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Sample records for abductor digiti minimi

  1. Abductor Digiti Minimi Flap for Vascularized Coverage in the Surgical Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Following Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kevin; Klausmeyer, Melissa A; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-11-01

    The development of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) represents a potentially devastating complication following carpal tunnel release. In the presence of a suspected incomplete release of the transverse carpal ligament or direct injury to the median nerve, neurolysis as well as nerve coverage to prevent recurrent scar has been shown to be effective. Retrospective chart review and telephone interview was conducted for patients who underwent abductor digiti minimi flap coverage and neurolysis of the median nerve for CRPS following carpal tunnel release. Fourteen wrists in 12 patients were reviewed. Mean patient age was 64 years (range, 49-83 years), and the mean follow-up was 44 months. Carpal tunnel outcome instrument scores were 47.4 ± 6.8 preoperatively and 27.1 ± 10.6 at follow-up ( P < .001). Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) scores at follow-up were 29.4 ± 26. No significant postoperative complications were identified. The abductor digiti minimi flap is a reliable option with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides predictable coverage when treating CRPS following carpal tunnel syndrome.

  2. Sex differences in the branching position of the nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle: an anatomical study of cadavers.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Ohmichi, Yusuke; Ohmichi, Mika; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The nerve to the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMM nerve) is the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve or originates directly from the posterior tibial nerve. Damage to the ADMM nerve is a cause of heel pain and eventually results in ADMM atrophy. It is known that ADMM atrophy occurs more often in females than in males, and the reason remains unclear. This study aimed to explore sex differences in the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. Forty-two cadavers (20 males, 22 females) were dissected at Aichi Medical University between 2011 and 2015. Cases of foot deformity or atrophy were excluded and 67 ft (30 male, 37 female) were examined to assess the branching pattern, position, and angle of the ADMM nerve. The branching positions of the ADMM nerve were superior to the malleolar-calcaneal axis (MCA) in 37 ft (55 %), on the MCA in 10 ft (15 %), and inferior to the MCA in 20 ft (30 %). There was no case among male feet in which the ADMM nerve branched inferior to the MCA, whereas this pattern was observed in 19 of 37 female feet (51 %). The branching position of the ADMM nerve was significantly closer to the MCA in female feet than in male feet. There were no significant sex differences in the branching pattern and angle of the ADMM nerve. The ADMM nerve sometimes branches off inferior to the MCA in females, but not in males. This difference may be the reason for the more frequent occurrence of ADMM atrophy in females than in males.

  3. Oedema of the abductor digiti quinti muscle due to subacute denervation: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, Mukai; O'Donnell, Paul; Cullen, Nicholas; Singh, Dishan

    2014-03-01

    The clinical presentation of abductor digiti quinti (ADQ) denervation is often non-specific. The diagnosis is generally clinical and may be easily missed. This case report of two patients describes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of unilateral oedema and fatty infiltration isolated to the ADQ. A 36-year old woman who presented with laterally located left foot pain was initially diagnosed as having plantar fasciitis. An MRI scan arranged due to the unusual site of the pain showed increased signal intensity within the ADQ muscle on T1 and T2 images indicating fatty infiltration. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images showed hyperintensity of the ADQ indicating oedema. The MRI scan of a 45-year old man who presented with a three month history of left heel pain revealed similar findings. These MRI appearances indicate subacute denervation, which, when involving solely the ADQ muscle suggests entrapment of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve. Consideration of this imaging finding when examining MRI scans of patients with non-specific heel pain has the potential to facilitate diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence of the extensor digiti minimi tendon of the hand and its variants in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is frequently used in the case of an abduction deformity of the little finger. It is also considered as a main resource for tendon transfer. However, it shows many variations in the human hand, which include splitting into two or more slips and sending a slip to the fourth finger, named the extensor digiti minimi et quarti (EDMQ). The aim of this systematic review is to perform an evidence synthesis on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants. Twenty-six cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 2247 hands. Meta-analysis results yielded an overall pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of the EDM of 99.7% and PPEs of 11.5, 77.6, 7 and 0.6% for the single-, double-, triple- and quadruple-slip EDM, respectively. For the single-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Indians > Middle Eastern > Europeans > Japanese > North Americans. For the double-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Japanese > North Americans = Europeans > Middle Eastern > Indians. No significance was found with regard to hand side. The true EDMQ prevalence was found to be at 7.3%, whereas its crude prevalence was 8%. This artilce offers reference values on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants, which are thought to be highly relevant to both anatomists and clinicians.

  5. 19 CFR 10.533 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis. 10.533 Section 10.533 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Rules of Origin § 10.533 De minimis. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a...

  6. 19 CFR 102.13 - De Minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De Minimis. 102.13 Section 102.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.13 De Minimis. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b) and...

  7. 19 CFR 10.459 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis. 10.459 Section 10.459 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Origin § 10.459 De minimis. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a...

  8. 7 CFR 760.613 - De minimis exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false De minimis exception. 760.613 Section 760.613....613 De minimis exception. (a) Participants seeking the de minimis exception to the risk management... coverage for a crop exceeds 10 percent of the value of that coverage. (b) To be eligible for a de minimis...

  9. 19 CFR 10.533 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules of Origin § 10.533 De minimis. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a... good for which origin is being determined. (c) A textile or apparel good provided for in Chapters 50...

  10. 7 CFR 760.613 - De minimis exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....613 De minimis exception. (a) Participants seeking the de minimis exception to the risk management... exception to the risk management purchase requirement in § 760.104, the participant must elect such...

  11. 47 CFR 54.708 - De minimis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false De minimis exemption. 54.708 Section 54.708... SERVICE Administration § 54.708 De minimis exemption. If a contributor's contribution to universal service... those whose contributions would be de minimis, must file the Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet. If...

  12. 47 CFR 54.708 - De minimis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false De minimis exemption. 54.708 Section 54.708... SERVICE Administration § 54.708 De minimis exemption. If a contributor's contribution to universal service... those whose contributions would be de minimis, must file the Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet. If...

  13. 40 CFR 66.33 - De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions...; Revocation of Exemptions § 66.33 De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions. (a) The Administrator may, upon notice... respect to a particular instance of noncompliance, that such noncompliance was de minimis in nature and...

  14. 40 CFR 66.33 - De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions...; Revocation of Exemptions § 66.33 De Minimis exemptions: malfunctions. (a) The Administrator may, upon notice... respect to a particular instance of noncompliance, that such noncompliance was de minimis in nature and...

  15. 40 CFR 66.32 - De Minimis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false De Minimis exemptions. 66.32 Section....32 De Minimis exemptions. (a) The Administrator may, upon notice and opportunity for public hearing... noncompliance was de minimis in nature and duration. (b) A petition for an exemption on the ground that the...

  16. 40 CFR 66.32 - De Minimis exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false De Minimis exemptions. 66.32 Section....32 De Minimis exemptions. (a) The Administrator may, upon notice and opportunity for public hearing... noncompliance was de minimis in nature and duration. (b) A petition for an exemption on the ground that the...

  17. 29 CFR 4231.7 - De minimis mergers and transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false De minimis mergers and transfers. 4231.7 Section 4231.7... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4231.7 De minimis mergers and transfers. (a) Special plan solvency rule. The determination of whether a de minimis merger or transfer satisfies the plan solvency requirement in § 4231.6(a) may...

  18. 29 CFR 4231.7 - De minimis mergers and transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false De minimis mergers and transfers. 4231.7 Section 4231.7... MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS § 4231.7 De minimis mergers and transfers. (a) Special plan solvency rule. The determination of whether a de minimis merger or transfer satisfies the plan solvency requirement in § 4231.6(a) may...

  19. 19 CFR 102.13 - De Minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.13 De Minimis. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b) and... into a good shall be disregarded in determining the country of origin of the good if the value of those...

  20. 19 CFR 10.459 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.459 De minimis. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a... provided for in a different subheading than the good for which origin is being determined under this...

  1. 19 CFR 10.598 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis. 10.598 Section 10.598 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United...

  2. 19 CFR 10.598 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false De minimis. 10.598 Section 10.598 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United...

  3. 19 CFR 10.598 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis. 10.598 Section 10.598 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United...

  4. 19 CFR 10.598 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false De minimis. 10.598 Section 10.598 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United...

  5. 19 CFR 10.598 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false De minimis. 10.598 Section 10.598 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United...

  6. [H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia].

    PubMed

    Miyama, Sahoko; Arimoto, Kiyoshi; Kimiya, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is an electrically elicited spinal monosynaptic reflex. H reflex was examined in 18 patients with spastic quadriplegia who had perinatal or postnatal problems. H reflex was elicitable in 11 patients for the abductor pollicis brevis (61.1%), 10 for the abductor digiti minimi (55.6%) and 16 for the abductor hallucis (88.9%). Because the abductor pollicis brevis and the abductor digiti minimi do not exhibit H reflex in normal subjects, it was suggested that the excitability of alpha motor neurons innervating these muscles was increased. H reflex was not detected for the extensor digitorum brevis in any patients, indicating the difference in the excitability among alpha motor neurons. In some patients, H reflex did not disappear under supramaximal stimuli. We conclude that the mechanism of evolution of H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia is different from that in normal subjects.

  7. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    PubMed

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A Federal...

  9. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A Federal...

  10. 29 CFR 4204.12 - De minimis transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false De minimis transactions. 4204.12 Section 4204.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS VARIANCES FOR SALE OF ASSETS Variance of the Statutory Requirements § 4204.12 De minimis...

  11. 29 CFR 4204.12 - De minimis transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false De minimis transactions. 4204.12 Section 4204.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS VARIANCES FOR SALE OF ASSETS Variance of the Statutory Requirements § 4204.12 De minimis...

  12. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false De minimis exceptions. 173.4b Section 173.4b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.4b De minimis exceptions. (a) Packing Group II and III materials in...

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false De minimis fringes. 1.132-6 Section 1.132-6...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.132-6 De minimis fringes. (a... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than section 132(a)(4), the value of any fringe benefit that...

  14. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false De minimis fringes. 1.132-6 Section 1.132-6...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.132-6 De minimis fringes. (a... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than section 132(a)(4), the value of any fringe benefit that...

  15. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false De minimis fringes. 1.132-6 Section 1.132-6...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.132-6 De minimis fringes. (a... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than section 132(a)(4), the value of any fringe benefit that...

  16. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary....132-6T De minimis fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include the value of a de minimis fringe provided to an employee. The term “de minimis fringe” means any...

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary....132-6T De minimis fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include the value of a de minimis fringe provided to an employee. The term “de minimis fringe” means any...

  18. Guidance: Revised Model CERCLA Section 122(g)(4) De Minimis Contributor CD and AOC and New Model ATP Provisions for De Minimis Settlements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cover memorandum and four attachments containing model language for de minimis settlement consent decrees and/or administrative orders and ability to pay provisions in de minimis settlements for ability to pay and non-ability to pay parties.

  19. Abductor pollicis longus: a case of mistaken identity.

    PubMed

    Elliott, B G

    1992-08-01

    Abductor pollicis longus, long regarded as a motor for the thumb, is anatomically and functionally a radial deviator of the wrist and should be so named. The abductor carpi is proposed. If the other radial deviators of the wrist are acting this tendon can be selectively utilized as a transfer without loss of function. Reflex spasm of this muscle probably plays an important role in the radial deviation deformity seen in the rheumatoid hand.

  20. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by which...

  2. 29 CFR 1903.14 - Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy regarding employee rescue activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy... PENALTIES § 1903.14 Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy regarding employee rescue activities... Regional Solicitor, and he shall issue to the employer either a citation or a notice of de minimis...

  3. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by which...

  4. 24 CFR 970.27 - De minimis exception to demolition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis exception to demolition... De minimis exception to demolition requirements. (a) A PHA may demolish units without submitting an... proposed de minimis demolition, except that any demolition performed prior to October 21, 1998, will not be...

  5. 29 CFR 1903.14 - Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy regarding employee rescue activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy... PENALTIES § 1903.14 Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy regarding employee rescue activities... Regional Solicitor, and he shall issue to the employer either a citation or a notice of de minimis...

  6. 24 CFR 970.27 - De minimis exception to demolition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis exception to demolition... De minimis exception to demolition requirements. (a) A PHA may demolish units without submitting an... proposed de minimis demolition, except that any demolition performed prior to October 21, 1998, will not be...

  7. 45 CFR 158.243 - De minimis rebates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false De minimis rebates. 158.243 Section 158.243 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER USE OF PREMIUM REVENUE: REPORTING AND REBATE REQUIREMENTS Calculating and Providing the Rebate § 158.243 De...

  8. Hip abductor function and lower extremity landing kinematics: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cale A; Uhl, Timothy L; Mattacola, Carl G; Shapiro, Robert; Rayens, William S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid deceleration during sporting activities, such as landing from a jump, has been identified as a common mechanism of acute knee injury. Research into the role of potential sex differences in hip abductor function with lower extremity kinematics when landing from a jump is limited. To evaluate sex differences in hip abductor function in relation to lower extremity landing kinematics. 2 x 2 mixed-model factorial design using a between-subjects factor (sex) and a repeated factor (test). University laboratory. A sample of convenience consisting of 30 healthy adults (15 women, 15 men) with no history of lower extremity surgery and no lower extremity injuries within 6 months of testing. Landing kinematics were assessed as subjects performed 3 pre-exercise landing trials that required them to hop from 2 legs and land on a single leg. Isometric peak torque (PT) of the hip abductors was measured, followed by an endurance test during which subjects maintained 50% of their PT to the limits of endurance. After a 15-minute rest period, subjects completed a 30-second bout of isometric hip abduction, from which we calculated the percentage of endurance capacity (%E). Immediately after exercise, subjects completed 3 postexercise landing trials. PT, %E, and peak joint displacement (PJD) of the hip and knee in all 3 planes of motion. Women demonstrated lower PT values (5.8 +/- 1.2% normalized to body weight and height) than did their male counterparts (7.2 +/- 1.5% normalized to body weight and height, P = .009). However, no sex differences were seen in %E. Women also demonstrated larger knee valgus PJD (7.26 degrees +/- 6.61 degrees) than did men (3.29 degrees +/- 3.54 degrees, P = .04). Women's PT was moderately correlated with hip flexion, adduction, and knee valgus PJD; however, PT did not significantly correlate with men's landing kinematics. Regardless of sex, hip flexion (P = .002) and hip adduction (P = .001) were significantly increased following the 30-second bout of

  9. Ipsilateral Hip Abductor Weakness After Inversion Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Karen; McLean, Nancy; Myers, Christine; Caceres, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hip stability and strength are important for proper gait mechanics and foot position during heel strike. Objective: To determine the relationships between hip muscle strength and chronic ankle sprains and hip muscle strength and ankle range of motion. Design: Ex post facto design with the uninvolved limb serving as the control. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprain were recruited. Subjects had at least 2 ipsilateral ankle sprains and were bearing full weight, with the most recent injury occurring at least 3 months earlier. They were not undergoing formal or informal rehabilitation at the time of the study. Main Outcome Measure(s): We obtained goniometric measurements for all planes of motion at the ankle. Handheld dynamometry was used to assess the strength of the hip abductor and hip extensor muscles in both limbs. Results: Hip abductor muscle strength and plantar flexion were significantly less on the involved side than the uninvolved side (P < .001 in each case). Strength of the involved hip abductor and hip extensor muscles was significantly correlated (r = 0.539, P < .01). No significant difference was noted in hip extensor muscle strength between sides (P = .19). Conclusions: Our subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprains had weaker hip abduction strength and less plantar-flexion range of motion on the involved sides. Clinicians should consider exercises to increase hip abduction strength when developing rehabilitation programs for patients with ankle sprains. PMID:16619098

  10. Ipsilateral hip abductor weakness after inversion ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Friel, Karen; McLean, Nancy; Myers, Christine; Caceres, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Hip stability and strength are important for proper gait mechanics and foot position during heel strike. To determine the relationships between hip muscle strength and chronic ankle sprains and hip muscle strength and ankle range of motion. Ex post facto design with the uninvolved limb serving as the control. Laboratory. A total of 23 subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprain were recruited. Subjects had at least 2 ipsilateral ankle sprains and were bearing full weight, with the most recent injury occurring at least 3 months earlier. They were not undergoing formal or informal rehabilitation at the time of the study. We obtained goniometric measurements for all planes of motion at the ankle. Handheld dynamometry was used to assess the strength of the hip abductor and hip extensor muscles in both limbs. Hip abductor muscle strength and plantar flexion were significantly less on the involved side than the uninvolved side (P < .001 in each case). Strength of the involved hip abductor and hip extensor muscles was significantly correlated (r = 0.539, P < .01). No significant difference was noted in hip extensor muscle strength between sides (P = .19). Our subjects with unilateral chronic ankle sprains had weaker hip abduction strength and less plantar-flexion range of motion on the involved sides. Clinicians should consider exercises to increase hip abduction strength when developing rehabilitation programs for patients with ankle sprains.

  11. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Jordan W.

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry outmore » the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.« less

  12. Fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves and fasciculation in the intrinsic muscles of the foot in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Falck, B; Alaranta, H

    1983-01-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles were examined bilaterally with electromyography in 53 healthy subjects. In 72% of the subjects either fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves or fasciculation was seen in at least one muscle examined. These slight, usually symmetric neuropathic signs are believed to be associated with normal aging and to some extent also with external trauma to the nerves and muscles in the distal parts of the foot. PMID:6886709

  13. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly compensated...

  14. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly compensated...

  15. 12 CFR 218.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 218.723 Section 218.723 Banks and Banking... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. (a) Short-term... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly compensated...

  16. 17 CFR 247.723 - Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts. 247.723 Section 247... Exemptions for special accounts, transferred accounts, foreign branches and a de minimis number of accounts... dealer. (e) De minimis exclusion. A bank may, in determining its compliance with the chiefly compensated...

  17. 76 FR 32360 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9314-3] Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On April 4, 2011, a published notice of a proposed administrative de minimis settlement...

  18. Reference values of hip abductor torque among youth athletes: Influence of age, sex and sports.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Gonçalves, Gabriela Gomes Pavan; Coelho, Amanda Priscila; Gomes, Bárbara Gonçalves Braz de Magalhães; Mendonça, Luciana De Michelis; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2016-09-01

    (1) To determine the reference values of hip abductor torque in youth athletes; (2) To investigate the influence of sex, age and sports on hip abductors torque. Cross-sectional. Sports clubs. 301 volleyball, basketball and futsal athletes between 10 and 19 years of age. Mean value of three maximal isometric hip abductor torques, evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer. The mean values of maximal isometric hip abductor torque ranged from 1.03 to 1.50 Nm/kg. The dominant hip abductor torque values were greater in 15-19 years old (1.41 ± 0.27 Nm/kg) than in 10-14 years old (1.12 ± 0.31 Nm/kg). In addition, the hip abductor torque values were smaller in basketball players (1.15 ± 0.31 Nm/kg) than futsal (1.34 ± 0.37 Nm/kg) and volleyball players (1.28 ± 0.25 Nm/kg). The comparison of hip abductor torque between futsal and volleyball players revealed no difference. The hip abductor torque values were greater in male volleyball athletes (1.28 ± 0.25 Nm/kg) than female volleyball athletes (1.13 ± 0.22 Nm/kg). This study established reference values for maximal isometric hip abductor torque in youth volleyball, basketball and futsal athletes. In addition, the results demonstrated that sex, age and sports influenced hip abductor torque. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recommended de minimis radiation dose rates for Canada. Report No. INFO-0355

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A de minimis dose or dose rate as used in this report represents a level of risk which is generally accepted as being of no significance to an individual, or in the case of a population, of no significance to society. The report describes the risk of biological effects from radiation; radiation from natural and man-made sources; normal incidences of cancer and genetic defects; initiatives by other agencies in the U.S., the U.K. and internationally; the importance of collective dose and dose rate; assigning values to the de minimis dose rates; and application of the de minimis dose rates.

  20. Influence of weak hip abductor muscles on joint contact forces during normal walking: probabilistic modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Valente, Giordano; Taddei, Fulvia; Jonkers, Ilse

    2013-09-03

    The weakness of hip abductor muscles is related to lower-limb joint osteoarthritis, and joint overloading may increase the risk for disease progression. The relationship between muscle strength, structural joint deterioration and joint loading makes the latter an important parameter in the study of onset and follow-up of the disease. Since the relationship between hip abductor weakness and joint loading still remains an open question, the purpose of this study was to adopt a probabilistic modeling approach to give insights into how the weakness of hip abductor muscles, in the extent to which normal gait could be unaltered, affects ipsilateral joint contact forces. A generic musculoskeletal model was scaled to each healthy subject included in the study, and the maximum force-generating capacity of each hip abductor muscle in the model was perturbed to evaluate how all physiologically possible configurations of hip abductor weakness affected the joint contact forces during walking. In general, the muscular system was able to compensate for abductor weakness. The reduced force-generating capacity of the abductor muscles affected joint contact forces to a mild extent, with 50th percentile mean differences up to 0.5 BW (maximum 1.7 BW). There were greater increases in the peak knee joint loads than in loads at the hip or ankle. Gluteus medius, particularly the anterior compartment, was the abductor muscle with the most influence on hip and knee loads. Further studies should assess if these increases in joint loading may affect initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentiating between adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia using airflow interruption

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.; Rieves, Adam L.; McElveen, Kelsey A.B.; Ford, Charles N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To measure the laryngeal resistance (RL), subglottal pressure (Ps), and mean flow rate (MFR) of adductor (ADSD) and abductor (ABSD) spasmodic dysphonia patients using the airflow interrupter. Methods The RL of six ABSD and seven ADSD patients was measured using the airflow interrupter, a noninvasive device designed to measure MFR and Ps via mechanical balloon valve interruption. Subjects performed ten trials at each of two intensity levels, with each trial consisting of a sustained /a/ during which phonation was interrupted for 500 ms. Laryngeal resistance was calculated as subglottal pressure divided by airflow. Results Mean RL for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 24.78 cmH2O/l/s and 14.51 cmH2O/l/s, respectively (p = 0.04). Mean RL at 70 dB were 40.02 cmH2O/l/s and 15.84 cmH2O/l/s (p = 0.014). Ps for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 10.23 cmH2O and 8.32 cmH2O, respectively (p = 0.582). At the 70 dB level, Ps were 12.39 cmH2O and 11.78 cmH2O (p = 0.886). MFR for the ADSD and ABSD subtypes at 65 dB were 435 ml/s and 746 ml/s (p = 0.205). Mean MFR at 70 dB were 518 ml/s and 848 ml/s (p = 0.198). Conclusion Noninvasive measurements of RL may be useful for differentiating between ADSD and ABSD. This simple objective test which produces a quantitative output could be used to evaluate laryngeal function in patients with spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:19554636

  2. 17 CFR 275.222-2 - Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of âclientâ for purposes of the national de minimis standard. 275.222-2 Section 275.222-2 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 275.222-2 Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard. For purposes...

  3. Reliability of measuring hip abductor strength following total knee arthroplasty using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of measuring hip abductor strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) with two different types of resistance: belt and manual resistance. Test-retest reliability of 30 subjects (17 female, 13 male, 71.9 ± 7.4 years old), 9.2 ± 2.7 days post TKA was measured using belt and therapist resistance. Retest reliability was calculated with intra-class coefficients (ICC3,1) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for both the group average and the individual scores. A paired t-test assessed whether a difference existed between the belt and therapist methods of resistance. ICCs were 0.82 and 0.80 for the belt and therapist resisted methods, respectively. Hip abductor strength increases of 8 N (14%) for belt resisted and 14 N (17%) for therapist resisted measurements of the group average exceeded the 95% CI and may represent real change. For individuals, hip abductor strength increases of 33 N (72%) (belt resisted) and 57 N (79%) (therapist resisted) could be interpreted as real change. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured using HHD in the clinical setting with the described protocol. Belt resistance demonstrated slightly higher test-retest reliability. Reliable measurement of hip abductor muscle strength in patients with TKA is important to ensure deficiencies are addressed in rehabilitation programs and function is maximized. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured with a hand-held dynamometer in the clinical setting using manual or belt resistance.

  4. Hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance in females with and without patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Van Cant, Joachim; Pitance, Laurent; Feipel, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strength deficit in hip abduction, extension and external rotation in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) when compared with healthy control; however, there is conflicting evidence for a decrease in hip muscle endurance. Therefore, it seems important to evaluate hip muscle endurance in females with PFP. Moreover, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance have not yet been evaluate in females with PFP. To compare hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance between females with and without PFP. Twenty females with PFP (mean age, 21.1 years) and 76 healthy females (mean age, 20.5 years) were recruited. Subject performed three endurance clinical tests: (1) The hip abductor isometric endurance test, (2) The Sorensen test and (3) The heel rise test. Group differences were assessed using an independent t tests, or Mann-Whitney U tests for non-normally distributed data. Subjects with PFP exhibited significantly lower hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance than healthy controls. On average, subjects with PFP had deficits of 16% in hip abduction, 14% in trunk extension and 26% in ankle plantar flexion. Females with PFP exhibited diminished hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance compared to healthy controls.

  5. Intratester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, David; Milner, Clare E

    2018-06-06

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a "break" test, the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intrarater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intrarater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 [6] y; 1.66 [0.06] m; 62.2 [8.0] kg) made 2 visits to the laboratory at least 1 week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a handheld dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force, and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intrarater reliability was determined using intraclass correlation, SEM, and minimal detectable difference. Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a 1-sample t test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation (3,3)  = .88; 95% confidence interval, .65-.95), SEM of 0.9 %BWh, and a minimal detectable difference of 2.5 %BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1 (0.6) seconds (range: 0.7-3.7 s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (P ≤ .001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  6. Resisted side-stepping: the effect of posture on hip abductor muscle activation

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Justin W.; Lee, Theresa S.; Foley, Hanna D.; Lewis, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Objectives To compare hip abductor muscle activity and hip and knee joint kinematics in the moving limb to the stance limb during resisted side-stepping and also to determine if muscle activity was affected by the posture (upright standing versus squat) used to perform the exercise. Background Hip abductor weakness has been associated with a variety of lower extremity injuries. Resisted side-stepping is often used as an exercise to increase strength and endurance of the hip abductors. Exercise prescription would benefit from knowing the relative muscle activity level generated in each limb and for different postures during the side-stepping exercise. Methods Twenty-four healthy adults participated in this study. Kinematics and surface electromyographic (EMG) data from the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and tensor fascia lata (TFL) were collected as participants performed side-stepping with a resistive band around the ankle while maintaining each of 2 postures: 1) upright standing and 2) squat. Results Mean normalized EMG signal amplitude of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and TFL was higher in the stance limb than the moving limb (P≤.001). Gluteal muscle activity was higher, while TFL muscle activity was lower, in the squat posture compared to the upright standing posture (P<.001). Hip abduction excursion was greater in the stance limb than in the moving limb (P<.001). Conclusions The 3 hip abductor muscles respond differently to the posture variations of side-stepping exercise in healthy individuals. When prescribing resisted side-stepping exercises, therapists should consider the differences in hip abductor activation across limbs and variations in trunk posture. PMID:26161629

  7. Effect of Vibram FiveFingers Minimalist Shoes on the Abductor Hallucis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Campitelli, Nicholas A; Spencer, Scott A; Bernhard, Kaitlyn; Heard, Kristen; Kidon, Alan

    2016-09-02

    This study investigated the effect of Vibram FiveFingers Bikila minimalist shoes on intrinsic foot musculature. We hypothesized that a gradual transition into minimalist shoes will increase the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle. Forty-one individuals were divided into four groups: control (traditional shod) (n = 9), restricted walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11), running in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 10), and unlimited walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11). At baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks, the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle was determined using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of differences in muscle thickness at the three different time points. The mean thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle at 24 weeks was significantly greater than that at baseline for the restricted walking (P = .005) and running (P < .001) groups. In the unlimited walking group, the mean thickness of the muscle at 12 weeks was significantly greater than that at baseline (P < .05) but not at 24 weeks. There were no significant differences in muscle thickness among the three time points for the control group (P = .432). This study demonstrated that wearing Vibram FiveFinger Bikila footwear over a controlled period of time, an unlimited amount of time, as well as transitioning runners over a 6-month period of time using the 10% philosophy for increasing mileage, significantly increases intrinsic muscle thickness of the abductor hallucis. The abductor hallucis muscle aids in support of the medial longitudinal arch, and an increase in this muscle thickness may help reduce running-related injuries thought to arise from arch weakness.

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 - Guidelines for De Minimis Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consistent with your business practice. (3) Foreign-made product value—(i) General. The value of the foreign... De Minimis Rules (a) Calculation of the value of controlled U.S.-origin content in foreign-made items... commodities, software, or technology that could be exported or reexported to the country of destination...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 - Guidelines for De Minimis Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consistent with your business practice. (3) Foreign-made product value—(i) General. The value of the foreign... De Minimis Rules (a) Calculation of the value of controlled U.S.-origin content in foreign-made items... commodities, software, or technology that could be exported or reexported to the country of destination...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 - Guidelines for De Minimis Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consistent with your business practice. (3) Foreign-made product value—(i) General. The value of the foreign... De Minimis Rules (a) Calculation of the value of controlled U.S.-origin content in foreign-made items... commodities, software, or technology that could be exported or reexported to the country of destination...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 - Guidelines for De Minimis Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent with your business practice. (3) Foreign-made product value—(i) General. The value of the foreign... De Minimis Rules (a) Calculation of the value of controlled U.S.-origin content in foreign-made items... commodities, software, or technology that could be exported or reexported to the country of destination...

  12. 15 CFR 734.4 - De minimis U.S. content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of this paragraph. (1) The U.S. origin commodities or software, if controlled under ECCNs 5A002.a...-made commodity incorporating controlled U.S.-origin commodities or “bundled” with U.S.-origin software....S.-origin software is not eligible for the de minimis exclusion and is subject to the EAR when...

  13. 15 CFR 734.4 - De minimis U.S. content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of this paragraph. (1) The U.S. origin commodities or software, if controlled under ECCNs 5A002.a...-made commodity incorporating controlled U.S.-origin commodities or “bundled” with U.S.-origin software....S.-origin software is not eligible for the de minimis exclusion and is subject to the EAR when...

  14. 15 CFR 734.4 - De minimis U.S. content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of this paragraph. (1) The U.S. origin commodities or software, if controlled under ECCNs 5A002.a...-made commodity incorporating controlled U.S.-origin commodities or “bundled” with U.S.-origin software....S.-origin software is not eligible for the de minimis exclusion and is subject to the EAR when...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 - Guidelines for De Minimis Rules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for De Minimis Rules No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE...

  16. Free Neurovascular Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Transplantation for Reconstruction of Hip Abductors.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Collado-Delfa, Jose Manuel; Sallent, Andrea; Lluch, Alejandro; Velez, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Resection of tumors affecting the hip abductors can cause significant decrease in muscle strength and may lead to abnormal gait and poor function. We present a case report showing full functional recovery after resection of a synovial sarcoma affecting the right gluteus medius and minimus muscles with reconstruction free neurovascular latissimus dorsi muscle transplantation. The latissimus dorsi muscle was harvested following standard technique and fixed to the ilium and the greater trochanter. Receptor vessels were end-to-end anastomosed to the subscapular vessels followed by an end-to-end epineural suture between the superior gluteal nerve and the thoracodorsal nerve. A year after surgery, there is no evidence of recurrent disease; electromyographic analysis shows complete reinnervation of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and the patient has achieved full functional recovery. Free functional latisimus dorsi transfer could be considered as a viable reconstruction technique after hip abductors resection in tumor surgery.

  17. Discharge properties of abductor hallucis before, during, and after an isometric fatigue task.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Luke A; Racinais, Sebastien; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2013-08-01

    Abductor hallucis is the largest muscle in the arch of the human foot and comprises few motor units relative to its physiological cross-sectional area. It has been described as a postural muscle, aiding in the stabilization of the longitudinal arch during stance and gait. The purpose of this study was to describe the discharge properties of abductor hallucis motor units during ramp and hold isometric contractions, as well as its discharge characteristics during fatigue. Intramuscular electromyographic recordings from abductor hallucis were made in 5 subjects; from those recordings, 42 single motor units were decomposed. Data were recorded during isometric ramp contractions at 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), performed before and after a submaximal isometric contraction to failure (mean force 41.3 ± 15.3% MVC, mean duration 233 ± 116 s). Motor unit recruitment thresholds ranged from 10.3 to 54.2% MVC. No significant difference was observed between recruitment and derecruitment thresholds or their respective discharge rates for both the initial and postfatigue ramp contractions (all P > 0.25). Recruitment threshold was positively correlated with recruitment discharge rate (r = 0.47, P < 0.03). All motor units attained similar peak discharge rates (14.0 ± 0.25 pulses/s) and were not correlated with recruitment threshold. Thirteen motor units could be followed during the isometric fatigue task, with a decline in discharge rate and increase in discharge rate variability occurring in the final 25% of the task (both P < 0.05). We have shown that abductor hallucis motor units discharge relatively slowly and are considerably resistant to fatigue. These characteristics may be effective for generating and sustaining the substantial level of force that is required to stabilize the longitudinal arch during weight bearing.

  18. Testing the Hip Abductor Muscle Strength of Older Persons Using a Handheld Dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Daniel H; Buckley, Jonathan D; Thomson, Rebecca L; O'Connor, Matthew; Carbone, Tania A; Chehade, Mellick J

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the reliability of a clinically applicable method of dynamometry to assess and monitor hip abductor muscle strength in older persons. Bilateral isometric hip abductor muscle strength measured with a handheld dynamometer, patients supine with the contralateral hip positioned directly against a wall for stabilization. Reliability determined by comparing intra-assessor and inter-assessor results and comparison to a criterion standard (stabilized dynamometer with patients in the standing position). UniSA Nutritional Physiology Research Centre. Twenty-one patients older than 65 years were recruited from the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), bias, and limits of agreement calculated to determine reliability. Intra-assessor and inter-assessor ICCs were high (0.94 and 0.92-0.94, respectively). There was no intra-assessor bias and narrow limits of agreement (±2.4%). There was a small inter-assessor bias but narrow limits of agreement (0.6%-0.9% and ± 2.3%, respectively). There was a wide variation comparing results to the criterion standard (±5.0%-5.2% limits of agreement), highlighting problems attributed to difficulties that the test population had with the standing position used in the criterion standard test. Testing older persons' hip abductor muscle strength while in the supine position with optimal pelvic stabilization using a handheld dynamometer is highly reliable. While further studies must be done to assess patients with specific pathologies, this test has potential application to monitor and evaluate the effects of surgical interventions and/or rehabilitation protocols for a variety of conditions affecting hip abductor function such as hip fractures and arthritis.

  19. Effect of changes of femoral offset on abductor and joint reaction forces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rüdiger, Hannes A; Guillemin, Maïka; Latypova, Adeliya; Terrier, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    Anatomical reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty (THA) allows for physiological muscle function, good functional outcome and implant longevity. Quantitative data on the effect of a loss or gain of femoral offset (FO) are scarce. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe the effect of FO changes on abductor moment arms, muscle and joint reactions forces. THA was virtually performed on 3D models built from preoperative CT scans of 15 patients undergoing THA. Virtual THA was performed with a perfectly anatomical reconstruction, a loss of 20% of FO (-FO), and a gain of 20% of FO (+FO). These models were combined with a generic musculoskeletal model (OpenSim) to predict moment arms, muscle and joint reaction forces during normal gait cycles. In average, with -FO reconstructions, muscle moment arms decreased, while muscle and hip forces increased significantly (p < 0.001). We observed the opposite with +FO reconstructions. Gluteus medius was more affected than gluteus minimus. -FO had more effect than +FO. A change of 20% of FO induced an average change 8% of abductor moment arms, 16% of their forces, and 6% of the joint reaction force. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing quantitative data on the effect of FO changes on muscle and joint forces during normal gait. A decrease of FO necessitates an increase of abductor muscle force to maintain normal gait, which in turn increases the joint reaction force. This effect underscores the importance of an accurate reconstruction of the femoral offset.

