses literary texts as comprehensible, meaning-bearing input. In this approach, which employs strategies from the teaching of grammar and the teaching of reading, literary texts serve as the basis of the inductive presentation of new grammatical forms and as a springboard for…
This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…
Ahland, Michael Bryan
Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…
Agarwal, R. K.
To compose the complicated systems using algorithmically specialized logic circuits or processors, one solution is to perform relational computations such as union, division and intersection directly on hardware. These relations can be pipelined efficiently on a network of processors having an array configuration. These processors can be designed and implemented with a few simple cells. In order to determine the state-of-the-art in Electrically Reconfigurable Logic Array (ERLA), a survey of the available programmable logic array (PLA) and the logic circuit elements used in such arrays was conducted. Based on this survey some recommendations are made for ERLA devices.
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Tran, Tammie M.
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…
Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.
This article takes the view that grammar is driven by user choices and is therefore complex and dynamic. This has implications for the teaching of grammar in language teacher education and how teachers' cognitions about grammar, and hence their own grammar teaching, might change. In this small, interpretative study, the participants--students on…
Ho, Pham Vu Phi; The Binh, Nguyen
So far the students of Le Hong Phong Junior High School have been taught grammar with GTM (Grammar-Translation Method), which just prepares learners for conventional grammar-paper tests. Despite their considerable knowledge of grammar, the students fail to use the language they have learnt to communicate in real-life situations. The purpose of…
Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min
Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) consists of abduction deficit, globe retraction and upshoots or downshoots with adduction. The abducens nerve on the affected side is absent in type 1 DRS. After bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral type 1 DRS may improve the abduction limitation, but still more than -3 limitation remains. A 6-month-old boy presented with esotropia which had been noticed in early infancy. He showed limited abduction, fissure narrowing on attempted adduction and a small upshoot OS. Left abducens nerve was not identified on magnetic resonance imaging compatible with Duane retraction syndrome type 1. He showed full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession of 6.0 mm at the age of 9 months, and remained orthotropia with full abduction OU 2 years postoperatively. He is my only patient with Duane retraction syndrome who showed full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession. A patient with the type 1 Duane retraction syndrome rarely may show full abduction after bilateral medial rectus recession mimicking infantile esotropia.
Bakshi, Neil K; Jameel, Omar F; Merrill, Zachary F; Debski, Richard E; Sekiya, Jon K
This study compared the amount of glenohumeral abduction during arm abduction in the affected and unaffected shoulders of 3 groups of patients with shoulder instability: failed surgical stabilization, successful surgical stabilization, and unstable shoulder with no prior surgical intervention. All patients underwent bilateral shoulder computed tomography scans in 3 positions: 0° of abduction and 0° of external rotation (0-0 position), 30° of abduction and 30° of external rotation (30-30 position), and arms maximally abducted (overhead position). Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction was performed for both shoulders in all 3 positions. A specialized coordinate system marked specific points and directions on the humerus and glenoid of each model. These coordinates were used to calculate the glenohumeral abduction for the normal and affected sides in the 0-0, 30-30, and overhead positions. Thirty-nine patients with shoulder instability were included, of whom 14 had failed surgical repairs, 10 had successful surgical repairs, and 15 had unstable shoulders with no prior surgical intervention. In the overhead position, patients with failed surgical intervention had significantly less glenohumeral abduction in the failed shoulder (95.6° ± 12.7°) compared with the normal shoulder (101.5° ± 12.4°, P = .02). Patients with successfully stabilized shoulders had significantly less glenohumeral abduction in the successfully stabilized shoulder (93.6° ± 10.8°) compared with the normal shoulder (102.1° ± 12.5°, P = .03). Unstable shoulders with no prior surgical intervention (102.1° ± 10.3°) did not differ when compared with the normal shoulders (101.9° ± 10.9°, P = .95). Surgical intervention, regardless of its success, limits the amount of abduction at the glenohumeral joint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cronström, Anna; Creaby, Mark W; Nae, Jenny; Ageberg, Eva
Increased knee abduction during weight-bearing activities is suggested to be a contributing factor for the high knee injury risk reported in women. However, studies investigating gender difference in knee abduction are inconclusive. To systematically review gender-differences in knee abduction during weight-bearing activities in individuals with or without knee injury. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A search in the databases Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE was performed until September 2015. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported (1) gender differences, (2) healthy individuals and/or those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency or reconstruction or patellofemoral pain PFP, and (3) knee abduction assessed with either motion analysis or visual observation during weight-bearing activity. Fifty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Women with PFP had greater peak knee abduction compared to men (Std diff in mean; -1.34, 95%CI; -1.83 to -0.84). In healthy individuals, women performed weight-bearing tasks with greater knee abduction throughout the movement (initial contact, peak abduction, excursion) (Std diff in mean; -0.68 to -0.79, 95%CI; -1.04 to -0.37). In subgroup analyses by task, differences in knee abduction between genders were present for most tasks, including running, jump landings and cutting movements. There were too few studies in individuals with ACL injury to perform meta-analysis. The gender difference in knee abduction during weight-bearing activities should be considered in training programs aimed at preventing or treating knee injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Hafiz, M A A; Kosuru, L; Younis, M I
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…
BACKER, P.O.; BOHNERT, H.G.
THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF ENGLISH-LIKE LANGUAGES IS DESCRIBED WHICH IS TRANSLATABLE INTO FORMS OF A FIRST-ORDER PREDICATE CALCULUS NOTATION. THE STUDY IS BASED ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITY ARISING FROM DIFFERENCES IN DEEP STRUCTURE CAN BE ADEQUATELY DESCRIBED ONLY IF THE DEEP STRUCTURES CAN BE SYSTEMATICALLY REPRESENTED. THE NOTATION…
Aliaga, Daniel G; Rosen, Paul A; Bekins, Daniel R
Interactive visualization of architecture provides a way to quickly visualize existing or novel buildings and structures. Such applications require both fast rendering and an effortless input regimen for creating and changing architecture using high-level editing operations that automatically fill in the necessary details. Procedural modeling and synthesis is a powerful paradigm that yields high data amplification and can be coupled with fast-rendering techniques to quickly generate plausible details of a scene without much or any user interaction. Previously, forward generating procedural methods have been proposed where a procedure is explicitly created to generate particular content. In this paper, we present our work in inverse procedural modeling of buildings and describe how to use an extracted repertoire of building grammars to facilitate the visualization and quick modification of architectural structures and buildings. We demonstrate an interactive application where the user draws simple building blocks and, using our system, can automatically complete the building "in the style of" other buildings using view-dependent texture mapping or nonphotorealistic rendering techniques. Our system supports an arbitrary number of building grammars created from user subdivided building models and captured photographs. Using only edit, copy, and paste metaphors, the entire building styles can be altered and transferred from one building to another in a few operations, enhancing the ability to modify an existing architectural structure or to visualize a novel building in the style of the others.
Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan
Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021
Singer, Harvey A.; Cockayne, John E.; Versteegen, Peter L.
As the current fleet of meteorological satellites age, the accuracy of the imagery sensed on a spectral channel of the image scanning system is continually and progressively degraded by noise. In time, that data may even become unusable. We describe a novel approach to the reconstruction of the noisy satellite imagery according to empirical functional relationships that tie the spectral channels together. Abductive networks are applied to automatically learn the empirical functional relationships between the data sensed on the other spectral channels to calculate the data that should have been sensed on the corrupted channel. Using imagery unaffected by noise, it is demonstrated that abductive networks correctly predict the noise-free observed data.
Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.
It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.
Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Baroni, Guido; Mouchnino, Laurence; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Massion, Jean
The present investigation describes for the first time leg lateral abduction performance during long-term microgravity exposure. Two astronauts took part in the experiments, starting 2 weeks into the mission and lasting for 5 months. Results on joint angles kinematics confirm previous investigations on parabolic flights, showing good task fulfillment for both subjects. Special interest was focused on whole body center of mass (CM) positioning. As in short-term microgravity, no initial CM lateral shift toward the 'supporting' leg was observed. In contrast with short-term microgravity and ground-based experiments, no stabilization of the CM medio-lateral position was found but a significant shift of CM toward the moving leg was observed. This suggests that the adaptation to sustained weightlessness might have led to a microgravity-specific motor strategy for leg abduction, which was not focused on CM strategy.
Moussa, Jonathan; Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran
The canonical modern plan for universal quantum computation is a Clifford+T gate set implemented in a topological error-correcting code. This plan has the basic disparity that logical Clifford gates are natural for codes in two spatial dimensions while logical T gates are natural in three. Recent progress has reduced this disparity by proposing logical T gates in two dimensions with doubled, stacked, or gauge color codes, but these proposals lack an error threshold. An alternative universal gate set is Clifford+F, where a fusion (F) gate converts two logical qubits into a logical qudit. We show that logical F gates can be constructed by identifying compatible pairs of qubit and qudit codes that stabilize the same logical subspace, much like the original Bravyi-Kitaev construction of magic state distillation. The simplest example of high-distance compatible codes results in a proposal that is very similar to the stacked color code with the key improvement of retaining an error threshold. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Yocum, Derek; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Zhang, Songning
An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moments (KAbM). Increases in step width (SW) may act to reduce this moment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased SW on knee biomechanics during stair negotiation of healthy-weight and obese participants. Participants (24: 10 obese and 14 healthy-weight) used stairs and walked over level ground while walking at their preferred speed in two different SW conditions - preferred and wide (200% preferred). A 2 × 2 (group × condition) mixed model analysis of variance was performed to analyze differences between groups and conditions (p < 0.05). Increased SW increased the loading-response peak knee extension moment during descent and level gait, decreased loading-response KAbMs, knee extension and abduction range of motion (ROM) during ascent, and knee adduction ROM during descent. Increased SW increased loading-response peak mediolateral ground reaction force (GRF), increased peak knee abduction angle during ascent, and decreased peak knee adduction angle during descent and level gait. Obese participants experienced disproportionate changes in loading-response mediolateral GRF, KAbM and peak adduction angle during level walking, and peak knee abduction angle and ROM during ascent. Increased SW successfully decreased loading-response peak KAbM. Implications of this finding are that increased SW may decrease medial compartment knee joint loading, decreasing pain and reducing joint deterioration. Increased SW influenced obese and healthy-weight participants differently and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lee, Edward T.
During the past several years, the concepts and techniques of two-dimensional grammars1,2 have attracted growing attention as promising avenues of approach to problems in picture generation as well as in picture description3 representation, recognition, transformation and manipulation. Two-dimensional grammar techniques serve the purpose of exploiting the structure or underlying relationships in a picture. This approach attempts to describe a complex picture in terms of their components and their relative positions. This resembles the way a sentence is described in terms of its words and phrases, and the terms structural picture recognition, linguistic picture recognition, or syntactic picture recognition are often used. By using this approach, the problem of picture recognition becomes similar to that of phrase recognition in a language. However, describing pictures using a string grammar (one-dimensional grammar), the only relation between sub-pictures and/or primitives is the concatenation; that is each picture or primitive can be connected only at the left or right. This one-dimensional relation has not been very effective in describing two-dimensional pictures. A natural generaliza-tion is to use two-dimensional grammars. In this paper, two-dimensional grammars and their applications to artificial intelligence are presented. Picture grammars and two-dimensional grammars are introduced and illustrated by examples. In particular, two-dimensional grammars for generating all possible squares and all possible rhombuses are presented. The applications of two-dimensional grammars to solving region filling problems are discussed. An algorithm for region filling using two-dimensional grammars is presented together with illustrative examples. The advantages of using this algorithm in terms of computation time are also stated. A high-level description of a two-level picture generation system is proposed. The first level is the picture primitive generation using two
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando
The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sorensen, Christopher J; Johnson, Molly B; Norton, Barbara J; Callaghan, Jack P; Van Dillen, Linda R
An induced-pain paradigm has been used in back-healthy people to understand risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP) during prolonged standing. We examined asymmetry of lumbopelvic movement timing during a clinical test of active hip abduction in back-healthy people who developed LBP symptoms during standing (Pain Developers; PDs) compared to back-healthy people who did not develop LBP symptoms during standing (Non Pain Developers, NPDs). Participants completed the hip abduction test while movement was recorded with a motion capture system. Difference in time between start of hip and lumbopelvic movement was calculated (startdiff). PDs moved the lumbopelvic region earlier during left hip abduction than right hip abduction. There was no difference between sides in NPDs. In PDs, the amount of asymmetry was related to average symptom intensity during standing. Asymmetric lumbopelvic movement patterns may be a risk factor for LBP development during prolonged standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sorensen, Christopher J.; Johnson, Molly B.; Norton, Barbara J.; Callaghan, Jack P.; Van Dillen, Linda R.