  20. Hip-Abductor Fatigue and Single-Leg Landing Mechanics in Women Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Patrek, Mary F.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Wright, Glenn A.; Doberstein, Scott T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Reduced hip-abductor strength and muscle activation may be associated with altered lower extremity mechanics, which are thought to increase the risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, experimental evidence supporting this relationship is limited. Objective: To examine the changes in single-leg landing mechanics and gluteus medius recruitment that occur after a hip-abductor fatigue protocol. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty physically active women (age  =  21.0 ± 1.3 years). Intervention(s): Participants were tested before (prefatigue) and after (postfatigue) a hip-abductor fatigue protocol consisting of repetitive side-lying hip abduction. Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included sagittal-plane and frontal-plane hip and knee kinematics at initial contact and at 60 milliseconds after initial contact during 5 single-leg landings from a height of 40 cm. Peak hip and knee sagittal-plane and frontal-plane joint moments during this time interval were also analyzed. Measures of gluteus medius activation, including latency, peak amplitude, and integrated signal, were recorded. Results: A small (<1°) increase in hip-abduction angle at initial contact and a small (<1°) decrease in knee-abduction (valgus) angle at 60 milliseconds after contact were observed in the postfatigue landing condition. No other kinematic changes were noted for the knee or hip at initial contact or at 60 milliseconds after initial contact. Peak external knee-adduction moment decreased 27% and peak hip adduction moment decreased 24% during the postfatigue landing condition. Gluteus medius activation was delayed after the protocol, but no difference in peak or integrated signal was seen during the landing trials. Conclusions: Changes observed during single-leg landings after hip-abductor fatigue were not generally considered unfavorable to the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament. Further work may be

  1. Changes in hip abductor moment 3 or more years after femoral derotation osteotomy among individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    To examine the effect of femoral derotation osteotomy (FDO) on dimensionless hip abductor moment during gait in children with cerebral palsy. We retrospectively analyzed data from independent ambulators within our database. Postoperative visits 1 year (short-term) and at least 3 years (mid-term) were analyzed. We estimated the coronal plane hip abductor moment arm based on musculoskeletal modeling that accounted for anteversion and hip rotation. There were 140 individuals with a short-term analysis (77 males, 63 females; age at surgery 9y 11mo [range 4y 5mo-17y 5mo]) and 29 with mid-term analysis (15 males, 14 females; age at surgery 8y 7mo [range 4y 5mo-13y 1mo]). At short-term, anteversion and internal hip rotation decreased 35° and 13° respectively, which increased median (IQR) moment arms from 20 (23) per cent below normal to 2 (12) per cent above normal. Dimensionless mean hip abductor moment remained unchanged at short-term. Mid-term anteversion did not change but hip rotation increased 8° and hip abductor moment increased to 0.040 (0.029). There was no change in pelvic and trunk obliquity, although hip abductor strength increased and walking velocity decreased at mid-term. The unexpected lack of improvement in hip abductor moment from pre- to short-term may be caused by gait compensations that unload the hip. The increase in hip abductor moment beyond 3 years postoperatively underscores the benefits of an FDO into adolescence for independent ambulating individuals with cerebral palsy. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .005), with the abductor muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .05). For the group of players who had developed chronic ARGP, abductor-adductor torque ratios were significantly higher on the affected side (p = .008). The adductor muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.

  3. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

    PubMed

    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  4. Structure and function of the abductors in patients with hip osteoarthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amelia Rose; Noronha, Marcos de; Zacharias, Anita; Kapakoulakis, Theo; Green, Rodney

    2016-04-27

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of morbidity. Rehabilitation for this population focuses on strengthening the hip muscles, particularly the abductors, however the deficit in function of these muscles is unclear. To review the evidence for the differences in structure and function of hip abductors (gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fascia lata) in hip OA. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL and SportDISCUS, from the earliest date to September 2013. Studies that compared hip OA patients with controls, or the unaffected contralateral hip were included. Studies needed to report data on an outcome related to gross gluteal muscle function. An initial yield of 141 studies was reduced to 22 after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis confirmed greater hip abductor strength in the control group (standardized mean difference = SMD -0.93, 95%CI -1.70 to -0.16) and the unaffected limb (SMD -0.26, 95%CI -0.48 to -0.04). Meta-analyses showed no differences in muscle size either between groups or limbs. Few electromyography studies have been reported and meta-analysis was not possible. Hip abductor strength is reduced in OA patients when compared to healthy controls and to the unaffected limb. Data on muscle size and activity is limited.

  5. The Influence of Hip Abductor Weakness on Frontal Plane Motion of the Trunk and Pelvis in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krautwurst, Britta K.; Wolf, Sebastian I.; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Gantz, Simone; Braatz, Frank; Dreher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Trendelenburg walking pattern is a common finding in various disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP), where it is seen in children and adults. Clinically, this deviation is viewed as a consequence of hip abductor weakness resulting in pelvic obliquity. Trunk lean to the ipsilateral side is a common compensatory mechanism to counteract pelvic…

  6. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were de...

  7. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false De minimis net countervailable subsidies and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Scope and Definitions § 351.106 De... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were de...

  8. 17 CFR 275.222-2 - Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1940 § 275.222-2 Definition of “client” for purposes of the national de minimis standard. For purposes... definition of “client” provided by section 275.203(b)(3)-1 without giving regard to paragraph (b)(6) of that...

  9. The influence of hip abductor muscle performance on dynamic postural stability in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Szu-Ping; Souza, Richard B; Powers, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Hip abductors play an important role in maintaining trunk and pelvis stability during unipedal tasks. The purpose of the study was to compare postural stability between individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and pain-free controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effect of a hip stabilizing brace on postural stability. Twenty females with PFP (27.3±6.3 years) and 19 controls (26.1±4.5 years) participated. Each subject performed a unipedal step-down balance task with the stance leg on a force platform from which center of pressure (COP) excursion was recorded. Quantitative COP excursion patterns (mean and peak displacements) were used as measures of postural stability. For subjects with PFP, postural stability also was quantified following the application of a hip stabilizing brace. Hip abductor strength was significantly lower in PFP group compared to the control group (1.39±0.4 vs. 1.62±0.26 N/kg-BW, p=0.046). Peak and mean medial-lateral COP displacements during the balance task were greater in the PFP group (39.8±6.7 vs. 24.3±3.8 mm, p<0.001; 24.7±16.3 vs. 13.5±4.4 mm, p=0.005). Application of the hip stabilizing brace reduced the peak and mean COP displacement (39.8±6.7 vs. 24.7±4.7 mm, p<0.001; 24.7±16.3 vs. 16.8±15.1 mm, p=0.02). Our results demonstrate that females with PFP exhibit impaired medial-lateral postural stability when compared to control subjects. Application of a hip stabilizing brace significantly improved stability to a level comparable to the controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Knee Biomechanics After a Hip-Abductor Strengthening Protocol for Runners With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ferber, Reed; Kendall, Karen D.; Farr, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Very few authors have investigated the relationship between hip-abductor muscle strength and frontal-plane knee mechanics during running. Objective: To investigate this relationship using a 3-week hip-abductor muscle-strengthening program to identify changes in strength, pain, and biomechanics in runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design: Cohort study. Setting: University-based clinical research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen individuals (5 men, 10 women) with PFPS and 10 individuals without PFPS (4 men, 6 women) participated. Intervention(s): The patients with PFPS completed a 3-week hip-abductor strengthening protocol; control participants did not. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables of interest were maximal isometric hip-abductor muscle strength, 2-dimensional peak knee genu valgum angle, and stride-to-stride knee-joint variability. All measures were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks later. Between-groups differences were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Results: At baseline, the PFPS group exhibited reduced strength, no difference in peak genu valgum angle, and increased stride-to-stride knee-joint variability compared with the control group. After the 3-week protocol, the PFPS group demonstrated increased strength, less pain, no change in peak genu valgum angle, and reduced stride-to-stride knee-joint variability compared with baseline. Conclusions: A 3-week hip-abductor muscle-strengthening protocol was effective in increasing muscle strength and decreasing pain and stride-to-stride knee-joint variability in individuals with PFPS. However, concomitant changes in peak knee genu valgum angle were not observed. PMID:21391799

  11. Comparison of foot muscle morphology and foot kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and with asymptomatic over-pronated feet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianyi; Aeles, Jeroen; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-05-01

    Over-pronated feet are common in adults and are associated with lower limb injuries. Studying the foot muscle morphology and foot kinematic patterns is important for understanding the mechanism of over-pronation related injuries. The aim of this study is to compare the foot muscle morphology and foot inter-segmental kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and those with asymptomatic over-pronated feet. A total of 26 recreational runners (17 had normal feet and 9 had over-pronated feet) participated in this study and their foot type was assessed using the 6-item Foot Posture Index. Selected foot muscles were scanned using an ultrasound device and the scanned images were processed to measure the thickness and cross-sectional area of the muscles. Muscles of interest include abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and longus, tibialis anterior and peroneus muscles. Foot kinematic data during walking was collected using a 3D motion capture system incorporating the Oxford Foot Model. The results show that individuals with over-pronated feet have larger size of abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis and longus and smaller abductor digiti minimi than controls. Higher rearfoot peak eversion and forefoot peak supination during walking were observed in individuals with over-pronated feet. However, during gait the forefoot peak abduction was comparable. These findings indicate that in active asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet, the foot muscle morphology is adapted to increase control of the foot motion. The morphological characteristics of the foot muscles in asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet may affect their foot kinematics and benefit prevention from injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hip Abductor Strengthening Improves Physical Function Following Total Knee Replacement: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Harikesavan, Karvannan; Chakravarty, Raj D; Maiya, Arun G; Hegde, Sanjay P; Y Shivanna, Shivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is the commonest surgical procedure for patients with severe pain and impaired physical function following end stage knee osteoarthritis. The hip abductors are well renowned in stabilization of the trunk and hip during walking, maintaining the lower limb position, and transferring the forces from the lower limbs to the pelvis. To assess the efficacy of hip abductor strengthening exercise on functional outcome using performance based outcome measures following total knee replacement. An observer blinded randomized pilot trial design was conducted at Manipal hospital, Bangalore, India. Participants designated for elective TKR were randomized to experimental group hip abductor strengthening along with standard rehabilitation (n=10) or control group standard rehabilitation alone (n=10). Participants followed for one year to assess physical function using performance based outcomes, such as timed up and go test, single leg stance test, six minute walk test, knee extensor strength and hip abductor strength. Eighteen participants with a mean age of 63.1 ± 5.5 years (8 Males and 10 Females) completed the study. Improvement in hip abduction strength, single leg stand test was superior in hip abductor strengthening group at 3 months and 1 year when compared to standard rehabilitation alone. Hip abductor strengthening showed superior improvements in single leg stance test and six minute walk test. Hip abductor strengthening exercises has the potential to improve physical function following total knee replacement.

  13. Hip Abductor Strengthening Improves Physical Function Following Total Knee Replacement: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Harikesavan, Karvannan; Chakravarty, Raj D.; Maiya, Arun G; Hegde, Sanjay P.; Y. Shivanna, Shivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Total knee replacement (TKR) is the commonest surgical procedure for patients with severe pain and impaired physical function following end stage knee osteoarthritis. The hip abductors are well renowned in stabilization of the trunk and hip during walking, maintaining the lower limb position, and transferring the forces from the lower limbs to the pelvis. Objective: To assess the efficacy of hip abductor strengthening exercise on functional outcome using performance based outcome measures following total knee replacement. Methods: An observer blinded randomized pilot trial design was conducted at Manipal hospital, Bangalore, India. Participants designated for elective TKR were randomized to experimental group hip abductor strengthening along with standard rehabilitation (n=10) or control group standard rehabilitation alone (n=10). Participants followed for one year to assess physical function using performance based outcomes, such as timed up and go test, single leg stance test, six minute walk test, knee extensor strength and hip abductor strength. Result: Eighteen participants with a mean age of 63.1 ± 5.5 years (8 Males and 10 Females) completed the study. Improvement in hip abduction strength, single leg stand test was superior in hip abductor strengthening group at 3 months and 1 year when compared to standard rehabilitation alone. Conclusion: Hip abductor strengthening showed superior improvements in single leg stance test and six minute walk test. Hip abductor strengthening exercises has the potential to improve physical function following total knee replacement. PMID:28567148

  14. A review of the anatomy of the hip abductor muscles, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata.

    PubMed

    Flack, Natasha Amy May Sparks; Nicholson, Helen D; Woodley, Stephanie Jane

    2012-09-01

    The hip abductor muscles have the capability to contribute to numerous actions, including pelvic stabilization during gait, and abduction and rotation at the hip joint. To fully understand the role of these muscles, as well as their involvement in hip joint dysfunction, knowledge of their anatomical structure is essential. The clinical literature suggests anatomical diversity within these muscles, and that gluteus medius (GMed) and gluteus minimus (GMin), in particular, may be comprised of compartments. This systematic review of the English literature focuses on the gross anatomy of GMed, GMin, and tensor fascia lata (TFL) muscles. Although studies of this muscle group have generated useful descriptions, comparison of results is hindered by methodological limitations. Furthermore, there is no single comprehensive anatomical investigation of all three muscles. Several aspects of the morphology of attachment sites are unknown or unclear. There is little data on fascicle orientation, the interface between fascicles and tendons, and the specific patterning of the superior gluteal nerve. Consequently, the existence of anatomical compartmentalization within the hip abductor muscles is difficult to assess. Further research of the architecture and innervation of the hip abductor muscle group is required; a better understanding of the precise anatomy of these muscles should improve our understanding of their specific functions and their contribution to the pathogenesis of disorders affecting the hip joint. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of acute fatigue of the hip abductors on control of balance in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Bellew, James W; Panwitz, Beth L; Peterson, Laura; Brock, Mary C; Olson, Katie E; Staples, William H

    2009-07-01

    To examine the effects of acute fatigue of the hip abductors on the control of balance in young and older women. Pretest-posttest. University research laboratory. Healthy young women (n=20; age, 23.0+/-1.5y; height, 166.52+/-4.5 cm; mass, 65.33+/-10.5 kg) and community-dwelling older women (n=20; age, 71.65+/-7.2y; height, 162.31+/-3.8 cm; mass, 71.16+/-11.6 kg) without a fall history. Measurements of control of single-limb balance before and after fatiguing the hip abductors of the dominant leg. Performance on 3 clinical assessments of control of balance: the modified Functional Reach Test in the forward, left, and right directions; the Lower-Extremity Reach Test in forward and lateral directions; and the Single-Limb Stance Time Test (SLSTT). Although the younger subjects showed a significantly greater control of balance than the older women in most tests, control of balance after acute fatigue failed to show a significant decline in either age group. The only exception to this was the SLSTT in the younger women in whom a significant 26% decline was noted (P<.05). Acute fatigue of the hip abductors did not result in a decreased control of balance in healthy young or older women without fall history. Despite considerable changes in movement strategies used to complete the postfatigue tests of balance, quantitative measures of balance did not decrease.

  16. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait.

  17. Influence of consonant voicing characteristics on sentence production in abductor versus adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Cannito, Michael P; Chorna, Lesya B; Kahane, Joel C; Dworkin, James P

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the hypotheses that sentence production by speakers with adductor (AD) and abductor (AB) spasmodic dysphonia (SD) may be differentially influenced by consonant voicing and manner features, in comparison with healthy, matched, nondysphonic controls. This was a prospective, single blind study, using a between-groups, repeated measures design for the independent variables of perceived voice quality and sentence duration. Sixteen subjects with ADSD and 10 subjects with ABSD, as well as 26 matched healthy controls produced four short, simple sentences that were systematically loaded with voiced or voiceless consonants of either obstruant or continuant manner categories. Experienced voice clinicians, who were "blind" as to speakers' group affixations, used visual analog scaling to judge the overall voice quality of each sentence. Acoustic sentence durations were also measured. Speakers with ABSD or ADSD demonstrated significantly poorer than normal voice quality on all sentences. Speakers with ABSD exhibited longer than normal duration for voiceless consonant sentences. Speakers with ADSD had poorer voice quality for voiced than for voiceless consonant sentences. Speakers with ABSD had longer durations for voiceless than for voiced consonant sentences. The two subtypes of SD exhibit differential performance on the basis of consonant voicing in short, simple sentences; however, each subgroup manifested voicing-related differences on a different variable (voice quality vs sentence duration). Findings suggest different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for ABSD and ADSD. Findings also support inclusion of short, simple sentences containing voiced or voiceless consonants as part of the diagnostic protocol for SD, with measurement of sentence duration in addition to judments of voice quality severity. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  19. Effect of experimentally reduced distal sensation on postural response to hip abductor/ankle evertor muscle vibration.

    PubMed

    Glasser, S; Collings, R; Paton, J; Marsden, J

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed whether postural responses induced by vibratory perturbations of the hip abductors and ankle evertors, were modified when distal tactile sensation was experimentally reduced through cooling. Sixteen healthy subjects were investigated pre and post cooling. Subjects stood with their eyes closed with a stance width of 4 cm. A 2s vibratory stimulus was applied to the left or right hip abductor or ankle evertor muscle. The order of the site and side of the stimulation was randomised. The postural response to hip abductor and ankle evertor vibration was recorded using 3D motion analysis (Codamotion, Leicestershire). Medio-lateral centre of pressure motion was simultaneously recorded during quiet standing via a force plate (Kistler, UK). Pre-cooling people responded to unilateral ankle vibration with an ipsilateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. People responded to unilateral hip vibration with a contralateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. Following an experimental reduction in distal tactile sensation there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to ankle vibration (F(6.2)=P<0.05) and a significant increase in amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to hip vibration (F(5.2)=P<0.05). This suggests that the sensitivity to artificial stimulation of hip proprioception increases with distal cooling, possibly indicating a change in the gain/weighting placed upon sensory information from the hips. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C

    2016-10-01

    Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective case series. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients demonstrating a positive Trendelenburg sign

  1. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. Purpose To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Study Design Prospective case series. Methods One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. Results No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients

  2. Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Rate of Force Development of Hip Abductor Muscles Measured by Hand-Held Dynamometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Kazuya; Tanabe, Shigeo; Koyama, Soichiro; Nagai, Tomoko; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Shomoto, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the rate of force development in hip abductor muscle force measurements using a hand-held dynamometer. Thirty healthy adults were separately assessed by two independent raters on two separate days. Rate of force development was calculated from the slope of the…

  3. Quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in treating knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujie; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Juan; Xu, Lili; Pang, Guoyin; Tang, Haiyan; Chen, Ruyan; Yu, Jihua; Guo, Shengmin; Xu, Fangyuan; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-15

    Lower limb strengthening, especially the quadriceps training, is of much necessity for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Previous studies suggest that strengthening of the hip muscles, especially the hip abductor, can potentially relieve the KOA-associated symptoms. Nevertheless, the effects of quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening remain unclear. Therefore, the current randomized controlled trial is designed aiming to observe whether quadriceps in combination with hip abductor strengthening can better improve the function and reduce pain in KOA patients than quadriceps training alone. A total of 80 subjects with symptomatic KOA will be recruited from the communities and hospital outpatient, and will be randomly assigned to the experiment group (Quadriceps-plus-hip-abductor-strengthening) or the control group (Quadriceps-strengthening). Specifically, participants in the experiment group will complete 4 exercises to train the quadriceps and hip abductor twice a day for 6 weeks at home, while those in the control group will only perform 2 exercises to strengthen the quadriceps. Besides, all patients will also receive usual care management, including health education and physical agent therapy when necessary. Knee pain will be measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline, in every week during the course of treatment, as well as 8 and 12 weeks after randomization. Furthermore, knee function will be measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale, and the quality of life will be measured using the MOS Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). In this study, several simple tests will be applied to assess the objective function. All the assessments except for VAS will be carried out at baseline, and in the 6th, 8th and 12th weeks respectively. Our findings will provide more evidence for the effects of hip abductor strengthening on relieving pain and improving function in KOA patients. Hip

  4. The effect of current flow direction on motor hot spot allocation by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Caspar; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), extensor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of the dominant side was established. Starting from a manually determined hot spot of the FDI representation, we measured MEPs at equal oriented points on an hexagonal grid, with 7 MEPs recorded at each point, using the following pulse configurations: posteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-P), anteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-A), biphasic with the more relevant second cycle oriented posteriorly (Bi-P) as well as a reversed biphasic condition (Bi-A). For each pulse configuration, a hot spot was determined and a center of gravity (CoG) was calculated. We found that the factor current direction had an effect on location of the CoG-adjusted hot spot in the cranio-caudal axis but not in the latero-medial direction with anteriorly directed pulses locating the CoG more anteriorly and vice versa. In addition, the CoG for the FDI was more laterally than the cortical representations for the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) which were registered as well. The results indicate that direction of the current pulse should be taken into account for determination of the motor representation of a muscle by TMS. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Thomas M; Feger, Mark A; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate cross-country and track athletes (5 men and 3 women: age = 20 ± 0.93 years, height = 180.98 ± 10.84 cm, mass = 70.91 ± 7.82 kg). Participants underwent T2 MRI before and after each exercise. They completed 1 set of 40 repetitions of each exercise (short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension). Percentage increases in muscle activation of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis oblique, flexor hallucis brevis, and interossei and lumbricals (analyzed together) after each exercise were assessed using T2 MRI. All muscles showed increased activation after all exercises. The mean percentage increase in activation ranged from 16.7% to 34.9% for the short-foot exercise, 17.3% to 35.2% for toes spread out, 13.1% to 18.1% for first-toe extension, and 8.9% to 22.5% for second- to fifth-toes extension. All increases in activation had associated 95% confidence intervals that did not cross zero. Each of the 4 exercises was associated with increased activation in all of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles evaluated. These results may have clinical implications for the prescription of specific exercises to target individual intrinsic foot muscles.

  6. Comparative musculoskeletal anatomy of chameleon limbs, with implications for the evolution of arboreal locomotion in lizards and for teratology.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Julia L; Diaz, Raul E; Skorka, Tautis; Dagliyan, Grant; Diogo, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards. We found the appendicular muscle anatomy of chameleons to be surprisingly conservative considering the remarkable structural and functional modifications of the limb skeleton, particularly the distal limb regions. For instance, the zygodactyl autopodia of chameleons are unique among tetrapods, and the carpals and tarsals are highly modified in shape and number. However, most of the muscles usually present in the manus and pes of other lizards are present in the same configuration in chameleons. The most obvious muscular features related to the peculiar opposable autopodia of chameleons are: (1) presence of broad, V-shaped plantar and palmar aponeuroses, and absence of intermetacarpales and intermetatarsales, between the digits separated by the cleft in each autopod; (2) oblique orientation of the superficial short flexors originating from these aponeuroses, which may allow these muscles to act as powerful adductors of the "super-digits"; and (3) well-developed abductor digiti minimi muscles and abductor pollicis/hallucis brevis muscles, which may act as powerful abductors of the "super-digits." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adding insult to injury?: the untoward impact of requiring more than de minimis injury in an Eighth Amendment excessive force case.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robyn D

    2009-05-01

    This Note explores the conflict over whether a prisoner must suffer more than de minimis injury to sustain an Eighth Amendment excessive force claim. It examines this conflict against the backdrop of the various standards the U.S. Supreme Court adopted in its Eighth Amendment prison conditions jurisprudence between 1976 and 1992, principally focusing on the 1992 Hudson v. McMillian decision. Moreover, this Note considers the intersection of "the evolving standards of decency," the "hands-off doctrine," and the Eighth Amendment injury requirement. Ultimately, this Note advocates that excessive force--when meted out as punishment--violates the Eighth Amendment's prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment regardless of whether a prisoner's injuries are more than de minimis.

  8. Influence of Hip Abductor Strength on Functional Outcomes Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Brian J; Jennings, Jason M; Judd, Dana L; Kim, Raymond H; Wolfe, Pamela; Dennis, Douglas A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2017-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with declines in hip abductor (HA) muscle strength; however, a longitudinal analysis demonstrating the influence of TKA on trajectories of HA strength change has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in HA strength from pre-TKA through 3 months post-TKA and to characterize the relationship between HA strength changes and physical performance. This study is a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Data from 162 participants (89 women, mean age = 63 y) were used for analysis. Data were collected by masked assessors preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months following surgery. Outcomes included: Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG), Stair Climbing Test (SCT), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and walking speed. Paired t tests were used for between- and within-limb comparisons of HA strength. Multivariable regression was used to determine contributions of independent variables, HA and knee extensor strength, to the dependent variables of TUG, SCT, 6MWT, and walking speed at each time point. Hip abductor strength was significantly lower in the surgical limb pre-TKA (mean = 0.015; 95% CI = 0.010-0.020), 1 month post-TKA (0.028; 0.023-0.034), and 3 months post-TKA (0.02; 0.014-0.025) compared with the nonsurgical limb. Hip abductor strength declined from pre-TKA to 1 month post-TKA (18%), but not at the 3-month time point (0%). Hip abductor strength independently contributed to performance-based outcomes pre-TKA; however, this contribution was not observed post-TKA. The post hoc analysis prevents examining all outcomes likely to be influenced by HA strength. Surgical limb HA strength is impaired prior to TKA, and worsens following surgery. Furthermore, HA strength contributes to performance-based outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that HA strength influences functional recovery. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  9. Sex-specific hip osteoarthritis-associated gait abnormalities: Alterations in dynamic hip abductor function differ in men and women.

    PubMed

    Foucher, Kharma C

    2017-10-01

    Hip osteoarthritis results in abnormal gait mechanics, but it is not known whether abnormalities are the same in men and women. The hypothesis tested was that gait abnormalities are different in men and women with hip osteoarthritis vs. sex-specific asymptomatic groups. 150 subjects with mild through severe radiographic hip osteoarthritis and 159 asymptomatic subjects were identified from an Institutional Review Board-approved motion analysis data repository. Sagittal plane hip range of motion and peak external moments about the hip, in all three planes, averaged from normal speed walking trials, were compared for men and women, with and without hip osteoarthritis using analysis of variance. There were significant sex by group interactions for the external peak hip adduction and external rotation moments (P=0.009-0.045). Although asymptomatic women had peak adduction and external rotation moments that were respectively 12% higher and 23% lower than asymptomatic men (P=0.026-0.037), these variables did not differ between men and women with hip osteoarthritis (P≥0.684). The osteoarthritis vs. asymptomatic group difference in the peak hip adduction moment was 45% larger in women than in men. The osteoarthritis vs. asymptomatic group difference in the peak hip external rotation moment was 55% larger for men than for women (P<0.001). Sex did not influence the association between radiographic severity and gait variables. Normal sex differences in gait were not seen in hip osteoarthritis. Sex-specific adaptations may reflect different aspects of hip abductor function. Men and women with hip osteoarthritis may require different interventions to improve function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multivariate analysis of variations in intrinsic foot musculature among hominoids.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Motoharu; Ogihara, Naomichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Endo, Hideki; Une, Yumi; Soeta, Satoshi; Amasaki, Hajime; Ichihara, Nobutsune

    2018-05-01

    Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts. The muscle mass and PCSA were respectively divided by the total mass and total PCSA of the intrinsic muscles of the entire foot for normalization. Variations in muscle architecture among human and extant great apes were quantified based on principal component analysis. Our results demonstrated that the muscle architecture of the orangutan was the most distinctive, having a larger first dorsal interosseous muscle and smaller abductor hallucis brevis muscle. On the other hand, the gorilla was found to be unique in having a larger abductor digiti minimi muscle. Humans were distinguished from extant great apes by a larger quadratus plantae muscle. The chimpanzee and the bonobo appeared to have very similar muscle architecture, with an intermediate position between the human and the orangutan. These differences (or similarities) in architecture of the intrinsic foot muscles among humans and great apes correspond well to the differences in phylogeny, positional behavior, and locomotion. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  11. Cortical Motor Circuits after Piano Training in Adulthood: Neurophysiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Houdayer, Elise; Cursi, Marco; Nuara, Arturo; Zanini, Sonia; Gatti, Roberto; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms involved in brain plasticity after skilled motor learning are not completely understood. We aimed to study the short-term effects of keyboard training in music-naive subjects on the motor/premotor cortex activity and interhemispheric interactions, using electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve subjects (experimental group) underwent, before and after a two week-piano training: (1) hand-motor function tests: Jamar, grip and nine-hole peg tests; (2) electroencephalography, evaluating the mu rhythm task-related desynchronization (TRD) during keyboard performance; and (3) TMS, targeting bilateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM), to obtain duration and area of ipsilateral silent period (ISP) during simultaneous tonic contraction of APB and ADM. Data were compared with 13 controls who underwent twice these measurements, in a two-week interval, without undergoing piano training. Every subject in the experimental group improved keyboard performance and left-hand nine-hole peg test scores. Pre-training, ISP durations were asymmetrical, left being longer than right. Post-training, right ISPAPB increased, leading to symmetrical ISPAPB. Mu TRD during motor performance became more focal and had a lesser amplitude than in pre-training, due to decreased activity over ventral premotor cortices. No such changes were evidenced in controls. We demonstrated that a 10-day piano-training was associated with balanced interhemispheric interactions both at rest and during motor activation. Piano training, in a short timeframe, may reshape local and inter-hemispheric motor cortical circuits.

  12. Quantitative muscle ultrasound is useful for evaluating secondary axonal degeneration in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hokkoku, Keiichi; Matsukura, Kiyoshi; Uchida, Yudai; Kuwabara, Midori; Furukawa, Yuichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), exclusion of secondary axonal degeneration is challenging with conventional methods such as nerve conduction study (NCS), needle electromyography, and nerve biopsy. Increased echo intensity (EI) and decreased muscle thickness (MT) identified on muscle ultrasound (MUS) examination represent muscle denervation due to axonal degeneration in neurogenic disorders, suggesting MUS as a new tool to detect secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP. EI and MT of abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, and first dorsal interosseous muscles were measured in 16 CIDP patients. Raw values were converted into z -scores using data from 60 normal controls (NCs). Six of 45 muscles showed abnormally high EI and low MT, suggesting denervation following secondary axonal degeneration. These six muscles belonged to two patients with long disease history, unresponsiveness to treatment, and long interval from onset to initial therapy. There were no significant differences in EI and MT ( p  = .23 and .67, respectively) between the CIDP and NC groups, although NCS results revealed obvious demyelinating abnormalities in all CIDP patients, suggesting the fact that muscle structures will be preserved, and EI and MT will not change unless secondary axonal degeneration occurs in CIDP. MUS is a promising tool for evaluating secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP.

  13. The effects of voluntary control of respiration on the excitability of the primary motor hand area, evaluated by end-tidal CO2 monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Isamu; Kurata, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of voluntary deep breathing on the excitability of the hand area in the primary motor cortex (M1). We applied near-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over M1 during the early phase of inspiration or expiration in both normal automatic and voluntary deep, but not "forced", breathing in eight healthy participants at rest. We monitored exhaled CO2 levels continuously, and recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) simultaneously from the abductor pollicis brevis, first dorsal interosseous, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum superficialis, and extensor incidis muscles. We observed that, during voluntary deep breathing, MEP amplitude increased by up to 50% for all recorded muscles and the latency of MEPs decreased by approximately 1ms, compared with normal automatic breathing. We found no difference in the amplitude or latency of MEPs between inspiratory and expiratory phases in either normal automatic or voluntary deep breathing. Voluntary deep breathing at rest facilitates MEPs following TMS over the hand area of M1, and MEP enhancement occurs throughout the full respiratory cycle. The M1 hand region is continuously driven by top-down neural signals over the entire respiratory cycle of voluntary deep breathing. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Paired Muscle Stimulation on Preparation for Movement.

    PubMed

    Brownjohn, Philip W; Blakemore, Rebekah L; Fox, Jonathan A; Shemmell, Jonathan

    2018-06-07

    Paired muscle stimulation is used clinically to facilitate the performance of motor tasks for individuals with motor dysfunction. However, the optimal temporal relationship between stimuli for enhancing movement remains unknown. We hypothesized that synchronous, muscle stimulation would increase the extent to which stimulated muscles are concurrently prepared for movement. We validated a measure of muscle-specific changes in corticomotor excitability prior to movement. We used this measure to examine the preparation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles prior to voluntary muscle contractions before and after paired muscle stimulation at four interstimulus intervals (0, 5, 10, and 75 ms). Paired muscle stimulation increased premovement excitability in the stimulated FDI, but not in the ADM muscle. Interstimulus interval was not a significant factor in determining efficacy of the protocol. Paired stimulation, therefore, did not result in a functional association being formed between the stimulated muscles. Somatosensory potentials evoked by the muscle stimuli were small compared to those commonly elicited by stimulation of peripheral nerves, suggesting that the lack of functional association formation between muscles may be due to the small magnitude of afferent volleys from the stimulated muscles, particularly the ADM, reaching the cortex.

  15. Triplet firing origin in human motor units: emerging hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2016-03-01

    A specific feature of motor unit (MU) firing behaviour is rhythmic trains of single discharges at low rate resulting from the prolonged motoneuronal afterhyperpolarization. However, some MUs exhibit occasional doublets with uniquely short interspike intervals (2.5-20.0 ms). Motoneuronal delayed depolarization is commonly accepted to be doublet underlying mechanism. Apart from doublets, much scarcer MU triple discharges were described, but their mechanisms are disputable. The aim of the present study was to analyse MU triplet firing origin in healthy humans. MU triple discharges occasionally arising during gentle voluntary muscle contractions were compared with those arising in axons during motor nerve stimulation. Firing pattern was analysed in 109 MUs of four muscles: the tibialis anterior, the flexor carpi ulnaris, the abductor pollicis brevis, and the abductor digiti minimi. Our findings present evidence that during voluntary contractions two kinds of MU triplet firing can be occasionally observed: "true" motoneuronal triplets (interspike intervals of 3.6-17.3 ms) with the delayed depolarization as the possible underlying mechanism and axonal triple discharges including the M-response and F-wave. The findings can be useful not only for understanding mechanisms of the very rare motoneuronal firing in healthy humans but also for estimation of pathological triplet firing origin.

  16. [Degenerative rupture of the hip abductors. Missed diagnosis with therapy-resistant trochanteric pain of the hips and positive Trendelenburg sign in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Aepli-Schneider, N; Treumann, T; Müller, U; Schmid, L

    2012-01-01

    The cases of four elderly patients with persistent trochanteric pain and tears of the gluteus medius and/or gluteus minimus tendons detected in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are presented. There was no history of local trauma in any patient but three patients had a positive Trendelenburg sign. Magnetic resonance imaging showed either an obvious discontinuity of the affected tendon or an increased T2 signal above, or less specifically lateral to the greater trochanter. The presence of an elongated tendon on MRI is most likely indicative of a partial rupture of the tendon. Pain and local tenderness over the lateral aspect of the hip in clinical examination is commonly attributed to trochanteric bursitis or trochanteric pain syndrome. Partial or complete tears of the gluteus medius and/or gluteus minimus tendons are thought to represent an unusual finding. However, the true incidence and the clinical significance of hip abductor degeneration and rupture remain to be determined. More studies are needed to examine the prevalence of ruptures in asymptomatic patients, to evaluate the subsequent risk for developing osteoarthritis of the hip (caused by impaired protective reflexes originating from proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles) and to determine the risk for falls related to weakness of hip abduction. Furthermore, no data exist regarding the success rate of conservative treatment. Tears of the gluteus medius and minimus tendons in the elderly population are likely to be a more common cause of pain in the greater trochanteric region than previously thought. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatment, weakness of hip abduction (positive Trendelenburg sign) and new limping should point to the possibility of hip abductor ruptures. The most useful examination technique for diagnosis is MRI.