An induced-pain paradigm has been used in back-healthy people to understand risk factors for developing low back pain (LBP) during prolonged standing. We examined asymmetry of lumbopelvic movement timing during a clinical test of active hip abduction in back-healthy people who developed LBP symptoms during standing (Pain Developers; PDs) compared to back-healthy people who did not develop LBP symptoms during standing (Non Pain Developers, NPDs). Participants completed the hip abduction test while movement was recorded with a motion capture system. Difference in time between start of hip and lumbopelvic movement was calculated (startdiff). PDs moved the lumbopelvic region earlier during left hip abduction than right hip abduction. There was no difference between sides in NPDs. In PDs, the amount of asymmetry was related to average symptom intensity during standing. Asymmetric lumbopelvic movement patterns may be a risk factor for LBP development during prolonged standing. PMID:27744105
translations extend a complete but unsound translation from lax logic to propositional logic proposed by Mendler et al [FM97], which maps ©A to ( pAq ⊃ C...a universally quantified parameter, mapping ©A to ∀x. ( pAq ⊃ C(x)) ⊃ C(x). The other possibility is to allow linearity and translate ©A to ( pAq ⊃ C...nonce. We define p〈K〉Aq = ∀x.( pAq ⊃ af(K,x)) ⊃ af(K,x) This resembles a CPS transformation of the lax modality. The formula pAq ⊃ af(K,x) is the “type
Korduba, Laryssa A; Essner, Aaron; Pivec, Robert; Lancin, Perry; Mont, Michael A; Wang, Aiguo; Delanois, Ronald E
The effect of acetabular component positioning on the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene articulations has not been extensively studied. Placement of acetabular cups at abduction angles of more than 40° has been noted as a possible reason for early failure caused by increased wear. We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of different acetabular cup abduction angles on polyethylene wear rate, wear area, contact pressure, and contact area. Our in vitro study used a hip joint simulator and finite element analysis to assess the effects of cup orientation at 4 angles (0°, 40°, 50°, 70°) on wear and contact properties. Polyethylene bearings with 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads were cycled in an environment mimicking in vivo joint fluid to determine the volumetric wear rate after 10 million cycles. Contact pressure and contact area for each cup abduction angle were assessed using finite element analysis. Results were correlated with cup abduction angles to determine if there were any differences among the 4 groups. The inverse relationship between volumetric wear rate and acetabular cup inclination angle demonstrated less wear with steeper cup angles. The largest abduction angle (70°) had the lowest contact area, largest contact pressure, and smallest head coverage. Conversely, the smallest abduction angle (0°) had the most wear and most head coverage. Polyethylene wear after total hip arthroplasty is a major cause of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which may lead to premature implant failure. Several studies have found that high wear rates for cups oriented at steep angles contributed to their failure. Our data demonstrated that larger cup abduction angles were associated with lower, not higher, wear. However, this potentially "protective" effect is likely counteracted by other complications of steep cup angles, including impingement, instability, and edge loading. These factors may be more relevant in explaining why implants fail at a higher rate if
Beaulieu, M L; Palmieri-Smith, R M
Excessive knee abduction loading is a contributing factor to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a double-leg landing training program with real-time visual feedback improves frontal-plane mechanics during double- and single-leg landings. Knee abduction angles and moments and vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) of 21 recreationally active women were quantified for double- and single-leg landings before and after the training program. This program consisted of two sessions of double-leg jump landings with real-time visual feedback on knee abduction moments for the experimental group and without real-time feedback for the control group. No significant differences were found between training groups. In comparison with pre-training data, peak knee abduction moments decreased 12% post-training for both double- and single-leg landings; whereas peak vertical GRF decreased 8% post-training for double-leg landings only, irrespective of training group. Real-time feedback on knee abduction moments, therefore, did not significantly improve frontal-plane knee mechanics during landings. The effect of the training program on knee abduction moments, however, transferred from the double-leg landings (simple task) to single-leg landings (more complex task). Consequently, ACL injury prevention efforts may not need to focus on complex tasks during which injury occurs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Čustović, Svemir; Šadić, Sahmir; Vujadinović, Aleksandar; Hrustić, Asmir; Jašarević, Mahir; Čustović, Amer; Krupić, Ferid
Aim To assess the relationship between the clinical sign of limited hip abduction and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Methods A research was conducted on 450 newborns at the Neonatal Unit at the Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic of the University Clinical Centre, Tuzla, between 30th August 2011 and 30th April 2012. Clinical (degree of hip abduction) and ultrasound examination of all newborns' hips were performed using the Graf method on their first day of life. Results Clinical sign of limited hip abduction showed significant predictive value for DDH. There were 67 (14.7%) newborns with the clinical sign of limited hip abduction, of which 26 (5.7%) were on the left hip, 11 (2.4%) on the right hip and 30 (6.6%) on both hips. Limited hip abduction had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 40.3% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80.4% for DDH. Conclusion Limited hip abduction, especially unilateral, is a useful and important clinical sign of DDH. Doctors, who perform the first examination of the child after birth, would have to pay attention to this clinical sign. Newborns with this clinical sign would have to go to an ultrasound examination of the hips for further diagnosis. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.
Beesley, T; Wills, A J; Le Pelley, M E
In an artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiment, participants were trained with instances of one grammatical structure before completing a test phase in which they were required to discriminate grammatical from randomly created strings. Importantly, the underlying structure used to generate test strings was different from that used to generate the training strings. Despite the fact that grammatical training strings were more similar to nongrammatical test strings than they were to grammatical test strings, this manipulation resulted in a positive transfer effect, as compared with controls trained with nongrammatical strings. It is suggested that training with grammatical strings leads to an appreciation of set variance that aids the detection of grammatical test strings in AGL tasks. The analysis presented demonstrates that it is useful to conceptualize test performance in AGL as a form of unsupervised category learning.
Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre
We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor)
A current source logic gate with depletion mode field effect transistor ("FET") transistors and resistors may include a current source, a current steering switch input stage, and a resistor divider level shifting output stage. The current source may include a transistor and a current source resistor. The current steering switch input stage may include a transistor to steer current to set an output stage bias point depending on an input logic signal state. The resistor divider level shifting output stage may include a first resistor and a second resistor to set the output stage point and produce valid output logic signal states. The transistor of the current steering switch input stage may function as a switch to provide at least two operating points.
Jacobs, J. L.
Erasable programmable logic devices (EPLD's) were investigated to determine their advantages and/or disadvantages in Test Equipment Engineering applications. It was found that EPLD's performed as well as or better than identical circuits using standard transistor transistor logic (TTL). The chip count in these circuits was reduced, saving printed circuit board space and shortening fabrication and prove-in time. Troubleshooting circuits of EPLD's was also easier with 10 to 100 times fewer wires needed. The reduced number of integrated circuits (IC's) contributed to faster system speeds and an overall lower power consumption. In some cases changes to the circuit became software changes using EPLD's instead of hardware changes for standard logic. Using EPLD's was fairly easy; however, as with any new technology, a learning curve must be overcome before EPLD's can be used efficiently. The many benefits of EPLD's outweighed this initial inconvenience.
Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F
People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs.
A tunneled central line catheter placement using a subclavian vein approach can be complicated by an occurrence of peel-away sheath kink which prevents the advancement of the catheter through the sheath. The kink is created due to the angular junction of subclavian and brachiocephalic veins which meet at 90 degree angle. A technique is described which corrects the peel-away sheath kink by extending the subclavian/brachiocephalic vein angle to greater than 90 degrees by abducting the patient's arm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara
This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL experiment; in the without-semantics control condition, participants did not receive semantic information. It was hypothesized that semantics would generally facilitate grammar acquisition and that the learning benefit in the with-semantics conditions would increase with increasing grammar complexity. Experiment 1 showed learning effects for all grammars but no performance difference between conditions. Experiment 2 replicated the absence of a semantic benefit for all grammars even though semantic information was more prominent during grammar acquisition as compared to Experiment 1. Thus, we did not find evidence for the idea that semantics facilitates grammar acquisition, which seems to support the view of an independent syntactic processing component.
Fillmore, Charles J.
Discusses problems related to case grammar theory, including: the organizations of a case grammar; determination of semantic roles; definition and hierarchy of cases; cause-effect relations; and formalization and notation. (Text is in French.) (AM)
Proposes an approach to teaching grammar that calls on the student's imagination and frees the learning process from classroom routine. The technique uses examples of specific constructions in French poetry to illustrate principles of grammar and discourse. (MSE)
Kniemeyer, Ole; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard H; Kurth, Winfried
We present the high-level language of relational growth grammars (RGGs) as a formalism designed for the specification of ALife models. RGGs can be seen as an extension of the well-known parametric Lindenmayer systems and contain rule-based, procedural, and object-oriented features. They are defined as rewriting systems operating on graphs with the edges coming from a set of user-defined relations, whereas the nodes can be associated with objects. We demonstrate their ability to represent genes, regulatory networks of metabolites, and morphologically structured organisms, as well as developmental aspects of these entities, in a common formal framework. Mutation, crossing over, selection, and the dynamics of a network of gene regulation can all be represented with simple graph rewriting rules. This is demonstrated in some detail on the classical example of Dawkins' biomorphs and the ABC model of flower morphogenesis: other applications are briefly sketched. An interactive program was implemented, enabling the execution of the formalism and the visualization of the results.
Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ä½ubomíra
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.
A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.
Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.
Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel
The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.
These notes on threshold logic are intended as intermediary material between a completely geometric, heuristic presentation and the more formal...source material available in the literature. Basic definitions and simple properties of threshold function are developed, followed by a complete treatment
Zhao, Baoli; Allen, Tony; Bargiela, Andrzej
This paper introduces three grammar-segmentation methods capable of handling the large grammar issues associated with producing a real-time speech-enabled VXML bus travel application for London. Large grammars tend to produce relatively slow recognition interfaces and this work shows how this limitation can be successfully addressed. Comparative experimental results show that the novel last-word recognition based grammar segmentation method described here achieves an optimal balance between recognition rate, speed of processing and naturalness of interaction.
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor)
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Abduction is a method of reasoning that people use under uncertainty in a context in order to come up with new ideas. The use of abduction in this exploratory study is twofold: (i) abduction is a cross-disciplinary analytic tool that can be used to explain certain key aspects of human-computer interaction in advanced Information Society Technology…
Washington, Jessica; Gilmer, Gabrielle; Oliver, Gretchen
During an overhead throw, the gluteal muscle group stabilizes the lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC), leading to efficient energy transfer from the lower to upper extremity. It has been shown that LPHC instability can lead to throwing pathomechanics. The single leg squat has become a common assessment for LPHC stability, and could be used to determine the effects of fatigue on throwing athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute abduction fatigue protocol on the LPHC of collegiate softball players via the single leg squat assessment of the leg ipsilateral to the throwing arm. Eighteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball players volunteered (20.5±1.9 years; 169.4±10.0 cm; 72.9±11.5 kg). Each participant performed a single leg squat on the leg ipsilateral to the throwing arm prior to and post side-lying hip abduction fatigue. LPHC and lower extremity kinematics were examined to determine potential effects of fatigue on LPHC stability. There were no significant main effects or interactions of LPHC or lower extremity kinematics during the single leg squat assessments across the fatigue protocol. Based on the current study, an acute bout of fatigue to the hip abductors does not affect LPHC stability in single leg squat execution. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
English Journal, 2006
This article presents compelling reasons from teachers why they teach grammar. Amy Benjamin from Hendrick Hudson High School says, she teaches grammar for two reasons. The first is that grammar instruction gives students metalanguage, "language about language." The second reason is that students are interested in language--its changes and…
MEYERS, L.F.; YANG, J.