  17. Clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during the 30-second single leg stance test in patients before and after hip abductor tendon reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, Rose E; Ackland, Timothy R; Janes, Gregory C; Ebert, Jay R

    2017-07-01

    Hip abductor tendon tears are a common cause of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome. Conservative treatments are often ineffective and surgical reconstruction may be recommended. This study investigated the improvement in clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during a 30-second single leg stance test, in patients undergoing reconstruction. We hypothesized that clinical scores and pertinent biomechanical variables would significantly improve post-surgery, and these outcomes would be significantly correlated. Twenty-one patients with symptomatic tendon tears underwent reconstruction. Patients were evaluated pre-surgery, and at 6 and 12months post-surgery, using patient-reported outcome measures, assessment of hip abductor strength and six-minute walk capacity. Frontal plane, two-dimensional, biomechanical variables including pelvis-on-femur angle, pelvic drop, trunk lean and lateral pelvic shift, were evaluated throughout a 30-second single leg stance test. ANOVA evaluated outcomes over time, while Pearson's correlations investigated associations between clinical scores, pain, functional and biomechanical outcome variables. While clinical and functional measures significantly improved (P<0.05) over time, no significant group differences (P>0.05) were observed in biomechanical variables from pre- to post-surgery. While five patients displayed a positive Trendelenburg sign pre-surgery, only one was positive post-surgery. Clinical outcomes and biomechanical variables during the single leg stance test were not correlated. Despite improvements in clinical and functional measures over time, biomechanical changes during a weight bearing single leg stance test were not significantly different following tendon repair. Follow up beyond 12months may be required, whereby symptomatic relief may precede functional and biomechanical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term effects of hip abductors and lateral rotators strengthening in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Rossetto, Flavio Marcondes; Magalhães, Eduardo; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; de Almeida Aparecida Carvalho, Nilza

    2010-11-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the influence of strengthening the hip abductor and lateral rotator musculature on pain and function of females with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Hip muscle weakness in women athletes has been the focus of many recent studies and is suggested as an important impairment to address in the conservative treatment of women with PFPS. However, it is still not well established if strengthening these muscles is associated with clinical improvement in pain and function in sedentary females with PFPS. Seventy females (average±SD age, 25±07 years), with a diagnosis of unilateral PFPS, were distributed randomly into 3 groups: 22 females in the knee exercise group, who received a conventional treatment that emphasized stretching and strengthening of the knee musculature; 23 females in the knee and hip exercise group, who performed exercises to strengthen the hip abductors and external rotators in addition to the same exercises performed by those in the knee exercise group; and of the 25 females who did not receive any treatment. The females of the nontreatment group (control) were instructed to maintain their normal daily activities. An 11-point numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) was used to assess pain during stair ascent and descent. The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and the anterior knee pain scale (AKPS) were used to assess function. The single-limb single hop test was also used as a functional outcome to measure preintervention and 4-week postintervention function. The 3 groups were homogeneous prior to treatment in respect to demographic, pain, and functional scales data. Both the knee exercise and the knee and hip exercise groups showed significant improvement in the LEFS, the AKPS, and the NPRS, when compared to the control group (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively). But, when we considered minimal clinically important differences, only the knee and hip exercise group demonstrated mean improvements in AKPS and

  19. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint by resection-suspension-interposition arthoplasty using the split abductor pollicis longus tendon.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, P S; Jakubietz, M G; Jakubietz, R G; Schmidt, K; Meffert, R H

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of pain and gain of functionality in symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. Idiopathic, rheumatic, or posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS: Poor general condition, poor condition of the hand's soft tissue/skin, chronic regional pain syndrome, current or recent infections of the hand, heavy manual labor (decision on a by-case basis). Supine position, hand pronated or slightly tilted. Upper arm tourniquet (Esmarch's method). Loupe magnification. Incision over the first extensor compartment. Exposure and incision of the thumb's basal joint. Resection of the trapezium. Exposure of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon. Longitudinal split of the tendon harvesting the distally based ulnar part of the tendon. The split APL tendon is wrapped around the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle tendon, suturing it to the tendon and back to itself. The rest of the split APL tendon is placed into the gap between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone, which is followed by wound closure. Plaster cast (thumb abduction splint) for 4 weeks. Stable commercially available wrist brace for at least 2 more weeks. There were no significant differences between the FCR arthroplasty (Epping's method) and the APL arthroplasty (Wulle's technique) regarding pain (visual analog scale), disability/usability (DASH score), or range of motion. Patients who had undergone APL arthroplasty showed significantly better grip and pinch strength. Furthermore, the operating time was significantly shorter and scars were significantly smaller in APL arthroplasty.

  20. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.

  1. The association of visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing with ankle dorsiflexion range-of-motion and hip abductor muscle strength among healthy female athletes.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Alon; Einstein, Ofira; Kozol, Zvi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association between ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), and hip abductor muscle strength, to visually-assessed quality of movement during jump-landing. Cross-sectional. Gymnasium of participating teams. 37 female volleyball players. Quality of movement in the frontal-plane, sagittal-plane, and overall (both planes) was visually rated as "good/moderate" or "poor". Weight-bearing Ankle DF ROM and hip abductor muscle strength were compared between participants with differing quality of movement. Weight-bearing DF ROM on both sides was decreased among participants with "poor" sagittal-plane quality of movement (dominant side: 50.8° versus 43.6°, P = .02; non-dominant side: 54.6° versus 45.9°, P = .01), as well as among participants with an overall "poor" quality of movement (dominant side: 51.8° versus 44.0°, P < .01; non-dominant side: 56.5° versus 45.1°, P < .01). Weight-bearing ankle DF on the non-dominant side was decreased among participants with a "poor" frontal-plane quality of movement (53.9° versus 46.0°, P = .02). No differences in hip abductor muscle strength were noted between participants with differing quality of movement. Visual assessment of jump-landing can detect differences in quality of movement that are associated with ankle DF ROM. Clinicians observing a poor quality of movement may wish to assess ankle DF ROM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrophysiological diagnosis and patterns of response to treatment of botulism with neuromuscular respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kongsaengdao, Subsai; Samintarapanya, Kanoksri; Rusmeechan, Siwarit; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Tanprawate, Surat

    2009-08-01

    In this study we describe the electrophysiological findings in botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure from major botulism outbreaks in Thailand. High-rate repetitive nerve stimulation testing (RNST) of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle of 17 botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure showed mostly incremental responses, especially in response to >20-HZ stimulation. In the most severe stage of neuromuscular respiratory failure, RNST failed to elicit a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the ADM muscle. In the moderately severe stage, the initial CMAPs were of very low amplitude, and a 3-HZ RNST elicited incremental or decremental responses. A 10-HZ RNST elicited mainly decremental responses. In the early recovery stage, the initial CMAP amplitudes of the ADM muscle improved, with initially low amplitudes and an incremental response to 3- and 10-HZ RNSTs. Improved electrophysiological patterns of the ADM muscle correlated with improved respiratory muscle function. Incremental responses to 20-HZ RNST were most useful for diagnosis. The initial electrodiagnostic sign of recovery following treatment of neuromuscular respiratory failure was an increased CMAP amplitude and an incremental response to 10-20-HZ RNST. Muscle Nerve 40: 271-278, 2009.

  3. The Long Exercise Test in Periodic Paralysis: A Bayesian Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Daniel B; Lanning, Julie; Cleland, James C; Puwanant, Araya; Twydell, Paul T; Griggs, Robert C; Tawil, Rabi; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-05-12

    The long exercise test (LET) is used to assess the diagnosis of periodic paralysis (PP), but LET methodology and normal "cut-off" values vary. To determine optimal LET methodology and cut-offs, we reviewed LET data (abductor digiti minimi (ADM) motor response amplitude, area) from 55 PP patients (32 genetically definite) and 125 controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to compare 1) peak-to-nadir versus baseline-to-nadir methodologies, and 2) amplitude versus area decrements. Using Bayesian principles, optimal "cut-off" decrements that achieved 95% post-test probability of PP were calculated for various pre-test probabilities (PreTPs). AUC was highest for peak-to-nadir methodology and equal for amplitude and area decrements. For PreTP ≤50%, optimal decrement cut-offs (peak-to-nadir) were >40% (amplitude) or >50% (area). For confirmation of PP, our data endorse the diagnostic utility of peak-to-nadir LET methodology using 40% amplitude or 50% area decrement cut-offs for PreTPs ≤50%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Non-invasive assessment of muscle stiffness in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Guével, Arnaud; Péréon, Yann; Magot, Armelle; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of muscle mechanical properties may provide clinically valuable information for follow-up of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) through the course of their disease. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of DMD on stiffness of relaxed muscles using elastography (supersonic shear imaging). Fourteen DMD patients and 13 control subjects were studied. Six muscles were measured at 2 muscle lengths (shortened and stretched): gastrocnemius medialis (GM); tibialis anterior (TA); vastus lateralis (VL); biceps brachii (BB); triceps brachii (TB); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Stiffness was significantly higher in DMD patients compared with controls for all the muscles (main effect for population, P < 0.033 in all cases), except for ADM. The effect size was small (d = 0.33 for ADM at both muscle lengths) to large (d = 0.86 for BB/stretched). Supersonic shear imaging is a sensitive non-invasive technique to assess the increase in muscle stiffness associated with DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduced Current Spread by Concentric Electrodes in Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES).

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, M; Rodella, C; Salvador, R; Miranda, P C; Miniussi, C

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of a new montage for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), called concentric electrodes tDCS (CE-tDCS), involving two concentric round electrodes that may improve stimulation focality. To test efficacy and focality of CE-tDCS, we modelled the current distribution and tested physiological effects on cortical excitability. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were recorded before and after the delivery of anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation on the FDI hotspot for 10 minutes. MEP amplitude of FDI increased after anodal-tDCS and decreased after cathodal-tDCS, supporting the efficacy of CE-tDCS in modulating cortical excitability. Moreover, modelled current distribution and no significant effects of stimulation on MEP amplitude of ADM suggest high focality of CE-tDCS. CE-tDCS may allow a better control of current distribution and may represent a novel tool for applying tDCS and other transcranial current stimulation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  7. Analysis of mirror neuron system activation during action observation alone and action observation with motor imagery tasks.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Bülent; Vurallı, Doğa; Zinnuroğlu, Murat; Bayer, Gözde; Golmohammadzadeh, Hassan; Günendi, Zafer; Turgut, Ali Emre; İrfanoğlu, Bülent; Arıkan, Kutluk Bilge

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between action observation (AO)-related corticomotor excitability changes and phases of observed action and to explore the effects of pure AO and concurrent AO and motor imagery (MI) state on corticomotor excitability using TMS. It was also investigated whether the mirror neuron system activity is muscle-specific. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. EMG recordings were taken from the right first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles. There was a significant main effect of TMS timing (after the beginning of the movement, at the beginning of motor output state, and during black screen) on the mean motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude. Mean MEP amplitudes for AO combined with MI were significantly higher than pure AO session. There was a significant interaction between session and TMS timing. There was no significant main effect of muscle on MEP amplitude. The results indicate that corticomotor excitability is modulated by different phases of the observed motor movement and this modulation is not muscle-specific. Simultaneous MI and AO enhance corticomotor excitability significantly compared to pure AO.

  8. Estimation of voluntary elicited motor neuron discharge using a peripheral nerve collision technique at different contraction strengths.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, Olivier; Kamber, Nicole; Rösler, Kai Michael

    2018-05-29

    To estimate non-invasively the amount, recruitment pattern and discharge frequency of spinal motor neurons (MN) at contraction strength >20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of small hand muscles. A peripheral collision technique was used and consisted of supramaximal electrical stimuli at Erb's point and at the wrist, synchronizing descending volleys of action potential during voluntary isometric contractions of the abductor digiti minimi muscle at 20-80% of MVC strength and 1-8 s of contraction duration. Responses of 13 healthy volunteers were quantified and analysed using a recently described model of MN behaviour. A linear relationship between MN discharge and force generation was noticed with R2 = 0.996, and was confirmed using the simulation results (R2 = 0.997) for contraction durations up to 8 s. For each investigated force level, discharge frequency and recruitment pattern were calculated for individual MN. Using this method, MN discharge properties during voluntary activity can be estimated non-invasively. This method provides new opportunities for the non-invasive study of MN behaviour, and could be expanded to patients with conduction failure and during fatigue. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An electromyographic study of muscle relaxants in man.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Kanayama, T; Nakagawa, H; Yazaki, S; Shiratsuchi, T

    1975-05-01

    Supramaximal paired stimuli were applied to the ulnar nerve, and the amplitude of the muscle action potential evoked in the abductor digiti minimi by the second member of the stimulus pair (test response) was compared with that evoked by the first component (conditioning response). The interval between the two components of the stimulus pair (the pair interval) was increased stepwise from 7 to 100 msec and a curve (recovery curve) was obtained by relating the changes in pair interval to the difference in amplitude of the test and conditioning responses. Alterations of the recovery curve (RC) during partial paralysis by muscle relaxants were investigated in healthy adult patients under the lightest plane of general anaesthesia. The control curve obtained in 32 subjects before the administration of a muscle relaxant drug was characterized by slight depressions at very short intervals of paired stimuli, followed by a slight potentiation at 20-100 msec. With non-depolarizing relaxants, RC altered to the characteristic pattern of potentiation at very short intervals of stimuli, followed by a notable depression at longer intervals. In depolarizing blocks with small doses of suxamethonium, the depression of RC at short intervals in the control was enhanced and the pattern of RC was different from that of non-depolarizing agents. When desensitization blocks were instigated by the i.v. administration of suxamethonium, the RC patterns were similar to those of competitive agents.

  10. Acoustic myography as an indicator of force during sustained contractions of a small hand muscle.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, M S; Yack, H J; Cerny, F J; Burton, H W

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that muscle sound amplitudes would remain constant during sustained submaximal isometric contractions, we recorded acoustic myograms from the abductor digiti minimi muscle in 12 subjects at 15, 25, 50, and 75% of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Muscle sounds were detected with an omni-directional electret microphone encased in closed-cell foam and attached to the skin over the muscle. Acoustic amplitudes from the middle and end of the sustained contractions were compared with the amplitudes from the beginning of contractions to determine whether acoustic amplitudes varied in magnitude as force remained constant. Physiological tremor was eliminated from the acoustic signal by use of a Fourier truncation at 14 Hz. The amplitudes of the acoustic signal at a contraction intensity of 75% MVC remained constant, reflecting force production over time. At 50% MVC, the root-mean-square amplitude decreased from the beginning to the end of the contraction (P less than 0.05). Acoustic amplitudes increased over time at 15 and 25% MVC and were significantly higher at the end of the contractions than at the beginning (P less than 0.05). Alterations in the acoustic amplitude, which reflect changes in the lateral vibrations of the muscle, may be indicative of the different recruitment strategies used to maintain force during sustained isometric contractions.

  11. Inferior heel pain in soccer players: a retrospective study with a proposal for guidelines of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saggini, Raoul; Migliorini, Maurizio; Carmignano, Simona Maria; Ancona, Emilio; Russo, Chiara; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Background The cause of heel pain among soccer players is multifactorial and is related to repetitive microtrauma due to impact forces involving technical moves, but also the playground, the exercise mode, the recovery time, the climatic conditions and the footwear used. Aim To investigate the aetiology of plantar heel pain of soccer players with the objective of proposing an example of guidelines for treatment. Methods We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of inferior heel pain of 1473 professional, semiprofessional and amateur players. All evaluated subjects were submitted to a specific rehabilitation protocol that involved advanced physical therapies and viscoelastic insoles depending on the aetiology of pain. Results Clinical and instrumental examinations revealed that 960 of 1473 athletes had inferior heel pain. These patients were divided into seven groups based on aetiology: sural nerve compression, abductor digiti minimi compression, atrophy and inflammation of the fat pad, plantar fasciitis, stress injury of the heel spur, stress fracture of the heel bone and heel spur. The proposed rehabilitation treatment aims for a reduction of pain and an early return to sports, with excellent results. Conclusions According to what was observed in the present study, related also to the specific treatment of inferior heel pain, and considering the technological progress achieved in recent years, we can now propose an integrated therapeutic approach to treatment of heel pain, properly differentiated according to specific aetiology. PMID:29527319

  12. Motor unit number estimation and quantitative needle electromyography in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kouzi, Ioanna; Trachani, Eftichia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Rapidi, Christina-Anastasia; Ellul, John; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Chroni, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of upper motor neuron damage upon motor units' function by means of two separate and supplementary electrophysiological methods. The abductor digiti minimi muscle of the non-paretic and the paretic side was studied in forty-six stroke patients with (a) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) - adapted multiple point stimulation method and (b) computerized quantitative needle electromyography (EMG) assessing the configuration of voluntary recruited motor unit potentials. Main outcome comparisons were focused on differences between non-paretic and paretic side. On the affected hands mean MUNE value was significantly lower and mean area of the surface recorded single motor unit potentials was significantly larger than the corresponding ones on the non-paretic hands. EMG findings did not reveal remarkable differences between the two sides. Neither severity nor chronicity of stroke was related to MUNE or EMG parameters. MUNE results, which suggested reduced motor unit numbers in stroke patients, in conjunction with the normal EMG features in these same muscles has given rise to different interpretations. In a clinical setting, reinnervation type changes in the EMG similar to that occurring in neuronopathies or axonal neuropathies should not be expected in muscles with central neurogenic lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic modulation of corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition during onset and maintenance phase of selective finger movement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Panyakaew, Pattamon; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-06-01

    During highly selective finger movement, corticospinal excitability is reduced in surrounding muscles at the onset of movement but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated during maintenance of movement. Sensorimotor integration may play an important role in selective movement. We sought to investigate how corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition changes in active and surrounding muscles during onset and maintenance of selective finger movement. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and paired peripheral stimulation, input-output recruitment curve and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were measured in the first dorsal interosseus and abductor digiti minimi muscles during selective index finger flexion. Motor surround inhibition was present only at the onset phase, but not at the maintenance phase of movement. SAI was reduced at onset but not at the maintenance phase of movement in both active and surrounding muscles. Our study showed dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor modulation for active and surrounding muscles in different movement states. SAI does not appear to contribute to motor surround inhibition at the movement onset phase. Also, there seems to be different inhibitory circuit(s) other than SAI for the movement maintenance phase in order to delineate the motor output selectively when corticospinal excitability is increased in both active and surrounding muscles. This study enhances our knowledge of dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor interaction in different movement states to understand normal and disordered movements. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Motor training reduces surround inhibition in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Haya; Di Stasio, Flavio; Tibold, Robert; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Rothwell, John C; Edwards, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Surround inhibition (SI) is thought to facilitate focal contraction of a hand muscle by keeping nearby muscles silent. Unexpectedly, SI is reduced in skilled pianists. We tested whether repeated practice of focal contraction in non-pianists could reduce SI. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the relaxed abductor digiti minimi randomly at the onset and 5s after offset of a 2s focal contraction (10% maximum) of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Over 5 blocks of 40 trials participants obtained points for increasing contraction speed and stability in FDI. In a final block, the interval between contractions was varied randomly to increase attention to the task. Over the first 5 blocks, SI declined as performance (points scored) improved. In the final "attention" block SI increased towards baseline without affecting performance. Although SI may be useful during the early stages of learning, skilled focal finger movement does not require SI to prevent activity in non-involved muscles. This could be due to better targeting of the excitatory command to move. Results from the final block suggest that increased attention can re-engage SI when task parameters change. SI is not necessary for successful focal contraction, but may contribute during learning and during attention to task. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrodiagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (Une): a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Logigian, Eric L; Villanueva, Raissa; Twydell, Paul T; Myers, Bennett; Downs, Marlene; Preston, David C; Kothari, Milind J; Herrmann, David N

    2014-03-01

    In ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE), we determined how electrodiagnostic cutoffs [across-elbow ulnar motor conduction velocity slowing (AECV-slowing), drop in across-elbow vs. forearm CV (AECV-drop)] depend on pretest probability (PreTP). Fifty clinically defined UNE patients and 50 controls underwent ulnar conduction testing recording abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI), stimulating wrist, below-elbow, and 6-, 8-, and 10-cm more proximally. For various PreTPs of UNE, the cutoffs required to confirm UNE (defined as posttest probability = 95%) were determined with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Bayes Theorem. On ROC and Bayesian analyses, the ADM 10-cm montage was optimal. For PreTP = 0.25, the confirmatory cutoffs were >23 m/s (AECV-drop), and <38 m/s (AECV-slowing); for PreTP = 0.75, they were much less conservative: >14 m/s, and <47 m/s, respectively. (1) In UNE, electrodiagnostic cutoffs are critically dependent on PreTP; rigid cutoffs are problematic. (2) AE distances should be standardized and at least 10 cm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Large motor units are selectively affected following a stroke.

    PubMed

    Lukács, M; Vécsei, L; Beniczky, S

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed a loss of functioning motor units in stroke patients. However, it remained unclear whether the motor units are affected randomly or in some specific pattern. We assessed whether there is a selective loss of the large (high recruitment threshold) or the small (low recruitment threshold) motor units following a stroke. Forty-five stroke patients and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. Macro-EMG was recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle at two levels of force output (low and high). The median macro motor unit potential (macro-MUP) amplitude on the paretic side was compared with those on the unaffected side and in the controls. In the control group and on the unaffected side, the macro-MUPs were significantly larger at the high force output than at the low one. However, on the paretic side the macro-MUPs at the high force output had the same amplitude as those recorded at the low force output. These changes correlated with the severity of the paresis. Following a stroke, there is a selective functional loss of the large, high-threshold motor units. These changes are related to the severity of the symptoms. Our findings furnish further insight into the pathophysiology of the motor deficit following a stroke.

  17. Muscle fiber types composition and type identified endplate morphology of forepaw intrinsic muscles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Mi, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yan; Pan, Xiao-Yun; Rui, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The failure to accept reinnervation is considered to be one of the reasons for the poor motor functional recovery of intrinsic hand muscles (IHMs) after nerve injury. Rat could be a suitable model to be used in simulating motor function recovery of the IHMs after nerve injury as to the similarities in function and anatomy of the muscles between human and rat. However, few studies have reported the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphologic characteristics of intrinsic forepaw muscles (IFMs) in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain isoforms and acetylcholine receptors were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and endplates on type-identified fibers of the lumbrical muscles (LMs), interosseus muscles (IMs), abductor digiti minimi (AM) and flexor pollicis brevis (FM) in rat forepaw. The majority of IFMs fibers were labeled positively for fast-switch fiber. However, the IMs were composed of only slow-switch fiber. With the exception of the IMs, the other IFMs had a part of hybrid fibers. Two-dimensional morphological characteristics of endplates on I and IIa muscle fiber had no significant differences among the IFMs. The LMs is the most suitable IFMs of rat to stimulate reinnervation of the IHMs after nerve injury. Gaining greater insight into the muscle fiber types composition and endplate morphology in the IFMs of rat may help understand the pathological and functional changes of IFMs in rat model stimulating reinnervation of IHMs after peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Decay of postexercise augmentation in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: effect of cooling.

    PubMed

    Maddison, P; Newsom-Davis, J; Mills, K R

    1998-04-01

    The effect of local cooling on surface recorded compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude was studied in five patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). The time course of decay of postexercise augmentation of CMAP amplitude characteristically seen in patients with LEMS was determined. We recorded the CMAP from abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in response to supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve. Thirty consecutive stimuli were delivered at 1 Hz immediately after a 10-second period of maximal voluntary contraction. Skin surface temperature was recorded throughout. Initial testing at approximately 30 degrees C was repeated after cooling the hand and forearm by 6 to 12 degrees C. The effects of blood flow on temperature were counteracted by the application of a sphygmomanometer cuff, inflated above systolic blood pressure. The CMAP amplitude following contraction decayed in an exponential manner both during warm and cold conditions. The mean time constant for decay (1/b) in all patients was increased by approximately 25% after cooling. This prolongation of the period of postexercise augmentation of CMAP amplitude in LEMS after cooling concurs with patient reports of symptomatic improvement in cold weather. The mechanism for this benefit is thought to be due to reduction in the rate of removal of calcium ions from the nerve terminal following stimulation, similar to that seen in animal models of short-term synaptic enhancement.

  19. Surround Inhibition in the Primary Motor Cortex is Task-specifically Modulated in Non-professional Musicians but not in Healthy Controls During Real Piano Playing.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Gonzalo; Keller, Martin; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Taube, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    Research has indicated that at the onset of a finger movement, unwanted contractions of adjacent muscles are prevented by inhibiting the cortical areas representing these muscles. This so-called surround inhibition (SI) seems relevant for the performance of selective finger movements but may not be necessary for tasks involving functional coupling between different finger muscles. Therefore, the present study compared SI between isolated finger movement and complex selective finger movements while playing a three-finger sequence on the piano in nine non-professional musicians and 10 untrained control participants. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the contralateral motor cortex to assess SI in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during the movement preparation and the late phasic phases. The results reveal stronger SI during the preparation phase than during the phasic phase (30.6% vs. 10.7%; P < 0.05) in the isolated-finger condition in both musicians and controls. Results also show higher SI in musicians during the preparation phase of the isolated finger condition compared to the preparation phase of the three-finger sequence (40% vs. 15%; P < 0.05). However, the control group did not show this task-specific modulation of SI (isolated: 25% vs. sequence: 25%; P > 0.05). Thus, musicians were able to modulate SI between conditions whereas control participants revealed constant levels of SI. Therefore, it may be assumed that long-term training as observed in skilled musicians is accompanied by task-specific effects on SI modulation potentially relating to the ability to perform selective and complex finger movements. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy.

  1. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyewon; Jee, Sungju; Park, Soo Ho; Ahn, Seung-Chan; Im, Juneho; Sohn, Min Kyun

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US.

  2. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on motor cortex plasticity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Jin; Udupa, Kaviraja; Ni, Zhen; Moro, Elena; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Lozano, Andres M.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lang, Anthony E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) will improve long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: We studied 8 patients with PD treated with STN-DBS and 9 age-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD were studied in 4 sessions in medication (Med) OFF/stimulator (Stim) OFF, Med-OFF/Stim-ON, Med-ON/Stim-OFF, and Med-ON/Stim-ON states in random order. Motor evoked potential amplitude and cortical silent period duration were measured at baseline before paired associated stimulation (PAS) and at 3 different time intervals (T0, T30, T60) up to 60 minutes after PAS in the abductor pollicis brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Results: Motor evoked potential size significantly increased after PAS in controls (+67.7% of baseline at T30) and in patients in the Med-ON/Stim-ON condition (+55.8% of baseline at T30), but not in patients in the Med-OFF/Stim-OFF (−0.4% of baseline at T30), Med-OFF/Stim-ON (+10.3% of baseline at T30), and Med-ON/Stim-OFF conditions (+17.3% of baseline at T30). Cortical silent period duration increased after PAS in controls but not in patients in all test conditions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that STN-DBS together with dopaminergic medications restore LTP-like plasticity in motor cortex in PD. Restoration of cortical plasticity may be one of the mechanisms of how STN-DBS produces clinical benefit. PMID:26156511

  3. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-04-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P < 0.001) than that in the normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly reduced in the patients with distal-type CSA (P < 0.001) and the HD patients (P < 0.001) compared with that in the normal controls. The patients with distal-type CSA had significantly lower APB CMAP amplitude than the HD patients (P = 0.004). The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly lower in the HD patients (P < 0.001) than that in the patients with distal-type CSA. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio of the SBMA patients was similar to that of the normal controls (P = 0.862). An absent APB CMAP and an abnormally high ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio (≥4.5) were observed exclusively in the ALS patients. The different patterns of small hand muscle atrophy between the ALS patients and the patients with mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  4. [F-waves in brachial plexus palsy correlated to the prognosis of intrinsic paralysis].

    PubMed

    Nobuta, S

    1995-04-01

    F-waves were examined in 80 nerves of 40 brachial plexus palsies in 37 cases. The electrical responses were evoked by 30 consecutive supramaximal electric stimuli to the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist and elbow, and recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Three parameters in the F-waves were analyzed--conduction velocity, the difference between the maximal and minimal latencies, and the amplitude. In all cases, examinations were done repeatedly to detect changes in these parameters, and the results were compared with the clinical course of the intrinsic muscle function. Twenty-seven cases were investigated before and after explorative surgery. The findings were divided into four groups. The 1st group consisted of 12 nerves in which F-waves were not recorded. The intrinsic muscle power in this group was zero, and did not show any restoration. The 2nd group consisted of 10 nerves in which the conduction velocity was delayed. The muscle power in this group was fair, poor or trace, and there was no change in conduction velocity and muscle function. The 3rd group consisted of 18 nerves in which parameters other than the conduction velocity were abnormal, and the intrinsic muscle power in this group was fair, good or normal. In 7 of these nerves, the large latency difference decreased to normal at the 2nd, 3rd or 4th test with functional recovery in the intrinsic muscle. The high amplitude also changed to normal at the 2nd test with functional recovery. The 4th group consisted of 40 nerves in which all the parameters were normal and had full intrinsic muscle power. In conclusion, an examination of the F-waves was valuable to indicate the prognosis of the intrinsic muscle in the hand in brachial plexus palsy.

  5. Effect of age and gender on the number of motor units in healthy subjects estimated by the multipoint incremental MUNE method.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Malgorzata; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is a tool for estimating the number of motor units. The aim was to evaluate the multipoint incremental MUNE method in a healthy population, to analyze whether aging, gender, and the dominant hand side influence the motor unit number, and to assess reproducibility of MUNE with the Shefner modification. We studied 60 volunteers (mean age, 47 ± 17.7 years) in four groups aged 18 to 30, 31 to 45, 46 to 60, and above 60 years. Motor unit number estimation was calculated in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) by dividing the single motor unit action potential amplitude into the maximal compound motor action potential amplitude. Test-retest variability was 7%. The mean value of MUNE for APB was 133.2 ± 43 and for ADM was 157.1 ± 39.4. Significant differences in MUNE results were found between groups aged 18 to 30 and 60 years or older and between groups aged 31 to 45 and 60 years or older. Motor unit number estimation results correlated negatively with the age of subjects for both APB and ADM. Single motor unit action potential, reflecting the size of motor unit, increased with the age of subjects only in APB. Compound motor action potential amplitude correlated negatively with the age of subjects in APB and ADM. Significant correlations were seen between MUNE in APB or ADM and compound motor action potential amplitude in these muscles and the age of female subjects. A similar relationship was not found in males. Multipoint incremental MUNE method with the Shefner modification is a noninvasive, easy to perform method with high reproducibility. The loss of motor neurons because of aging could be confirmed by our MUNE study and seems to be more pronounced in females.

  6. Primary Motor Cortex Representation of Handgrip Muscles in Patients with Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Maria Luíza Sales; Sanchez, Tiago Arruda; Moreira, Filipe Azaline; Hoefle, Sebastian; Souto, Inaiacy Bittencourt; da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy is an endemic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that predominantly attacks the skin and peripheral nerves, leading to progressive impairment of motor, sensory and autonomic function. Little is known about how this peripheral neuropathy affects corticospinal excitability of handgrip muscles. Our purpose was to explore the motor cortex organization after progressive peripheral nerve injury and upper-limb dysfunction induced by leprosy using noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods In a cross-sectional study design, we mapped bilaterally in the primary motor cortex (M1) the representations of the hand flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), as well as of the intrinsic hand muscles abductor pollicis brevis (APB), first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM). All participants underwent clinical assessment, handgrip dynamometry and motor and sensory nerve conduction exams 30 days before mapping. Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests were performed with an alpha-value of p<0.05. Findings Dynamometry performance of the patients’ most affected hand (MAH), was worse than that of the less affected hand (LAH) and of healthy controls participants (p = 0.031), confirming handgrip impairment. Motor threshold (MT) of the FDS muscle was higher in both hemispheres in patients as compared to controls, and lower in the hemisphere contralateral to the MAH when compared to that of the LAH. Moreover, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes collected in the FDS of the MAH were higher in comparison to those of controls. Strikingly, MEPs in the intrinsic hand muscle FDI had lower amplitudes in the hemisphere contralateral to MAH as compared to those of the LAH and the control group. Taken together, these results are suggestive of a more robust representation of an extrinsic hand flexor and impaired intrinsic hand muscle function in the hemisphere contralateral to the MAH due to leprosy. Conclusion Decreased

  7. Differential effect of muscle vibration on intracortical inhibitory circuits in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Rothwell, John C

    2003-01-01

    Low amplitude muscle vibration (0.5 ms; 80 Hz; duration 1.5 s) was applied in turn to each of three different intrinsic hand muscles (first dorsal interosseus, FDI; abductor pollicis brevis, APB; and abductor digiti minimi, ADM) in order to test its effect on the EMG responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Recordings were also taken from flexor and extensor carpi radialis (FCR and ECR, respectively). We evaluated the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by a single TMS pulse, short interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation (SICI and ICF) and long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). TMS pulses were applied 1 s after the start of vibration with subjects relaxed throughout. Vibration increased the amplitude of MEPs evoked in the vibrated muscle (162 ± 6 % of MEP with no vibration; mean ± s.e.m.), but suppressed MEPs in the two non-vibrated hand muscles (72 ± 9 %). Compared with no vibration (test response reduced to 51 ± 5 % of control), there was less SICI in the vibrated muscle (test response reduced to 92 ± 28 % of control) and more in the non-vibrated hand muscles (test response reduced to 27 ± 5 % of control). The opposite occurred for LICI: compared with the no vibration condition (test response reduced to 33 ± 6 % control), there was more LICI in the vibrated muscle (test response reduced to 17 ± 3 % control) than in the non-vibrated hand muscles (test response reduced to 80 ± 11 % control) even when the intensity of the test stimulus was adjusted to compensate for the changes in baseline MEP. There was no effect on ICF. Cutaneous stimulation of the index finger (80 Hz, 1.5 s duration, twice sensory threshold) had no consistent differential effect on any of the parameters. We conclude that vibratory input from muscle can differentially modulate excitability in motor cortical circuits. PMID:12821723

  8. Coupling Damage-Sensing Particles to the Digitial Twin Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhalter, Jacob; Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Gupta, Vipul K.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Cornell, Stephen R.; Willard, Scott A.; Heber, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The research presented herein is a first step toward integrating two emerging structural health management paradigms: digital twin and sensory materials. Digital twin is an emerging life management and certification paradigm whereby models and simulations consist of as-built vehicle state, as-experienced loads and environments, and other vehicle-specific history to enable high-fidelity modeling of individual aerospace vehicles throughout their service lives. The digital twin concept spans many disciplines, and an extensive study on the full domain is out of the scope of this study. Therefore, as it pertains to the digital twin, this research focused on one major concept: modeling specifically the as-manufactured geometry of a component and its microstructure (to the degree possible). The second aspect of this research was to develop the concept of sensory materials such that they can be employed within the digital twin framework. Sensory materials are shape-memory alloys that undergo an audible phase transformation while experiencing sufficient strain. Upon embedding sensory materials with a structural alloy, this audible transformation helps improve the reliability of crack detection especially at the early stages of crack growth. By combining these two early-stage technologies, an automated approach to evidence-based inspection and maintenance of aerospace vehicles is sought.

  9. The impact of extended electrodiagnostic studies in Ulnar Neuropathy at the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, Kari; Michler, Ralf Peter; Wader, Tony Eugen; Engstrøm, Morten; Sand, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the value of extended motor nerve conduction studies in patients with ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) in order to find the most sensitive and least time-consuming method. We wanted to evaluate the utility of examining both the sensory branch from the fifth finger and the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve. Further we intended to study the clinical symptoms and findings, and a possible correlation between the neurophysiological findings and pain. Methods The study was prospective, and 127 UNE patients who were selected consecutively from the list of patients, had a clinical and electrodiagnostic examination. Data from the most symptomatic arm were analysed and compared to the department's reference limits. Student's t - test, chi-square tests and multiple regression models were used. Two-side p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results Ulnar paresthesias (96%) were more common than pain (60%). Reduced ulnar sensitivity (86%) and muscle strength (48%) were the most common clinical findings. Adding a third stimulation site in the elbow mid-sulcus for motor conduction velocity (MCV) to abductor digiti minimi (ADM) increased the electrodiagnostic sensitivity from 80% to 96%. Additional recording of ulnar MCV to the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) increased the sensitivity from 96% to 98%. The ulnar fifth finger and dorsal branch sensory studies were abnormal in 39% and 30% of patients, respectively. Abnormal electromyography in FDI was found in 49% of the patients. Patients with and without pain had generally similar conduction velocity parameter means. Conclusion We recommend three stimulation sites at the elbow for MCV to ADM. Recording from FDI is not routinely indicated. Sensory studies and electromyography do not contribute much to the sensitivity of the electrodiagnostic evaluation, but they are useful to document axonal degeneration. Most conduction parameters are unrelated to the presence of pain

  10. Quantification of the proportion of motor neurons recruited by transcranial electrical stimulation during intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2013-12-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are widely used to monitor motor function during spinal surgery. However, they are much smaller and more variable in amplitude than responses evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, suggesting that a limited number of spinal motor neurons to the target muscle are excited by transcranial stimulation. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of motor neurons recruited during TcMEP monitoring under general anesthesia. In twenty patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar spinal surgery with TcMEP monitoring, the triple stimulation technique (TST) was applied to the unilateral upper arm intraoperatively. Total intravenous anesthesia was employed. Trains of four stimuli were delivered with maximal intensity and an inter-pulse interval of 1.5 ms. TST responses were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle, and the negative peak amplitude and area were measured and compared between the TST test (two collisions between transcranial and proximal and distal peripheral stimulation) and control response (two collisions between two proximal and one distal peripheral stimulation). The highest degree of superimposition of the TST test and control responses was chosen from several trials per patient. The average ratios (test:control) were 17.1 % (range 1.8-38 %) for the amplitudes and 21.6 % (range 2.9-40 %) for the areas. The activity of approximately 80 % of the motor units to the target muscle cannot be detected by TcMEP monitoring. Therefore, changes in evoked potentials must be interpreted cautiously when assessing segmental motor function with TcMEP monitoring.

  11. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (<60% of Maximal Voluntary Contraction, MVC). This measurement can therefore be used to estimate changes in individual muscle force. However, it is not known if this relationship remains valid for higher intensities. The aim of this study was to determine: (i) the relationship between muscle shear elastic modulus and muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  13. Mechanism of orientation of stimulating currents in magnetic brain stimulation (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Matsuda, T.

    1991-04-01

    We made a functional map of the human motor cortex related to the hand and foot areas by stimulating the human brain with a focused magnetic pulse. We observed that each functional area in the cortex has an optimum direction for which stimulating currents can produce neural excitation. The present report focuses on the mechanism which is responsible for producing this anisotropic response to brain stimulation. We first obtained a functional map of the brain related to the left ADM (abductor digiti minimi muscles). When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the left to the right hemisphere, clear EMG (electromyographic) responses were obtained only from the left ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the right to the left hemisphere, clear EMG signals were obtained only from the right ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. The functional maps of the brain were sensitive to changes in the direction of the stimulating currents. To explain the phenomena obtained in the experiments, we developed a model of neural excitation elicited by magnetic stimulation. When eddy currents which are induced by pulsed magnetic fields flow in the direction from soma to the distal part of neural fiber, depolarized area in the distal part are excited, and the membrane excitation propagates along the nerve fiber. In contrast, when the induced currents flow in the direction from the distal part to soma, hyperpolarized parts block or inhibit neural excitation even if the depolarized parts near the soma can be excited. The model explains our observation that the orientation of the induced current vectors reflect both the functional and anatomical organization of the neural fibers in the brain.

  14. Increased Inhibition in Non-Primary Motor Areas of String-Instrument Players: A Preliminary Study with Paired-Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Vaalto, Selja; Julkunen, Petro; Säïsänen, Laura; Könönen, Mervi; Määttä, Sara; Karhu, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Background: The muscle representations in non-primary motor area (NPMA) are located in the dorsal premotor area (PMd) and in the border region between the premotor area and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Objective: We characterized the plasticity of intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits in muscle representations in primary motor cortex (M1) and in NPMA related to acquired fine motor skills. We compared local cortical inhibition and facilitation balance in M1 and in NPMA between control subjects (n = 6) and right-handed string-instrument players (n = 5). Methods: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to compare motor thresholds (MTs), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in non-dominant hand muscle representations in M1 and NPMA. Results: String-instrument players showed reduced SICI in M1 in the actively used left hand abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle representation at 3 ms inter-stimulus interval (ISI) with a conditioning stimulus (CS) intensity of 80% of MT and increased SICI in NPMA in ADM representation at 2 ms ISI and CS intensity of 50% of MT in comparison with controls. No differences between string-instrument players and controls were found for the SICI in the left hand opponens pollicis (OP) muscle representation, which is a muscle not intensively trained in string-instrument players. Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that the stronger inhibition in motor representations outside M1 in string-instrument players may be crucial when accurate movements of single muscles must be performed. In contrast, weaker inhibition in M1 in string-instrument players may benefit the performance of fast finger movements. PMID:29765844

  15. Excitability of the Primary Motor Cortex Increases More Strongly with Slow- than with Normal-Speed Presentation of Actions

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Takefumi; Iso, Naoki; Sagari, Akira; Ogahara, Kakuya; Kitajima, Eiji; Tanaka, Koji; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate how the speed of observed action affects the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), as assessed by the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Eighteen healthy subjects watched a video clip of a person catching a ball, played at three different speeds (normal-, half-, and quarter-speed). MEPs were induced by TMS when the model's hand had opened to the widest extent just before catching the ball (“open”) and when the model had just caught the ball (“catch”). These two events were locked to specific frames of the video clip (“phases”), rather than occurring at specific absolute times, so that they could easily be compared across different speeds. MEPs were recorded from the thenar (TH) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles of the right hand. Results The MEP amplitudes were higher when the subjects watched the video clip at low speed than when they watched the clip at normal speed. A repeated-measures ANOVA, with the factor VIDEO-SPEED, showed significant main effects. Bonferroni's post hoc test showed that the following MEP amplitude differences were significant: TH, normal vs. quarter; ADM, normal vs. half; and ADM, normal vs. quarter. Paired t-tests showed that the significant MEP amplitude differences between TMS phases under each speed condition were TH, “catch” higher than “open” at quarter speed; ADM, “catch” higher than “open” at half speed. Conclusions These results indicate that the excitability of M1 was higher when the observed action was played at low speed. Our findings suggest that the action observation system became more active when the subjects observed the video clip at low speed, because the subjects could then recognize the elements of action and intention in others. PMID:25479161

  16. Ethanol modulates cortical activity: direct evidence with combined TMS and EEG.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, S; Kesäniemi, M; Nikouline, V V; Karhu, J; Ollikainen, M; Holi, M; Ilmoniemi, R J

    2001-08-01

    The motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects was stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after ethanol challenge (0.8 g/kg resulting in blood concentration of 0.77 +/- 0.14 ml/liter). The electrical brain activity resulting from the brief electromagnetic pulse was recorded with high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) and located using inversion algorithms. Focal magnetic pulses to the left motor cortex were delivered with a figure-of-eight coil at the random interstimulus interval of 1.5-2.5 s. The stimulation intensity was adjusted to the motor threshold of abductor digiti minimi. Two conditions before and after ethanol ingestion (30 min) were applied: (1) real TMS, with the coil pressed against the scalp; and (2) control condition, with the coil separated from the scalp by a 2-cm-thick piece of plastic. A separate EMG control recording of one subject during TMS was made with two bipolar platinum needle electrodes inserted to the left temporal muscle. In each condition, 120 pulses were delivered. The EEG was recorded from 60 scalp electrodes. A peak in the EEG signals was observed at 43 ms after the TMS pulse in the real-TMS condition but not in the control condition or in the control scalp EMG. Potential maps before and after ethanol ingestion were significantly different from each other (P = 0.01), but no differences were found in the control condition. Ethanol changed the TMS-evoked potentials over right frontal and left parietal areas, the underlying effect appearing to be largest in the right prefrontal area. Our findings suggest that ethanol may have changed the functional connectivity between prefrontal and motor cortices. This new noninvasive method provides direct evidence about the modulation of cortical connectivity after ethanol challenge. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Nerve Transfer Versus Nerve Graft for Reconstruction of High Ulnar Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Asser A; El-Deeb, Mohamed S; Imam, Mohamed A

    2017-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of nerve transfer versus nerve grafting in restoring motor and sensory hand function in patients with complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injuries. A retrospective chart review was performed, at a minimum 2 years of follow-up, of 52 patients suffering complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injury between January 2006 and June 2013 in one specialized hand surgery unit. Twenty-four patients underwent motor and sensory nerve transfers (NT group). Twenty-eight patients underwent sural nerve grafting (NG group). Motor recovery, return of sensibility and complications were examined as outcome measures. The Medical Research Council scale was applied to evaluate sensory and motor recovery. Grip and pinch strengths of the hand were measured. Twenty of 24 patients (83.33%) in the NT group regained M3 grade or greater for the adductor pollicis, the abductor digiti minimi, and the medial 2 lumbricals and interossei, compared with only 16 of 28 patients (57.14%) in the NG group. Means for percentage recovery of grip strengths compared with the other healthy hand were significantly higher for the NT group than the NG group. Sensory recovery of S3 or greater was achieved in more than half of each group with no significant difference between groups. Nerve transfer is favored over nerve grafting in managing high ulnar nerve injuries because of better improvement of motor power and better restoration of grip functions of the hand. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Directing visual attention during action observation modulates corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Greg; Franklin, Zoe C.; Marshall, Ben; Riach, Martin; Holmes, Paul S.

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research has shown that corticospinal excitability is facilitated during the observation of human movement. However, the relationship between corticospinal excitability and participants’ visual attention during action observation is rarely considered. Nineteen participants took part in four conditions: (i) a static hand condition, involving observation of a right hand holding a ball between the thumb and index finger; (ii) a free observation condition, involving observation of the ball being pinched between thumb and index finger; and (iii and iv) finger-focused and ball-focused conditions, involving observation of the same ball pinch action with instructions to focus visual attention on either the index finger or the ball. Single-pulse TMS was delivered to the left motor cortex and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi muscles of the right hand. Eye movements were recorded simultaneously throughout each condition. The ball-focused condition produced MEPs of significantly larger amplitude in the FDI muscle, compared to the free observation or static hand conditions. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that the number of fixations on the ball was a significant predictor of MEP amplitude in the ball-focused condition. These results have important implications for the design and delivery of action observation interventions in motor (re)learning settings. Specifically, providing viewing instructions that direct participants to focus visual attention on task-relevant objects affected by the observed movement promotes activity in the motor system in a more optimal manner than free observation or no instructions. PMID:29304044

  19. Grasp-specific motor resonance is influenced by the visibility of the observed actor.

    PubMed

    Bunday, Karen L; Lemon, Roger N; Kilner, James M; Davare, Marco; Orban, Guy A

    2016-11-01

    Motor resonance is the modulation of M1 corticospinal excitability induced by observation of others' actions. Recent brain imaging studies have revealed that viewing videos of grasping actions led to a differential activation of the ventral premotor cortex depending on whether the entire person is viewed versus only their disembodied hand. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of videos or static images in which a whole person or merely the hand was seen reaching and grasping a peanut (precision grip) or an apple (whole hand grasp). Participants were presented with six visual conditions in which visual stimuli (video vs static image), view (whole person vs hand) and grasp (precision grip vs whole hand grasp) were varied in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Observing videos, but not static images, of a hand grasping different objects resulted in a grasp-specific interaction, such that FDI and ADM MEPs were differentially modulated depending on the type of grasp being observed (precision grip vs whole hand grasp). This interaction was present when observing the hand acting, but not when observing the whole person acting. Additional experiments revealed that these results were unlikely to be due to the relative size of the hand being observed. Our results suggest that observation of videos rather than static images is critical for motor resonance. Importantly, observing the whole person performing the action abolished the grasp-specific effect, which could be due to a variety of PMv inputs converging on M1. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental muscle pain increases variability of neural drive to muscle and decreases motor unit coherence in tremor frequency band.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; Farina, Dario

    2015-08-01

    It has been observed that muscle pain influences force variability and low-frequency (<3 Hz) oscillations in the neural drive to muscle. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of experimental muscle pain on the neural control of muscle force at higher frequency bands, associated with afferent feedback (alpha band, 5-13 Hz) and with descending cortical input (beta band, 15-30 Hz). Single-motor unit activity was recorded, in two separate experimental sessions, from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles with intramuscular wire electrodes, during isometric abductions of the fifth finger at 10% of maximal force [maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and ankle dorsiflexions at 25% MVC. The contractions were repeated under three conditions: no pain (baseline) and after intramuscular injection of isotonic (0.9%, control) and hypertonic (5.8%, painful) saline. The results showed an increase of the relative power of both the force signal and the neural drive at the tremor frequency band (alpha, 5-13 Hz) between the baseline and hypertonic (painful) conditions for both muscles (P < 0.05) but no effect on the beta band. Additionally, the strength of motor unit coherence was lower (P < 0.05) in the hypertonic condition in the alpha band for both muscles and in the beta band for the ADM. These results indicate that experimental muscle pain increases the amplitude of the tremor oscillations because of an increased variability of the neural control (common synaptic input) in the tremor band. Moreover, the concomitant decrease in coherence suggests an increase in independent input in the tremor band due to pain. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Interhemispheric plasticity in humans.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lomarev, Mikhael; Shamim, Ejaz; Meunier, Sabine; Russman, Heike; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Chronic unimanual motor practice increases the motor output not only in the trained but also in the nonexercised homologous muscle in the opposite limb. We examined the hypothesis that adaptations in motor cortical excitability of the nontrained primary motor cortex (iM1) and in interhemispheric inhibition from the trained to the nontrained M1 mediate this interlimb cross education. Healthy, young volunteers (n=12) performed 1000 submaximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) at 80% MVC during 20 sessions. Trained FDI's MVC increased 49.9%, and the untrained FDI's MVC increased 28.1%. Although corticospinal excitability in iM1, measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after every fifth session, increased 6% at rest, these changes, as those in intracortical inhibition and facilitation, did not correlate with cross education. When weak and strong TMS of iM1 were delivered on a background of a weak and strong muscle contraction, respectively, of the right FDI, excitability of iM1 increased dramatically after 20 sessions. Interhemispheric inhibition decreased 8.9% acutely within sessions and 30.9% chronically during 20 sessions and these chronic reductions progressively became more strongly associated with cross education. There were no changes in force or TMS measures in the trained group's left abductor minimi digiti and there were no changes in the nonexercising control group (n=8). The findings provide the first evidence for plasticity of interhemispheric connections to mediate cross education produced by a simple motor task.

  2. Motor unit recruitment strategies and muscle properties determine the influence of synaptic noise on force steadiness

    PubMed Central

    Dideriksen, Jakob L.; Negro, Francesco; Enoka, Roger M.

    2012-01-01

    Motoneurons receive synaptic inputs from tens of thousands of connections that cause membrane potential to fluctuate continuously (synaptic noise), which introduces variability in discharge times of action potentials. We hypothesized that the influence of synaptic noise on force steadiness during voluntary contractions is limited to low muscle forces. The hypothesis was examined with an analytical description of transduction of motor unit spike trains into muscle force, a computational model of motor unit recruitment and rate coding, and experimental analysis of interspike interval variability during steady contractions with the abductor digiti minimi muscle. Simulations varied contraction force, level of synaptic noise, size of motor unit population, recruitment range, twitch contraction times, and level of motor unit short-term synchronization. Consistent with the analytical derivations, simulations and experimental data showed that force variability at target forces above a threshold was primarily due to low-frequency oscillations in neural drive, whereas the influence of synaptic noise was almost completely attenuated by two low-pass filters, one related to convolution of motoneuron spike trains with motor unit twitches (temporal summation) and the other attributable to summation of single motor unit forces (spatial summation). The threshold force above which synaptic noise ceased to influence force steadiness depended on recruitment range, size of motor unit population, and muscle contractile properties. This threshold was low (<10% of maximal force) for typical values of these parameters. Results indicate that motor unit recruitment and muscle properties of a typical muscle are tuned to limit the influence of synaptic noise on force steadiness to low forces and that the inability to produce a constant force during stronger contractions is mainly attributable to the common low-frequency oscillations in motoneuron discharge rates. PMID:22423000

  3. The Effects of Mirror Feedback during Target Directed Movements on Ipsilateral Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Yarossi, Mathew; Manuweera, Thushini; Adamovich, Sergei V.; Tunik, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Mirror visual feedback (MVF) training is a promising technique to promote activation in the lesioned hemisphere following stroke, and aid recovery. However, current outcomes of MVF training are mixed, in part, due to variability in the task undertaken during MVF. The present study investigated the hypothesis that movements directed toward visual targets may enhance MVF modulation of motor cortex (M1) excitability ipsilateral to the trained hand compared to movements without visual targets. Ten healthy subjects participated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in which feedback (veridical, mirror) and presence of a visual target (target present, target absent) for a right index-finger flexion task were systematically manipulated in a virtual environment. To measure M1 excitability, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the untrained first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles at rest prior to and following each of four 2-min blocks of 30 movements (B1–B4). Targeted movement kinematics without visual feedback was measured before and after training to assess learning and transfer. FDI MEPs were decreased in B1 and B2 when movements were made with veridical feedback and visual targets were absent. FDI MEPs were decreased in B2 and B3 when movements were made with mirror feedback and visual targets were absent. FDI MEPs were increased in B3 when movements were made with mirror feedback and visual targets were present. Significant MEP changes were not present for the uninvolved ADM, suggesting a task-specific effect. Analysis of kinematics revealed learning occurred in visual target-directed conditions, but transfer was not sensitive to mirror feedback. Results are discussed with respect to current theoretical mechanisms underlying MVF-induced changes in ipsilateral excitability. PMID:28553218

  4. Median and ulnar muscle and sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Felsenthal, G

    1978-08-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to find suggested clinical applications of the study of the amplitude of evoked muscle action potentials (MAP) and sensory action potentials (SAP). In addition, the literature was reviewed to ascertain the normal amplitude and duration of the evoked MAP and SAP as well as the factors affecting the amplitude: age, sex, temperature, ischemia. The present study determined the normal amplitude and duration of the median and ulnar MAP and SAP in fifty normal subjects. The amplitude of evoked muscle or sensory action potentials depends on multiple factors. Increased skin resistance, capacitance, and impedance at the surface of the recording electrode diminishes the amplitude. Similarly, increased distance from the source of the action potential diminishes its amplitude. Increased interelectrode distance increases the amplitude of the bipolarly recorded sensory action potential until a certain interelectrode distance is exceeded and the diphasic response becomes tri- or tetraphasic. Artifact or poor technique may reduce the potential difference between the recording electrodes or obscure the late positive phase of the action potential and thus diminish the peak to peak amplitude measurement. Intraindividual comparison indicated a marked difference of amplitude in opposite hands. The range of the MAP of the abductor pollicis brevis in one hand was 40.0--100% of the response in the opposite hand. For the abductor digiti minimi, the MAP was 58.5--100% of the response of the opposite hand. The median and ulnar SAP was between 50--100% of the opposite SAP. Consequent to these findings the effect of hand dominance on the amplitude of median and ulnar evoked muscle and sensory action potentials was studied in 41 right handed volunteers. The amplitudes of the median muscle action potential (p less than 0.02) and the median and ulnar sensory action potentials (p less than 0.001) were significantly less in the dominant hand. There was no

  5. An Emotion-Enriched Context Influences the Effect of Action Observation on Cortical Excitability.

    PubMed

    Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; De Ferrari, Alessia Raffo; Pelosin, Elisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco; Avanzino, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Observing other people in action activates the "mirror neuron system" that serves for action comprehension and prediction. Recent evidence suggests that this function requires a high level codification triggered not only by components of motor behavior, but also by the environment where the action is embedded. An overlooked component of action perceiving is the one related to the emotional information provided by the context where the observed action takes place. Indeed, whether valence and arousal associated to an emotion might exert an influence on motor system activation during action observation has not been assessed so far. Here, cortico-spinal excitability of the left motor cortex was recorded in three groups of subjects. In the first condition, motor-evoked potential (MEPs) were recorded from a muscle involved in the grasping movement (i.e., abductor pollicis brevis, APB) while participants were watching the same reach-to-grasp movement embedded in contexts with negative emotional valence, but different levels of arousal: sadness (low arousal), and disgust (high arousal) ("Context plus Movement-APB" condition). In the second condition, MEPs were recorded from APB muscle while participants were observing static images representing the contexts in which the movement observed by participants in "Context plus Movement-APB" condition took place ("Context Only-APB" condition). Finally, in the third condition, MEPS were recorded from a muscle not involved in the grasping action, i.e., abductor digiti minimi, ADM, while participants were watching the same videos shown during the "Context plus Movement-APB" condition ("Context plus Movement-ADM" condition). Results showed a greater increase of cortical excitability only during the observation of the hand moving in the context eliciting disgust, and these changes were specific for the muscle involved in the observed action. Our findings show that the emotional context in which a movement occurs modulates motor

  6. The Effect of Visual and Auditory Enhancements on Excitability of the Primary Motor Cortex during Motor Imagery: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Kohei; Higashi, Toshio; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The effect of visual and auditory enhancements of finger movement on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) was investigated using the transcranial magnetic stimulation technique. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the abductor digit minimi muscle during MI with auditory, visual and, auditory and visual information, and no…

  7. 19 CFR 10.918 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 32(n), HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10...

  8. 19 CFR 10.3018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 34, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10...

  9. 19 CFR 10.459 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 26(n), HTSUS, will nonetheless be considered to be an originating good if— (1) The value of all non-originating materials that are used in the production of the good and do not undergo the applicable change in tariff...

  10. 19 CFR 10.2018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 35, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10 percent...

  11. 19 CFR 10.459 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 26(n), HTSUS, will nonetheless be considered to be an originating good if— (1) The value of all non-originating materials that are used in the production of the good and do not undergo the applicable change in tariff...

  12. 19 CFR 10.1018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 33, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10 percent...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 33, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10 percent...

  14. 19 CFR 10.459 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 26(n), HTSUS, will nonetheless be considered to be an originating good if— (1) The value of all non-originating materials that are used in the production of the good and do not undergo the applicable change in tariff...

  15. 19 CFR 10.918 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 32(n), HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10...

  16. 19 CFR 10.918 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 32(n), HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10...

  17. 19 CFR 10.1018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 33, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10 percent...

  18. 19 CFR 10.3018 - De minimis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section, a good that does not undergo a change in tariff classification pursuant to General Note 34, HTSUS, is an originating good if: (1) The value of all non-originating materials used in the production of the good that do not undergo the applicable change in tariff classification does not exceed 10...

  19. Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

    2012-12-01

    stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  20. Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

    2012-01-01

    stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

  1. The human motor neuron pools receive a dominant slow‐varying common synaptic input

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Francesco; Yavuz, Utku Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    . Moreover, we applied this method to three human muscles: the abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior and vastus medialis. Despite these muscles having different functional roles and control properties, as confirmed by the results of the present study, we estimate that their motor pools receive a similar and large (>60%) proportion of common low frequency oscillations with respect to their total synaptic input. These results suggest that the central nervous system provides a large amount of common input to motor neuron pools, in a similar way to that for muscles with different functional and control properties. PMID:27151459

  2. Fluctuations in isometric muscle force can be described by one linear projection of low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Francesco; Holobar, Aleš; Farina, Dario

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between linear transformations of motor unit discharge rates and muscle force. Intramuscular (wire electrodes) and high-density surface EMG (13 × 5 electrode grid) were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle of eight healthy men during 60 s contractions at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the maximal force. Spike trains of a total of 222 motor units were identified from the EMG recordings with decomposition algorithms. Principal component analysis of the smoothed motor unit discharge rates indicated that one component (first common component, FCC) described 44.2 ± 7.5% of the total variability of the smoothed discharge rates when computed over the entire contraction interval and 64.3 ± 10.2% of the variability when computed over 5 s intervals. When the FCC was computed from four or more motor units per contraction, it correlated with the force produced by the muscle (62.7 ± 10.1%) by a greater degree (P < 0.001) than the smoothed discharge rates of individual motor units (41.4 ± 7.8%). The correlation between FCC and the force signal increased up to 71.8 ± 13.1% when the duration and the shape of the smoothing window for discharge rates were similar to the average motor unit twitch force. Moreover, the coefficients of variation (CoV) for the force and for the FCC signal were correlated in all subjects (R2 range = 0.14–0.56; P < 0.05) whereas the CoV for force was correlated to the interspike interval variability in only one subject (R2= 0.12; P < 0.05). Similar results were further obtained from measures on the tibialis anterior muscle of an additional eight subjects during contractions at forces up to 20% of the maximal force (e.g. FCC explained 59.8 ± 11.0% of variability of the smoothed discharge rates). In conclusion, one signal captures most of the underlying variability of the low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates and explains large part of the fluctuations in the motor output during

  3. Low-frequency oscillations of the neural drive to the muscle are increased with experimental muscle pain

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Francesco; Gizzi, Leonardo; Falla, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of nociceptive stimulation on the accuracy of task execution and motor unit spike trains during low-force isometric contractions. Muscle pain was induced by infusion of hypertonic saline into the abductor digiti minimi muscle of 11 healthy men. Intramuscular EMG signals were recorded from the same muscle during four isometric contractions of 60-s duration at 10% of the maximal force [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] performed before injection (baseline), after injection of isotonic (control) or hypertonic saline (pain), and 15 min after pain was no longer reported. Each contraction was preceded by three 3-s ramp contractions from 0% to 10% MVC. The low-frequency oscillations of motor unit spike trains were analyzed by the first principal component of the low-pass filtered spike trains [first common component (FCC)], which represents the effective neural drive to the muscle. Pain decreased the accuracy of task performance [coefficient of variation (CoV) for force: baseline, 2.8 ± 1.8%, pain, 3.9 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05] and reduced motor unit discharge rates [11.6 ± 2.3 pulses per second (pps) vs. 10.7 ± 1.7 pps; P < 0.05]. Motor unit recruitment thresholds (2.2 ± 1.2% MVC vs. 2.4 ± 1.6% MVC), interspike interval variability (18.4 ± 4.9% vs. 19.1 ± 5.4%), strength of motor unit short-term synchronization [common input strength (CIS) 1.02 ± 0.44 vs. 0.83 ± 0.22], and strength of common drive (0.47 ± 0.08 vs. 0.47 ± 0.06) did not change across conditions. The FCC signal was correlated with force (R = 0.45 ± 0.06), and the CoV for FCC increased in the painful condition (5.69 ± 1.29% vs. 7.83 ± 2.61%; P < 0.05). These results indicate that nociceptive stimulation increased the low-frequency variability in synaptic input to motoneurons. PMID:22049336

  4. Fluctuations in isometric muscle force can be described by one linear projection of low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates.

    PubMed

    Negro, Francesco; Holobar, Ales; Farina, Dario

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between linear transformations of motor unit discharge rates and muscle force. Intramuscular (wire electrodes) and high-density surface EMG (13 x 5 electrode grid) were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle of eight healthy men during 60 s contractions at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the maximal force. Spike trains of a total of 222 motor units were identified from the EMG recordings with decomposition algorithms. Principal component analysis of the smoothed motor unit discharge rates indicated that one component (first common component, FCC) described 44.2 +/- 7.5% of the total variability of the smoothed discharge rates when computed over the entire contraction interval and 64.3 +/- 10.2% of the variability when computed over 5 s intervals. When the FCC was computed from four or more motor units per contraction, it correlated with the force produced by the muscle (62.7 +/- 10.1%) by a greater degree (P < 0.001) than the smoothed discharge rates of individual motor units (41.4 +/- 7.8%). The correlation between FCC and the force signal increased up to 71.8 +/- 13.1% when the duration and the shape of the smoothing window for discharge rates were similar to the average motor unit twitch force. Moreover, the coefficients of variation (CoV) for the force and for the FCC signal were correlated in all subjects (R(2) range = 0.14-0.56; P < 0.05) whereas the CoV for force was correlated to the interspike interval variability in only one subject (R(2) = 0.12; P < 0.05). Similar results were further obtained from measures on the tibialis anterior muscle of an additional eight subjects during contractions at forces up to 20% of the maximal force (e.g. FCC explained 59.8 +/- 11.0% of variability of the smoothed discharge rates). In conclusion, one signal captures most of the underlying variability of the low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates and explains large part of the fluctuations in the motor output

  5. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  6. Unexpected factors affecting the excitability of human motoneurones in voluntary and stimulated contractions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Serajul I.; Taylor, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The output of human motoneurone pools decreases with fatiguing exercise, but the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We explored depression of recurrent motoneurone discharges (F‐waves) after sustained maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs).MVC depressed the size and frequency of F‐waves in a hand muscle but a submaximal contraction (at 50% MVC) did not.Surprisingly, activation of the motoneurones antidromically by stimulation of the ulnar nerve (at 20 or 40 Hz) did not depress F‐wave area or persistence.Furthermore, a sustained (3 min) MVC of a hand muscle depressed F‐waves in its antagonist but not in a remote hand muscle.Our findings suggest that depression of F‐waves after voluntary contractions is not simply due to repetitive activation of the motoneurones but requires descending voluntary drive.  Furthermore, this effect may depress nearby, but not distant, spinal motoneurone pools. Abstract There are major spinal changes induced by repetitive activity and fatigue that could contribute to ‘central’ fatigue but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood in humans. Here we confirmed that the recurrent motoneuronal discharge (F‐wave) is reduced during relaxation immediately after a sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of an intrinsic hand muscle (abductor digiti minimi, ADM) and explored the relationship between motoneurone firing and the depression of F‐waves in three ways. First, the depression (in both F‐wave area and F‐wave persistence) was present after a 10 s MVC (initial decrease 36.4 ± 19.1%; mean ± SD) but not after a submaximal voluntary contraction at 50% maximum. Second, to evoke motoneurone discharge without volitional effort, 10 s tetanic contractions were produced by supramaximal ulnar nerve stimulation at the elbow at physiological frequencies of 25 and 40 Hz. Surprisingly, neither produced depression of F‐waves in ADM to test supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist

  7. Unexpected factors affecting the excitability of human motoneurones in voluntary and stimulated contractions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Serajul I; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2016-05-15

    The output of human motoneurone pools decreases with fatiguing exercise, but the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We explored depression of recurrent motoneurone discharges (F-waves) after sustained maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). MVC depressed the size and frequency of F-waves in a hand muscle but a submaximal contraction (at 50% MVC) did not. Surprisingly, activation of the motoneurones antidromically by stimulation of the ulnar nerve (at 20 or 40 Hz) did not depress F-wave area or persistence. Furthermore, a sustained (3 min) MVC of a hand muscle depressed F-waves in its antagonist but not in a remote hand muscle. Our findings suggest that depression of F-waves after voluntary contractions is not simply due to repetitive activation of the motoneurones but requires descending voluntary drive.  Furthermore, this effect may depress nearby, but not distant, spinal motoneurone pools. There are major spinal changes induced by repetitive activity and fatigue that could contribute to 'central' fatigue but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood in humans. Here we confirmed that the recurrent motoneuronal discharge (F-wave) is reduced during relaxation immediately after a sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of an intrinsic hand muscle (abductor digiti minimi, ADM) and explored the relationship between motoneurone firing and the depression of F-waves in three ways. First, the depression (in both F-wave area and F-wave persistence) was present after a 10 s MVC (initial decrease 36.4 ± 19.1%; mean ± SD) but not after a submaximal voluntary contraction at 50% maximum. Second, to evoke motoneurone discharge without volitional effort, 10 s tetanic contractions were produced by supramaximal ulnar nerve stimulation at the elbow at physiological frequencies of 25 and 40 Hz. Surprisingly, neither produced depression of F-waves in ADM to test supramaximal stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Finally, a sustained MVC (3 min) of the

  8. Family Abductors: Descriptive Profiles and Preventive Interventions. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet R.; Girdner, Linda K.

    Parental abduction encompasses a broad array of illegal behaviors that involves one parent taking, detaining, concealing, or enticing away his or her child from the parent having custodial access. When the abducted parent intends to permanently alter custodial access by hiding the child or removing the child to another locale, the effects on the…

  9. Plantar fascia anatomy and its relationship with Achilles tendon and paratenon

    PubMed Central

    Stecco, Carla; Corradin, Marco; Macchi, Veronica; Morra, Aldo; Porzionato, Andrea; Biz, Carlo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Although the plantar fascia (PF) has been studied quite well from a biomechanical viewpoint, its microscopic properties have been overlooked: nothing is known about its content of elastic fibers, the features of the extracellular matrix or the extent of innervation. From a functional and clinical standpoint, the PF is often correlated with the triceps surae muscle, but the anatomical grounds for this link are not clear. The aim of this work was to focus on the PF macroscopic and microscopic properties and study how Achilles tendon diseases might affect it. Twelve feet from unembalmed human cadavers were dissected to isolate the PF. Specimens from each PF were tested with various histological and immunohistochemical stains. In a second stage, 52 magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from patients complaining of aspecific ankle or foot pain were analyzed, dividing the cases into two groups based on the presence or absence of signs of degeneration and/or inflammation of the Achilles tendon. The thickness of PF and paratenon was assessed in the two groups and statistical analyses were conducted. The PF is a tissue firmly joined to plantar muscles and skin. Analyzing its possible connections to the sural structures showed that this fascia is more closely connected to the paratenon of Achilles tendon than to the Achilles tendon, through the periosteum of the heel. The PF extended medially and laterally, continuing into the deep fasciae enveloping the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi muscles, respectively. The PF was rich in hyaluronan, probably produced by fibroblastic-like cells described as ‘fasciacytes’. Nerve endings and Pacini and Ruffini corpuscles were present, particularly in the medial and lateral portions, and on the surface of the muscles, suggesting a role for the PF in the proprioception of foot. In the radiological study, 27 of the 52 MRI showed signs of Achilles tendon inflammation and/or degeneration, and the PF was 3.43 ± 0.48 mm

  10. Plantar fascia anatomy and its relationship with Achilles tendon and paratenon.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Carla; Corradin, Marco; Macchi, Veronica; Morra, Aldo; Porzionato, Andrea; Biz, Carlo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-12-01

    Although the plantar fascia (PF) has been studied quite well from a biomechanical viewpoint, its microscopic properties have been overlooked: nothing is known about its content of elastic fibers, the features of the extracellular matrix or the extent of innervation. From a functional and clinical standpoint, the PF is often correlated with the triceps surae muscle, but the anatomical grounds for this link are not clear. The aim of this work was to focus on the PF macroscopic and microscopic properties and study how Achilles tendon diseases might affect it. Twelve feet from unembalmed human cadavers were dissected to isolate the PF. Specimens from each PF were tested with various histological and immunohistochemical stains. In a second stage, 52 magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from patients complaining of aspecific ankle or foot pain were analyzed, dividing the cases into two groups based on the presence or absence of signs of degeneration and/or inflammation of the Achilles tendon. The thickness of PF and paratenon was assessed in the two groups and statistical analyses were conducted. The PF is a tissue firmly joined to plantar muscles and skin. Analyzing its possible connections to the sural structures showed that this fascia is more closely connected to the paratenon of Achilles tendon than to the Achilles tendon, through the periosteum of the heel. The PF extended medially and laterally, continuing into the deep fasciae enveloping the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi muscles, respectively. The PF was rich in hyaluronan, probably produced by fibroblastic-like cells described as 'fasciacytes'. Nerve endings and Pacini and Ruffini corpuscles were present, particularly in the medial and lateral portions, and on the surface of the muscles, suggesting a role for the PF in the proprioception of foot. In the radiological study, 27 of the 52 MRI showed signs of Achilles tendon inflammation and/or degeneration, and the PF was 3.43 ± 0.48 mm thick

  11. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer provides the fringes to each individual employee. For example, if an employer provides a free meal in kind to one employee on a daily basis, but not to any other employee, the value of the meals is... workforce the meals are provided “infrequently.” (2) Employer-measured frequency. Notwithstanding the rule...