SAMPLE OUTPUT SENTENCES OF VARIOUS COMIT AND SNOBOL PROGRAMS FOR TESTING A CHINESE GENERATIVE GRAMMAR ARE PRESENTED. THE GRAMMAR CHOSEN FOR EXPERIMENTATION IS A PRELIMINARY VERSION OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. ALL OF THE COMIT PROGRAMS AND ONE OF THE SNOBOL PROGRAMS USE A LINEARIZED REPRESENTATION OF TREE STRUCTURES, WITH ADDITIONAL NUMERICAL…
Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva
Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…
Lyman, Rollo LaVerne
English grammar, as a formal subject, distinct from other branches of instruction in the vernacular, made but sporadic appearances in the American schools before 1775. After the Revolution its rise was extremely rapid. English grammar gained momentum as the hold of Latin grammar weakened, and by the end of the first quarter of the nineteenth…
Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner
The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…
Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko
This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…
Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel
For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…
Matteson, Esther, Ed.
Ten grammars of indigenous Bolivian languages are presented in these two volumes of Bolivian Indian Grammars. The data were gathered and analyzed by members of the Bolivian Branch of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, which has carried on linguistic investigations in Bolivia since 1955. The grammars are presented in the tagmemic model of Pike…
Washington, Karla N.
Purpose: To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. Method: This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring…
Although most writing centres maintain policies against providing grammar correction during writing tutorials, it is undeniable that students expect some level of grammar intervention there. Just how much students expect and receive is a matter of speculation. This article examines the grammar-correction issue by reporting on a survey of L1, L2,…
Everett, Daniel L.
This paper argues against the hypothesis of a “phonological mind” advanced by Berent. It establishes that there is no evidence that phonology is innate and that, in fact, the simplest hypothesis seems to be that phonology is learned like other human abilities. Moreover, the paper fleshes out the original claim of Philip Lieberman that Universal Grammar predicts that not everyone should be able to learn every language, i.e., the opposite of what UG is normally thought to predict. The paper also underscores the problem that the absence of recursion in Pirahã represents for Universal Grammar proposals. PMID:26903889
National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.
Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching &…
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing: Digital Timing Analysis Tools and Techniques. Articles in this issue include: SX and SX-A Series Devices Power Sequencing; JTAG and SXISX-AISX-S Series Devices; Analysis Techniques (i.e., notes on digital timing analysis tools and techniques); Status of the Radiation Hard reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array Program, Input Transition Times; Apollo Guidance Computer Logic Study; RT54SX32S Prototype Data Sets; A54SX32A - 0.22 micron/UMC Test Results; Ramtron FM1608 FRAM; and Analysis of VHDL Code and Synthesizer Output.
This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406
THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...Controlling Gfile) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of tis report) Same .,/ UNCLASSIFIED 13d. DECLASSIFICATION/ DOWN GRADING ..- ". .--- /A!CHEDULEI t I IS...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.
Kompa, K L; Levine, R D
We propose a scheme for molecule-based information processing by combining well-studied spectroscopic techniques and recent results from chemical dynamics. Specifically it is discussed how optical transitions in single molecules can be used to rapidly perform classical (Boolean) logical operations. In the proposed way, a restricted number of states in a single molecule can act as a logical gate equivalent to at least two switches. It is argued that the four-level scheme can also be used to produce gain, because it allows an inversion, and not only a switching ability. The proposed scheme is quantum mechanical in that it takes advantage of the discrete nature of the energy levels but, we here discuss the temporal evolution, with the use of the populations only. On a longer time range we suggest that the same scheme could be extended to perform quantum logic, and a tentative suggestion, based on an available experiment, is discussed. We believe that the pumping can provide a partial proof of principle, although this and similar experiments were not interpreted thus far in our terms.
Kompa, K. L.; Levine, R. D.
We propose a scheme for molecule-based information processing by combining well-studied spectroscopic techniques and recent results from chemical dynamics. Specifically it is discussed how optical transitions in single molecules can be used to rapidly perform classical (Boolean) logical operations. In the proposed way, a restricted number of states in a single molecule can act as a logical gate equivalent to at least two switches. It is argued that the four-level scheme can also be used to produce gain, because it allows an inversion, and not only a switching ability. The proposed scheme is quantum mechanical in that it takes advantage of the discrete nature of the energy levels but, we here discuss the temporal evolution, with the use of the populations only. On a longer time range we suggest that the same scheme could be extended to perform quantum logic, and a tentative suggestion, based on an available experiment, is discussed. We believe that the pumping can provide a partial proof of principle, although this and similar experiments were not interpreted thus far in our terms. PMID:11209046
Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann
Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities.
Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S.
Background: Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Hypothesis: Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Results: Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°. PMID:25553216
Ellenbecker, Todd S; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S
Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°.
Müller, Andreas M; Born, Marian; Jung, Christian; Flury, Matthias; Kolling, Christoph; Schwyzer, Hans-Kaspar; Audigé, Laurent
The role of glenosphere size in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may be important in prosthetic stability, joint kinematics, rotator cuff tension and excursion, scapular impingement, humeral lateralization, deltoid wrap, and the occurrence of "notching." This study compared short- and midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes for 2 different glenosphere sizes of a single RSA type with respect to implant positioning, glenoid size, and morphology. This retrospective analysis included 68 RSA procedures that were prospectively documented in a local register during a 5-year postoperative period. Two glenosphere diameter sizes of 36 mm (n = 33) and 44 mm (n = 35) were used. Standard radiographs were made preoperatively (ie, baseline) and at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after surgery. Range of motion, strength, the Constant-Murley score, and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index were also assessed at all follow-up visits. The effect of glenosphere size on measured outcomes was adjusted for baseline values, patient gender, and humeral head diameter. No significant differences were found in the functional scores between treatment groups at all follow-up assessments. At the 12-month follow-up, patients with a 44-mm glenosphere had greater external rotation in adduction (mean difference, 12°; P = .001) and abduction strength (mean difference, 1.4 kg; P = .026) compared with those with the smaller implant. These differences remained at 60 months. Scapular notching was observed in 38% of all patients, without any relevant difference between the groups. An increase in glenosphere diameter leads to a clinically moderate but significant increase in external rotation in adduction and abduction strength at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…
Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.
We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…
This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…
Ginzburg, Jonathan; Poesio, Massimo
Much of contemporary mainstream formal grammar theory is unable to provide analyses for language as it occurs in actual spoken interaction. Its analyses are developed for a cleaned up version of language which omits the disfluencies, non-sentential utterances, gestures, and many other phenomena that are ubiquitous in spoken language. Using evidence from linguistics, conversation analysis, multimodal communication, psychology, language acquisition, and neuroscience, we show these aspects of language use are rule governed in much the same way as phenomena captured by conventional grammars. Furthermore, we argue that over the past few years some of the tools required to provide a precise characterizations of such phenomena have begun to emerge in theoretical and computational linguistics; hence, there is no reason for treating them as “second class citizens” other than pre-theoretical assumptions about what should fall under the purview of grammar. Finally, we suggest that grammar formalisms covering such phenomena would provide a better foundation not just for linguistic analysis of face-to-face interaction, but also for sister disciplines, such as research on spoken dialogue systems and/or psychological work on language acquisition. PMID:28066279
This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…
Cannon, Joanna E.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Gagne, Phill; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of a targeted, computer software grammar instruction program, used as an individualized classroom activity, would influence the comprehension of morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) participants who use American Sign Language…
Walker, Neil Alexander
Southern Pomo is a moribund indigenous language, one of seven closely related Pomoan languages once spoken in Northern California in the vicinity of the Russian River drainage, Clear Lake, and the adjacent Pacific coast. This work is the first full-length grammar of the language. It is divided into three parts. Part I introduces the sociocultural…
Van Winkle, Harold
Intended to help interested people speak and write more correctly through self-instruction, this book presents the basic rules of standard English grammar in an easy-to-understand manner. The book's six chapters are as follows: (1) The Sentence; (2) Parts of Speech; (3) Case; (4) Modifiers; (5) Agreement; and (6) Building Better Sentences. The…
Pittsburgh Univ., Johnstown, PA. Education Div.
Teacher materials are provided for a computer-assisted English grammar curriculum for adult basic education students (1-8 grade level). They accompany a software program (diskette) that the student is able to use by himself/herself with the Apple IIc or Apple IIe computer with single or double drive and a monitor or a television with an R.F.…
Gross, Louis N.
This paper describes a computer system which is intended to aid the linguist in building a transformational grammar. The program operates as a rule tester, performing three services for the user through sets of functions which allow the user to--specify, change, and print base trees (to which transformations would apply); define transformations…
This article presents arguments for using listening and reading activities as an option for techniques in grammar pedagogy. It describes two possible approaches: Processing Instruction (PI) and Enriched Input (EI), and examples of their key features are included in the appendices. The article goes on to report on a classroom based quasi-experiment…
Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter
In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…
Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl Magnus
The suitability of the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features (e.g.,…
Hawkinson, Annie K.
This grammar handbook analyzes the rules of Tanzanian Swahili and provides different types of exercises on them. It is divided into 36 lessons and is illustrated with pen-and-ink drawings. A bibliography, index, and Swahili-English glossary complete the volume. (AMH)
Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…
Kozelka, Paul R.
This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…
This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…
McCrocklin, Shannon; Slater, Tammy
This article introduces an approach that middle-school teachers can follow to help their students carry out linguistic-based literary analyses. As an example, it draws on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to show how J.K. Rowling used language to characterize Hermione as an intelligent female in "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows."…
Singh, Charanjit Kaur Swaran; Singh, Amreet Kaur Jageer; Razak, Nur Qistina Abd; Ravinthar, Thilaga
The educational context in Malaysia demands students to be equipped with sound grammar so that they can produce good essays in the examination. However, despite having learnt English in primary and secondary schools, students in the higher learning institutions tend to make some grammatical errors in their writing. This study presents the…
Mackenzie, J. Lachlan
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…
Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.
The study of language reference materials, particularly dictionaries and grammar works, for languages of Guam and Micronesia includes a brief history of their evolution and an annotated bibliography. An introductory section describes the geographic situation of Micronesia and chronicles numerous periods of foreign influence: Spanish Colonization…
English Education, 1984
In a personal letter, Chomsky suggests that while the study of grammar has little detectable effect on writing ability, it can, as a branch of science, help students learn how (and why) to think about hard and intriguing questions and to develop natural curiosity. (HOD)
Webquest is an internet based learning tool that can be used by students in learning English. This study investigates students' perceptions about the use of Webquest to support learning grammar in Higher Education. Seventy-two of second semester students were involved as participants in this study. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect…
Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.
A theory of the planning and debugging of computer programs is formalized as a context free grammar, which is used to reveal the constituent structure of problem solving episodes by parsing protocols in which programs are written, tested, and debugged. This is illustrated by the detailed analysis of an actual session with a beginning student…
Lockwood, Hunter Thompson
This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Potawatomi, a critically endangered Algonquian language now only spoken as a first language by a handful of elders in northern Wisconsin. Throughout, the goal is to present an authoritative linguistic description of Potawatomi by drawing on direct elicitation, a corpus of new texts gathered in close…
Tochon, Francois V.
Possibilities of conceptual and pragmatic analysis exist for identifying epistemological processing in teacher thinking. These modes of organizing thought condition classroom planning, shape meaning from a virtual didactic knowledge-store, and scaffold further pedagogical interactions. The semio-cognitive grammar proposed is adapted to the…
The lexical approach to teaching Russian grammar is explained, an instructional sequence is outlined, and a classroom study testing the effectiveness of the approach is reported. The lexical approach draws on research on cognitive psychology, second language acquisition theory, and research on learner language. Its bases in research and its…
Dugan, James Timothy
This study describes the grammar of the Ch'orti' Maya language as it appears in a collection of oral literature. I collected the stories that form the basis of this study in and around Jocotan, Guatemala, during 2004 and 2005. I worked with bilingual story-tellers to make audio recordings of the original Ch'orti'-language tales, produce textual…
Macedo, Donaldo P.