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer provides the fringes to each individual employee. For example, if an employer provides a free meal in kind to one employee on a daily basis, but not to any other employee, the value of the meals is... workforce the meals are provided “infrequently.” (2) Employer-measured frequency. Notwithstanding the rule...

  13. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies.” (6) Documentation. (i) For transportation by highway... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages indicated. (iii) For... the statement “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages...

  14. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... quantities of Ethanol (UN1170), Formaldehyde solution, flammable (UN1198), Alcohols, n.o.s. (UN1987) and... paper towel or cheesecloth moistened with alcohol or an alcohol solution and placed in a plastic bag that is heat-sealed. Any free liquid in the bag must not exceed 30 mL; or (ii) Placed in vials or other...

  15. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... quantities of Ethanol (UN1170), Formaldehyde solution, flammable (UN1198), Alcohols, n.o.s. (UN1987) and... paper towel or cheesecloth moistened with alcohol or an alcohol solution and placed in a plastic bag that is heat-sealed. Any free liquid in the bag must not exceed 30 mL; or (ii) Placed in vials or other...

  16. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... quantities of Ethanol (UN1170), Formaldehyde solution, flammable (UN1198), Alcohols, n.o.s. (UN1987) and... paper towel or cheesecloth moistened with alcohol or an alcohol solution and placed in a plastic bag that is heat-sealed. Any free liquid in the bag must not exceed 30 mL; or (ii) Placed in vials or other...

  17. Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability.

    PubMed

    Bruyn, George A W; Hanova, Petra; Iagnocco, Annamaria; d'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Möller, Ingrid; Terslev, Lene; Backhaus, Marina; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Baudoin, Paul; van Vugt, Richard; Pineda, Carlos; Wakefield, Richard; Garrido, Jesus; Pecha, Ondrej; Naredo, Esperanza

    2014-11-01

    To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. We conducted a Delphi study on ultrasound-defined tendon damage and ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in RA among 35 international rheumatologists with experience in musculoskeletal ultrasound. Twelve patients with RA were included and assessed twice by 12 rheumatologists-sonographers. Ultrasound examination for tendon damage in B mode of five wrist extensor compartments (extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus; extensor pollicis longus; extensor digitorum communis; extensor digiti minimi; extensor carpi ulnaris) and one ankle tendon (tibialis posterior) was performed blindly, independently and bilaterally in each patient. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated by κ coefficients. A three-grade semiquantitative scoring system was agreed for scoring tendon damage in B mode. The mean intraobserver reliability for tendon damage scoring was excellent (κ value 0.91). The mean interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values (κ value 0.75). The most reliable were the extensor digiti minimi, the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the tibialis posterior tendons. An ultrasound reference image atlas of tenosynovitis and tendon damage was also developed. Ultrasound is a reproducible tool for evaluating tendon damage in RA. This study strongly supports a new reliable ultrasound scoring system for tendon damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. ALL-ELECTRONIC DROPLET GENERATION ON-CHIP WITH REAL-TIME FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR EWOD DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

    2009-01-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation enables digital (or droplet) microfluidics where small packets of liquids are manipulated on a two-dimensional surface. Due to its mechanical simplicity and low energy consumption, EWOD holds particular promise for portable systems. To improve volume precision of the droplets, which is desired for quantitative applications such as biochemical assays, existing practices would require near-perfect device fabricaion and operation conditions unless the droplets are generated under feedback control by an extra pump setup off of the chip. In this paper, we develop an all-electronic (i.e., no ancillary pumping) real-time feedback control of on-chip droplet generation. A fast voltage modulation, capacitance sensing, and discrete-time PID feedback controller are integrated on the operating electronic board. A significant improvement is obtained in the droplet volume uniformity, compared with an open loop control as well as the previous feedback control employing an external pump. Furthermore, this new capability empowers users to prescribe the droplet volume even below the previously considered minimum, allowing, for example, 1:x (x < 1) mixing, in comparison to the previously considered n:m mixing (i.e., n and m unit droplets). PMID:18497909

  19. Dimensions of the foot muscles in the lowland gorilla.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Motoharu; Ogihara, Naomichi; Endo, Hideki; Komiya, Teruyuki; Kawada, Shin-Ichiro; Tomiyama, Tae; Sugiura, Yosuke; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Asari, Masao

    2009-06-01

    We dissected the hindlimb of a female western lowland gorilla and determined the muscle dimensions (mass, fascicle length, and physiological cross-sectional area: PCSA). Comparisons of the muscle parameters of the measured gorilla with corresponding reported human data demonstrated that the triceps surae muscles were larger and had more capacity to generate force than the other muscle groups in both species, but this tendency was more prominent in the human, probably as an adaptation to strong toe-off during bipedal walking. On the other hand, PCSAs of the extrinsic pedal digital flexors and digiti minimi muscles were larger in the western lowland gorilla, suggesting that the foot, particularly the fifth toe, has a relatively high grasping capability in the lowland gorilla.

  20. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  1. Hip abductor strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Matthew D; Caldwell, Wade; Schlueter, Emily L; Walters, Carly; Hassen, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners. Systematic review. Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Effect size was calculated for between group differences in hip abduction strength. Of the 1841 articles returned in the initial search, 11 studies matched all inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped according to injury: iliotibial band syndrome, patellofemoral pain syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial stress fracture, and Achilles tendinopathy, and examined for strength differences between injured and non-injured groups. Meaningful differences were found in the studies examining iliotibial band syndrome. Three of five iliotibial band syndrome articles found weakness in runners with iliotibial band syndrome; two were of strong methodological rigor and both of those found a relationship between weakness and injury. Other results did not form associative or predictive relationships between weakness and injury in distance runners. Hip abduction weakness evaluated by hand held dynamometer may be associated with iliotibial band syndrome in distance runners as suggested by several cross sectional studies but is unclear as a significant factor for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial stress fracture or Achilles tendinopathy according to the current literature. Future studies are needed with consistent methodology and inclusion of all distance running populations to determine the significance of hip abduction strength in relationship to lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-01-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III–V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  3. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented.

  4. The developmental origin of zygodactyl feet and its possible loss in the evolution of Passeriformes

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, João Francisco; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-Leon, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Vargas, Alexander O.

    2014-01-01

    The zygodactyl orientation of toes (digits II and III pointing forwards, digits I and IV pointing backwards) evolved independently in different extant bird taxa. To understand the origin of this trait in modern birds, we investigated the development of the zygodactyl foot of the budgerigar (Psittaciformes). We compared its muscular development with that of the anisodactyl quail (Galliformes) and show that while the musculus abductor digiti IV (ABDIV) becomes strongly developed at HH36 in both species, the musculus extensor brevis digiti IV (EBDIV) degenerates and almost disappears only in the budgerigar. The asymmetric action of those muscles early in the development of the budgerigar foot causes retroversion of digit IV (dIV). Paralysed budgerigar embryos do not revert dIV and are anisodactyl. Both molecular phylogenetic analysis and palaeontological information suggest that the ancestor of passerines could have been zygodactyl. We followed the development of the zebra finch (Passeriformes) foot muscles and found that in this species, both the primordia of the ABDIV and of the EBDIV fail to develop. These data suggest that loss of asymmetric forces of muscular activity exerted on dIV, caused by the absence of the ABDIV, could have resulted in secondary anisodactyly in Passeriformes. PMID:24966313

  5. The developmental origin of zygodactyl feet and its possible loss in the evolution of Passeriformes.

    PubMed

    Botelho, João Francisco; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-Leon, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Vargas, Alexander O

    2014-08-07

    The zygodactyl orientation of toes (digits II and III pointing forwards, digits I and IV pointing backwards) evolved independently in different extant bird taxa. To understand the origin of this trait in modern birds, we investigated the development of the zygodactyl foot of the budgerigar (Psittaciformes). We compared its muscular development with that of the anisodactyl quail (Galliformes) and show that while the musculus abductor digiti IV (ABDIV) becomes strongly developed at HH36 in both species, the musculus extensor brevis digiti IV (EBDIV) degenerates and almost disappears only in the budgerigar. The asymmetric action of those muscles early in the development of the budgerigar foot causes retroversion of digit IV (dIV). Paralysed budgerigar embryos do not revert dIV and are anisodactyl. Both molecular phylogenetic analysis and palaeontological information suggest that the ancestor of passerines could have been zygodactyl. We followed the development of the zebra finch (Passeriformes) foot muscles and found that in this species, both the primordia of the ABDIV and of the EBDIV fail to develop. These data suggest that loss of asymmetric forces of muscular activity exerted on dIV, caused by the absence of the ABDIV, could have resulted in secondary anisodactyly in Passeriformes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives, ACLs, and de minimis control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., except where the ACL escapement level for a stock is higher than the conservation objective, in which case annual management measures will be designed to ensure that the ACL for that stock is met, or where...

  7. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives, ACLs, and de minimis control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., except where the ACL escapement level for a stock is higher than the conservation objective, in which case annual management measures will be designed to ensure that the ACL for that stock is met, or where...

  8. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives, ACLs, and de minimis control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., except where the ACL escapement level for a stock is higher than the conservation objective, in which case annual management measures will be designed to ensure that the ACL for that stock is met, or where...

  9. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Research Corp, American Chemical Etching, American Magnetics Corporation, American Rubber Manufacturing... Unified School District, Santa Clara Valley Water District, Santa Maria Ford, Santa Maria Valley Warehouse...

  10. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... benefit (or any fringe benefit provided to an employee through the use of a charge or credit card) is not... cards that enable an individual to travel on the transit system. The exclusion provided in this... month; membership in a private country club or athletic facility, regardless of the frequency with which...

  11. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... benefit (or any fringe benefit provided to an employee through the use of a charge or credit card) is not... cards that enable an individual to travel on the transit system. The exclusion provided in this... month; membership in a private country club or athletic facility, regardless of the frequency with which...

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... benefit (or any fringe benefit provided to an employee through the use of a charge or credit card) is not... cards that enable an individual to travel on the transit system. The exclusion provided in this... month; membership in a private country club or athletic facility, regardless of the frequency with which...

  13. 76 FR 18549 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Inc. as successor in interest to the claims asserted against Western Electric Company, Inc. and AT&T Technologies, Inc; Avery Dennison Corporation; B/E Aerospace; BAE Systems Information and Electronic Systems... Kenworth, Inc.; Ken Dale; L-3 Communication Corporation; Life Technologies Corporation; Macy's Inc...

  14. 15 CFR 734.4 - De minimis U.S. content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section and the requirements of this paragraph. (1) The U.S. origin commodities or software, if controlled... controlled U.S.-origin commodities or “bundled” with U.S.-origin software valued at 10% or less of the total value of the foreign-made commodity; Notes to paragraph (c)(1): (1) U.S.-origin software is not eligible...

  15. 15 CFR 734.4 - De minimis U.S. content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this paragraph. (1) The U.S. origin commodities or software, if controlled under ECCNs 5A002.a.1, .a.2... controlled U.S.-origin commodities or “bundled” with U.S.-origin software valued at 10% or less of the total value of the foreign-made commodity; Notes to paragraph (c)(1): (1) U.S.-origin software is not eligible...

  16. Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision issues in opto-electronic holography based on fiber optics and high-spatial- and high-digitial-resolution cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Cosme; Yokum, Jeffrey S.; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2002-06-01

    Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision characteristics in quantitative optical metrology techniques, and specifically in optoelectronic holography based on fiber optics and high-spatial and high-digital resolution cameras, are discussed in this paper. It is shown that sensitivity, accuracy, and precision dependent on both, the effective determination of optical phase and the effective characterization of the illumination-observation conditions. Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision are investigated with the aid of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable gages, demonstrating the applicability of quantitative optical metrology techniques to satisfy constantly increasing needs for the study and development of emerging technologies.

  17. 75 FR 52942 - Two Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g) Administrative Agreements for De Minimis Settlements for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... settlement is between EPA and MG Automation and Controls Corporation (``MG'') and Occidental Chemical... accounts for, among other things, uncertainties associated with the costs of that future work at the Site...

  18. Inhibition during response preparation is sensitive to response complexity

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Dylan; Hoang, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Motor system excitability is transiently suppressed during the preparation of movement. This preparatory inhibition is hypothesized to facilitate response selection and initiation. Given that demands on selection and initiation processes increase with movement complexity, we hypothesized that complexity would influence preparatory inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we probed corticospinal excitability during a delayed-response task in which participants were cued to prepare right- or left-hand movements of varying complexity. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over right primary motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of the left hand. MEP suppression was greater during the preparation of responses involving coordination of the FDI and adductor digiti minimi relative to easier responses involving only the FDI, independent of which hand was cued to respond. In contrast, this increased inhibition was absent when the complex responses required sequential movements of the two muscles. Moreover, complexity did not influence the level of inhibition when the response hand was fixed for the trial block, regardless of whether the complex responses were performed simultaneously or sequentially. These results suggest that preparatory inhibition contributes to response selection, possibly by suppressing extraneous movements when responses involve the simultaneous coordination of multiple effectors. PMID:25717168

  19. Heel anatomy for retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal roddings: a roentgenographic and anatomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Flock, T J; Ishikawa, S; Hecht, P J; Wapner, K L

    1997-04-01

    There is an increased interest in load-sharing devices for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. Although the neurovascular anatomy of the heel has been well described, the purpose of this study is to consider heel anatomy as it relates to plantar heel incisions and to well-defined fluoroscopic landmarks to prevent complications during these procedures. Twenty lateral radiographs of normal feet while standing were evaluated by two observers. The distance from the calcaneocuboid (CC) joint to a line parallel to the center of the intramedullary canal of the tibia was calculated. In the second part of the study, 14 dissections of the arterial and neural anatomy were performed. The distances from the CC joint to structures crossing the heel proximal to the CC joint were studied. In the 20 standing radiographs, the mean distance from the CC joint to the middle of the intramedullary canal of the tibia was 2.1 cm (standard deviation, 0.55 cm). In the dissections, the only artery or nerve found to cross the plantar surface proximal to the CC joint was the nerve to the abductor digiti quinti (NAbDQ). The mean distance from the CC joint to the NAbDQ was 3.1 cm (standard deviation, 1.36 cm). Assuming reaming to 12 mm, NAbDQ would be at risk 42% of the time. We recommend careful dissection of the heel during retrograde roddings to avoid damage to NAbDQ and subsequent neurogenic heel pain.

  20. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  1. 26 CFR 31.6302-0T - Table of contents (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the entries for § 31.6302-1(e) through (f)(3). (4) De minimis rule. (i) De minimis deposit rules for quarterly and annual return periods beginning or after January 1, 2001. (ii) De minimis deposit rule for quarterly return periods beginning on or after January 1, 2010. (iii) De minimis deposit rule for employers...

  2. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  3. US 30 proposed expansion Benton County, Iowa NHS-030-6(87)--19-06 : environmental assessment and section 4(f) de minimis impact finding.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-11

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the requirements : of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This EA informs the public and : interested agencies of the proposed action and alternatives to the pr...

  4. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  5. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  6. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids.

  7. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... media, since they are not printed sheets. But specifically allowing de minimis product samples will... provision in the DMM allowing product samples in de minimis form to be included as part of a printed sheet...

  8. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... sheets. But allowing de minimis product samples will reduce the burden of the current guidelines... representatives, the Postal Service has adopted a new provision in the DMM allowing product samples in de minimis...

  9. 78 FR 62887 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... market participant to jump ahead of another market participant's quoted price by a de minimis amount, and... market participant to jump ahead of another market participant's quoted price by a de minimis amount, and...

  10. 78 FR 13402 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... the election not to apply look-back method in de minimis cases. DATES: Written comments should be... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Election Not to Apply Look-Back Method in De Minimis Cases. OMB Number: 1545...), a taxpayer may elect not to apply the look-back method to long-term contracts in de minimis cases...

  11. 75 FR 5852 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Method in De Minimis Cases (Sec. 1.460-6). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April... INFORMATION: Title: Election Not to Apply Look-Back Method in De Minimis Cases. OMB Number: 1545-1572... may elect not to apply the look-back method to long-term contracts in de minimis cases. The taxpayer...

  12. 75 FR 64863 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... permit applicant's burden and streamline the permitting process for de minimis circumstances. These tools... pollutant is de minimis. An emission increase for a particular pollutant that is greater than the SER... construct, is less than the SMC, i.e., de minimis, and may be allowed to forego the preconstruction...

  13. 29 CFR 4231.9 - Request for compliance determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... address set forth in § 4231.8(c). (2) Single request permitted for all de minimis transactions. Because the plan solvency test for de minimis mergers and transfers is based on the most recent valuation (without adjustment for intervening de minimis transactions), a plan sponsor may submit a single request...

  14. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... is above de minimis, we will calculate importer-specific ad valorem duty assessment rate based on the...- average dumping margin is zero or de minimis, or an importer-specific assessment rate is zero or de... final results of this review (except, if the rate is zero or de minimis, then zero cash deposit will be...

  15. U.S. 61 from the Muscatine County line to two miles south of Grandview Louisa County, Iowa NHS-61-3(48)--19-58 : environmental assessment and section 4(f) de minimis impact finding.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-19

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) is proposing to construct improvements to an approximately 6-mile segment of U.S. 61 in Louisa County, Iowa. The proposed improvements consist of a four-lane rural section with controlled accesses and ...

  16. Council Bluffs interstate system improvements project tier 2, segment 3 Pottawattamie County, Iowa IMN-029-2(55)49--13-78 : environmental assessment and section 4(f) de minimis impact finding.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-14

    This Tier 2 Environmental Assessment (EA) presents the results of studies and analyses : conducted to determine the potential impacts of proposed improvements in Segment 3 of the : Council Bluffs Interstate System (CBIS) in the Council Bluffs metropo...

  17. IA 86 from IA 9 to 700 feet south of 110th street Dickinson County, Iowa STP-086-1(10)--2C-30 : environmental assessment and section 4(f) de minimis impact finding.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-30

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) are evaluating potential alternatives to maintain, improve, or replace a 3.9-mile segment of IA 86 from Iowa Highway 9 (IA 9) to near the Minnesota border ...

  18. Environmental Assessment: West Coast Basing of C-17 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    will not be regionally significant by United States Environmental Protection Agency standards, will not exceed de minimis thresholds, and that a...emissions for criteria pollutants will not be regionally significant by United States Environmental Protection Agency standards, will not exceed de minimis...would not exceed de minimis thresholds, and that a Conformity Determination would not be required. MTRs. Emissions from C-17 operations on the

  19. Proceedings of the International Conference on Stiff Computation, April 12-14, 1982, Park City, Utah. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    physical reasoning and based on computational experience with similar equations. There is another non- automatic way: through proper scaling of all...1979) for an automatic scheme for this scaling on a digitial computer . Shampine(1980) reports a special definition of stiffness appropriate for...an analog for a laboratory that typically already has a digital computer . The digitial is much more versatile. Also there does not yet exist " software

  20. 26 CFR 1.148-1 - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... working capital expenditures to which the de minimis rule under § 1.148-6(d)(3)(ii)(A) applies, that carry... are in a commingled fund. De minimis amount means— (1) In reference to original issue discount (as... proceeds of an issue. Investment-type property is defined in paragraph (e) of this section. Issue price...

  1. 77 FR 37859 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Revisions to UAC Rule 401...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ..., 1990, R307-6 (De minimis Emissions from Air Strippers and Soil Venting Projects) was approved into the... and R307-413-9 to R307-401-15 (Air Strippers and Soil Venting Projects) and R307-401-16 (De minimis Emissions from Soil Aeration Projects). Utah's January 8, 1999, submittal is superceded by the September 15...

  2. 29 CFR 785.47 - Where records show insubstantial or insignificant periods of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes, may be disregarded. The courts have held that such trifles are de minimis. (Anderson v. Mt... compensation a week is “not a trivial matter to a workingman,” and was not de minimis; Addison v. Huron.... du Pont de Nemours & Co., 12 W.H. Cases 448, 27 Labor Cases, para. 69,094 (E.D. Va., 1955), holding...

  3. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of subpart F income. Thus, for example, items of gross foreign base company income or gross... insurance income because the de minimis test is met are subject to recharacterization under section 952(c). Further, the de minimis and full inclusion tests of paragraph (b) of this section, and the high tax...

  4. 26 CFR 1.954-1 - Foreign base company income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of subpart F income. Thus, for example, items of gross foreign base company income or gross... insurance income because the de minimis test is met are subject to recharacterization under section 952(c). Further, the de minimis and full inclusion tests of paragraph (b) of this section, and the high tax...

  5. 76 FR 69702 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... is cut to lengths varying from one inch (25 mm) to five inches (127 mm). The subject merchandise may... assessment rate is zero or de minimis. Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash deposit requirements will... zero or de minimis, i.e., less than 0.5 percent, a zero cash deposit rate will be required for that...

  6. 77 FR 21529 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... question, including when that rate is zero or de minimis.\\5\\ In this case, there is only one non-selected... calculations for one company. Therefore, the final results differ from the preliminary results. The final... not to calculate an all-others rate using any zero or de minimis margins or any margins based entirely...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1272-3 - Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., OID, de minimis OID, market discount, de minimis market discount, and unstated interest, as adjusted... the rules provided by this section. (ii) Debt instrument with market discount. (A) A holder may make the election under this section for a debt instrument with market discount only if the holder is...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1272-3 - Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., OID, de minimis OID, market discount, de minimis market discount, and unstated interest, as adjusted... the rules provided by this section. (ii) Debt instrument with market discount. (A) A holder may make the election under this section for a debt instrument with market discount only if the holder is...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1272-3 - Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., OID, de minimis OID, market discount, de minimis market discount, and unstated interest, as adjusted... the rules provided by this section. (ii) Debt instrument with market discount. (A) A holder may make the election under this section for a debt instrument with market discount only if the holder is...

  10. 26 CFR 1.954-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income. (1) De minimis and full inclusion tests. (i) De minimis test. (A) In general. (B) Currency... debt instrument. (3) Property that does not give rise to income. (f) Commodities transactions. (1) In... losses. (2) Definitions. (i) Commodity. (ii) Commodities transaction. (iii) Qualified active sale. (A) In...

  11. 26 CFR 1.954-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income. (1) De minimis and full inclusion tests. (i) De minimis test. (A) In general. (B) Currency... debt instrument. (3) Property that does not give rise to income. (f) Commodities transactions. (1) In... losses. (2) Definitions. (i) Commodity. (ii) Commodities transaction. (iii) Qualified active sale. (A) In...

  12. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... countervailable subsidy rate of zero or de minimis. (2) Preliminary determinations. In an affirmative preliminary... of zero or de minimis will not be excluded from the preliminary determination or the investigation... merchandise produced by Producer X. Based on an examination of Exporter A, the Secretary determines that the...

  13. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... countervailable subsidy rate of zero or de minimis. (2) Preliminary determinations. In an affirmative preliminary... of zero or de minimis will not be excluded from the preliminary determination or the investigation... merchandise produced by Producer X. Based on an examination of Exporter A, the Secretary determines that the...

  14. Environmental Assessment for the South Gate Improvement Project Travis Air Force Base Solano County, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    3-11 De Minimis Levels for Exemption from General Confonnity Rule Requirements...Confonnity Rule de minimis levels. Therefore, not No significant impact. Noise -------1---=c=--onsidered a significant impact. Temporary, short...required under state law. This combined element is intended to guide long-range growth and de - velopment in an orderly manner that protects the

  15. 18 CFR 366.3 - Exemption from Commission access to books and records; waivers of accounting, record-retention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)). (vii) Natural gas companies that distribute natural or manufactured gas at retail to industrial or electric generation customers and/or distribute de minimis amounts of natural or manufactured gas at retail...

  16. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... margin or countervailable subsidy rate (whichever is applicable) of zero (or de minimis) and a weighted...

  17. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... margin or countervailable subsidy rate (whichever is applicable) of zero (or de minimis) and a weighted...

  18. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... margin or countervailable subsidy rate (whichever is applicable) of zero (or de minimis) and a weighted...

  19. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... margin or countervailable subsidy rate (whichever is applicable) of zero (or de minimis) and a weighted...

  20. 75 FR 20813 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... other errors, would result in (1) a change of at least five absolute percentage points in, but not less...) preliminary determination, or (2) a difference between a weighted-average dumping margin of zero or de minimis...

  1. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... margin or countervailable subsidy rate (whichever is applicable) of zero (or de minimis) and a weighted...

  2. 40 CFR 63.526 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vent. (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process.... (i) For the purpose of determining de minimis status for emission points, engineering assessment may... operating conditions expected to yield the highest flow rate and concentration. Engineering assessment...

  3. 40 CFR 63.526 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vent. (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process.... (i) For the purpose of determining de minimis status for emission points, engineering assessment may... operating conditions expected to yield the highest flow rate and concentration. Engineering assessment...

  4. 40 CFR 63.526 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vent. (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process.... (i) For the purpose of determining de minimis status for emission points, engineering assessment may... operating conditions expected to yield the highest flow rate and concentration. Engineering assessment...

  5. High-performance fiber-reinforced concrete in a bridge deck.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the performance of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) with that of conventional concrete in a bridge deck. FRC is expected to increase toughness, provide enhanced residual strength, and minimi...

  6. 77 FR 42802 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Section 4(f) properties. The Q&A 6 now notes that Traditional Cultural Properties may be eligible for the... 23 CFR 774.17 explains that a de minimis impact determination does not require the traditional second...

  7. 77 FR 15839 - 2011 Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Product Review: Inviting Public Comments on Possible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2011 Generalized System of Preferences (GSP...; (2) possible de minimis CNL waivers; and (3) possible redesignations of articles currently not... [[Page 15840

  8. 7 CFR 1205.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than the de minimis value established by the Secretary or industrial products as that term is defined by regulation. (e) Upland Cotton means all cultivated varieties of the species Gossypium hirsutum L...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than the de minimis value established by the Secretary or industrial products as that term is defined by regulation. (e) Upland Cotton means all cultivated varieties of the species Gossypium hirsutum L...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than the de minimis value established by the Secretary or industrial products as that term is defined by regulation. (e) Upland Cotton means all cultivated varieties of the species Gossypium hirsutum L...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than the de minimis value established by the Secretary or industrial products as that term is defined by regulation. (e) Upland Cotton means all cultivated varieties of the species Gossypium hirsutum L...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.201 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... than the de minimis value established by the Secretary or industrial products as that term is defined by regulation. (e) Upland Cotton means all cultivated varieties of the species Gossypium hirsutum L...

  13. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-12-31

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10{sup {minus}1}--10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}6}, respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens.

  14. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10{sup {minus}1}--10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}6}, respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens.

  15. Modified Mostardi approach with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape for total hip arthroplasty provides a good rate of union of osteotomized fragments.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yutaka; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nankaku, Manabu; So, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    A lateral approach is common in total hip arthroplasty because of the good exposure it provides and its low complication rates. However, a drawback of the procedure is that the abductor mechanism is damaged when the tendinous insertion of the abductor muscle is split. Here, we describe a wafer technique using ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape for promising reattachment of the abductor mechanism. We retrospectively evaluated 120 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed using a modified Mostardi approach, which involved reattaching the trochanter using either a braided polyester suture (polyester suture group, n = 60) or ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape (UHMWPE tape group, n = 60). The osteotomized fragment was reattached by inducing bone-to-bone contact using 3-mm-wide tapes that were precisely tied with a double-loop sliding knot in conjunction with a cable gun tensioner. The abductor strength and radiographic union rate were postoperatively assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A statistically significant lower incidence of nonunion and cutout was observed in the UHMWPE group (0 and 5.0 %, respectively) compared to the polyester suture group (8.3 and 15 %, respectively). No differences in abductor strength either preoperatively or at 4 weeks postoperatively were observed between the groups. In radiographically healed patients, abductor strength at 4 weeks post-surgery exceeded preoperative strength. The recovery rate of hip abductor strength was 109.9 ± 34.3 % in union patients and 92.9 ± 23.3 % in nonunion patients, which was statistically significant. The mean Japanese Orthopedic Association hip scores improved from 48.6 to 86.8 in union patients and from 50.3 to 85.9 in nonunion patients at 1 year postoperatively; however, this difference was not significant. The modified Mostardi approach using ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tape can promote successful union of the osteotomized fragment.

  16. The Hindlimb Myology of Tyto alba (Tytonidae, Strigiformes, Aves).

    PubMed

    Mosto, M C

    2017-02-01

    This work is the first myological dissection performed in detail on the hindlimb of Tyto alba. Six specimens were dissected and their muscle masses were obtained. T. alba has the classical myological pattern present in other species of Strigiformes, such as a well-developed m. flexor digitorum longus and the absence of the m. plantaris, flexor cruris lateralis and ambiens. Also, T. alba lacks the m. extensor propius digiti III, m. extensor propius digiti IV and m. lumbricalis, present in the Strigidae. Hindlimb muscle mass accounts for 14.13% of total body mass, which is within the range of values of both nocturnal (Strigiformes) and diurnal (Falconidae and Accipitridae) raptors. This study provides important information for future studies related to functional morphology and ecomorphology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. 38 CFR 200.4 - Implementation of NEPA and related authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... action reveals that air emissions exceed de minimis levels or otherwise that a formal Clean Air Act... RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 200.4 Implementation of NEPA and... aquifers (potential sources of drinking water); National Wildlife Refuges; National Parks; areas of...

  18. 41 CFR 60-741.4 - Coverage and waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilitated, performance of the contract or a provision of the contract; or (B) The cost or a portion of the... allocable in whole or in part as a direct cost to any Government contract, and only a de minimis (less than... quantities. With respect to indefinite delivery-type contracts and subcontracts (including, but not limited...

  19. 5 CFR 734.503 - Allocation and reimbursement of costs associated with political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the type represented by the substantial figure. The balance should be treated as de minimis and need... employee that is required in the performance of his or her duties to accompany or assist the person... should be applied to any Government maximum for that type of expenditure. (5) The determination of the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6042-4 - Statements to recipients of dividend payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is permitted in the mailing of the written statement. Even a de minimis amount of promotional or... conspicuous type, the legend: “Important Tax Return Document Attached.” The enclosures permitted in a mailing... envelope must contain, in a bold and conspicuous type, the legend: “Important Tax Return Document Enclosed...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6042-4 - Statements to recipients of dividend payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is permitted in the mailing of the written statement. Even a de minimis amount of promotional or... conspicuous type, the legend: “Important Tax Return Document Attached.” The enclosures permitted in a mailing... envelope must contain, in a bold and conspicuous type, the legend: “Important Tax Return Document Enclosed...

  2. 15 CFR 762.2 - Records to be retained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimis calculation (method). (c) Special recordkeeping requirement—(1) Libya. Persons in receipt of a... the export to Libya of any item subject to the EAR must maintain a record of those items transferred to Libya pursuant to such specific license and record when the items are consumed or destroyed in the...

  3. 15 CFR 762.2 - Records to be retained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... minimis calculation (method). (c) Special recordkeeping requirement—(1) Libya. Persons in receipt of a... the export to Libya of any item subject to the EAR must maintain a record of those items transferred to Libya pursuant to such specific license and record when the items are consumed or destroyed in the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calendar year individuals, it is owned 86 percent by individuals and 4 percent by D2, a calendar year... percent owned by calendar year individuals, and 4 percent owned by D2, a calendar year partnership. Under paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, D2's ownership interest in D is considered de minimis for purposes of...

  5. 13 CFR 123.404 - When is your business ineligible to apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation of any depictions or displays, of a prurient sexual... loans; (m) Your business principally engages in teaching, instructing, counseling, or indoctrinating...

  6. 13 CFR 123.404 - When is your business ineligible to apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation of any depictions or displays, of a prurient sexual... loans; (m) Your business principally engages in teaching, instructing, counseling, or indoctrinating...

  7. 13 CFR 123.404 - When is your business ineligible to apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation of any depictions or displays, of a prurient sexual... loans; (m) Your business principally engages in teaching, instructing, counseling, or indoctrinating...

  8. 13 CFR 123.404 - When is your business ineligible to apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation of any depictions or displays, of a prurient sexual... loans; (m) Your business principally engages in teaching, instructing, counseling, or indoctrinating...

  9. 13 CFR 123.404 - When is your business ineligible to apply for a pre-disaster mitigation loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation of any depictions or displays, of a prurient sexual... loans; (m) Your business principally engages in teaching, instructing, counseling, or indoctrinating...

  10. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND..., privileged & classified 353.5 Removed Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 amendments 353.6 351.106 De minimis... physical characteristics 353.58 351.412 Levels of trade 353.59(a) 351.413 Insignificant adjustments 353.59...

  11. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND..., privileged & classified 353.5 Removed Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 amendments 353.6 351.106 De minimis... physical characteristics 353.58 351.412 Levels of trade 353.59(a) 351.413 Insignificant adjustments 353.59...

  12. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND..., privileged & classified 353.5 Removed Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 amendments 353.6 351.106 De minimis... physical characteristics 353.58 351.412 Levels of trade 353.59(a) 351.413 Insignificant adjustments 353.59...

  13. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND..., privileged & classified 353.5 Removed Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 amendments 353.6 351.106 De minimis... physical characteristics 353.58 351.412 Levels of trade 353.59(a) 351.413 Insignificant adjustments 353.59...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2270 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Program Requirements 12/5/2007 4/9/2010, 75 FR 18061 Section 114.623 Small Business Incentives 01/28/04 08... Minimis Impact 06/17/98 09/18/02, 67 FR 58709. Section 116.162 Evaluation of Air Quality Impacts 10/10/01...

  15. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other than de minimis personal use and commuting (in the case of the rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(3...-6T(a)(2). (f) Vehicles not available to employees for personal use other than commuting. For a... than commuting), the working condition fringe exclusion is equal to the value of the availability of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.132-5 - Working condition fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... personal purposes (such as commuting) as determined under § 1.61-21(b)(5). See § 1.61-21(b)(5) for... to the chauffeur, the value of the availability of the vehicle for commuting is includible in the... rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(2)), or for purposes other than de minimis personal use and commuting...

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-5 - Working condition fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... personal purposes (such as commuting) as determined under § 1.61-21(b)(5). See § 1.61-21(b)(5) for... to the chauffeur, the value of the availability of the vehicle for commuting is includible in the... rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(2)), or for purposes other than de minimis personal use and commuting...

  18. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other than de minimis personal use and commuting (in the case of the rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(3...-6T(a)(2). (f) Vehicles not available to employees for personal use other than commuting. For a... than commuting), the working condition fringe exclusion is equal to the value of the availability of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.132-5 - Working condition fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... personal purposes (such as commuting) as determined under § 1.61-21(b)(5). See § 1.61-21(b)(5) for... to the chauffeur, the value of the availability of the vehicle for commuting is includible in the... rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(2)), or for purposes other than de minimis personal use and commuting...

  20. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other than de minimis personal use and commuting (in the case of the rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(3...-6T(a)(2). (f) Vehicles not available to employees for personal use other than commuting. For a... than commuting), the working condition fringe exclusion is equal to the value of the availability of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.132-5 - Working condition fringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... personal purposes (such as commuting) as determined under § 1.61-21(b)(5). See § 1.61-21(b)(5) for... to the chauffeur, the value of the availability of the vehicle for commuting is includible in the... rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(2)), or for purposes other than de minimis personal use and commuting...

  2. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other than de minimis personal use and commuting (in the case of the rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(3...-6T(a)(2). (f) Vehicles not available to employees for personal use other than commuting. For a... than commuting), the working condition fringe exclusion is equal to the value of the availability of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other than de minimis personal use and commuting (in the case of the rule prescribed in § 1.274-6T(a)(3...-6T(a)(2). (f) Vehicles not available to employees for personal use other than commuting. For a... than commuting), the working condition fringe exclusion is equal to the value of the availability of...

  4. 75 FR 34685 - Notice of Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... equipment, concrete and masonry products, wood and steel framing products, interior and exterior materials... permits the use of non-domestic iron, steel and manufactured goods when they occur in de minimis... the iron, steel, and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States...

  5. 75 FR 30370 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...) a change of at least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the... between a countervailable subsidy rate of zero (or de minimis) and a countervailable subsidy rate of... absolute points and not less than 25 percent of the originally calculated margin. Thus, the ministerial...

  6. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  7. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  8. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263A-0 - Outline of regulations under section 263A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Utilities. (O) Repairs and maintenance. (P) Engineering and design costs. (Q) Spoilage. (R) Tools and...) Engineering and design services. (F) Safety engineering services. (v) Accounting method change. (h) Simplified... mixed service costs. (7) Costs allocable to more than one business. (8) De minimis rule. (9) Separate...

  10. 77 FR 73589 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... be used in implementing the legislative design.'' Environmental Defense Fund, Inc. v. EPA, 82 F.3d... with the events that Congress intended PTC systems must be designed to prevent. In other words, when a... with PIH materials exposure or the events PTC systems must be designed to prevent exceed a de minimis...

  11. 13 CFR 123.201 - When am I not eligible to apply for a physical disaster business loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limited to: (1) The elimination or substantial decrease in the market for your products or services, as a... eligible if your business presents live performances of a prurient sexual nature or derives directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the presentation...

  12. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) De minimis fringe. Special rules apply with respect to certain on-premises gyms and other athletic... paragraph (e), the term “on-premises athletic facility” means any gym or other athletic facility (such as a..., pool, and gym) would not qualify for the exclusion provided in this paragraph (e). (3) Application of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) De minimis fringe. Special rules apply with respect to certain on-premises gyms and other athletic... paragraph (e), the term “on-premises athletic facility” means any gym or other athletic facility (such as a..., pool, and gym) would not qualify for the exclusion provided in this paragraph (e). (3) Application of...

  14. 19 CFR 10.771 - Textile or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.771 Textile or apparel goods. (a) De minimis. Except as provided in paragraph... specific rules specified in General Note 27(h), HTSUS, textile or apparel goods classifiable as goods put up in sets for retail sale as provided for in General Rule of Interpretation 3, HTSUS, will not be...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING SUPPORT TO OPPT AND ORIA UNDER THE "BUY CLEAN" INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Buy Clean program, EPA is responsible for developing and disseminating guidance that will assist users procure lower-emitting products and devices that aim to reduce the exposure of indoor occupants' exposure. The initial focus has been to assist school personnel minimi...

  16. 40 CFR 63.526 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters... purpose of determining de minimis status for emission points, engineering assessment may be used to... expected to yield the highest flow rate and concentration. Engineering assessment includes, but is not...

  17. 40 CFR 63.526 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters... purpose of determining de minimis status for emission points, engineering assessment may be used to... expected to yield the highest flow rate and concentration. Engineering assessment includes, but is not...

  18. 40 CFR 372.38 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person produced the mixture, either by mixing the chemicals involved or by causing a chemical reaction... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.38 Exemptions. (a) De minimis concentrations of a toxic chemical in a mixture. If a toxic...

  19. 40 CFR 372.38 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... person produced the mixture, either by mixing the chemicals involved or by causing a chemical reaction... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.38 Exemptions. (a) De minimis concentrations of a toxic chemical in a mixture. If a toxic...

  20. 40 CFR 372.38 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person produced the mixture, either by mixing the chemicals involved or by causing a chemical reaction... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.38 Exemptions. (a) De minimis concentrations of a toxic chemical in a mixture. If a toxic...

  1. 40 CFR 372.38 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... person produced the mixture, either by mixing the chemicals involved or by causing a chemical reaction... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.38 Exemptions. (a) De minimis concentrations of a toxic chemical in a mixture. If a toxic...

  2. 40 CFR 372.38 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... person produced the mixture, either by mixing the chemicals involved or by causing a chemical reaction... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.38 Exemptions. (a) De minimis concentrations of a toxic chemical in a mixture. If a toxic...

  3. 29 CFR 70.43 - Payment of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS Costs for Production of Records § 70.43 Payment of fees. (a) De minimis costs. Where the cost of collecting and processing a fee to be... and review time and copying costs. Where a disclosure officer determines or estimates that a total fee...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1202-2 - Qualified small business stock; effect of redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased from the decedent's estate, beneficiary (whether by bequest or lifetime gift), heir, surviving.... Stock acquired by a taxpayer is not qualified small business stock if, in one or more purchases during... corporation purchases (directly or indirectly) more than a de minimis amount of its stock from the taxpayer or...

  5. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consistent with NMFS jeopardy standards or NMFS recovery plans for species listed under the Endangered Species Act. (d) Within the Cape Falcon to Point Sur area, the Council may allow de minimis fisheries... stocks; (iv) The occurrence of El Nino or other adverse environmental conditions; (v) Endangered Species...

  6. 50 CFR 660.410 - Conservation objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consistent with NMFS jeopardy standards or NMFS recovery plans for species listed under the Endangered Species Act. (d) Within the Cape Falcon to Point Sur area, the Council may allow de minimis fisheries... stocks; (iv) The occurrence of El Nino or other adverse environmental conditions; (v) Endangered Species...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1446-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (iv) Interest deductions. (v) Limitation on capital losses. (vi) Other deductions. (vii) Limitations... distributions. (4) Coordination with section 1445(e)(1). § 1.1446-5Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general... use of deductions and losses certified to a partnership. (ii) De minimis certificate for nonresident...

  8. 26 CFR 25.2703-1 - Property subject to restrictive arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders' agreement, or any other agreement. A right or restriction may be implicit in the capital structure of an entity. (4) Qualified easements. A perpetual restriction on the use of real property that..., whether or not authorized by the terms of the agreement, that results in other than a de minimis change to...

  9. 26 CFR 1.199-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... receipts. (1) In general. (2) Reasonable method of allocation. (3) De minimis rules. (i) DPGR. (ii) Non... of completion method. (3) Examples. § 1.199-2Wage limitation. (a) Rules of application. (1) In... reported on return filed with the Social Security Administration. (i) In general. (ii) Corrected return...

  10. 29 CFR 4231.8 - Notice of merger or transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... it is a de minimis transaction as defined in § 4231.7 (and, if so, including an enrolled actuary's... that exists after the transaction, one of the following statements, certified by an enrolled actuary..., indicating which is the applicable test. (ii) A statement of the basis on which the actuary has determined...

  11. 29 CFR 4231.8 - Notice of merger or transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... it is a de minimis transaction as defined in § 4231.7 (and, if so, including an enrolled actuary's... that exists after the transaction, one of the following statements, certified by an enrolled actuary..., indicating which is the applicable test. (ii) A statement of the basis on which the actuary has determined...

  12. 29 CFR 4231.8 - Notice of merger or transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... it is a de minimis transaction as defined in § 4231.7 (and, if so, including an enrolled actuary's... that exists after the transaction, one of the following statements, certified by an enrolled actuary..., indicating which is the applicable test. (ii) A statement of the basis on which the actuary has determined...

  13. 19 CFR 351.526 - Program-wide changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... preliminary determination, the foreign government in question enacts a change to the program that reduces the amount of the subsidy to a de minimis level. In a final determination, the Secretary would issue an...

  14. 19 CFR 351.526 - Program-wide changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... preliminary determination, the foreign government in question enacts a change to the program that reduces the amount of the subsidy to a de minimis level. In a final determination, the Secretary would issue an...

  15. 19 CFR 351.526 - Program-wide changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... preliminary determination, the foreign government in question enacts a change to the program that reduces the amount of the subsidy to a de minimis level. In a final determination, the Secretary would issue an...

  16. Could ecological thresholds of toxicological concern (eco-TTCs) be used to support development of ambient water quality criteria?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Threshold of Toxicologic Concern (TTC) is an approach used for a decades in human hazard assessment. A TTC establishes an exposure level for a chemical below which no appreciable risk to human health is expected based upon a de minimis value for toxicity identified for many ...

  17. 78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    .... The review covers one producer/exporter of the subject merchandise, Villares Metals S.A. (Villares.... Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.310(c), interested parties who wish to request a hearing, or to participate if one...' weighted- average dumping margin continues to be zero or de minimis in the final results of review, we will...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1272-3 - Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., market discount, de minimis market discount, and unstated interest, as adjusted by any amortizable bond... provided by this section. (ii) Debt instrument with market discount. (A) A holder may make the election under this section for a debt instrument with market discount only if the holder is eligible to make an...

  19. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    AFB. Coordinating with local communities will serve to ensure all communications towers, wind turbines , residential development and other...Minimis Thresholds in Nonattainment Areas ...................................................................... 35 Table 3-4 Wind Erodibility...125 Table 4-3 Summary of Cultural Resources Associated with Proposed Utility Corridors ........................ 126 Table 4-4 Wind

  20. 75 FR 31678 - Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... and 774 [Docket No. 0907271167-91198-01] RIN 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical... clarifies language concerning the de minimis provisions of the Export Administration Regulations and certain... Items The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) generally do not apply to items that were made and are...

  1. 29 CFR 4231.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS MERGERS AND TRANSFERS BETWEEN MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS... under section 4231 of ERISA for mergers and transfers of assets or liabilities among multiemployer... rules for de minimis mergers and transfers. The collections of information in this part have been...

  2. 76 FR 28031 - Clarification of Statement of Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... a conviction, and the definition of de minimis offenses. DATES: The change to the policy statement..., which a party might face, based on the covered crime of which they are convicted, but where the offense... aggregate face value of $1,000 or less, and no insured financial institution or insured credit union was a...

  3. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for comment... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS..., minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures) committed to by the applicant, will have a de minimis impact...

  4. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for comment... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS..., minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures) committed to by the applicant, will have a de minimis impact...

  5. 23 CFR 774.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Urban Development. The Administration shall provide a minimum of 45 days for receipt of comments... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS, RECREATION AREAS... a lack of objection and proceed with the action. (b) Prior to making de minimis impact...

  6. 23 CFR 774.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Urban Development. The Administration shall provide a minimum of 45 days for receipt of comments... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS, RECREATION AREAS... a lack of objection and proceed with the action. (b) Prior to making de minimis impact...

  7. 23 CFR 774.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Urban Development. The Administration shall provide a minimum of 45 days for receipt of comments... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS, RECREATION AREAS... a lack of objection and proceed with the action. (b) Prior to making de minimis impact...

  8. 23 CFR 774.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Urban Development. The Administration shall provide a minimum of 45 days for receipt of comments... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS, RECREATION AREAS... a lack of objection and proceed with the action. (b) Prior to making de minimis impact...

  9. 23 CFR 774.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Urban Development. The Administration shall provide a minimum of 45 days for receipt of comments... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS, RECREATION AREAS... a lack of objection and proceed with the action. (b) Prior to making de minimis impact...

  10. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for comment... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS..., minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures) committed to by the applicant, will have a de minimis impact...

  11. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for comment... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS..., minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures) committed to by the applicant, will have a de minimis impact...

  12. 23 CFR 774.3 - Section 4(f) approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and Department of Housing and Urban Development, and published in the Federal Register for comment... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PARKS..., minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures) committed to by the applicant, will have a de minimis impact...

  13. 75 FR 33818 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA... of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Section 1605 under the authority of Section 1605(b)(1) (public interest waiver) for de minimis incidental components of sanitation facilities...

  14. 76 FR 23596 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of American Recovery and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9299-4] Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy... requirement of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (U.S. Pub. L. 111-5) (ARRA) Section 1605(a) under the authority of Section 1605(b)(1) (public interest waiver) to VADEQ for de minimis incidental...

  15. 78 FR 18958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China and Diamond Sawblades and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Aquatic Product Science and Technology Co., Ltd.; Zhanjiang Universal Seafood Corp.; Zhejiang Cereals... investigation. When, as here, the only available rates are zero, de minimis, or based upon adverse facts... rate for non-selected respondents is a simple average of the adverse-facts available dumping margin...

  16. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility as well as each non-public utility with more than a de minimis market presence shall file an updated Electric Quarterly Report with the...

  17. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility as well as each non-public utility with more than a de minimis market presence shall file an updated Electric Quarterly Report with the...

  18. 77 FR 35475 - Internal Revenue Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... contributions, consideration does not include de minimis goods or services. It also provides guidance on how..., maintenance, and purchase of services to provide information. Approved: June 6, 2012. Allan Hopkins, Tax... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.338 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 1205.338 Section 1205.338 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1205.338 Reports. Each handler and importer subject to this subpart and importers of de minimis amounts of cotton may be required to report to the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.338 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1205.338 Section 1205.338 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1205.338 Reports. Each handler and importer subject to this subpart and importers of de minimis amounts of cotton may be required to report to the...

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jj of... - VHAP of Potential Concern

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. JJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—VHAP of Potential Concern CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis, tons/yr...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jj of... - VHAP of Potential Concern

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. JJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—VHAP of Potential Concern CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis, tons/yr...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jj of... - VHAP of Potential Concern

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. JJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—VHAP of Potential Concern CAS No. Chemical name EPA de minimis, tons/yr...

  4. 78 FR 16908 - 2012 Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Product Review: Inviting Public Comments on Possible...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2012 Generalized System of Preferences (GSP... competitive need limitations (CNLs) under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program. The Office of..., regarding: (1) Possible de minimis CNL waivers; (2) possible redesignations of articles currently not...

  5. 78 FR 15541 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... regulatory approach for de minimis variation standards, silver plan variations for individuals eligible for... structure in the applicable plan variation for which the individual is eligible. Under the second... Davies, Cathy D. Sherbourne, George A. Goldberg, Kathleen N. Lohr, Patricia Camp and Joseph P. Newhouse...

  6. 29 CFR 4231.8 - Notice of merger or transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... it is a de minimis transaction as defined in § 4231.7 (and, if so, including an enrolled actuary's... that exists after the transaction, one of the following statements, certified by an enrolled actuary..., indicating which is the applicable test. (ii) A statement of the basis on which the actuary has determined...

  7. 77 FR 1464 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Surrogate Values Memorandum at Exhibit 8. Other inputs consisted of water, electricity, carbon dioxide, and.... See New-Tec Surrogate Values Memorandum at Exhibit 4. We valued carbon dioxide and liquid petroleum... Integration (Xiamen) Co., Ltd. (New-Tec), were below normal value (NV) at a de minimis level. We invite...

  8. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  9. Potential sites of compression of tibial nerve branches in foot: a cadaveric and imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar; Raheja, Shashi; Tuli, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophy of abductor hallucis muscle is one of the reported causes of compression of tibial nerve branches in foot, resulting in tarsal tunnel syndrome. In this study, we dissected the foot (including the sole) of 120 lower limbs in 60 human cadavers (45 males and 15 females), aged between 45 and 70 years to analyze the possible impact of abductor hallucis muscle in compression neuropathy of tibial nerve branches. We identified five areas in foot, where tibial nerve branches could be compressed by abductor hallucis. Our findings regarding three of these areas were substantiated by clinical evidence from ultrasonography of ankle and sole region, conducted in the affected foot of 120 patients (82 males and 38 females), aged between 42 and 75 years, who were referred for evaluation of pain and/or swelling in medial side of ankle joint with or without associated heel and/or sole pain. We also assessed whether estimation of parameters for the muscle size could identify patients at risk of having nerve compression due to abductor hallucis muscle hypertrophy. The interclass correlation coefficient for dorso-planter thickness of abductor hallucis muscle was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-0.92) and that of medio-lateral width was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62-0.88) in the imaging study, suggesting both are reliable parameters of the muscle size. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed, if ultrasonographic estimation of dorso-plantar thickness is >12.8 mm and medio-lateral width > 30.66 mm in patients with symptoms of nerve compression in foot, abductor hallucis muscle hypertrophy associated compression neuropathy may be suspected. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Open repair of gluteus medius and minimus tendons tears with double-row technique : Clinical and radiological results].

    PubMed

    Schröder, J H; Geßlein, M; Schütz, M; Perka, C; Krüger, D

    2018-03-01

    Operative refixation is a new therapeutic option in cases of failed conservative treatment for trochanteric pain syndrome (TPS) and lesions of the hip abductors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Evaluation of the clinical and radiological results after open gluteus medius and minimus tendon reconstruction with a double-row technique was carried out. Patients with failed conservative treatment for TPS and confirmed lesions of the hip abductors in MRI were treated by open hip abductor tendon reconstruction with a double-row technique. The patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively (minimum follow-up 12 months) using the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and a subjective score (subjective hip value, SHV). Preoperative and postoperative MRI evaluation included measurement of hip abductor muscle diameter and cross-sectional area as well as fatty degeneration. In this study 12 consecutive cases of open reconstruction of the hip abductor tendons were included. There was a significant improvement in the mHHS. In one case the patient showed an atraumatic rupture in the proximal anchor row. The MRI showed a significant improvement in muscle diameter and cross-sectional area for the gluteus medius muscle of the affected and the contralateral side, while the degree of fatty degeneration did not improve. The fatty degeneration showed a significant correlation with the postoperative results in the mHHS and the SHV. Operative reconstruction of lesions in the hip abductor tendons is a therapy option with significant improvement of patient satisfaction and functional scores as well as muscle diameter and cross-sectional area for the gluteus medius. The degree of fatty degeneration and possible differential diagnoses need to be taken into consideration.

  11. Hip Strength as a Predictor of Ankle Sprains in Male Soccer Players: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher M; Ghoddosi, Navid; Straub, Rachel K; Khayambashi, Khalil

    2017-11-01

      Diminished hip-abductor strength has been suggested to increase the risk of noncontact lateral ankle sprains.   To determine prospectively whether baseline hip-abductor strength predicts future noncontact lateral ankle sprains in competitive male soccer players.   Prospective cohort study.   Athletic training facilities and various athletic fields.   Two hundred ten competitive male soccer players.   Before the start of the sport season, isometric hip-abductor strength was measured bilaterally using a handheld dynamometer. Any previous history of ankle sprain, body mass index, age, height, and weight were documented. During the sport season (30 weeks), ankle injury status was recorded by team medical providers. Injured athletes were further classified based on the mechanism of injury. Only data from injured athletes who sustained noncontact lateral ankle sprains were used for analysis. Postseason, logistic regression was used to determine whether baseline hip strength predicted future noncontact lateral ankle sprains. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed for hip strength to determine the cutoff value for distinguishing between high-risk and low-risk outcomes.   A total of 25 noncontact lateral ankle sprains were confirmed, for an overall annual incidence of 11.9%. Baseline hip-abductor strength was lower in injured players than in uninjured players ( P = .008). Logistic regression indicated that impaired hip-abductor strength increased the future injury risk (odds ratio = 1.10 [95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.18], P = .010). The strength cutoff to define high risk was ≤33.8% body weight, as determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. For athletes classified as high risk, the probability of injury increased from 11.9% to 26.7%.   Reduced isometric hip-abductor strength predisposed competitive male soccer players to noncontact lateral ankle sprains.

  12. Isometric strength ratios of the hip musculature in females with patellofemoral pain: a comparison to pain-free controls.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Paula M C C; Sacramento, Sylvio N; Martin, RobRoy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare hip agonist-antagonist isometric strength ratios between females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome and pain-free control group. One hundred and twenty females between 15 and 40 years of age (control group: n = 60; PFP group: n = 60) participated in the study. Hip adductor, abductor, medial rotator, lateral rotator, flexor, and extensor isometric strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Comparisons in the hip adductor/abductor and medial/lateral rotator and flexor/extensor strength ratios were made between groups using independent t-tests. Group comparisons also were made between the anteromedial hip complex (adductor, medial rotator, and flexor musculature) and posterolateral hip complex (abductor, lateral rotator, and extensor musculature). On average, the hip adductor/abductor isometric strength ratio in the PFP group was 23% higher when compared with the control group (p = 0.01). The anteromedial/posterolateral complex ratio also was significantly higher in the PFP group (average 8%; p = 0.04). No significant group differences were found for the medial/lateral rotator ratio and flexor/extensor strength ratios. The results of this study demonstrate that females with PFP have altered hip strength ratios when compared with asymptomatic controls. These strength imbalances may explain the tendency of females with PFP to demonstrate kinematic tendencies that increase loading on the patellofemoral joint (i.e., dynamic knee valgus).

  13. Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). The MD/UT ratio was significantly higher during condition 3 than during conditions 1 and 2, and higher during condition 2 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that augmented trunk stabilization with the ECS may be advantageous with regard to reducing the compensatory muscle effort of the UT during isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parents Who Abduct: A Qualitative Study with Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.; Hegar, Rebecca L.

    1994-01-01

    Conducted in-depth interviews with 17 parents (9 fathers and 8 mothers) who had abducted their own children. Reported reasons for abduction included unsatisfactory contact with court-related professionals, revenge, and fear for the child's safety. Some abductors, after the abduction had been resolved, had increased contact with their children.…

  15. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  16. Comparative anatomy of the radial sesamoid bone in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the brown bear (Ursus arctos) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Makita, T; Sasaki, M; Arishima, K; Yamamoto, M; Hayashi, Y

    1999-08-01

    Since we have clarified the manipulation mechanism using the radial sesamoid (RS) in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), our aim in this study is to examine the position, shape and function of the RS morphologically, and to observe the attachment to the RS of the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in the other Ursidae species. So, we focused on the carpus and manus of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in this study. The RS was tightly articulated to the radial carpal, and could not adduct-abduct independently of the radial carpal. The M. abductor pollicis longus tendon and the M. opponens pollicis belly were attached to the RS, independently. In the polar bear, the deep concave and the flat surface were confirmed in attachment area for these two muscles. The morphological relationship between the RS and the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in the two species of bears were essentially consistent with that in the giant panda. It also demonstrated that the manipulation mechanism of the giant panda has been completely based on the functional relationship between the small RS, and the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in Ursidae species.

  17. Positioning Techniques to Reduce the Occurrence of DeQuervain's Tendonitis in Nursing Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virzi, Alison

    2010-01-01

    DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently…

  18. Impact of the Femoral Head Position on Moment Arms in Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Parametric Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Rüdiger, Hannes A; Parvex, Valérie; Terrier, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Although the importance of accurate femoral reconstruction to achieve a good functional outcome is well documented, quantitative data on the effects of a displacement of the femoral center of rotation on moment arms are scarce. The purpose of this study was to calculate moment arms after nonanatomical femoral reconstruction. Finite element models of 15 patients including the pelvis, the femur, and the gluteal muscles were developed. Moment arms were calculated within the native anatomy and compared to distinct displacement of the femoral center of rotation (leg lengthening of 10 mm, loss of femoral offset of 20%, anteversion ±10°, and fixed anteversion at 15°). Calculations were performed within the range of motion observed during a normal gait cycle. Although with all evaluated displacements of the femoral center of rotation, the abductor moment arm remained positive, some fibers initially contributing to extension became antagonists (flexors) and vice versa. A loss of 20% of femoral offset led to an average decrease of 15% of abductor moment. Femoral lengthening and changes in femoral anteversion (±10°, fixed at 15°) led to minimal changes in abductor moment arms (maximum change of 5%). Native femoral anteversion correlated with the changes in moment arms induced by the 5 variations of reconstruction. Accurate reconstruction of offset is important to maintaining abductor moment arms, while changes of femoral rotation had minimal effects. Patients with larger native femoral anteversion appear to be more susceptible to femoral head displacements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural Network Approaches to the Processing of Experimental Electro-Myographic Data from Non-Invasive Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    14 PWFI Superior Pectoralis Distal Bicep Medial Trapezius Proximal Wrist Flexors 2 IPec 10 PTri 7 LTrp 15 DWF1 Inferior Pectoralis Proximal Tricep...Lateral Trapezius Distal Wrist Flexors 3 LPec 11 DTri 8 PBic 16 APB Lateral Pectoralis Distal Tricep Proximal Bicep Abductor Pollicus Brevis 4 LDel 12

  20. Comparison of shoulder strength in males with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Kim, H A; Hwang, U J; Jung, S H; Ahn, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, O Y

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the strength of scapular elevator and shoulder abductor with and without restricted scapular elevation between male subjects with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. In total, 15 male subjects with myofascial trigger points, and 15age- and weight-matched male subjects without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. Each subject was measured in the strength of maximum isometric scapular elevation and shoulder abduction with and without restricted scapular elevation. Maximum isometric contractions were measured using the Smart KEMA strength measurement system. Independent t-tests were used to compare shoulder strength values between the myofascial trigger points and non- myofascial trigger points groups. The results showed that shoulder abductor strength in the group with myofascial trigger points (5.64kgf) was significantly lower than in the group without myofascial trigger points (11.96kgf) when scapular elevation was restricted (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the strength of the scapular elevator or shoulder abductor between groups (p>0.05). These findings suggest that decreased strength in the shoulder abductor with restricted scapular elevation should be considered in evaluating and treating individuals with myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of the Parental Kidnaping Prevention Act of 1980. Oversight Hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (September 24, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing was convened to inquire into the Department of Justice's compliance with the intent of Congress as expressed in section 10 of the Parental Kidnaping Prevention Act of 1980. The primary purpose of section 10(a) of the act was to involve federal authorities in helping state law enforcement agencies locate and apprehend abductor parents.…

  2. Relationships between eccentric hip isokinetic torque and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Lobato D, Ferreira Moreira; Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Wun P, Yan Lam; Presotti, Cátia Valéria; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2012-02-01

    Recently, attention in sports has been given to eccentric hip-muscle function, both in preventing musculoskeletal injuries and improving performance. To determine the key isokinetic variables of eccentric hip torque that predict the functional performance of women in the single-leg triple long jump (TLJ) and the timed 6-m single-leg hop (TH). Within-subject correlational study. Musculoskeletal laboratory. 32 healthy women age 18-25 y. The participants performed 2 sets of 5 eccentric hip-abductor/adductor and lateral/medial-rotator isokinetic contractions (30°/s) and 3 attempts in the TLJ and TH. The independent variables were the eccentric hip-abductor and -adductor and medial- and lateral-rotator isokinetic peak torque, normalized according to body mass (Nm/kg). The dependent variables were the longest distance achieved in the TLJ normalized according to body height and the shortest time spent during the execution of the TH. The forward-stepwise-regression analysis showed that the combination of the eccentric hip lateral-rotator and -abductor isokinetic peak torque provided the most efficient estimate of both functional tests, explaining 65% of the TLJ variance (P < .001) and 55% of the TH variance (P < .001). Higher values for eccentric hip lateral-rotator and hip-abductor torques reflected better performance. Thus, the eccentric action of these muscles should be considered in the development of physical training programs that aim to increase functional performance.

  3. 40 CFR 52.2270 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Program Requirements 12/5/2007 4/9/2010, 75 FR 18061 Section 114.623 Small Business Incentives 01/28/04 08... Located in an Attainment Area with Greater than De Minimis Impact 06/17/98 09/18/02, 67 FR 58709. Section 116.162 Evaluation of Air Quality Impacts 10/10/01 7/22/04, 69 FR 43752. Section 116.163 Prevention of...

  4. Risk-based containment and air monitoring criteria for work with dispersible radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Veluri, Venkateswara Rao; Justus, Alan L

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents readily understood, technically defensible, risk-based containment and air monitoring criteria, which are developed from fundamental physical principles. The key for the development of each criterion was the use of a calculational de minimis level, in this case chosen to be 100 mrem (or 40 DAC-h). Examples are provided that demonstrate the effective use of each criterion. Comparison to other often used criteria is provided.

  5. Aircraft/Stores Compatibility Symposium Proceedings (4th) Held at Fort Walton Beach, Florida on 12-14 October 1977. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    and higher limitimW speeds in release or jettison- of stores reduced aircraft weight and improved structural integrity-by reducing carriage loads...should endeavour tot piece the weapons as far aft a possible to reduce the loss of Dy -minimis the extent to which stores are placed below the aircraft...centr of gravity to reduce the loss of lv try to minimise changes in aircraft inertias, which memos getting the stores as close as possible to the

  6. Point-Process Models of Social Network Interactions: Parameter Estimation and Missing Data Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    treating them as zero will have a de minimis impact on the results, but avoiding computing them (and computing with them) saves tremendous time. Set a... test the methods on simulated time series on artificial social networks, including some toy networks and some meant to resemble IkeNet. We conclude...the section by discussing the results in detail. In each of our tests we begin with a complete data set, whether it is real (IkeNet) or simulated. Then

  7. Environmental Assessment for Replace Military Family Housing - Phase VI MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM10) were determined to be less than USEP A de minimis values and less than 10% of the Hillsborough County...by implementation of a sediment and erosion control plan as well as best management practices. Indirect and Cumulative Impacts: There are no site...housing units. The constmction and demolition activities of the Proposed Action were considered in conjunction with other on-going or planned constmction

  8. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional Methods Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants’ height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Results Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=<.01) and landed with greater hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=<.01) compared with their healthy counterparts. In the ACL group, Pearson's r demonstrated a moderate and indirect relationship (r=-.62, p=.03) between hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the

  9. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jeremiah; Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants' height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=<.01) and landed with greater hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=<.01) compared with their healthy counterparts. In the ACL group, Pearson's r demonstrated a moderate and indirect relationship ( r =-.62, p=.03) between hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the involved ( r =.62) and uninvolved limb ( r

  10. Teacher perceptions of usefulness of mobile learning devices in rural secondary science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighe, Lisa

    The internet and easy accessibility to a wide range of digital content has created the necessity for teachers to embrace and integrate digitial media in their curriculums. Although there is a call for digital media integration in curriculum by current learning standards, rural schools continue to have access to fewer resources due to limited budgets, potentially preventing teachers from having access to the most current technology and science instructional materials. This dissertation identifies the perceptions rural secondary science teachers have on the usefulness of mobile learning devices in the science classroom. The successes and challenges in using mobile learning devices in the secondary classroom were also explored. Throughout this research, teachers generally supported the integration of mobile devices in the classroom, while harboring some concerns relating to student distractability and the time required for integrating mobile devices in exisiting curriculum. Quantitative and qualitative data collected through surveys, interviews, and classroom observations revealed that teachers perceive that mobile devices bring benefits such as ease of communication and easy access to digitial information. However, there are perceived challenges with the ability to effectively communicate complex scientific information via mobile devices, distractibility of students, and the time required to develop effective curriculum to integrate digital media into the secondary science classroom.

  11. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  12. Radiographic cup position following posterior and lateral approach to total hip arthroplasty. An explorative randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Christine; Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The two most common surgical approaches to total hip arthroplasty are the posterior approach and lateral approach. The surgical approach may influence cup positioning and restoration of the offset, which may affect the biomechanical properties of the hip joint. The primary aim was to compare cup position between posterior approach and lateral approach. Secondary aims were to compare femoral offset, abductor moment arm and leg length discrepancy between the two approaches. Eighty patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were included in a randomized controlled trial and assigned to total hip arthroplasty using posterior approach or lateral approach. Postoperative radiographs from 38 patients in each group were included in this study for measurement of cup anteversion and inclination. Femoral offset, cup offset, total offset, abductor moment arm and leg length discrepancy were measured on preoperative and postoperative radiographs in 28 patients in each group. We found that mean anteversion was 5° larger in the posterior approach group (95% CI, -8.1 to -1.4; p = 0.006), while mean inclination was 5° less steep (95% CI, 2.7 to 7.2; p<0.001) compared with the lateral approach group. The posterior approach group had a larger mean femoral offset of 4.3mm (95% CI, -7.4 to -1.3, p = 0.006), mean total offset of 6.3mm (95% CI, -9.6 to -3; p<0.001) and mean abductor moment arm of 4.8mm (95% CI, -7.6 to -1.9; p = 0.001) compared with the lateral approach group. We found a larger cup anteversion but less steep cup inclination in the posterior approach group compared with the lateral approach group. Femoral offset and abductor moment arm were restored after total hip arthroplasty using lateral approach but significantly increased when using posterior approach.

  13. Foot and hip contributions to high frontal plane knee projection angle in athletes: a classification and regression tree approach.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Natalia F N; Ocarino, Juliana M; Mendonça, Luciana D M; Hewett, Timothy E; Fonseca, Sergio T

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sectional. To investigate predictors of increased frontal plane knee projection angle (FPKPA) in athletes. The underlying mechanisms that lead to increased FPKPA are likely multifactorial and depend on how the musculoskeletal system adapts to the possible interactions between its distal and proximal segments. Bivariate and linear analyses traditionally employed to analyze the occurrence of increased FPKPA are not sufficiently robust to capture complex relationships among predictors. The investigation of nonlinear interactions among biomechanical factors is necessary to further our understanding of the interdependence of lower-limb segments and resultant dynamic knee alignment. The FPKPA was assessed in 101 athletes during a single-leg squat and in 72 athletes at the moment of landing from a jump. The investigated predictors were sex, hip abductor isometric torque, passive range of motion (ROM) of hip internal rotation (IR), and shank-forefoot alignment. Classification and regression trees were used to investigate nonlinear interactions among predictors and their influence on the occurrence of increased FPKPA. During single-leg squatting, the occurrence of high FPKPA was predicted by the interaction between hip abductor isometric torque and passive hip IR ROM. At the moment of landing, the shank-forefoot alignment, abductor isometric torque, and passive hip IR ROM were predictors of high FPKPA. In addition, the classification and regression trees established cutoff points that could be used in clinical practice to identify athletes who are at potential risk for excessive FPKPA. The models captured nonlinear interactions between hip abductor isometric torque, passive hip IR ROM, and shank-forefoot alignment.

  14. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    PubMed

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between iliotibial band injury status and running biomechanics in women.

    PubMed

    Foch, Eric; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Milner, Clare E

    2015-02-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common overuse knee injury that is twice as likely to afflict women compared to men. Lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during running, as well as hip abductor strength and iliotibial band flexibility, are factors believed to be associated with ITBS. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if differences in lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during running exist among runners with current ITBS, previous ITBS, and controls. Additionally, we sought to determine if isometric hip abductor strength and iliotibial band flexibility were different among groups. Twenty-seven female runners participated in the study. Participants were divided into three equal groups: current ITBS, previous ITBS, and controls. Overground running trials, isometric hip abductor strength, and iliotibial band flexibility were recorded for all participants. Discrete joint and segment biomechanics, as well as hip strength and flexibility measures were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. Runners with current ITBS exhibited 1.8 (1.5)° greater trunk ipsilateral flexion and 7 (6)° less iliotibial band flexibility compared to runners with previous ITBS and controls. Runners with previous ITBS exhibited 2.2 (2.9) ° less hip adduction compared to runners with current ITBS and controls. Hip abductor strength 3.3 (2.6) %BM×h was less in runners with previous ITBS but not current ITBS compared to controls. Runners with current ITBS may lean their trunk more towards the stance limb which may be associated with decreased iliotibial band flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ASSOCIATION OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF HIP AND KNEE MUSCLES WITH INJURY RISK IN HIGH SCHOOL CROSS COUNTRY RUNNERS.