Examines the process of pidgin development within the context of the Government and Binding Theory proposed by Chomsky in 1981. Hypothesizes that the contact of various languages may produce a new experience which subsequently fixes the parameters of Universal Grammar, providing a pidgin core gammar. (SED)
Roslim, Norwati; Azizul, Aini Faridah; Zain, Mazira Mohd
This paper shares research and studies done in using songs to teach grammar from the theoretical and practical perspectives. The theoretical part focuses on the Affective Filter Hypothesis proposed by Krashen (1982) and the practical part focuses on techniques in using songs in classrooms.
Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney
A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…
Borsley, Robert D., Ed.; Przepiorkowski, Adam, Ed.
The collection of essays on the properties of Slavic languages in the context of the theory of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) includes: "Typological Similarities in HPSG" (Tania Avgustinova, Wojciech Skut, Hans Uszkoreit); "Auxiliaries, Verbs and Complementizers in Polish" (Robert D. Borsley); "An Architecture…
Allison, Sean David
Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…
Yolageldili, Gulin; Arikan, Arda
The primary aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners from the view points of Turkish EFL teachers working in primary schools. English language teacher' (n = 15) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results of this study demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have a…
Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael
This article synthesises progress made in the description of spoken (especially conversational) grammar over the 20 years since the authors published a paper in this journal arguing for a re-thinking of grammatical description and pedagogy based on spoken corpus evidence. We begin with a glance back at the 16th century and the teaching of Latin…
Nagai, Noriko; Ayano, Seiki; Okada, Keiko; Nakanishi, Takayuki
This article proposes an approach to explicit grammar instruction that seeks to develop metalinguistic knowledge of the L2 and raise L2 learners' awareness of their L1, which is crucial for the success of second language acquisition (Ellis 1997, 2002). If explicit instruction is more effective than implicit instruction (Norris and Ortega 2000),…
Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.
Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…
The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…
Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette
In this article, the authors report 2 experiments that investigated the sources of information used in transfer and nontransfer tasks in artificial grammar learning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 2 types of information about repeating elements were crucial for performance in both tasks: information about the repetition of adjacent…
Supakorn, Patnarin; Feng, Min; Limmun, Wanida
The success of language learning significantly depends on multiple sets of complex factors; among these are language-learning strategies of which learners in different countries may show different preferences. Needed areas of language learning strategy research include, among others, the strategy of grammar learning and the context-based approach…
THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…
Dyrna, Felix; Kumar, Neil S; Obopilwe, Elifho; Scheiderer, Bastian; Comer, Brendan; Nowak, Michael; Romeo, Anthony A; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Beitzel, Knut
Previous biomechanical studies regarding deltoid function during glenohumeral abduction have primarily used static testing protocols. (1) Deltoid forces required for scapular plane abduction increase as simulated rotator cuff tears become larger, and (2) maximal abduction decreases despite increased deltoid forces. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders with a mean age of 67 years (range, 64-74 years) were used. The supraspinatus and anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid tendons were attached to individual shoulder simulator actuators. Deltoid forces and maximum abduction were recorded for the following tear patterns: intact, isolated subscapularis (SSC), isolated supraspinatus (SSP), anterosuperior (SSP + SSC), posterosuperior (infraspinatus [ISP] + SSP), and massive (SSC + SSP + ISP). Optical triads tracked 3-dimensional motion during dynamic testing. Fluoroscopy and computed tomography were used to measure critical shoulder angle, acromial index, and superior humeral head migration with massive tears. Mean values for maximum glenohumeral abduction and deltoid forces were determined. Linear mixed-effects regression examined changes in motion and forces over time. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients ( r) among deltoid forces, critical shoulder angles, and acromial indices were calculated. Shoulders with an intact cuff required 193.8 N (95% CI, 125.5 to 262.1) total deltoid force to achieve 79.8° (95% CI, 66.4° to 93.2°) of maximum glenohumeral abduction. Compared with native shoulders, abduction decreased after simulated SSP (-27.2%; 95% CI, -43.3% to -11.1%, P = .04), anterosuperior (-51.5%; 95% CI, -70.2% to -32.8%, P < .01), and massive (-48.4%; 95% CI, -65.2% to -31.5%, P < .01) cuff tears. Increased total deltoid forces were required for simulated anterosuperior (+108.1%; 95% CI, 68.7% to 147.5%, P < .01) and massive (+57.2%; 95% CI, 19.6% to 94.7%, P = .05) cuff tears. Anterior deltoid forces were significantly
Chan, Jeremy Y; Greenfield, Stephen T; Soukup, Dylan S; Do, Huong T; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J
Correction of forefoot abduction in stage IIb adult acquired flatfoot likely depends on the amount of lateral column lengthening (LCL) performed, although this represents only one aspect of a successful reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between common reconstructive variables and the observed change in forefoot abduction. Forty-one patients who underwent flatfoot reconstruction involving an Evans-type LCL were assessed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the foot at a minimum of 40 weeks (mean, 2 years) after surgery were reviewed to determine correction in forefoot abduction as measured by talonavicular coverage (TNC) angle, talonavicular uncoverage percent, talus-first metatarsal (T-1MT) angle, and lateral incongruency angle. Fourteen demographic and intraoperative variables were evaluated for association with change in forefoot abduction including age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, as well as the amount of LCL and medializing calcaneal osteotomy performed, LCL graft type, Cotton osteotomy, first tarsometatarsal fusion, flexor digitorum longus transfer, spring ligament repair, gastrocnemius recession and any one of the modified McBride/Akin/Silver procedures. Two variables significantly affected the change in lateral incongruency angle. These were weight (P = .04) and the amount of LCL performed (P < .001). No variables were associated with the change in TNC angle, talonavicular uncoverage percent, or T-1MT angle. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that LCL was the only significant predictor of the change in lateral incongruency angle. The final regression model for LCL showed a good fit (R2 = 0.70, P < .001). Each millimeter of LCL corresponded to a 6.8-degree change in lateral incongruency angle. Correction of forefoot abduction in flatfoot reconstruction was primarily determined by the LCL procedure and could be modeled linearly. We believe that the
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.
Bright, Liam Kofi
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers’ knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system. PMID:26157406
Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing
As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438
Shimp, Charles P
Research on categorization has changed over time, and some of these changes resemble how Wittgenstein's views changed from his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus to his Philosophical Investigations. Wittgenstein initially focused on unambiguous, abstract, parsimonious, logical propositions and rules, and on independent, static, "atomic facts." This approach subsequently influenced the development of logical positivism and thereby may have indirectly influenced method and theory in research on categorization: much animal research on categorization has focused on learning simple, static, logical rules unambiguously interrelating small numbers of independent features. He later rejected logical simplicity and rigor and focused instead on Gestalt ideas about figure-ground reversals and context, the ambiguity of family resemblance, and the function of details of everyday language. Contemporary contextualism has been influenced by this latter position, some features of which appear in contemporary empirical research on categorization. These developmental changes are illustrated by research on avian local and global levels of visual perceptual analysis, categorization of rectangles and moving objects, and artificial grammar learning. Implications are described for peer review of quantitative theory in which ambiguity, logical rigor, simplicity, or dynamics are designed to play important roles.
Mayer, John; Kieras, David E.
Using a system based on standard augmented transition network (ATN) parsing approach, this report describes a technique for the rapid development of natural language parsing, called High-Level Grammar Specification Language (HGSL). The first part of the report describes the syntax and semantics of HGSL and the network implementation of each of its…
This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…
Aravind, Manaoj; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
In this work we will demonstrate the following result: when we have two coupled bistable sub-systems, each driven separately by an external logic input signal, the coupled system yields outputs that can be mapped to specific logic gate operations in a robust manner, in an optimal window of noise. So, though the individual systems receive only one logic input each, due to the interplay of coupling, nonlinearity and noise, they cooperatively respond to give a logic output that is a function of both inputs. Thus the emergent collective response of the system, due to the inherent coupling, in the presence of a noise floor, maps consistently to that of logic outputs of the two inputs, a phenomenon we term coupling induced Logical Stochastic Resonance. Lastly, we demonstrate our idea in proof of principle circuit experiments.
A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
Rettig, Oliver; Krautwurst, Britta; Maier, Michael W; Wolf, Sebastian I
Surgical interventions at the shoulder may alter function of the shoulder complex. Clinically, the outcome can be assessed by universal goniometry. Marker-based motion capture may not resemble these results due to differing angle definitions. The clinical inspection of bilateral arm abduction for assessing shoulder dysfunction is performed with a marker based 3D optical measurement method. An anatomical zero position of shoulder pose is proposed to determine absolute angles according to the Neutral-0-Method as used in orthopedic context. Static shoulder positions are documented simultaneously by 3D marker tracking and universal goniometry in 8 young and healthy volunteers. Repetitive bilateral arm abduction movements of at least 150° range of motion are monitored. Similarly a subject with gleno-humeral osteoarthritis is monitored for demonstrating the feasibility of the method and to illustrate possible shoulder dysfunction effects. With mean differences of less than 2°, the proposed anatomical zero position results in good agreement between shoulder elevation/depression angles determined by 3D marker tracking and by universal goniometry in static positions. Lesser agreement is found for shoulder pro-/retraction with systematic deviations of up to 6°. In the bilateral arm abduction movements the volunteers perform a common and specific pattern in clavicula-thoracic and gleno-humeral motion with maximum shoulder angles of 32° elevation, 5° depression and 45° protraction, respectively, whereas retraction is hardly reached. Further, they all show relevant out of (frontal) plane motion with anteversion angles of 30° in overhead position (maximum abduction). With increasing arm anteversion the shoulder is increasingly retroverted, with a maximum of 20° retroversion. The subject with gleno-humeral osteoarthritis shows overall less shoulder abduction range of motion but with increased out-of-plane movement during abduction. The proposed anatomical zero definition
Batra, Noopur Nikki; Arnoldi, Kyle; Reynolds, James D; Strominger, Mitchell B
Unilateral Duane retraction syndrome type 1 (DRS-I) and unilateral sixth nerve palsy (6NP) present with limitation of abduction, incomitant esotropia, and frequently, a compensatory head turn. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean primary position measurement and to correlate this with the abduction deficit to determine if these measurements may be used to differentiate between the 2 conditions when other clinical signs of DRS-I (globe retraction, changes in lid fissure height, and upshoots/downshoots) are subtle. A database search of patients examined over a 5-year period revealed 69 cases of DRS-I and 62 cases of unilateral 6NP. Primary position measurements both at distance and near and limitation of abduction on version testing were recorded and compared. Mean abduction deficit was -3.5 ± 0.1 for DRS-I and -2.6 ± 0.2 for 6NP (P = 0.0004). Mean esotropia at near was 8.4 ± 1.1 prism diopters (PD) for DRS-I and 27.2 ± 2.4 PD for 6NP (P < 0.0001). Mean esotropia at distance was 10.3 ± 1.3 PD for DRS-I and 36.4 ± 2.4 PD for 6NP (P < 0.0001). The mean distance-near disparity for DRS-I was 1.94 ± 0.62 PD and 9.19 ± 1.28 PD for 6NP (P < 0.0001). The age-group of ≤2 years consisted of 23 DRS-I and only 2 6NP cases. The age-group between >2 years and <18 years had 41 DRS-I and 16 6NP cases, respectively. Finally, the age-group of ≥18 years had only 5 DRS-I and 44 6NP cases (P < 0.0001). Patients with DRS-I showed greater abduction deficit yet significantly less esotropia in primary position than those with 6NP. Patients with 6NP were more likely to have a significant distance-near disparity. In addition, patients with DRS-I tended to be younger than those with 6NP. This report documents that DRS-I and 6NP can be differentiated based on magnitude of primary position esotropia, comparison of primary position esotropia with severity of abduction deficit, distance-near disparity, and patient age.
Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ≥1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ≥1 reintegration program
Griffiths, Robert B.
It is shown how all the major conceptual difficulties of standard (textbook) quantum mechanics, including the two measurement problems and the (supposed) nonlocality that conflicts with special relativity, are resolved in the consistent or decoherent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics by using a modified form of quantum logic to discuss quantum properties (subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space), and treating quantum time development as a stochastic process. The histories approach in turn gives rise to some conceptual difficulties, in particular the correct choice of a framework (probabilistic sample space) or family of histories, and these are discussed. The central issue is that the principle of unicity, the idea that there is a unique single true description of the world, is incompatible with our current understanding of quantum mechanics.
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory.
The same software controlling autonomous and crew-assisted operations for the International Space Station (ISS) is enabling commercial enterprises to integrate and automate manual operations, also known as decision logic, in real time across complex and disparate networked applications, databases, servers, and other devices, all with quantifiable business benefits. Auspice Corporation, of Framingham, Massachusetts, developed the Auspice TLX (The Logical Extension) software platform to effectively mimic the human decision-making process. Auspice TLX automates operations across extended enterprise systems, where any given infrastructure can include thousands of computers, servers, switches, and modems that are connected, and therefore, dependent upon each other. The concept behind the Auspice software spawned from a computer program originally developed in 1981 by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory for simulating tasks performed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle. At the time, the Space Shuttle Program was dependent upon paper-based procedures for its manned space missions, which typically averaged 2 weeks in duration. As the Shuttle Program progressed, NASA began increasing the length of manned missions in preparation for a more permanent space habitat. Acknowledging the need to relinquish paper-based procedures in favor of an electronic processing format to properly monitor and manage the complexities of these longer missions, NASA realized that Draper's task simulation software could be applied to its vision of year-round space occupancy. In 1992, Draper was awarded a NASA contract to build User Interface Language software to enable autonomous operations of a multitude of functions on Space Station Freedom (the station was redesigned in 1993 and converted into the international venture known today as the ISS)
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan
These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…
Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.
A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.
Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon
Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Hamdi, Salah; Ben Abdallah, Asma; Bedoui, Mohamed H.; Alimi, Adel M.
The measurement of the most common ultrasound parameters, such as aortic area, mitral area and left ventricle (LV) volume, requires the delineation of the organ in order to estimate the area. In terms of medical image processing this translates into the need to segment the image and define the contours as accurately as possible. The aim of this work is to segment an image and make an automated area estimation based on grammar. The entity "language" will be projected to the entity "image" to perform structural analysis and parsing of the image. We will show how the idea of segmentation and grammar-based area estimation is applied to real problems of cardio-graphic image processing.
Rhee, Jerry; Nejad, Talisa Mohammad; Comets, Olivier; Flannery, Sean; Gulsoy, Eine Begum; Iannaccone, Philip; Foster, Craig
Why do mouse corneal epithelial cells display spiraling patterns? We want to provide an explanation for this curious phenomenon by applying an idealized problem solving process. Specifically, we applied complementary line-fitting methods to measure transgenic epithelial reporter expression arrangements displayed on three mature, live enucleated globes to clarify the problem. Two prominent logarithmic curves were discovered, one of which displayed the ϕ ratio, an indicator of an optimal configuration in phyllotactic systems. We then utilized two different computational approaches to expose our current understanding of the behavior. In one procedure, which involved an isotropic mechanics-based finite element method, we successfully produced logarithmic spiral curves of maximum shear strain based pathlines but computed dimensions displayed pitch angles of 35° (ϕ spiral is ∼17°), which was altered when we fitted the model with published measurements of coarse collagen orientations. We then used model-based reasoning in context of Peircean abduction to select a working hypothesis. Our work serves as a concise example of applying a scientific habit of mind and illustrates nuances of executing a common method to doing integrative science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity 20: 22–38, 2015 PMID:25755620
Fernández-Vega Cueto, A; Rodríguez-Ezcurra, J J; Rodríguez-Maiztegui, I
The case is presented on a 4- year-old child with congenital esotropia, limitation of abduction, cross-fixation, and thoracolumbar scoliosis. Genetic testing of ROBO3 gene confirmed the diagnosis of horizontal gaze palsy and scoliosis (HGPSS) DISCUSSION: HGPPS is a rare congenital disorder characterised by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developed in childhood and adolescence. We highlight this motility disorder as a part of the differential diagnosis of early childhood esotropia with cross- fixation and limitation of abduction. Copyright Â© 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Berman, Ruth A.
The paper examines the first twenty verb-forms recorded for six Hebrew-speaking children aged between 1;2 and 2;1, and how they evolve into fully inflected verbs for three of these children. Discussion focuses first on what word-forms children initially select for the verbs they produce, what role these forms play in children's emergent grammar,…
Tsujii. Probabilistic CFG with latent annotations. In Proceedings of ACL, 2005. Slav Petrov and Dan Klein. Improved Inference for Unlexicalized Parsing. In...Proceedings of NAACL-HLT, 2007. Slav Petrov and Dan Klein. Sparse Multi-Scale Grammars for Discriminative Latent Variable Parsing. In Proceedings of...EMNLP, 2008. Slav Petrov, Leon Barrett, Romain Thibaux, and Dan Klein. Learning Accurate, Compact, and Interpretable Tree Annotation. In Proceedings
Katan, Pesia; Kahta, Shani; Sasson, Ayelet; Schiff, Rachel
Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls. Experiment 1 was a high topological entropy artificial grammar learning task that aimed to establish implicit learning phenomena in children with developmental dyslexia using previously published experimental conditions. Experiment 2 is a lower topological entropy variant of that task. Results indicated that given a high topological entropy grammar system, children with developmental dyslexia who were similar to the reading age-matched control group had substantial difficulty in performing the task as compared to typically developing children, who exhibited intact implicit learning of the grammar. On the other hand, when tested on a lower topological entropy grammar system, all groups performed above chance level, indicating that children with developmental dyslexia were able to identify rules from a given grammar system. The results reinforced the significance of graph complexity when experimenting with artificial grammar learning tasks, particularly with dyslexic participants.
Li, Xiaoli; Krishnan, Srithar; Ma, Ngok-Wah
A newly developed grammar-based lossless source coding theory and its implementation was proposed in 1999 and 2000, respectively, by Yang and Kieffer. The code first transforms the original data sequence into an irreducible context-free grammar, which is then compressed using arithmetic coding. In the study of grammar-based coding for mammography applications, we encountered two issues: processing time and limited number of single-character grammar G variables. For the first issue, we discover a feature that can simplify the matching subsequence search in the irreducible grammar transform process. Using this discovery, an extended grammar code technique is proposed and the processing time of the grammar code can be significantly reduced. For the second issue, we propose to use double-character symbols to increase the number of grammar variables. Under the condition that all the G variables have the same probability of being used, our analysis shows that the double- and single-character approaches have the same compression rates. By using the methods proposed, we show that the grammar code can outperform three other schemes: Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW), arithmetic, and Huffman on compression ratio, and has similar error tolerance capabilities as LZW coding under similar circumstances.
Johnson, Linda B; Sumner, Sean; Duong, Tina; Yan, Posu; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Abresch, R Ted; de Bie, Evan; Han, Jay J
Goniometers are commonly used by physical therapists to measure range-of-motion (ROM) in the musculoskeletal system. These measurements are used to assist in diagnosis and to help monitor treatment efficacy. With newly emerging technologies, smartphone-based applications are being explored for measuring joint angles and movement. This pilot study investigates the intra- and inter-rater reliability as well as concurrent validity of a newly-developed smartphone magnetometer-based goniometer (MG) application for measuring passive shoulder abduction in both sitting and supine positions, and compare against the traditional universal goniometer (UG). This is a comparative study with repeated measurement design. Three physical therapists utilized both the smartphone MG and a traditional UG to measure various angles of passive shoulder abduction in a healthy subject, whose shoulder was positioned in eight different positions with pre-determined degree of abduction while seated or supine. Each therapist was blinded to the measured angles. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs), Bland-Altman plotting methods, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analyses. Both traditional UG and smartphone MG were reliable in repeated measures of standardized joint angle positions (average CCC > 0.997) with similar variability in both measurement tools (standard deviation (SD) ± 4°). Agreement between the UG and MG measurements was greater than 0.99 in all positions. Our results show that the smartphone MG has equivalent reliability compared to the traditional UG when measuring passive shoulder abduction ROM. With concordant measures and comparable reliability to the UG, the newly developed MG application shows potential as a useful tool to assess joint angles. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sonoda, Yuma; Nishioka, Takashi; Nakajima, Ryo; Imai, Shinji; Vigers, Piers; Kawasaki, Taku
Fall prevention is essential in patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair because of the high risk of re-rupture. However, there are no reports related to falls that occur during the early postoperative period, while the affected limb is immobilized. This study assessed gait performance and falls in patients using a shoulder abduction brace after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Prospective cohort and postoperative repeated measures. This study included 29 patients (mean age, 67.1 ± 7.4 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair followed by rehabilitation. The timed up and go test, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale were measured, and the numbers of falls were compared between those shoulder abduction brace users and patients who had undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty. In arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients, there were significant improvements in timed up and go test and Geriatric Depression Scale, but no significant differences in Falls Efficacy Scale, between the second and fifth postoperative weeks ( p < 0.05). Additionally, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients fell more often than patients with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty during the same period. The findings suggest that rehabilitation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair patients is beneficial, but decreased gait performance due to the immobilizing shoulder abduction brace can lead to falls. Clinical relevance Although rehabilitation helps motor function and mental health after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, shoulder abduction brace use is associated with impaired gait performance, high Falls Efficacy Scale scores, and risk of falls, so awareness of risk factors including medications and lower limb dysfunctions is especially important after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
Lan, Yiyun; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Julius P A
Many stroke patients are subject to limited hand functions in the paretic arm due to a significant loss of Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibers. A possible solution for this problem is to classify surface Electromyography (EMG) signals generated by hand movements and uses that to implement Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). However, EMG usually presents an abnormal muscle coactivation pattern shown as increased coupling between muscles within and/or across joints after stroke. The resulting Abnormal Muscle Synergies (AMS) could make the classification more difficult in individuals with stroke, especially when attempting to use the hand together with other joints in the paretic arm. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the impact of AMS following stroke on EMG pattern recognition between two hand movements. In an effort to achieve this goal, 7 chronic hemiparetic chronic stroke subjects were recruited and asked to perform hand opening and closing movements at their paretic arm while being either fully supported by a virtual table or loaded with 25% of subject's maximum shoulder abduction force. During the execution of motor tasks EMG signals from the wrist flexors and extensors were simultaneously acquired. Our results showed that increased synergy-induced activity at elbow flexors, induced by increasing shoulder abduction loading, deteriorated the performance of EMG pattern recognition for hand opening for those with a weak grasp strength and EMG activity. However, no such impact on hand closing has yet been observed possibly because finger/wrist flexion is facilitated by the shoulder abduction-induced flexion synergy.
Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Arakaki, Juliano Coelho; Bérzin, Fausto
Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d) whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis longus (VLL) and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with) based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9). The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p < 0.0007) and MVIC hip abduction at 0° of abduction for female subjects (p < 0.02196). There were no statistically significant differences in the VLL EMG activity among the three sets of exercises tested. Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Lee, Thay Q
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increased horizontal abduction with maximum external rotation, as occurs during the late cocking phase of throwing motion, on shoulder internal impingement. An increase in glenohumeral horizontal abduction will cause overlap of the rotator cuff insertion with respect to the glenoid and increase pressure between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon insertions on the greater tuberosity and the glenoid. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested with a custom shoulder testing system with the specimens in 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction and maximum external rotation. The amount of internal impingement was evaluated by assessing the location of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus articular insertions on the greater tuberosity relative to the glenoid using a MicroScribe 3DLX. Pressure in the posterior-superior quadrant of the glenoid was measured using Fuji prescale film. Data were obtained with the humerus in the scapular plane and 15 degrees , 30 degrees , and 45 degrees of horizontal abduction from the scapular plane. At 30 degrees and 45 degrees of horizontal abduction, the articular margin of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons was anterior to the posterior edge of the glenoid and less than 2 mm from the glenoid rim in the lateral direction; the contact pressure was also greater than that found in the scapular plane and 15 degrees of horizontal abduction. Conclusion Horizontal abduction beyond the coronal plane increased the amount of overlap and contact pressure between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and glenoid. Excessive glenohumeral horizontal abduction beyond the coronal plane may cause internal impingement, which may lead to rotator cuff tears and superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions.
Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.
Kral, M J
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Lee, Chuen Chien
Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.
Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences
Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Oboya, Charles; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M
Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15-29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees' and non-abductees' HIV risk profiles. Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups' survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences, both overall and by gender. The
An experimental approach to French grammar instruction at the American School of Madrid, based on a restructuring of the grammar around the verb, provides a promising new perspective for language pedagogy. (MSE)
Ullman, M T
Our use of language depends upon two capacities: a mental lexicon of memorized words and a mental grammar of rules that underlie the sequential and hierarchical composition of lexical forms into predictably structured larger words, phrases, and sentences. The declarative/procedural model posits that the lexicon/grammar distinction in language is tied to the distinction between two well-studied brain memory systems. On this view, the memorization and use of at least simple words (those with noncompositional, that is, arbitrary form-meaning pairings) depends upon an associative memory of distributed representations that is subserved by temporal-lobe circuits previously implicated in the learning and use of fact and event knowledge. This "declarative memory" system appears to be specialized for learning arbitrarily related information (i.e., for associative binding). In contrast, the acquisition and use of grammatical rules that underlie symbol manipulation is subserved by frontal/basal-ganglia circuits previously implicated in the implicit (nonconscious) learning and expression of motor and cognitive "skills" and "habits" (e.g., from simple motor acts to skilled game playing). This "procedural" system may be specialized for computing sequences. This novel view of lexicon and grammar offers an alternative to the two main competing theoretical frameworks. It shares the perspective of traditional dual-mechanism theories in positing that the mental lexicon and a symbol-manipulating mental grammar are subserved by distinct computational components that may be linked to distinct brain structures. However, it diverges from these theories where they assume components dedicated to each of the two language capacities (that is, domain-specific) and in their common assumption that lexical memory is a rote list of items. Conversely, while it shares with single-mechanism theories the perspective that the two capacities are subserved by domain-independent computational mechanisms
Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.
The paper presents a grammar-based approach for the robust automatic reconstruction of 3D interiors from raw point clouds. The core of the approach is a 3D indoor grammar which is an extension of our previously published grammar concept for the modeling of 2D floor plans. The grammar allows for the modeling of buildings whose horizontal, continuous floors are traversed by hallways providing access to the rooms as it is the case for most office buildings or public buildings like schools, hospitals or hotels. The grammar is designed in such way that it can be embedded in an iterative automatic learning process providing a seamless transition from LOD3 to LOD4 building models. Starting from an initial low-level grammar, automatically derived from the window representations of an available LOD3 building model, hypotheses about indoor geometries can be generated. The hypothesized indoor geometries are checked against observation data - here 3D point clouds - collected in the interior of the building. The verified and accepted geometries form the basis for an automatic update of the initial grammar. By this, the knowledge content of the initial grammar is enriched, leading to a grammar with increased quality. This higher-level grammar can then be applied to predict realistic geometries to building parts where only sparse observation data are available. Thus, our approach allows for the robust generation of complete 3D indoor models whose quality can be improved continuously as soon as new observation data are fed into the grammar-based reconstruction process. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated based on a real-world example.
Hölscher, Thomas; Weber, Tim; Lazarev, Igor; Englert, Carsten; Dendorfer, Sebastian
One of the main goals in reconstructing rotator cuff tears is the restoration of glenohumeral joint stability, which is subsequently of utmost importance in order to prevent degenerative damage such as superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion, arthrosis, and malfunction. The goal of the current study was to facilitate musculoskeletal models in order to estimate glenohumeral instability introduced by muscle weakness due to cuff lesions. Inverse dynamics simulations were used to compute joint reaction forces for several static abduction tasks with different muscle weakness. Results were compared with the existing literature in order to ensure the model validity. Further arm positions taken from activities of daily living, requiring the rotator cuff muscles were modeled and their contribution to joint kinetics computed. Weakness of the superior rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus; infraspinatus) leads to a deviation of the joint reaction force to the cranial dorsal rim of the glenoid. Massive rotator cuff defects showed higher potential for glenohumeral instability in contrast to single muscle ruptures. The teres minor muscle seems to substitute lost joint torque during several simulated muscle tears to maintain joint stability. Joint instability increases with cuff tear size. Weakness of the upper part of the rotator cuff leads to a joint reaction force closer to the upper glenoid rim. This indicates the comorbidity of cuff tears with SLAP lesions. The teres minor is crucial for maintaining joint stability in case of massive cuff defects and should be uprated in clinical decision-making. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1628-1635, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Matievics, Vera; Bach, Adam; Sztano, Balazs; Bere, Zsofia; Tobias, Zoltan; Castellanos, Paul F; Mueller, Andreas H; Rovo, Laszló
In unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP), hoarseness is usually the leading symptom; however, the diminished airway might lead to breathing problems as well, especially with exertion. The application of the classic resection glottis enlarging or medialization procedures might shift the breathing and/or the voice to a worse condition. The non-destructive endoscopic arytenoid abduction lateropexy (EAAL) might be a solution for this problem. The aim of our study was to analyze the phonatory and respiratory outcomes of this treatment concept. The first year phoniatric [Jitter, Shimmer, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F 0 ), Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), Global-Roughness-Breathiness scale (GRB)], peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated in ten UVCP patients treated by EAAL for dyspnea generally presented on exertion. PIF, Jitter, QoL, GRB, and VHI significantly improved. DSI, HNR, and MPT got non-significantly better. F 0 slightly increased in all patients, a mild deterioration of shimmer was observed. These results prove that improving respiratory function is not necessarily associated with a deterioration in voice quality. The EAAL provides a significant improvement in breathing and the vibratory parameters of the postoperative, more tensed and straightened vocal cords proved to be more advantageous than the original (para) median 'loose' position. The over-adduction of the contralateral side more or less compensates for the disadvantageous, more lateral position of the operated side. EAAL might be an alternative treatment for unilateral vocal cord paralysis associated with breathing problems.
Canbora, Kerem; Kose, Ozkan; Gurkan, Ufuk; Polat, Atilla; Erdem, Sevki; Haklar, Ugur
The purpose of the prospective study is to investigate the cardiovascular effects of abduction shoulder sling (ASS) in elderly patients who underwent rotator cuff surgery. The study included 49 consecutive patients older than 50 years (mean 59.3 ± 8.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery and used ASS in postoperative period. All cases underwent Holter electrocardiographic monitoring before (24 h) and after (48 h) the operation. The Holter findings were read by an experienced cardiologist and a pause of longer than 3 s and heart rate of <40 bpm was evaluated as significant bradycardia. One patient (61-year-old male) described feeling faint (presyncope) which was confirmed with the Holter finding of a pause more than 3 s which occurred in the day time. Two other patients (52-year-old male, and 62-year-old female) reported severe dizziness (hypotensive attack) which required admission to a general practitioner. However, Holter findings were normal in these patients. These three cases were referred to cardiology department for evaluation of carotid hypersensitivity syndrome (CSH). CSH was confirmed with tests made with provocative maneuvers in a sitting position. CSH was defined as at least 3 s of asystole (cardio-inhibitor type) during carotid massage or systolic blood pressure falling below 50 mmHg (vaso-depressor type). All three patients were obese patients and BMI was higher than 30. ASS may trigger CSH in short necked and obese patients by exerting mechanical stimulation to the carotid sinus. These patients should be informed about symptoms and signs of CSH and educated on the proper use of ASS and correct positioning of shoulder strap. CSH should be kept in mind in patients who present with dizziness, presyncope and palpitation during the postoperative period.
Grasso, R F; Faiella, E; Cimini, P; Cazzato, R L; Luppi, G; Martina, F; Del Vescovo, R; Beomonte Zobel, B
This study was undertaken to assess the reliability of the posterior approach under ultrasonographic guidance (PAUGA), with the arm abducted, before performing direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder. A total of 111 (82 men, 29 women; mean age, 24 years) underwent direct MR arthrography of the shoulder. Patients were enrolled because of glenohumeral instability (n=71), chronic shoulder pain (n=25), suspicion of rotator cuff tear (n=13) and adhesive capsulitis (n=2). Patients were placed in the lateral position, on the contralateral side to that being examined; the arm of the shoulder undergoing the examination was placed in slight internal rotation with the hand under the contralateral armpit. A gadolinium-based solution was injected into the articular capsule under cryoanaesthesia and sonographic guidance. A posterior approach was systematically applied. For each patient, the number of injection attempts, room time, complications and pain, as recorded on a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS), were noted. For quantitative parameters (room time and pain intensity), the mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated. Direct MR arthrographies were performed successfully in all patients; no immediate or late major complications were observed. Fourteen patients (12.6%) reported temporary and self-limiting compromise of arm movements, and 13 patients (11.7%) reported a vagal reaction not requiring medication. In 102 cases (92%), the injection was successful at the first attempt, whereas in the remaining nine cases (8%), needle repositioning without any additional puncture was required to obtain clear sonographic depiction of the position of the needle tip. Mean room time was 7.2±1.4 min. Mean pain intensity was 3.2±0.4 on the 10-point VAS scale. PAUGA is a reliable and rapid technique that is well tolerated by patients and easy for the radiologist to perform.
Thorkildsen, Kari Marie; Eriksson, Katie; Råholm, Maj-Britt
This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L.; Demer, Joseph L.; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G.
Background Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Results Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3–5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9Δ (range, 17–50Δ) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8Δ (range, 0–25Δ) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3Δ reduced to 0Δ), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3Δ reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2Δ in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4Δ, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Conclusions Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia. PMID:24738948
Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L; Demer, Joseph L; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G
Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3-5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9Δ (range, 17-50Δ) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8Δ (range, 0-25Δ) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3Δ reduced to 0Δ), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3Δ reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2Δ in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4Δ, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia.
Zadeh, Lotfi A.
The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.
Clayton, Paul D.; Hripcsak, George; Pryor, T. Allan
Sharing medical logic has traditionally occurred in the form of lectures, conversations, books and journals. As knowledge based computer systems have demonstrated their utility in the health care arena, individuals have pondered the best way to transfer knowledge in a computer based representation (1). A simple representation which allows the knowledge to be shared can be constructed when the knowledge base is modular. Within this representation, units have been named Medical Logic Modules (MLM's) and a syntax has emerged which would allow multiple users to create, criticize, and share those types of medical logic which can be represented in this format. In this paper we talk about why standards exist and why they emerge in some areas and not in others. The appropriateness of using the proposed standards for medical logic modules is then examined against this broader context.
Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico
The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.
Page, C. David, Jr.; Frisch, Alan M.
This paper studies the generalization of atomic formulas, or atoms, that are augmented with constraints on or among their terms. The atoms may also be viewed as definite clauses whose antecedents express the constraints. Atoms are generalized relative to a body of background information about the constraints. This paper first examines generalization of atoms with only monadic constraints. The paper develops an algorithm for the generalization task and discusses algorithm complexity. It then extends the algorithm to apply to atoms with constraints of arbitrary arity. The paper also presents semantic properties of the generalizations computed by the algorithms, making the algorithms applicable to such problems as abduction, induction, and knowledge base verification. The paper emphasizes the application to induction and presents a pac-learning result for constrained atoms.
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
Exploiting the effects of quantum interference we put forward an idea of designing three primary logic gates, OR, AND and NOT, using a benzene molecule. Under a specific molecule-lead interface geometry, anti-resonant states appear which play the crucial role for AND and NOT operations, while for OR gate no such states are required. Our analysis leads to a possibility of designing logic gates using simple molecular structure which might be significant in the area of molecular electronics.