    PubMed

    Luedke, Lace E; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Williams, D S Blaise; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-11-01

    High school cross country runners have a high incidence of overuse injuries, particularly to the knee and shin. As lower extremity strength is modifiable, identification of strength attributes that contribute to anterior knee pain (AKP) and shin injuries may influence prevention and management of these injuries. To determine if a relationship existed between isometric hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor strength and the incidence of AKP and shin injury in high school cross country runners. Sixty-eight high school cross country runners (47 girls, 21 boys) participated in the study. Isometric strength tests of hip abductors, knee extensors and flexors were performed with a handheld dynamometer. Runners were prospectively followed during the 2014 interscholastic cross country season for occurrences of AKP and shin injury. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine risk relationships between strength values and occurrence of AKP and shin injury. During the season, three (4.4%) runners experienced AKP and 13 (19.1%) runners incurred a shin injury. Runners in the tertiles indicating weakest hip abductor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046), knee extensor (chi-square = 6.562; p=0.038), and knee flexor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046) muscle strength had a significantly higher incidence of AKP. Hip and knee muscle strength was not significantly associated with shin injury. High school cross country runners with weaker hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor muscle strength had a higher incidence of AKP. Increasing hip and knee muscle strength may reduce the likelihood of AKP in high school cross country runners. 2b.

  17. Relationship between lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2013-01-01

    Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  18. Shorter, rough trunnion surfaces are associated with higher taper wear rates than longer, smooth trunnion surfaces in a contemporary large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty system.

    PubMed

    Brock, Timothy M; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra; Rushton, Steven; Nargol, Antoni V F; Bowsher, John G; Savisaar, Christina; Joyce, Tom J; Deehan, David J; Lord, James K; Langton, David J

    2015-12-01

    Taper wear at the head-neck junction is a possible cause of early failure in large head metal-on-metal (LH-MoM) hip replacements. We hypothesized that: (i) taper wear may be more pronounced in certain product designs; and (ii) an increased abductor moment arm may be protective. The tapers of 104 explanted LH-MoM hip replacements revised for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) from a single manufacturer were analyzed for linear and volumetric wear using a co-ordinate measuring machine. The mated stem was a shorter 12/14, threaded trunnion (n=72) or a longer, smooth 11/13 trunnion (n=32). The abductor moment arm was calculated from pre-revision radiographs. Independent predictors of linear and volumetric wear included taper angle, stem type, and the horizontal moment arm. Tapers mated with the threaded 12/14 trunnion had significantly higher rates of volumetric wear (0.402 mm3/yr vs. 0.123 mm3/yr [t=-2.145, p=0.035]). There was a trend to larger abductor moment arms being protective (p=0.055). Design variation appears to play an important role in taper-trunnion junction failure. We recommend that surgeons bear these findings in mind when considering the use of a short, threaded trunnion with a cobalt-chromium head. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hominin Hip Biomechanics: Changing Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Warrener, Anna G

    2017-05-01

    The shape of the human pelvis reflects the unique demands placed on the hip abductor muscles (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus), which stabilize the body in the frontal plane during bipedal locomotion. This morphological shift occurred early in hominin evolution, yet important shape differences between hominin species have led to significant disagreement about abductor function and locomotor capability in these extinct taxa. A static biomechanical model that relies on a close association between skeletal measurements of the pelvis and femur has traditionally been used to reconstruct hip biomechanics in these species. However, experimental biomechanical approaches have highlighted the dynamic nature of mediolateral balance in walking and running, challenging the assumptions of the static hip model. This article reviews traditional approaches for understanding hip abductor function, shows how they have been applied to the fossil hominin record, and discusses new techniques that integrate the dynamic nature of mediolateral balance during human locomotion. Anat Rec, 300:932-945, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Integrated Musculoskeletal Countermeasure Battery for Long-Duration Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, T. F.; Streeper, T. S.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Saeed, I. H.; Carpenter, R. D.; Frassetto, L. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Funk, J.; Hanson, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    During extended periods of skeletal unloading, losses in strength and density of the proximal femur will occur. In long-duration spaceflight, resistive exercise is used to replace the normal loads exerted on the spine and hip. At the present time, there is no conclusive evidence that hip bone loss has been prevented in this scenario. Our group has recently developed and clinically evaluated a multifunctional exercise system, the Combined Countermeasure Device (CCD). The CCD comprises a low-footprint Stuart Platform for lower-body resistance exercise and balance training, and a cardiovascular exercise bicycle. A consideration for resistance exercise was targeting of the hip abductor and adductor muscles, which attach directly at the hip and which should subject it to the largest loads. In our training study, we found that CCD exercise increased hip adductor and abductor strength, and modeling results suggest that this exercise exerts forces on the hip of approx. 4-6 body weights at 1g, compared to forces of approx.2.5 body weight y squatting exercise. In our current study, we hypothesize that abductor and adductor exercise will increase the density and strength of the proximal femur.

  1. Influence of mental practice on development of voluntary control of a novel motor acquisition task.

    PubMed

    Creelman, Jim

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether mental practice facilitates the development of voluntary control over the recruitment of the abductor hallucis muscle to produce isolated big toe abduction. A sample of convenience of 15 women and 20 men with a mean age of 28.8 yr. (SD=5.7) and healthy feet, who were unable voluntarily to abduct the big toe, were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a mental practice group, a physical practice group, and a group who performed a control movement during practice. Each subject received neuromuscular electrical stimulation to introduce the desired movement prior to each of five practice bouts over a single session lasting 2 hr. Big toe abduction active range of motion and surface electromyographic (EMG) output of the abductor hallucis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles were measured prior to the first practice bout and following each practice bout, yielding seven acquisition trials. Acquisition is defined as an improvement in both active range of motion and in the difference between the integrated EMG of the abductor hallucis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles during successive acquisition trials. Seven members of both the mental and physical practice groups and one member of the control group met the acquisition criteria. Chi-square analysis indicated the group difference was statistically significant, suggesting mental practice was effective for this task.

  2. A Wider Pelvis Does Not Increase Locomotor Cost in Humans, with Implications for the Evolution of Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Warrener, Anna G.; Lewton, Kristi L.; Pontzer, Herman; Lieberman, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and differences in locomotor performance between men and women. The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men and women. The results show that pelvic width does not predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does not increase a woman’s locomotor cost, and because selection for successful birthing must be strong, other factors affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit through the birth canal. PMID:25760381

  3. Physical performance measures that predict faller status in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Macrae, P G; Lacourse, M; Moldavon, R

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among the elderly. Accurate determination of risk factors associated with falls in older adults is necessary, not only for individual patient management, but also for the development of fall prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical measures, such as the one-legged stance test (OLST), sit-to-stand test (STST), manual muscle tests (MMT), and response speed in predicting faller status in community-dwelling older adults (N = 94, age 60-89 years). The variables assessed were single-leg standing (as measured by OLST), STST, and MMT of 12 different muscle groups (hip flexors, hip abductors, hip adductors, knee flexors, knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, ankle plantarflexors, shoulder flexors, shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and finger flexors), and speed of response (as measured by a visual hand reaction and movement time task). Of the 94 older adults assessed, 28 (29.7%) reported at least one fall within the previous year. The discriminant analysis revealed that there were six variables that significantly discriminated between fallers and nonfallers. These variables included MMT of the ankle dorsiflexors, knee flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors, as well as time on the OLST and the STST. The results indicate that simple clinical measures of musculoskeletal function can discriminate fallers from nonfallers in community-dwelling older adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):123-128.

  4. Correlation of the Y-Balance Test with Lower-limb Strength of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Y-balance test (YBT) distance and the lower-limb strength of adult women. [Subjects] Forty women aged 45 to 80 years volunteered for this study. [Methods] The participants were tested for maximal muscle strength of the lower limbs (hip extensors, hip flexors, hip abductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors) and YBT distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to quantify the linear relationships between YBT distances and lower-limb strength. [Results] Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT anterior distance. Hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with the YBT posteromedial distance. Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT posterolateral distance. [Conclusion] There was a weak correlation between lower-limb strength (hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee flexors) and dynamic postural control as measured by the YBT. PMID:24926122

  5. Does the addition of hip strengthening exercises improve outcomes following total knee arthroplasty? A study protocol for a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E

    2016-06-13

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is effective in reducing pain and improving function for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, muscle weakness and functional limitations persist despite assistance from post-operative rehabilitation programs that traditionally focus on quadriceps strengthening and range of movement exercises. Hip abductor muscle weakness is evident in knee osteoarthritis and hip muscle strengthening reduces knee pain in this group. Following TKA, people with weak hip abductor strength perform more poorly on measures of physical function. However, very little is known of the effectiveness of including hip abductor strengthening exercises in post-operative rehabilitation. The aim of this trial is to compare the effects of targeted hip abductor strengthening to those of traditional care in a TKA rehabilitation program on muscle strength, patient reported outcomes and functional performance measures. This protocol describes a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, where 104 participants referred for inpatient rehabilitation following TKA will be recruited. Participants will be randomized using computer-generated numbers to one of two groups: usual care or usual care with additional hip strengthening exercises. Participants will attend physiotherapy daily during their inpatient length of stay, and will then attend between six and eight physiotherapy sessions as an outpatient. Primary outcomes are isometric hip abductor strength and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes are stair climb test, 6 min walk test, timed up and go, 40 m fast-paced walk test, 30 second chair stand test, isometric quadriceps strength, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and SF-12. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline (admission to inpatient rehabilitation), and then 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 6 months post admission to rehabilitation. The findings of this study will determine whether the addition of targeted hip strengthening

  6. Which is the best predictor of excessive hip internal rotation in women with patellofemoral pain: Rearfoot eversion or hip muscle strength? Exploring subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2018-03-26

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has been linked to increased patellofemoral joint stress as a result of excessive hip internal rotation. Lower hip strength and/or excessive rearfoot eversion have been used to explain such altered movement pattern; however, it is unknown which one is the best predictor of excessive hip internal rotation. To investigate if peak rearfoot eversion and/or peak concentric hip abductor strength can predict peak hip internal rotation during stair ascent in women with PFP. This cross-sectional study included thirty-seven women with PFP which underwent three-dimensional kinematic analysis during stair ascent and hip abductor strength analysis in an isokinetic dynamometer. A forced entry linear regression model analysis was carried out to determine which independent variables present the best capability to predict the hip internal rotation. Peak concentric hip abductor strength significantly predicted peak hip internal rotation during stair ascent (R 2  = 0.27, p = 0.001). Peak rearfoot eversion did not predict peak hip internal rotation during stair ascent (R 2  < 0.01, p = 0.62). A Post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore if a subgroup with excessive rearfoot eversion would predict hip internal rotation. Based on a previous reported cut-off point, 48.6% of the participants were classified as excessive rearfoot eversion. For the subgroup with excessive rearfoot eversion, peak concentric hip abductor strength and peak rearfoot eversion significantly predicted peak hip internal rotation during stair ascent (R 2  = 0.26, p = 0.02; R 2  = 0.42, p = 0.003, respectively). For non-excessive rearfoot eversion subgroup, peak concentric hip abductor strength significantly predicted peak hip internal rotation during stair ascent (R 2  = 0.53; p < 0.001); and peak rearfoot eversion did not (R 2  = 0.01; p = 0.65). Findings indicate that hip muscle strength seems to be related with hip internal rotation in all

  7. Development of Vault Toilet Waste Treatment Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    wi nd turbine used was a Savoniut’ Wing Rotor, a vertical axis rotor developed by S. J. Savonius in the early 1920’s and used exten- sively in the...2 ) i t was a vertical axis turbine which minimi zed tower con- struction costs, and (3) its high starting torque made it wel l suited to ariving an...ihe turbine constructed by this investigation consistea of two rotors, each 4 ft (1.2 m) high and 7 ft (2.1 m) in wi ath across the long axis , mounted

  8. Addendum to the Environmental Assessment for the Armed Forces Reserve Center and Operational Maintenance Facility for the 63rd Regional Support Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-29

    PmO . The Pemtit No. DACA09·4-96.()()39 ~ emissions resul ting from the action woul d 12 Aug 97, 99 ABW Environmental Baseline Study be de minimus . A...Emissions are below de minimis levels, therefore, a formal conformity analysis is not required. Long-term air quality impacts would primarily be a...by minutes. Emissions are at de mlnlmw limiting vehicle idle to less tb.lll 3 limiting vehicle idle to less lb.lll 3 levels. minutes. Emissions are

  9. Color film preservation system: Breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an economically feasible system to prevent and/or substantially reduce the degradation of the color dyes of the retinal reflex images recorded on color slide films is discussed. Three different types of film storage systems were designed, fabricated, and tested. An extruded plastic cylindrical container was pressurized and no observable leakage occurred, indicating that long term storage is possible. An operational breadboard was fabricated. The system offers the capability to determine purging requirements to achieve various levels of oxygen concentration and precise leakage of various container configurations. The system has digitial display of oxygen content of the container, automatic control of the oxygen content as well as of the container to atmosphere pressure differential, and flow rate readout during purging.

  10. Domain and rim growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Yilixiati, Subinuer; Sharma, Vivek

    Foam films are freely standing thin liquid films that typically consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. During the initial expansion, a rim forms near the contact line between the growing thinner domain and the surrounding region, which influences the dynamics of domain growth as well as stratification Using newly developed interferometry digitial imaging optical microscopy (IDIOM) technique, we capture the rim evolution dynamics. Finally, we also develop a theoretical model to describe both rim evolution and domain growth dynamics.

  11. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-10-13

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  12. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  13. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Effects of Plyometric Training on Muscle-Activation Strategies and Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Swanik, Kathleen A.; Swanik, C. Buz; Straub, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance of the lower extremity during jumping exercises. Subjects: Twenty healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes. Design and Setting: A pretest and posttest control group design was used. Experimental subjects performed plyometric exercises 2 times per week for 6 weeks. Measurements: We used surface electromyography to assess preparatory and reactive activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, medial and lateral hamstrings, and hip abductors and adductors. Vertical jump height and sprint speed were assessed with the VERTEC and infrared timing devices, respectively. Results: Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant (P < .05) increases in firing of adductor muscles during the preparatory phase, with significant interactions for area, mean, and peak. A Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis revealed significant increases in preparatory adductor area, mean, and peak for experimental group. A significant (P = .037) increase in preparatory adductor-to-abductor muscle coactivation in the experimental group was identified, as well as a trend (P = .053) toward reactive quadriceps-to- hamstring muscle coactivation in the experimental group. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed significant between-groups adaptations in muscle activity patterns pretest to posttest. Although not significant, experimental and control subjects had average increases of 5.8% and 2.0% in vertical jump height, respectively. Conclusions: The increased preparatory adductor activity and abductor-to-adductor coactivation represent preprogrammed motor strategies learned during the plyometric training. These data strongly support the role of hip-musculature activation strategies for dynamic restraint and control of lower extremity alignment at ground contact. Plyometric exercises should be incorporated into the training regimens

  15. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.

  16. Frontal joint dynamics when initiating stair ascent from a walk versus a stand.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Yentes, Jennifer M; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-02-02

    Ascending stairs is a challenging activity of daily living for many populations. Frontal plane joint dynamics are critical to understand the mechanisms involved in stair ascension as they contribute to both propulsion and medio-lateral stability. However, previous research is limited to understanding these dynamics while initiating stair ascent from a stand. We investigated if initiating stair ascent from a walk with a comfortable self-selected speed could affect the frontal plane lower-extremity joint moments and powers as compared to initiating stair ascent from a stand and if this difference would exist at consecutive ipsilateral steps on the stairs. Kinematics data using a 3-D motion capture system and kinetics data using two force platforms on the first and third stair treads were recorded simultaneously as ten healthy young adults ascended a custom-built staircase. Data were collected from two starting conditions of stair ascent, from a walk (speed: 1.42 ± 0.21 m/s) and from a stand. Results showed that subjects generated greater peak knee abductor moment and greater peak hip abductor moment when initiating stair ascent from a walk. Greater peak joint moments and powers at all joints were also seen while ascending the second ipsilateral step. Particularly, greater peak hip abductor moment was needed to avoid contact of the contralateral limb with the intermediate step by counteracting the pelvic drop on the contralateral side. This could be important for therapists using stair climbing as a testing/training tool to evaluate hip strength in individuals with documented frontal plane abnormalities (i.e. knee and hip osteoarthritis, ACL injury). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontal Joint Dynamics when Initiating Stair Ascent from a Walk versus a Stand

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Yentes, Jennifer M.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Ascending stairs is a challenging activity of daily living for many populations. Frontal plane joint dynamics are critical to understand the mechanisms involved in stair ascension as they contribute to both propulsion and medio-lateral stability. However, previous research is limited to understanding these dynamics while initiating stair ascent from a stand. We investigated if initiating stair ascent from a walk with a comfortable self-selected speed could affect the frontal plane lower-extremity joint moments and powers as compared to initiating stair ascent from a stand and if this difference would exist at consecutive ipsilateral steps on the stairs. Kinematics data using a 3-D motion capture system and kinetics data using two force platforms on the first and third stair treads were recorded simultaneously as ten healthy young adults ascended a custom-built staircase. Data were collected from two starting conditions of stair ascent, from a walk (speed: 1.42±0.21m/s) and from a stand. Results showed that subjects generated greater peak knee abductor moment and greater peak hip abductor moment when initiating stair ascent from a walk. Greater peak joint moments and powers at all joints were also seen while ascending the second ipsilateral step. Particularly, greater peak hip abductor moment was needed to avoid contact of the contralateral limb with the intermediate step by counteracting the pelvic drop on the contralateral side. This could be important for therapists using stair climbing as a testing/training tool to evaluate hip strength in individuals with documented frontal plane abnormalities (i.e. knee and hip osteoarthritis, ACL injury). PMID:22172606

  18. Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Moloney, David J; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-05-24

    Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

  19. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p < 0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p < 0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p = 0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  20. Knee Joint Contact Mechanics during Downhill Gait and its Relationship with Varus/Valgus Motion and Muscle Strength in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p<0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p=0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Conclusion Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with

  1. Is stiffness related to athletic groin pain?

    PubMed

    Gore, S J; Franklyn-Miller, A; Richter, C; Falvey, E C; King, E; Moran, K

    2018-06-01

    Athletic groin pain (AGP) is a common injury prevalent in field sports. One biomechanical measure that may be of importance for injury risk is stiffness. To date however, stiffness has not been examined in AGP. The primary aim was to determine whether AGP affects vertical and joint stiffness and if so, whether successful rehabilitation is associated with a change in stiffness. Sixty-five male patients with AGP and fifty male controls were recruited to this study. Assessment included a biomechanical examination of stiffness during a lateral hurdle hop test. Subjects with AGP were tested pre- and post-rehabilitation, while controls were tested once. AGP subjects were cleared for return to play in a median time of 9.14 weeks (5.14-29.0). Stiffness was significantly different at pre-rehabilitation in comparison with controls for four of the ten stiffness values examined: ankle plantar flexor, knee extensor, hip abductor, and vertical stiffness (P < .05, D = 0.36-0.79). Despite clearance for return to play, of these four variables, only hip abductor stiffness changed significantly from pre- to post-rehabilitation (P = .05, D = 0.35) to become non-significantly different to the uninjured group (P = .18, D = 0.26). These findings suggest that hip abductor stiffness may represent a target for AGP rehabilitation. Conversely, given the clearance for return to play, the lower sagittal plane and vertical stiffness in the AGP group in comparison with the uninjured controls likely represents either a compensatory mechanism to reduce the risk of further injury or a consequence of neuromuscular detraining. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Closed kinetic chain exercises with or without additional hip strengthening exercises in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M; Gamaleldein, M H; Hassa, K A

    2013-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor. Isolated open kinetic chain hip abductors and lateral rotators exercises were added by many authors to the rehabilitation program. However, Closed Kinetic Chain (CKC) exercises focusing on hip and knee muscles were not investigated if they can produce similar effect of hip strengthening and decreasing pain without the need of isolated exercises for hip musculature. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a CKC exercises program with or without additional hip strengthening exercises on pain and hip abductors and lateral rotators peak torque. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome referred to the outpatient physical therapy clinic of the faculty of physical therapy, cairo university. Thirty two patients who had patellofemoral pain syndrome with age ranged from eighteen to thirty years. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: CKC group and CKC with hip muscles strengthening exercises as a control (CO) group. Treatment was given 3 times/week, for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment for their pain severity using VAS, function of knee joint using Kujala questionnaire, hip abductors and external rotators concentric/eccentric peak torque. There were significant improvements in pain, function and hip muscles peak torque in both groups (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in hip muscles torque (P<0.05) but pain and function improvements were significantly greater in the CO group (P<0.05). Six weeks CKC program focusing on knee and hip strengthening has similar effect in improving hip muscles torque in patients with PFPS as a CKC exercises with additional hip strengthening exercises. However, adding isolated hip strengthening exercises has the advantage of more

  3. Clinical Rating of Movement-Pattern Quality in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Methodological Study.

    PubMed

    Casartelli, Nicola C; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Brunner, Romana; Büchi, Marcel; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W; Naal, Florian D; Leunig, Michael; Bizzini, Mario

    2018-04-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To evaluate intrarater and interrater agreement among physical therapists with different clinical experience in performing a visual rating of movement-pattern quality of patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome using a semi-quantitative scale. Background Visual rating of movement patterns in patients with FAI syndrome is of interest, because poor control of dynamic hip motion is frequently noted. Methods A video camera was used to record the performance of 34 patients with FAI syndrome performing single-limb standing, squat, frontal lunge, hop lunge, bridge, and plank. Visual rating of movement, as recorded on video, was performed by a highly experienced, a moderately experienced, and a novice physical therapist on 2 occasions using a semi-quantitative scale. Hip abductor strength was assessed using dynamometry, and hip pain and function were assessed with a patient-reported questionnaire. Intrarater and interrater agreement among physical therapists was evaluated using Gwet's agreement coefficient 1. Construct validity was evaluated as the association between physical therapists' rating and patients' hip abductor strength, pain, and function. Results Good intrarater and interrater agreement was observed in the highly experienced and moderately experienced physical therapists when rating single-limb standing, bridge, and plank. Poor to moderate intrarater and interrater agreement was found when they rated squat, frontal lunge, and hop lunge. Poor performers, as rated by the highly experienced physical therapist only, demonstrated lower hip abductor strength (P<.05), and similar hip pain and hip function compared to those of good performers. Conclusion Movement-pattern quality of patients with FAI syndrome should be rated by a highly experienced physical therapist. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(4):260-269. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7840.

  4. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up. An explorative randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2016-11-01

    The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. Forty-seven patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomised to total hip arthroplasty with either posterior or lateral approach and evaluated pre-operatively, 3 and 12months post-operatively using 3-dimensional gait analyses as objective measures of gait function, including Gait Deviation Index, temporo-spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group: -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0] and -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0], respectively. Contrary to our first hypothesis, the overall gait function in the posterior approach group did not improve more than in the lateral approach group. However, in agreement with our second hypothesis, patients in the posterior approach group improved more in hip abductor and flexor muscle strength at 12months. Further investigation of the effect of reduced maximal hip muscle strength on functional capacity is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov. No.: NCT01616667. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  6. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer: Implementing an early detection and management strategy over two consecutive seasons.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-14

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. Longitudinal cohort study. Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds for alerts to initiate further investigations were defined as any of the following: adductor strength reductions >15%, adductor/abductor strength ratio <0.90, and HAGOS subscale scores <75 out of 100 in any of the six subscales. Overall, 105 alerts were detected involving 70% of players. Strength related alerts comprised 40% and remaining 60% of alerts were related to HAGOS. Hip adductor strength and adductor/abductor strength ratio were lowest at pre-season testing and had increased significantly by month two (p<0.01, mean difference 0.26, CI95%: 0.12, 0.41N/kg and p<0.01, mean difference 0.09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (p<0.01). Most (87%) time-loss were classified minimal or mild. In-season monitoring aimed at early detection and management of hip and groin strength, health and function appears promising. Hip and groin strength, health and function improved quickly from pre-season to in-season in a high-risk population for ongoing hip and groin problems. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Sign for Missed Decompression of a Separate Extensor Pollicis Brevis Compartment in de Quervain's Disease.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Niels

    2017-08-01

    Persistent pain despite previous surgery for de Quervain's disease might be due to an overlooked septum between the abductor pollicis longus tendon slips and the extensor pollicis brevis tendon, or an overlooked completely separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis tendon alone. In both of these instances, extension of the MP joint of the thumb against resistance elicits pain at the distal level of the first extensor compartment of the wrist. When this sign is positive, revisional surgery and decompression of the remaining septum or separate compartment is indicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Metal-on-Metal Hip Retrieval Analysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Thomas B.; Rusaw, Kara A.; Minette, Lawrence J.; Shirley, Brayton R.; Snider, Rebecca G.; DesJardins, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This is a case report involving a single case with severe bone and soft tissue destruction in a young male patient with a 10-year-metal on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Following complete aseptic erosion of the affected hip greater trochanter and abductor muscles, the hip was revised for recurrent instability. Histological examination of the patient's periprosthetic tissues, serological studies, and review of recent medical reports of similar cases were used to support an explanation of the destructive process and better contribute to our understanding of human reaction to metal debris in some patients following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. PMID:23840999

  9. T1 Radiculopathy: Electrodiagnostic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, Jeffrey; Zimmer, Zachary R.

    2008-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) studies are useful in the anatomical localization of nerve injuries and, in most cases, isolating lesions to a single nerve root level. Their utility is important in identifying specific nerve-root-level injuries where surgical or interventional procedures may be warranted. In this case report, an individual presented with right upper extremity radicular symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. EMG studies revealed that the lesion could be more specifically isolated to the T1 nerve root and, furthermore, provided evidence that the abductor pollicis brevis receives predominantly T1 innervation. PMID:19083061

  10. Effect of plyometric training on lower limb biomechanics in females.

    PubMed

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Moreira Lobato, Daniel F; Yoshimatsu, Andre P; dos Santos, Ana Flávia; Francisco, Andrea L; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Serrão, Fábio V

    2014-01-01

    To verify the effects of plyometric training on lower limb kinematics, eccentric hip and knee torques, and functional performance. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Thirty-six females were divided into a training group (TG; n = 18) that carried out the plyometric training for 8 weeks, and a control group (CG; n = 18) that carried out no physical training. Twenty-four plyometric training sessions during approximately 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week on alternate days. Lower limb kinematics (maximum excursion of hip adduction, hip medial rotation, and knee abduction during the single leg squat), eccentric hip (abductor, adductor, medial, and lateral rotator) isokinetic peak torques and knee (flexor and extensor) isokinetic peak torques, and functional performance (triple hop test and the 6-m timed hop test). After 8 weeks, only the TG significantly reduced the values for the maximum excursion of knee abduction (P = 0.01) and hip adduction (P < 0.001). Similarly, only the TG significantly increased the eccentric hip abductor (P < 0.001) and adductor (P = 0.01) torques. Finally, only the TG significantly increased the values in the triple hop test (P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the values in the 6-m timed hop test (P < 0.001) after intervention. Plyometric training alters lower limb kinematics and increases eccentric hip torque and functional performance, suggesting the incorporation of these exercises in preventive programs for ACL injuries.

  11. Influence of muscle groups' activation on proximal femoral growth tendency.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-12-01

    Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed. Specific growth rate for the growth plate was computed, and the growth was simulated in the principal stress direction at each element in the growth front. The predicted growth indicated decreased NSA and FA (of about [Formula: see text] over a four-month period) for able-bodied children. Hip abductors contributed the most, and hip adductors, the least, to growth rate. All muscles groups contributed to a decrease in predicted NSA ([Formula: see text]0.01[Formula: see text]-0.04[Formula: see text] and FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]), except hip extensors and hip adductors, which showed a tendency to increase the FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]). Understanding influences of different muscle groups on long bone growth tendency can help in treatment planning for growing children with affected gait.

  12. Pathological gait in children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and proposal for gait modification to decrease the hip joint loading.

    PubMed

    Svehlík, Martin; Kraus, Tanja; Steinwender, Gerhard; Zwick, Ernst B; Linhart, Wolfgang E

    2012-06-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) severely limits the range of hip motion and hinders a normal gait. Loading of the hip joint is a major consideration in LCP treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait patterns in LCP and identify gait modifications to decrease the load on the affected hip. Forty children with unilateral LCP were divided into three groups based on the time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance on the affected side acquired during instrumented 3D gait analysis. X-rays of the affected hip were classified according to Herring and Catterall. Children in the "unloading" group spontaneously adopted a Duchenne-like gait with pelvis elevation, hip abduction and external rotation during single support phase. The "normal-loading" group showed pelvis elevation with a neutral hip position in the frontal plane. In the "overloading" group the pelvis dropped to the swinging limb at the beginning of stance accompanied by prolonged hip adduction. The time base integral of the hip abductor moments during single stance correlated positively with the X-ray classifications of Herring and Catterall, hip abduction angle and age. Older children preferred to walk in hip adduction during single stance, had more impaired hips and tended to overload them. The hip overloading pattern should be avoided in children with LCP. Gait training to unload the hip might become an integral component of conservative treatment in children with LCP.

  13. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  14. [Hemispheric transcranial electrical stimulation: clinical results].

    PubMed

    Pastor Gómez, Jesús; Perla-Perla, Patricia; Pulido-Rivas, Paloma; Sola, Rafael G

    2010-07-16

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is a technique widely used in intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, there are theoretical limitations to their use in supratentorial surgery. To test the usefulness of hemispheric TES (C3/C4-Cz) in supratentorial surgery. Hemispheric TES was conducted in a group of 15 patients operated on supratentorial region with possible compromise of the inner capsule. In all cases orbicularis oris, extensor digitorum, abductor of V finger, anterior tibialis and abductor hallucis brevis contralateral to stimulation were recorded. We used trains of 4-6 pulses of 50 micro-seconds at 500 Hz. The intensity of the movements induced by hemispheric TES did not interfere with the microsurgical dissection. We have used 78.5 +/- 11.2 trains per patient, with the voltage of 235 +/- 21 V and the equivalent current 370 +/- 37 mA. Stimulation resulted in response in facial region in 80% of cases, 100% in arm/hand and 66.7% in leg/foot. In eight patients, there was no change in latency and/or amplitude during resection. In six patients we observed retardation, decreased amplitude or both in any of the region studied. In these patients no neurologic injury was observed. In one patient a sharp decrease and complete absence of motor response was observed. In this case there was a post-surgical neurologic injury. The hemispheric TES have high sensitivity and specificity monitoring the inner capsule in supratentorial neurosurgery.

  15. Hip muscle strength is decreased in middle-aged recreational male athletes with midportion Achilles tendinopathy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Habets, B; Smits, H W; Backx, F J G; van Cingel, R E H; Huisstede, B M A

    2017-05-01

    Investigating differences in hip muscle strength between athletes with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and asymptomatic controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. Sports medical center. Twelve recreational male athletes with mid-portion AT and twelve matched asymptomatic controls. Isometric strength of the hip abductors, external rotators, and extensors was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Functional hip muscle performance was evaluated with the single-leg squat. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire was completed to determine clinical severity of symptoms. Compared to controls, participants with AT demonstrated 28.9% less isometric hip abduction strength (p = 0.012), 34.2% less hip external rotation strength (p = 0.010), and 28.3% less hip extension strength (p = 0.034) in the injured limb. Similar differences were found for the non-injured limb (26.7-41.8%; p < 0.03). No significant differences were found in functional hip muscle performance between the injured and non-injured limb or between the groups, and no significant correlation was found between hip muscle strength and VISA-A scores. Recreational male athletes with chronic mid-portion AT demonstrated bilateral weakness of hip abductors, external rotators, and extensors compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. These findings suggest that hip muscle strength may be important in the assessment and rehabilitation of those with AT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trochantoplasty for Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With Coxa Vara Deformity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Parvizi, Javad; Song, Ji-Ung; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA) of hips with coxa vara, the femoral stems might be inserted in a varus alignment. To avoid varus insertion, we designed a technique, which we termed "trochantoplasty." In this procedure, the medial half of the greater trochanter was removed during THA. We evaluated 30 patients (31 hips) who had coxa vara deformity and underwent THA using trochantoplasty at the mean follow-up of 5 years (range, 3-9 years). All stems were inserted in the neutral position. One Vancouver type 1 periprosthetic femoral fracture occurred after a fall at postoperative 2 months. At the latest follow-up, the mean power of abductor was 4.3 (range, 3-5). Four patients had moderate limp whereas 26 patients had slight limp. The abduction at 90° flexion ranged from 15° to 45° (mean, 35°). There was no revision. All prostheses had bone-ingrown stability without any detectable wear or osteolysis. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 66.9 to 89.4 points. Trochantoplasty can be used to avoid varus insertion of the femoral stem while performing THA in patients with coxa vara deformity without compromising the abductor mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower extremity control during turns initiated with and without hip external rotation.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Flashner, Henryk; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2017-02-08

    The pirouette turn is often initiated in neutral and externally rotated hip positions by dancers. This provides an opportunity to investigate how dancers satisfy the same mechanical objectives at the whole-body level when using different leg kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity control strategies during the turn initiation phase of pirouettes performed with and without hip external rotation. Skilled dancers (n=5) performed pirouette turns with and without hip external rotation. Joint kinetics during turn initiation were determined for both legs using ground reaction forces (GRFs) and segment kinematics. Hip muscle activations were monitored using electromyography. Using probability-based statistical methods, variables were compared across turn conditions as a group and within-dancer. Despite differences in GRFs and impulse generation between turn conditions, at least 90% of each GRF was aligned with the respective leg plane. A majority of the net joint moments at the ankle, knee, and hip acted about an axis perpendicular to the leg plane. However, differences in shank alignment relative to the leg plane affected the distribution of the knee net joint moment when represented with respect to the shank versus the thigh. During the initiation of both turns, most participants used ankle plantar flexor moments, knee extensor moments, flexor and abductor moments at the push leg׳s hip, and extensor and abductor moments at the turn leg׳s hip. Representation of joint kinetics using multiple reference systems assisted in understanding control priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox.

    PubMed

    Thwin, San San; Fazlin, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3-14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery.

  19. Displacement of the hip center of rotation after arthroplasty of Crowe III and IV dysplasia: a radiological and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemian, Mansour; Samiezadeh, Saeid; Jafari, Davood; Bougherara, Habiba; Gross, Allan E; Ghazavi, Mohammad T

    2013-06-01

    To study the direction and biomechanical consequences of hip center of rotation (HCOR) migration in Crowe type III and VI hips after total hip arthroplasty, post-operative radiographs and CT scans of several unilaterally affected hips were evaluated. Using a three-dimensional model of the human hip, the HCOR was moved in all directions, and joint reaction force (JRF) and abductor muscle force (AMF) were calculated for single-leg stance configuration. Comparing to the normal side, HCOR had displaced medially and inferiorly by an average of 23.4% and 20.8%, respectively, of the normal femoral head diameter. Significant decreases in JRF (13%) and AMF (46.13%) were observed in a presumptive case with that amount of displacement. Isolated inferior displacement had a small, increasing effect on these forces. In Crowe type III and IV hips, the HCOR migrates inferiorly and medially after THA, resulting in a decrease in JRF, AMF, and abductor muscle contraction force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spasmodic dysphonia: a seven-year audit of dose titration and demographics in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, N K; Banu, T P

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the demographics of spasmodic dysphonia in the Indian population and to analyse the optimum dose titration of botulinum toxin type A in this group. A comparative analysis with international studies was also performed. The study involved a retrospective analysis and audit of botulinum toxin type A dose titration in spasmodic dysphonia patients who visited our voice clinic between January 2005 and January 2012. The average total therapeutic dose required for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia was 4.2 U per patient per vocal fold (total 8.4 U per patient), and for patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia, it was 4.6 U per patient. Our audit revealed that 80 per cent of the spasmodic dysphonia patients were male, which contrasts dramatically with international studies, wherein around 80 per cent of spasmodic dysphonia patients were female. Our study also revealed a higher dose titration of botulinum toxin for the Indian spasmodic dysphonia population in both adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia cases.