Define User Interface and Query Language L i1W= Ltl k.l 4. Define Procedures for Specifying Output S . Select Logic Programming Language 6. Develop ...baseline s change model. sessions and baselines. It was changed 6. Develop Methodology for C 31 Users. considerably with the advent of the window This...Model Development : Implica- for Conceptual Modeling Via Logic tions for Communications of a Cognitive Programming. Marina del Rey, Calif.: Analysis of
The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.
The synthesis of threshold logic circuits from several points of view is presented. The first approach is applicable to resistor-transistor networks...in which the outputs are tied to a common collector resistor. In general, fewer threshold logic gates than NOR gates connected to a common collector...network to realize a specified function such that the failure of any but the output gate can be compensated for by a change in the threshold level (and
Sarigöz, Iskender Hakki
The grammar microteachings carried out by trainees in teacher education is a critical issue due to the fact that the teaching of grammar has always been a controversial issue throughout the foreign language teaching (FLT) acculturation. There is always some negative reaction to isolated teaching of grammar in communicative language teaching…
Bullard, Sue Burzynski; Anderson, Nancy
Effective writing requires mastering grammar. For journalists, this mastery is critical because research shows poor grammar erodes media credibility. College writing instructors say students do not understand basic grammar concepts, and greater numbers of students are enrolling in remedial writing classes. This quasi-experimental mixed methods…
A shape grammar is a formalism that has been widely applied, in many different fields, to analyzing designs. Computer implementation of a shape grammar interpreter is vital to both research and application. However, implementing a shape grammar interpreter is hard, especially for parametric shapes defined by open terms. This dissertation…
Morin, Yves Ch.
Described in this paper is the implementation of Querido's French grammar ("Grammaire I, Description transformationelle d'un sous-ensemble du Francais," 1969) on the computer system for transformational grammar at the University of Michigan (Friedman 1969). The purpose was to demonstrate the ease of transcribing a relative formal grammar into the…
Deng, Fangfang; Lin, Yuewu
Grammar is "a system of rules governing the conventional arrangement and relationship of words in a sentence" (Brown 1994) which can facilitate the acquisition of a foreign language and is conducive for cultivating comprehensive language competence. Most teachers regard grammar as a frame of English learning. The grammar teaching beliefs…
Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey
Background: Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a…
This experimental research examines: (1) significant differences of corrections on grammar, sentence variety and developing details on the quality of the essay by Indonesian learners; and (2) different effect of corrections on grammar, sentence variety, and developing details on the quality of the essay. Treatments for each were served as follows:…
Examines the theoretical rationales (universal grammar, information-processing theories, skill-learning theories) for input-based grammar teaching and reviews classroom-oriented research (i.e., enriched-input studies, input-processing studies) that has integrated this option. (Author/VWL)
Surveys 100 journalism schools investigating: (1) whether journalism schools treat spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style as important factors in improving the state of journalism; (2) how journalism schools are teaching and assessing spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style; and (3) whether journalism schools are using entrance or exit…
In his 1976 article, "Grammars of Style: New Options in Composition," Winston Weathers calls for a Grammar B, an alternate set of conventions which govern the construction of whole compositions. He urges compositionists to look beyond the "well-made box" and consider other options for compositional patterns and discourse…
de Jong Boudreault, Lynda J.
This dissertation is a comprehensive description of the grammar of Sierra Popoluca (SP, aka Soteapanec), a Mixe-Zoquean language spoken by approximately 28,000 people in Veracruz, Mexico. This grammar begins with an introduction to the language, its language family, a typological overview of the language, a brief history of my fieldwork, and the…
Svalberg, Agneta Marie-Louise
This study explored some MA students' perceptions of a Grammar Awareness course for language teachers. The aim was to understand how group tasks might help students build Grammar Awareness. Two cohorts of students were surveyed and interviewed. In this paper, the survey responses are discussed in some depth. While the first cohort was left to…
Noticing plays an important role for second language acquisition. Since the formulation of the output hypothesis (Swain, 1985), it has been proven that producing output can lead to noticing. Studies on noticing have revealed little focus on grammar, and an in-depth investigation of grammar noticing has not been conducted so far. Studies into…
STENNES, LESLIE H.
THIS REFERENCE WORK IS A STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR OF THE ADAMAWA DIALECT OF FULANI AS SPOKEN IN NIGERIA AND CAMEROUN. IT IS PRIMARILY WRITTEN FOR LINGUISTS AND THOSE WHO ALREADY KNOW FULANI. THE GRAMMAR IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1) PHONEMICS AND MORPHOPHONEMICS, DISCUSSING SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONEMES, PERMITTED SEQUENCES OF PHONEMES,…
Yildiz, Mustafa; Senel, Mufit
The present study investigates the effects of Task-Based Language Teaching on students' grammar knowledge in the field of teaching grammar. It has been studied with 32 students from 8th grade during a two-and-a-half-month process. Throughout this process, students firstly are applied a pre-test to examine their level and to confirm whether there…
Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen
This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…
Gallup Rodriguez, Amber
Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…
In most ELT classes, the importance of grammar, how it should be taught or how much it should be integrated into language teaching are still matters of discussion. Considering this fact, learning teachers' attitudes towards teaching grammar is significantly valuable for researchers. This study thus aimed to design a scale that identifies teachers'…
Collins, Steve; Bissell, Kimberly
Proper grammar is crucial for effective communication. Two surveys of students in an introductory writing course sought to identify predictors of grammar ability. Students demonstrated a limited grasp of the language, struggling with such issues as the distinction between "it's" and "its." Women performed better than men at the beginning of the…
Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia
Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…
Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.
Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…
de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes
Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…
Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara
This study investigated the effect of semantic information on artificial grammar learning (AGL). Recursive grammars of different complexity levels (regular language, mirror language, copy language) were investigated in a series of AGL experiments. In the with-semantics condition, participants acquired semantic information prior to the AGL…
This article presents a series of pedagogical workshops that was offered over two years to a cohort of 50 teachers practising in Ontarian French schools. Focusing on grammar teaching, the workshops' objectives were to: (a) contribute to the teachers' development of linguistic knowledge consistent with the grammar under new provincial standards and…
As a teacher of Bowling Green State University's English 3810, Grammar and Writing, the author is charged with teaching future language arts teachers how to teach grammar so that it actually helps their students become better writers and communicators. Because such teaching rejects the ineffective but time-honored drill-it-and-kill-it approach, in…
Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle
Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…
Rashtchi, Mojgan; Afzali, Mahnaz
Advances in spoken corpora analysis have brought about new insights into language pedagogy and have led to an awareness of the characteristics of spoken language. Current findings have shown that grammar of spoken language is different from written language. However, most listening and speaking materials are concocted based on written grammar and…
Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.
This paper describes a tool for intersecting context-free grammars. Since this problem is undecidable the tool follows a refinement-based approach and implements a novel refinement which is complete for regularly separable grammars. We show its effectiveness for safety verification of recursive multi-threaded programs.
In this article, the author reflects on keynotes by Debra Myhill and Wayne Sawyer in a search for ways with grammar. One of the keynote speakers, Debra Myhill, shared her research into teaching grammar that she had conducted in the UK. Myhill had asked a sample of teachers to follow a specified unit plan and had conducted pre- and post-testing to…
This dissertation proposes a theory of categorial grammar called Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology. The central feature that distinguishes this theory from the majority of contemporary syntactic theories is that it decouples (without completely segregating) two aspects of syntax--hierarchical organization (reflecting…
Kotapish, Carl E.
This annotated bibliography includes citations of journal articles and book chapters that focus on current theories related to teaching grammar in English-as-a-Second-Language and English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. Citations include: (1) "Field Independence-Dependence and the Teaching of Grammar" (R. G. Abraham); (2) "Making…
Potter, Reva; Fuller, Dorothy
Grammar checkers do not claim to teach grammar; they are tools to bring potential problems to the writer's attention. They also offer only formal and Standard English preferences, limiting the freer expression of some literary forms. Without guidance, students may misuse the checker, become frustrated, and feel discouraged. Users must be…
Li, Zhi; Hegelheimer, Volker
In this paper, we report on the development and implementation of a web-based mobile application, "Grammar Clinic," for an ESL writing class. Drawing on insights from the interactionist approach to Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the Noticing Hypothesis, and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), "Grammar Clinic" was…
Tran, Thu Hoang
Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…
Moore, Leslie C.; Park, Seo Hyun
This article examines grammar instruction produced on the fly by a teacher in response to students' questions in a Dutch as foreign language classroom. Such sequences merit attention because they present teachers with the opportunity and the challenge to provide unplanned instruction on an aspect of grammar to which a student has shown herself to…
The second year of implementation of the Garfield Latin Grammar Magnet Elementary School in Kansas City, Missouri, is reported. The Latin grammar program operates in a traditional setting that includes strong emphasis on discipline and behavior, systemative and rigorous homework policies, and the strong commitment of staff, students, and parents.…
Implications of the "new grammar" approach to teaching French are examined, including the issues of nomenclature, definition, rules and generalizations, and native language use in the second language class. Grammar itself has not changed, and the principal concern is still good usage. (MSE)
Giauque, Gerald S.
This workbook in French grammar, intended for American college students, provides instruction and practice in French morphology, syntax, vocabulary, punctuation, and language style at the intermediate level. It is also designed to increase or reinforce the students' understanding of English grammar, based on the assumption that American students…
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
The essential elements of grammar required to write business letters, memorandums, and reports are covered in this quinmester course. The course consists of a complete grammar review and the learning of proofreading skills for students in the Cooperative Business Education program in Dade County High Schools. Instruction techniques include group…
The study enlightens the impact of Gadget Based Learning of English Grammar at standard II. Objectives of the study is to find out the learning problems of the students of standard II in Learning English Grammar in Shri Vani Vilas Middle School and to find whether there is any significant difference in achievement mean score between pre test of…
The central claim in Amaral and Roeper's (this issue; henceforth A&R) keynote article is that everyone is multilingual, whether they speak one or more languages. In a nutshell, the idea is that each speaker has multiple grammars or "sub-sets of rules (or sub-grammars) that co-exist". Thus, rather than positing complex rules to…
Discusses the influence of modern linguistic research on foreign language instruction. Shows the role of grammar 1 in the acquisition of grammar 2, and specifically when French is 1 and English is 2. Considers that conscious, systematic knowledge of L2, learned through L1, is positive for second language acquisition. (Text is in French.) (TL)
Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia
The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet…
Akay, Emel; Toraman, Çetin
Learning a language means not only studying four skills of proficiency, but also understanding the system of rules underlying. In this respect, learners' attitudes towards grammar are also of vital importance. The main objective of this descriptive study is to determine English language learners' attitudes towards grammar and to analyze these…
Gutiérrez, Sergio; Comiskey, Charles A; Luo, Zong-Ping; Pupello, Derek R; Frankle, Mark A
Evaluations of functional outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty have revealed variable improvements in the range of motion and high rates of scapular notching. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the impact of surgical factors (location of the glenosphere on the glenoid and tilt angle of the glenosphere on the glenoid) and implant-related factors (implant size, center-of-rotation offset, and humeral neck-shaft angle) on impingement-free abduction motion. A computer model was developed to virtually simulate abduction/adduction motion and its dependence on five surgical and implant-related factors. Three conditions were tested for each factor, resulting in a total of 243 simulated combinations. The overall motion was determined from 0 degrees of abduction until maximum abduction, which would be limited by impingement of the humerosocket on the scapula. In those combinations in which 0 degrees of abduction could not be achieved, the adduction deficit was recorded. The largest average increase in the range of impingement-free abduction motion resulted from a more lateral center-of-rotation offset: the average increase was 31.9 degrees with a change in the center-of-rotation offset from 0 to 10 mm, and this change resulted in an increase in abduction motion in eighty of the eighty-one combinations. The position of the glenosphere on the glenoid was associated with the second largest average increase in abduction motion (28.1 degrees when the glenosphere position was changed from superior to inferior, with the change resulting in an increase in seventy-one of the eighty-one combinations). These factors were followed by glenosphere tilt, humeral neck-shaft angle, and prosthetic size in terms of their effects on abduction motion. The largest effect in terms of avoiding an adduction deficit was provided by a humeral neck-shaft angle of 130 degrees (the deficit was avoided in forty-nine of the eighty-one combinations in which this angle was used
Clarke, Thomas L.
Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.
Ong, Yongzhi; Streit, Katarína; Henke, Michael; Kurth, Winfried
Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) simulate biological processes at different spatial scales. Methods exist for multiscale data representation and modification, but the advantages of using multiple scales in the dynamic aspects of FSPMs remain unclear. Results from multiscale models in various other areas of science that share fundamental modelling issues with FSPMs suggest that potential advantages do exist, and this study therefore aims to introduce an approach to multiscale modelling in FSPMs. A three-part graph data structure and grammar is revisited, and presented with a conceptual framework for multiscale modelling. The framework is used for identifying roles, categorizing and describing scale-to-scale interactions, thus allowing alternative approaches to model development as opposed to correlation-based modelling at a single scale. Reverse information flow (from macro- to micro-scale) is catered for in the framework. The methods are implemented within the programming language XL. Three example models are implemented using the proposed multiscale graph model and framework. The first illustrates the fundamental usage of the graph data structure and grammar, the second uses probabilistic modelling for organs at the fine scale in order to derive crown growth, and the third combines multiscale plant topology with ozone trends and metabolic network simulations in order to model juvenile beech stands under exposure to a toxic trace gas. The graph data structure supports data representation and grammar operations at multiple scales. The results demonstrate that multiscale modelling is a viable method in FSPM and an alternative to correlation-based modelling. Advantages and disadvantages of multiscale modelling are illustrated by comparisons with single-scale implementations, leading to motivations for further research in sensitivity analysis and run-time efficiency for these models.
Ong, Yongzhi; Streit, Katarína; Henke, Michael; Kurth, Winfried
Background and Aims Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) simulate biological processes at different spatial scales. Methods exist for multiscale data representation and modification, but the advantages of using multiple scales in the dynamic aspects of FSPMs remain unclear. Results from multiscale models in various other areas of science that share fundamental modelling issues with FSPMs suggest that potential advantages do exist, and this study therefore aims to introduce an approach to multiscale modelling in FSPMs. Methods A three-part graph data structure and grammar is revisited, and presented with a conceptual framework for multiscale modelling. The framework is used for identifying roles, categorizing and describing scale-to-scale interactions, thus allowing alternative approaches to model development as opposed to correlation-based modelling at a single scale. Reverse information flow (from macro- to micro-scale) is catered for in the framework. The methods are implemented within the programming language XL. Key Results Three example models are implemented using the proposed multiscale graph model and framework. The first illustrates the fundamental usage of the graph data structure and grammar, the second uses probabilistic modelling for organs at the fine scale in order to derive crown growth, and the third combines multiscale plant topology with ozone trends and metabolic network simulations in order to model juvenile beech stands under exposure to a toxic trace gas. Conclusions The graph data structure supports data representation and grammar operations at multiple scales. The results demonstrate that multiscale modelling is a viable method in FSPM and an alternative to correlation-based modelling. Advantages and disadvantages of multiscale modelling are illustrated by comparisons with single-scale implementations, leading to motivations for further research in sensitivity analysis and run-time efficiency for these models. PMID:25134929
Amorim, Amanda C.; Cacciari, Licia P.; Passaro, Anice C.; Silveira, Simone R. B.; Amorim, Cesar F.; Loss, Jefferson F.
Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs) while performing three different tasks: (a) isolated PFM contraction; (b) PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force); and (c) PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force). Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction) for all variables: Maximum force (N), instant of maximum-force occurrence (s), mean force in an 8-second window (N), and PFM force loss (N.s). We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05). PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance. PMID:28542276
Amorim, Amanda C; Cacciari, Licia P; Passaro, Anice C; Silveira, Simone R B; Amorim, Cesar F; Loss, Jefferson F; Sacco, Isabel C N
Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs) while performing three different tasks: (a) isolated PFM contraction; (b) PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force); and (c) PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force). Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction) for all variables: Maximum force (N), instant of maximum-force occurrence (s), mean force in an 8-second window (N), and PFM force loss (N.s). We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05). PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance.
The field of artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report discusses the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural Language Processing (NLP) both from theoretic and pragmatic viewpoints. The reasons for using PROLOG for NLP are numerous. First, linguists can write natural-language grammars almost directly as PROLOG programs; this allows fast-prototyping of NLP systems and facilitates analysis of NLP theories. Second, semantic representations of natural-language texts that use logic formalisms are readily produced in PROLOG because of PROLOG's logical foundations. Third,more » PROLOG's built-in inferencing mechanisms are often sufficient for inferences on the logical forms produced by NLPs. Fourth, the logical, declarative nature of PROLOG may make it the language of choice for parallel computing systems. Finally, the fact that PROLOG has a de facto standard (Edinburgh) makes the porting of code from one computer system to another virtually trouble free. Perhaps the strongest tie one could make between NLP and PROLOG was stated by John Stuart Mill in his inaugural Address at St. Andrews: The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic.« less
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0053 Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits Jacob Robinson WILLIAM MARSH RICE UNIV HOUSTON TX Final Report 11/20/2015...2015 Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits FA9550-12-1-0261 FA9550-12-1-0261 Robinson, Jacob Rice University 6100 Main Street Houston...Optical Directed-Logic Circuits Jacob T. Robinson and Qianfan Xu Rice University 1. Motivation for Directed-Logic Circuits Directed-logic is
Hemmerling, Thomas M; Michaud, Guillaume; Trager, Guillaume; Donati, François
Phonomyography (PMG) is a new method for measuring neuromuscular blockade (NMB) at the larynx. In this study, we used PMG to compare NMB at the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) and the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA) in humans. Twelve patients were included in this study. Endotracheal intubation was performed without aid of neuromuscular blocking drugs. One small condenser microphone was inserted beside the vocal cords into the muscular process at the base of the arytenoid cartilage to record acoustic responses of the LCA (vocal cord adduction), and a second microphone was placed behind the larynx to measure NMB of the PCA (vocal cord abduction). Stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was performed using superficial electrodes placed at the neck (midline between jugular notch and cricoid cartilage) using train-of-four (TOF) stimulation every 12 s. After supramaximal stimulation, mivacurium 0.1 mg/kg was injected and onset, peak effect, and offset of NMB measured and compared using t-test (P < 0.05). The data are presented as mean (SD). Peak effect, onset time, and early recovery to 25% of control twitch height were not significantly different between PCA and LCA at 86% (13) versus 78% (16), 2.3 min (0.45) versus 2.3 min (1.0), and 9.55 min (3.05) versus 8.5 min (4.7), respectively. However, recovery to 75%, 90% of control twitch height, and recovery to a TOF ratio of 0.8 were significantly longer at the PCA than at the LCA at 14 min (4) versus 11 min (5), 17 min (5) versus 11.8 min (5.6), and 17.5 min (5.6) versus 12.3 min (5.5), respectively. The authors conclude that recovery of NMB at the PCA takes longer than at the LCA in humans after mivacurium. After neuromuscular blockade in humans, the recovery of the ability to open the vocal cords takes longer than the ability to close the vocal cords.
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties.more » In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.« less
Mihata, Teruhisa; Fukuhara, Tetsutaro; Jun, Bong Jae; Watanabe, Chisato; Kinoshita, Mitsuo
After rotator cuff repair, the shoulder is immobilized in various abduction positions. However, there is no consensus on the proper abduction angle. To assess the effect of shoulder abduction angle on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendons among 3 types of double-row techniques. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-two fresh-frozen porcine shoulders were used. A simulated rotator cuff tear was repaired by 1 of 3 double-row techniques: conventional double-row repair, transosseous-equivalent repair, and a combination of conventional double-row and bridging sutures (compression double-row repair). Each specimen underwent cyclic testing followed by tensile testing to failure at a simulated shoulder abduction angle of 0° or 40° on a material testing machine. Gap formation and failure loads were measured. Gap formation in conventional double-row repair at 0° (1.2 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly greater than that at 40° (0.5 ± 0.3mm, P = .01). The yield and ultimate failure loads for conventional double-row repair at 40° were significantly larger than those at 0° (P < .01), whereas those for transosseous-equivalent repair (P < .01) and compression double-row repair (P < .0001) at 0° were significantly larger than those at 40°. The failure load for compression double-row repair was the greatest among the 3 double-row techniques at both 0° and 40° of abduction. Bridging sutures have a greater effect on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendon at a low abduction angle, and the conventional double-row technique has a greater effect at a high abduction angle. Proper abduction position after rotator cuff repair differs between conventional double-row repair and transosseous-equivalent repair. The authors recommend the use of the combined technique of conventional double-row and bridging sutures to obtain better biomechanical properties at both low and high abduction angles.
Aramaki, Hidefumi; Katoh, Munenori; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Kawasaki, Tsubasa; Kurihara, Tomohisa; Ohmi, Yorikatsu
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relatedness, reliability, and validity of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with an external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults, with a mean age of 21.5 ± 0.6 years were included. Isometric hip muscle strength in the subjects' right legs was measured under two posture positions using two devices: a handheld dynamometer with a belt and an isokinetic dynamometer. Reliability was evaluated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC); relatedness and validity were evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Differences in measurements of devices were assessed by two-way ANOVA. [Results] ICC (1, 1) was ≥0.9; significant positive correlations in measurements were found between the two devices under both conditions. No main effect was found between the measurement values. [Conclusion] Our findings revealed that there was relatedness, reliability, and validity of this method for isometric muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal
We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.
Wernet, Mark P.
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl Magnus
The suitability of the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features (e.g., subsequence familiarity) rather than the underlying syntax structure. Therefore, in this study, we controlled for the surface characteristics of the test sequences (associative chunk strength) and recorded the EEG before (baseline preference classification) and after (preference and grammaticality classification) exposure to a grammar. After exposure, a typical, centroparietal P600 effect was elicited by grammatical violations and not by unfamiliar subsequences, suggesting that the AGL P600 effect signals a response to structural irregularities. Moreover, preference and grammaticality classification showed a qualitatively similar ERP profile, strengthening the idea that the implicit structural mere-exposure paradigm in combination with preference classification is a suitable alternative to the traditional grammaticality classification test. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Takahashi, Noboru; Isaka, Yukio; Yamamoto, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Tomoyasu
The present study investigated the development of literacy skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children in Japan. The three components of literacy, vocabulary, orthographic knowledge, and grammatical knowledge were assessed by using the subtests of the Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities (ATLAN), based on the item response theory developed by the authors). The participants consisted of 207 DHH children (first through twelfth grades) in Study 1, and 425 hearing children (first through sixth grades) in Study 2. The findings show that more than 80% of DHH children's vocabulary variance was explained by the other two componential skills, while the three tasks' difficulty was different. More specifically, their vocabulary and especially, their grammar lagged behind those of hearing children, whereas the difference between the two groups on kanji (one of the three orthographic systems in Japanese taught during the school years) was less. Although considerably delayed, their pattern of responses in grammar was similar to that predicted from normative data. Effective instruction for DHH children's literacy skills was generally discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Wilson, Colin
According to classical arguments, language learning is both facilitated and constrained by cognitive biases. These biases are reflected in linguistic typology-the distribution of linguistic patterns across the world's languages-and can be probed with artificial grammar experiments on child and adult learners. Beginning with a widely successful approach to typology (Optimality Theory), and adapting techniques from computational approaches to statistical learning, we develop a Bayesian model of cognitive biases and show that it accounts for the detailed pattern of results of artificial grammar experiments on noun-phrase word order (Culbertson, Smolensky, & Legendre, 2012). Our proposal has several novel properties that distinguish it from prior work in the domains of linguistic theory, computational cognitive science, and machine learning. This study illustrates how ideas from these domains can be synthesized into a model of language learning in which biases range in strength from hard (absolute) to soft (statistical), and in which language-specific and domain-general biases combine to account for data from the macro-level scale of typological distribution to the micro-level scale of learning by individuals. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Ruspini, Enrique H.
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.