  1. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    PubMed

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    PubMed

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  3. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  4. Greater Trochanteric Fixation Using a Cable System for Partial Hip Arthroplasty: A Clinical and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Fırat; Koyuncu, Şemmi; Pekedis, Mahmut; Altay, Taşkın; Yıldız, Hasan; Toker, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of greater trochanteric fixation using a multifilament cable to ensure abductor lever arm continuity in patients with a proximal femoral fracture undergoing partial hip arthroplasty. Mean age of the patients (12 men, 20 women) was 84.12 years. Mean follow-up was 13.06 months. Fixation of the dislocated greater trochanter with or without a cable following load application was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA). Radiological evaluation was based on the distance between the fracture and the union site. Harris hip score was used to evaluate final results: outcomes were excellent in 7 patients (21.8%), good in 17 patients (53.1%), average in 5 patients (15.6%), and poor in 1 patient (9.3%). Mean abduction angle was 20.21°. Union was achieved in 14 patients (43.7%), fibrous union in 12 (37.5%), and no union in 6 (18.7%). FEA showed that the maximum total displacement of the greater trochanter decreased when the fractured bone was fixed with a cable. As the force applied to the cable increased, the displacement of the fractured trochanter decreased. This technique ensures continuity of the abductor lever arm in patients with a proximal femoral fracture who are undergoing partial hip arthroplasty surgery. PMID:25177703

  5. Current status of trochanteric reattachment in complex total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Robert L; Butler, R Allen

    2005-12-01

    A study was done to determine if cable fixation devices of more recent design were associated with a higher success rate and lower incidence of complications compared with early cable devices. Beginning in 1997 a cable plate device was used in an attempt to restore abductor function more consistently in complex total hip arthroplasties. Cobalt-chrome cables through holes in a trochanteric cable plate with two or more transversely oriented cables at or below the lesser trochanter were used in order to resist migration of the trochanteric fragment better. Other component features included instrumentation that allowed provisional fixation and measurement of the tension in the cables so that cables could be tightened and retightened sequentially to insure a minimum of 80 inch-pounds of tension in all cables before final crimping. Minimum 2-year followup was obtained in 42 patients who had complex arthroplasties (trochanteric nonunions and reattachment to structural grafts) in which such a device was used. Clinical and radiographic results were compared with a series of patients with similar indications in whom wire or and earlier-generation trochanteric cable fixation devices were used. The cable plate of a more recent design was associated with a possible trend for a lower incidence of limp, use of assistive walking devices, dislocation, and abductor weakness and significant decrease in the incidence of breakage and trochanteric nonunion. Therapeutic study, Level III-1 (retrospective comparative study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. The Effects on Muscle Activation of Flatfoot during Gait According to the Velocity on an Ascending Slope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ryeol; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the difference between flatfeet and normal feet in humans on an ascending slope using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (n=15) and flatfeet (n=15), all of whom were 21 to 30 years old. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT,) was used to analyze kinematic features during gait. These features were analyzed at slow, normal, and fast gait velocities on an ascending slope. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) was used to measure muscle activity changes. [Results] The activities of most muscles in the subjects with flatfeet were significantly different from the muscle activities in the subjects with normal feet at different gait velocities on an ascending slope. There were significant differences in the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis muscles. [Conclusion] Because muscle activation of the vastus medialis in relation to stability of the lower extremity has a tendency to increase with an increase in gait velocity on an ascending slope, we hypothesized that higher impact transfer to the knee joints occurs in subjects with flatfeet due to the lack of a medial longitudinal arch and that the abductor halluces muscles, which provide dynamic stability to the medial longitudinal arches, do not activate well when they are needed in subjects with flatfeet.

  7. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of MARS MRI and ultrasound of the painful metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Imran A; Sabah, Shiraz A; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Lim, Adrian K; Cro, Suzie; Henckel, Johann; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2014-08-01

    Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI and ultrasound scanning (USS) can both be used to detect pseudotumors, abductor muscle atrophy, and tendinous pathology in patients with painful metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. We wanted to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of USS using MARS MRI as a reference for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy. PatienTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study to compare MARS MRI and USS findings in 19 consecutive patients with unilateral MOM hips. Protocolized USS was performed by consultant musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded regarding clinical details. Reports were independently compared with MARS MRI, the imaging gold standard, to calculate predictive values. The prevalence of pseudotumors on MARS MRI was 68% (95% CI: 43-87) and on USS it was 53% (CI: 29-76). The sensitivity of USS in detecting pseudotumors was 69% (CI 39-91) and the specificity was 83% (CI: 36-97). The sensitivity of detection of abductor muscle atrophy was 47% (CI: 24-71). In addition, joint effusion was detected in 10 cases by USS and none were seen by MARS MRI. We found a poor agreement between USS and MARS MRI. USS was inferior to MARS MRI for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy, but it was superior for detection of joint effusion and tendinous pathologies. MARS MRI is more advantageous than USS for practical reasons, including preoperative planning and longitudinal comparison.

  8. Patellofemoral pain and asymmetrical hip rotation.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, Michael T; Threlkeld-Watkins, Julie

    2005-11-01

    Patellofemoral joint problems are the most common overuse injury of the lower extremity, and altered femoral or hip rotation may play a role in patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this case report is to describe the evaluation of and intervention for a patient with asymmetrical hip rotation and patellofemoral pain. The patient was a 15-year-old girl with an 8-month history of anterior right knee pain, without known trauma or injury. Prior to intervention, her score on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was 24%. Right hip medial (internal) rotation was less than left hip medial rotation, and manual muscle testing showed weakness of the right hip internal rotator and abductor muscles. The intervention was aimed at increasing right hip medial rotation, improving right hip muscle strength (eg, the muscle force exerted by a muscle or a group of muscles to overcome a resistance), and eliminating anterior right knee pain. After 6 visits (14 days), passive left and right hip medial rotations were symmetrical, and her right hip internal rotator and abductor muscle grades were Good plus. Her WOMAC score was 0%. The patient had right patellofemoral pain and an uncommon pattern of asymmetrical hip rotation, with diminished hip medial rotation and excessive hip lateral (external) rotation on the right side. The patient's outcomes suggest that femoral or hip joint asymmetry may be related to patellofemoral joint pain.

  9. Relationship between hip and core strength and frontal plane alignment during a single leg squat.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Laurie; Finley, Margaret; Gulgin, Heather

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between frontal plane kinematics of the single leg squat and strength of the trunk and hip in females. Forty healthy females participated in this study. An isometric "make" test using a dynamometer was used to assess peak force normalized to body weight for hip abduction, hip extension, hip external rotation, and a sidelying plank test. Two-dimensional software was used to analyze the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and pelvic angle during a single leg squat to 60°. All 4 strength factors were significantly correlated with the FPPA, ranging from r = 0.396 to r = 0.466. During multiple regression analysis, hip abduction strength was the greatest predictor of the variation in FPPA at r(2) = 0.22, p = 0.002. Thus, hip abduction strength accounted for 22% of the variation in the FPPA during the single leg squat. The only strength factor demonstrating a significant correlation with the pelvic angle was hip extension strength (r = 0.550, p < 0.001). Clinicians should consider the role of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, hip extensors and core musculature on the impact on the FPPA during a single squat, with focus on the hip abductors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thumb postures and physical loads during mobile phone use - a comparison of young adults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ewa; Johnson, Peter W; Hagberg, Mats

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thumb postures, thumb movements and muscle activity when using mobile phones for SMS messaging and to determine whether there were differences in these exposures (a) across various mobile phone tasks, (b) between gender and (c) between subjects with and without musculoskeletal symptoms in shoulders and upper extremities. Fifty-six young adults (15 healthy and 41 with musculoskeletal symptoms) performed a series of distinct tasks on a mobile phone. Muscular load in four forearm/hand muscles in the right arm and the right and left trapezius muscles were measured using electromyography (EMG). Thumb movements were registered using an electrogoniometer. The results showed that postures (sitting or standing) and the type of mobile phone task (holding the phone versus texting) affected muscle activity and thumb positions. Females compared to males had higher muscle activity in the extensor digitorum and the abductor pollicis longus when entering SMS messages and tended to have greater thumb abduction, higher thumb movement velocities and fewer pauses in the thumb movements. Subjects with symptoms had lower muscle activity levels in the abductor pollicis longus and tended to have higher thumb movement velocities and fewer pauses in the thumb movements compared to those without symptoms.

  11. 'Bald trochanter' spontaneous rupture of the conjoined tendons of the gluteus medius and minimus presenting as a trochanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    LaBan, Myron M; Weir, Susan K; Taylor, Ronald S

    2004-10-01

    A 66-yr-old white woman presented with progressive complaints of right lateral hip and thigh pain associated with a disabling limp without an antecedent history of trauma. Physical examination revealed localized pain over the right greater trochanter to palpation. A full pain-free range of motion of the right hip was associated with weakness in the hip abductors. The patient ambulated with a compensated right Trendelenburg gait. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a trochanteric bursitis and an effusion of the hip and a full-thickness tear of the gluteus medius muscle, with both a disruption and retraction of the tendon of an atretic gluteus minimus muscle. Conjoined tendon pathology of both the gluteus medius and minimus as, revealed by magnetic resonance examination, is probably more frequent than heretofore commonly recognized. In patients presenting with "intractable" complaints of a trochanteric bursitis and an ambulatory limp due to weakness in the hip abductors, imaging studies calling attention to a possible tendon rupture may be diagnostic.

  12. Distribution and severity of weakness among patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, M. O.; Shrader, J. A.; Koziol, D.; Pahlajani, N.; Jain, M.; Smith, M.; Cintas, H. L.; McGarvey, C. L.; James-Newton, L.; Pokrovnichka, A.; Moini, B.; Cabalar, I.; Lovell, D. J.; Wesley, R.; Plotz, P. H.; Miller, F. W.; Hicks, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To describe the distribution and severity of muscle weakness using manual muscle testing (MMT) in 172 patients with PM, DM and juvenile DM (JDM). The secondary objectives included characterizing individual muscle group weakness and determining associations of weakness with functional status and myositis characteristics in this large cohort of patients with myositis. Methods. Strength was assessed for 13 muscle groups using the 10-point MMT and expressed as a total score, subscores based on functional and anatomical regions, and grades for individual muscle groups. Patient characteristics and secondary outcomes, such as clinical course, muscle enzymes, corticosteroid dosage and functional status were evaluated for association with strength using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. A gradient of proximal weakness was seen, with PM weakest, DM intermediate and JDM strongest among the three myositis clinical groups (P ≤ 0.05). Hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, neck flexors and shoulder abductors were the muscle groups with the greatest weakness among all three clinical groups. Muscle groups were affected symmetrically. Conclusions. Axial and proximal muscle impairment was reflected in the five weakest muscles shared by our cohort of myositis patients. However, differences in the pattern of weakness were observed among all three clinical groups. Our findings suggest a greater severity of proximal weakness in PM in comparison with DM. PMID:19074186

  13. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  14. 76 FR 81059 - Guidance Regarding Deduction and Capitalization of Expenditures Related to Tangible Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...This document contains temporary regulations that provide guidance on the application of sections 162(a) and 263(a) of the Internal Revenue Code to amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. The temporary regulations clarify and expand the standards in the current regulations under sections 162(a) and 263(a) and provide certain bright-line tests (for example, a de minimis rule for certain acquisitions) for applying these standards. The temporary regulations also provide guidance under section 168 regarding the accounting for, and dispositions of, property subject to section 168. The temporary regulations also amend the general asset account regulations. The temporary regulations will affect all taxpayers that acquire, produce, or improve tangible property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in the notice of proposed rulemaking on this subject appearing elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register.

  15. [Development of a system for static measurement of skin-muscle hardness and a fundamental study on its applications].

    PubMed

    Honda, T

    1990-10-01

    There have been many attempts to quantitatively measure the hardness of skin-muscle, but no objective method for doing so has been established, because there is no universal standard for the hardness of organisms. The author considered elasticity and viscosity as the most important mechanical properties of the hardness of skin-muscle and applied the Maxwell model, in which a spring and a dash-pot are arranged in a series, to the static mechanical behavior of skin-muscle. A relatively large globular pressing body with a radius of 5 mm was set as a transducer in the measuring system, so that the conformity of the practically measured values to those calculated theoretically by the model was increased. Strain of skin-muscle is expressed as a function of the load, which includes indices of elasticity (1/M) (M(N/mm2) = E/(1-lambda 2) (E: Young's modulus, lambda:Poisson's ratio)) and viscosity (1/eta) (eta:modulus of viscosity) in a particular region. Because hardness is defined as the degree of resistance against transformation by loading, decreases in the indices of both elasticity and viscosity mean increases of hardness. With 150 male and female office workers chosen as the subjects, the model was examined and the indices were calculated. The results were as follows. 1) Very good conformity of practically measured values to those calculated theoretically by the Maxwell model was recognized within the range of load velocity from 0.3 G to 3.0 G (N/sec). 2) In both males and females the regions with values nearest to those of a Newtonian fluid were, in descending order, the distal phalanxes of digiti 2-4, the palm, the distal phalanx of the first digitus and the arm. In reverse order these regions approached complete elasticity. 3) In males it was suggested that the element of viscosity in the region of the biceps brachii muscle and the hardness in the regions of the brachioradialis, the flexor carpi radialis and palmalis longus muscles and the distal phalanxes of the 4

  16. Computerized gait analysis in Legg Calvé Perthes disease--analysis of the frontal plane.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Bettina; Petermann, Andrea; Hirsch, Mark A; Willers, Reinhart; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2006-10-01

    Current follow-up and outcome studies of Legg Calvé Perthes disease (LCPD) are based on subjective measures of function, clinical parameters and radiological changes [Herring JA, Kim HT, Browne RH. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Part II: prospective multicenter study of the effect of treatment on outcome. J Bone Joint Surg 2004;86A:2121-34; Aksoy MC, Cankus MC, Alanay A, Yazici M, Caglar O, Alpaslan AM. Radiological outcome of proximal femoral varus osteotomy for the treatment of lateral pillar group-C. J Pediatr Orthop 2005;14 B:88-91; Kitakoji T, Hattori T, Kitoh H, Katho M, Ishiguro N. Which is a better method for Perthes' disease: femoral varus or Salter osteotomy? Clin Orthop 2005;430:163-170; Joseph B, Rao N, Mulpuri K, Varghese G, Nair S. How does femoral varus osteotomy alter the natural evolution of Perthes' disease. J Pediatr Orthop 2005;14B:10-5; Ishida A, Kuwajima SS, Laredo FJ, Milani C. Salter innominate osteotomy in the treatment of severe Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: clinical and radiographic results in 32 patients (37 hips) at skeletal maturity. J Pediatr Orthop 2004;24:257-64.]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frontal plane kinematics and the effect on hip joint loading on the affected side in children with a radiographic diagnosis of LCPD. Computerized, three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in 33 individuals aged > or =5 years (mean 8.0+/-2 years) with unilateral LCPD and no history of previous surgery to the hip or any disorder leading to gait abnormality. Frontal plane kinematics and kinetics were compared to a group of healthy children (n=30, mean age 8.1+/-1.2 years). Hip joint loading was estimated as a function of the hip abductor moment. Subjects with LCPD demonstrated two distinct frontal plane gait patterns, both deviating from normal. Type 1 (n=3) was characterized by a pelvic drop of the swinging limb, a trunk lean in relation to the pelvis towards the stance limb and hip adduction during stance phase and

  17. Femoral offset: anatomical concept, definition, assessment, implications for preoperative templating and hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, G; Fessy, M H; Philippot, R; Massin, P; Giraud, F; Flecher, X; Girard, J; Mertl, P; Marchetti, E; Stindel, E

    2009-05-01

    BACKGROUND OBJECTIVE: Femoral offset is supposed to influence the results of hip replacement but little is known about the accurate method of measure and the true effect of offset modifications. This article is a collection of independent anatomic, radiological and clinical works, which purpose is to assess knowledge of the implications of femoral offset for preoperative templating and total hip arthroplasty. There is a strong correlation between femoral offset, abductors lever arm and hip abductor strength. Hip lateralization is independent of the femoral endomedullary characteristics. The abductors lever arm is highly correlated to the gluteus medius activation angle. There were correlations between femoral offset and endomedullary shape. The hip center was high and medial for stovepipe metaphysis while it was lower and lateralized for champagne - flute upper femur. A study was performed to compare the femoral offset measured by X-ray and CT-scan in 50 patients, demonstrated that plain radiography underestimates offset measurement. The 2D templating cannot appreciate the rotation of the lower limb. Taking into account the horizontal plane is essential to obtain proper 3D planning of the femoral offset. A randomized study was designed to compare femoral offset measurements after hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty. This study underlined hip resurfacing reduced the femoral offset, while hip replacement increased offset. However, the reduction of femoral offset after hip resurfacing does not affect the function. A pilot study was designed to assess the results of 120 hip arthroplasties with a modular femoral neck. This study showed that the use of a modular collar ensures an easier restoration of the femoral offset. A cohort of high offset stems (Lubinus 117 degrees) was retrospectively assessed. The survival rate was slightly lower that the standard design reported in the Swedish register. Finally, the measurement of offset and leg length was assessed with

  18. The first darter (Aves: Anhingidae) fossils from India (late Pliocene).

    PubMed

    Stidham, Thomas; Patnaik, Rajeev; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Singla, Ankita; Kotla, Simran S

    2017-01-01

    New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia. These fossil specimens begin to fill in a significant geographic and temporal gap in the fossil record of this group that is largely known from other continents and other time periods. The presence of a darter and pelican (along with crabs, fish, turtles, and crocodilians) in the same fossil-bearing horizon strongly indicates the past presence of a substantial water body (large pond, lake, or river) in the interior of northern India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.

  19. Detection of low-metallicity warm plasma in a galaxy overdensity environment at z ˜ 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Anand; Savage, Blair D.; Mishra, Preetish K.; Wakker, Bart P.; Khaire, Vikram; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the analysis of a multiphase O VI-broad Ly α (BLA) absorber at z = 0.19236 in the HubbleSpaceTelescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectrum of PG 1121 + 422. The low and intermediate ionization metal lines in this absorber have a single narrow component, whereas the Ly α has a possible broad component with b({H {I}}) ˜ 71 km s-1. Ionization models favour the low and intermediate ions coming from a T ˜ 8500 K, moderately dense (n H ˜ 10 - 3 cm-3) photoionized gas with near solar metallicities. The weak O VI requires a separate gas phase that is collisionally ionized. The O VI coupled with BLA suggests T ˜ 3.2 × 105 K, with significantly lower metal abundance and ˜1.8 orders of magnitude higher total hydrogen column density compared to the photoionized phase. Sloan Digitial Sky Survey (SDSS) shows 12 luminous (>L*) galaxies in the ρ ≤ 5 Mpc, |Δv| ≤ 800 km s-1 region surrounding the absorber, with the absorber outside the virial bounds of the nearest galaxy. The warm phase of this absorber is consistent with being transition temperature plasma either at the interface regions between the hot intragroup gas and cooler photoionized clouds within the group, or associated with high velocity gas in the halo of a ≲L* galaxy. The absorber highlights the advantage of O VI-BLA absorbers as ionization model independent probes of warm baryon reserves.

  20. Influence of Microphysical Variability on Stochastic Condensation in Turbulent Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, N.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Chang, K.; Glienke, S.; Cantrell, W. H.; Fugal, J. P.; Shaw, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the influence of variability in droplet number concentration and radius on the evolution of cloud droplet size distributions. Measurements are made on the centimeter scale using digitial inline holography, both in a controlled laboratory setting and in the field using HOLODEC measurements from CSET. We created steady state cloud conditions in the laboratory Pi Chamber, in which a turbulent cloud can be sustained for long periods of time. Using holographic imaging, we directly observe the variations in local number concentration and droplet size distribution and, thereby, the integral radius. We interpret the measurements in the context of stochastic condensation theory to determine how fluctuations in integral radius contribute to droplet growth. We find that the variability in integral radius is primarily driven by variations in the droplet number concentration and not the droplet radius. This variability does not contribute significantly to the mean droplet growth rate, but contributes significantly to the rate of increase of the size distribution width. We compare these results with in-situ measurements and find evidence for microphysical signatures of stochastic condensation. The results suggest that supersaturation fluctuations lead to broader size distributions and allow droplets to reach the collision-coalescence stage.

  1. Solar Probe ANalyzer Ion Instrument - Demonstrated Laboratory Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livi, R.; Larson, D. E.; Whittlesey, P. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Korreck, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is a heliospheric satellite that will orbit the Sun closer than any prior mission to date with a perihelion of 35 solar radii (RS) and an aphelion of 9.86 RS. SPP includes the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which in turn consists of four instruments: the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and three Solar Probe ANalyzers (SPAN) for ions and electrons. Together, this suite will take local measurements of particles and electromagnetic fields within the Sun's corona. The SPAN-Ai instrument, the ion analyzer, is composed of an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) at its aperture followed by a Time-of-Flight section to measure the energy and mass per charge (m/q) of the ambient ions. The electronics consist of (1) an anode board, (2) a TDC digital board, (3) a low voltage power supply, and (4) two high voltage boards. The onboard FPGA will control electronics and event signals while sending variable digitial packets of said information to the SWEAP Electronics Module (SWEM). The majority of the components are built, assembled, and tested primarily at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB). SPAN-Ai's main objective is to measure ions with an energy range of 5 eV - 20 keV, a mass/q between 1-100 [amu/q] and a field of view of 240 x 120 degrees . This presentation will show preliminary calibration results over the past 6 months of these features performed at UCB.

  2. The role of diclofenack on inducing of aplasia cutis congenita: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pajaziti, Laura; Rexhepi, Syzana; Shatri-Muça, Ylfete; Ferizi, Mybera

    2009-10-12

    Aplasia cutis congenita is a disorder where e newborn child is missing skin from certain areas. It is a rare condition with no particular race or sex more at risk. May occur by itself or be associated with other physical syndromes or disorders. A classification system exists for aplasia cutis congenital consisting of 9 groups, based on the number and location of the skin defects and the presence or absence of other malformations. Causes of aplasia congenital could be heredity, teratogenic substances, placental infarcts, intrauterine infections, ectodermal dysplasias etc. Diagnosis is made based on the clinical findings. Prognosis depends of the other organs malfunction level and lesions size. Our case was an 22 months old Albanian girl, who was recommended to dermatology for a consultation by a pediatric surgeon because of the changes she had on her parietal part of the scalp with missing hair areas. The child has stenosis congenita ani and to her was installed stoma. In order to investigate other accompanied anomalies of the disease, there are made specific consults by neurologist, orthopedist, cardiologist, nephrologists and citogenetics. It was found out a minor visual discoordination, Sy Floppy, Digiti V superductus pedis bill. Laxitas articularum generalisata. It was a great challenge for us to find out that during the first trimester of the pregnancy (unplanned pregnancy), her mother used Diclofenac. Since there is limited information regarding to teratogenic effects of diclofenac, we considered it interesting to present this case.

  3. The role of diclofenack on inducing of aplasia cutis congenita: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aplasia cutis congenita is a disorder where e newborn child is missing skin from certain areas. It is a rare condition with no particular race or sex more at risk. May occur by itself or be associated with other physical syndromes or disorders. A classification system exists for aplasia cutis congenital consisting of 9 groups, based on the number and location of the skin defects and the presence or absence of other malformations. Causes of aplasia congenital could be heredity, teratogenic substances, placental infarcts, intrauterine infections, ectodermal dysplasias etc. Diagnosis is made based on the clinical findings. Prognosis depends of the other organs malfunction level and lesions size. Case report Our case was an 22 months old Albanian girl, who was recommended to dermatology for a consultation by a pediatric surgeon because of the changes she had on her parietal part of the scalp with missing hair areas. The child has stenosis congenita ani and to her was installed stoma. In order to investigate other accompanied anomalies of the disease, there are made specific consults by neurologist, orthopedist, cardiologist, nephrologists and citogenetics. Conclusion It was found out a minor visual discoordination, Sy Floppy, Digiti V superductus pedis bill. Laxitas articularum generalisata. It was a great challenge for us to find out that during the first trimester of the pregnancy (unplanned pregnancy), her mother used Diclofenac. Since there is limited information regarding to teratogenic effects of diclofenac, we considered it interesting to present this case. PMID:19946521

  4. A direct-execution parallel architecture for the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Owen, Jeffrey E.

    1988-01-01

    A direct-execution parallel architecture for the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) is presented which overcomes the traditional disadvantages of simulations executed on a digital computer. The incorporation of parallel processing allows the mapping of simulations into a digital computer to be done in the same inherently parallel manner as they are currently mapped onto an analog computer. The direct-execution format maximizes the efficiency of the executed code since the need for a high level language compiler is eliminated. Resolution is greatly increased over that which is available with an analog computer without the sacrifice in execution speed normally expected with digitial computer simulations. Although this report covers all aspects of the new architecture, key emphasis is placed on the processing element configuration and the microprogramming of the ACLS constructs. The execution times for all ACLS constructs are computed using a model of a processing element based on the AMD 29000 CPU and the AMD 29027 FPU. The increase in execution speed provided by parallel processing is exemplified by comparing the derived execution times of two ACSL programs with the execution times for the same programs executed on a similar sequential architecture.

  5. Distributions of cranial pathologies provide evidence for head-butting in dome-headed dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph E; Dischler, Collin; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2013-01-01

    Pachycephalosaurids are small, herbivorous dinosaurs with domed skulls formed by massive thickening of the cranial roof. The function of the dome has been a focus of debate: the dome has variously been interpreted as the product of sexual selection, as an adaptation for species recognition, or as a weapon employed in intraspecific combat, where it was used in butting matches as in extant ungulates. This last hypothesis is supported by the recent identification of cranial pathologies in pachycephalosaurids, which appear to represent infections resulting from trauma. However, the frequency and distribution of pathologies have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Here, we show that pachycephalosaurids are characterized by a remarkably high incidence of cranial injury, where 22% of specimens have lesions on the dome. Frequency of injury shows no significant difference between different genera, but flat-headed morphs (here interpreted as juveniles or females) lack lesions. Mapping of injuries onto a digitial pachycephalosaurid skull shows that although lesions are distributed across the dome, they cluster near the apex, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the dome functioned for intraspecific butting matches.

  6. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  7. Surface electromyography studies in standing position confirm that ankle strategy remains disturbed even following successful treatment of patients with a history of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Juliusz; Lisiński, Przemysław; Ciesielska, Jagoda; Kulczyk, Aleksandra; Lipiec, Joanna; Bandosz, Agata

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] It is hypothesized that ankle strategy can be changed in patients with a history of sciatica. The aim of this study was to detect residual disturbances following successful treatment. [Subjects and Methods] In patients with a history of sciatica (N=11) and pseudo-sciatica (N=9), differences in muscle activity were recorded with bilateral surface polyelectromyography and stability measurements (center of foot pressure sway and center of spectrum) in normal standing and tandem positions. Results were compared with recordings in healthy people (N=9) to identify abnormalities in electromyographic and postural studies. [Results] Increased amplitude of electromyographic recordings from the gastrocnemius and extensor digiti muscles on the affected side was detected more in patients with a history of sciatica than pseudo-sciatica syndromes in tandem position. Fewer amplitude fluctuations were observed in both positions preferably in patients following sciatica. Changes in center of foot pressure sway and center of spectrum during balance platform studies were detected in normal standing position in this group of patients. No similar abnormalities in electromyographic and postural studies were detected in healthy people. [Conclusion] Sciatica and pseudo-sciatica evoke persistent disturbances in activity of muscles responsible for ankle strategy. Electromyography differentiates the two groups of patients better than postural studies. PMID:27065544

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Combination with a Symbrachydactyly: Initial Management and Long-Term Followup

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tomas; Walder, Daniel; Esenwein, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old female patient presented with a rapidly growing, exulcerating tumor of the left hand in the area of a congenital symbrachydactyly at the digiti II and III. A biopsy of the tumor showed a squamous cell carcinoma. Further workup showed two suspicious axillar enhancements with no evidence of bony infiltration and no further metastasis. An amputation of the second and third ray of the left hand at the metacarpal level and additionally an axillar revision and lymph node dissection were performed and confirmed the suspicion of a squamous cell carcinoma, fortunately without affection of any lymph nodes. After 9 years the patient showed an excellent function of the left hand. Symbrachydactyly malformations and squamous cell carcinoma of the hand are both rare conditions. We could not find a reference that shows a common genetic condition to both and so far this is the first description of a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of a symbrachydactyly. It remains unclear whether our case is a coincidence of two rare independent diseases or there is a pathogenetic link between the malformation and the tumor on a genetic level. PMID:25024859

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in combination with a symbrachydactyly: initial management and long-term followup.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tomas; Walder, Daniel; Esenwein, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old female patient presented with a rapidly growing, exulcerating tumor of the left hand in the area of a congenital symbrachydactyly at the digiti II and III. A biopsy of the tumor showed a squamous cell carcinoma. Further workup showed two suspicious axillar enhancements with no evidence of bony infiltration and no further metastasis. An amputation of the second and third ray of the left hand at the metacarpal level and additionally an axillar revision and lymph node dissection were performed and confirmed the suspicion of a squamous cell carcinoma, fortunately without affection of any lymph nodes. After 9 years the patient showed an excellent function of the left hand. Symbrachydactyly malformations and squamous cell carcinoma of the hand are both rare conditions. We could not find a reference that shows a common genetic condition to both and so far this is the first description of a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of a symbrachydactyly. It remains unclear whether our case is a coincidence of two rare independent diseases or there is a pathogenetic link between the malformation and the tumor on a genetic level.

  10. Does hip joint positioning affect maximal voluntary contraction in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles?

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Beldame, J; Van Driessche, S; Brunel, H; Poirier, T; Guiffault, P; Matsoukis, J; Billuart, F

    2017-11-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is presumed to provide functional and clinical benefits, whereas in fact the literature reveals that gait and posturographic parameters following THA do not recover values found in the general population. There is a significant disturbance of postural sway in THA patients, regardless of the surgical approach, although with some differences between approaches compared to controls: the anterior and anterolateral minimally invasive approaches seem to be more disruptive of postural parameters than the posterior approach. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the hip muscles involved in surgery [gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)] could shed light, the relevant literature involves discordant methodologies. We developed a methodology to assess EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the GMax, GMed, TFL and sartorius muscles as a reference for normalization. A prospective study aimed to assess whether hip joint positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect the EMG signal during a maximal voluntary contraction. Hip positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect EMG signal during MVC of GMax, GMed, TFL and S. Thirty young asymptomatic subjects participated in the study. Each performed 8 hip muscle MVCs in various joint positions recorded with surface EMG sensors. Each MVC was performed 3 times in 1 week, with the same schedule every day, controlling for activity levels in the preceding 24h. EMG activity during MVC was expressed as a ratio of EMG activity during unipedal stance. Non-parametric tests were applied. Statistical analysis showed no difference according to hip position for abductors or flexors in assessing EMG signal during MVC over the 3 sessions. Hip abductors showed no difference between abduction in lateral decubitus with hip straight versus hip flexed: GMax (19.8±13.7 vs. 14.5±7.8, P=0.78), GMed (13.4±9.0 vs. 9.9±6

  11. [Analysis of phonosurgical methods of treatment in spasmodic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Berger, Greta; Zdrojkowski, Maciej

    2017-02-20

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is rather a rare voice disorder. It is most often seen in woman aged 40-50. The disease is caused by deep emotional and neurological disorders of extrapyramidal system. Two main clinical forms of SD are distinguished: about 90% of cases - adductor spasmodic dysphonia and abductor spasmodic dysphonia roughly 10%. Conservative therapy does not always yield sufficient effects. Botulinum toxin - type A injections into the thyroarytenoid muscle are also used in therapy. Though results are temporary and reversible. Among phonosurgical methods thyroplasty type II according to Isshiki and tyroarytenoid muscle myectomy (TAM) should be also mentioned among phonosurgical methods. The aim of the work is to evaluate results of conservative and phonosurgical treatment of SD. Spasmodic dysphonia markedly restricts communication process of patients and public relations both social and occupational.

  12. [Persistent Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis after General Anesthesia in a Patient with Multiple System Atrophy: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hanako; Mizota, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of persistent bilateral vocal cord paralysis which developed after spine surgery under general anesthesia in a patient with multiple system atrophy. A 64-year-old woman was scheduled to receive spinal fusion surgery for kyphoscoliosis. She did not have apparent symptoms of vocal cord paralysis such as hoarseness before surgery. The surgery was performed smoothly under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. However, immediately after extubation, the patient developed severe upper airway obstruction and was re-intubated. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed bilateral vocal cord abductor paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis did not improve and she received tracheotomy on the 12th day after surgery. She also showed symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia, and was diagnosed as multiple system atrophy on postoperative day 64. We discuss differential diagnosis of persistent vocal cord paralysis after general anesthesia, and anesthetic management of a patient with multiple system atrophy.

  13. A Comparison of Open and Endoscopic Repair of Full-Thickness Tears of the Gluteus Medius Tendon at a Minimum of 2 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Danyal H.; Wentzel, Catherine; Ranawat, Anil S.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Historically, tears of the gluteus medius tendon were repaired via an open approach yielding excellent outcomes. With the advent of hip arthroscopy, endoscopic techniques have been developed to repair abductor tears which have shown favorable early outcomes. The open technique may still be preferred for large tears with retraction (>4cm), but there is a paucity of data comparing open and endoscopic approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of open and endoscopic repair of full-thickness tears of the gluteus medius tendon. We hypothesized that the outcomes of the two approaches would be similar but that the open technique would have shorter surgical times. Methods: Between March 2010 and June 2012, 1267 patients (1518 hips) undergoing a hip preservation procedure were prospectively entered into a registry. From this cohort, we identified 27 patients (30 hips) that had undergone repair of the gluteus medius tendon with a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Nine patients (9 hips) had an open repair and 18 patients (21 hips) had an endoscopic repair. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Sport-specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Surgery time was obtained using operating room records. The femoral neck shaft angle (FNSA) and lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) were measured on preoperative radiographs. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between endoscopic and open abductor repair patients using independent-samples t-tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests (as appropriate), respectively. Given the limited sample size, no adjusted or matched analyses were performed. Results: The mean age (±SD) of the open and endoscopic groups was 62.0 ± 9.9 years and 51.6 ± 13.6 years respectively (p=0.05). There were 6 females (67%) in the open group and 17 females (94

  14. Prevalence of ulnar-to-median nerve motor fiber anastomosis (Riché-Cannieu communicating branch) in hand: An electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Yavari, Masood; Majidi, Lobat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Two main muscles studied in the hand for evaluation of median nerve injuries are opponens pollicis (OP) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB). However, Riché-Cannieu communicating branch (RCCB) may limit the use of these muscles in electrodiagnosis. This condition is confusing in the case of median nerve injuries. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of RCCB. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive cases of complete median nerve injury were studied. Evoked responses via stimulation of median and ulnar nerves in the wrist and recording with needle in the thenar area were studied. Results: Of the patients, 82.6% exhibited RCCB. In 14 (60.8%) cases the OP and in 19(82.6%) cases APB was supplied by the ulnar nerve. Conclusion: RCCB was detected to be 60.8% in OP and 82.6% in APB, so OP is preferable to APB in the study of median nerve. PMID:27390694

  15. Teaching self-protection to children using television techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Poche, C; Yoder, P; Miltenberger, R

    1988-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a videotape training program with other methods of teaching children self-protection to prevent child abduction. Subjects were kindergarten and first-grade students. Four experimental conditions were presented: videotape with behavior rehearsal, videotape only, a standard safety program, and no training. Acquisition of self-protective behaviors was measured at posttraining and follow-up by having confederate adults entice the children near their schools and homes. Results revealed that the videotape program with behavior rehearsal was highly effective in teaching children safe responses to potential abductors. The standard safety program was effective with fewer than half of the children. Three fourths of the children who received no training immediately agreed to go with the confederate suspects. The videotape program can be easily used with groups of young children in a classroom setting. PMID:3198545

  16. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging phenotyping of Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Wagner, Kathryn R; Leung, Doris G; Carrino, John A

    2014-12-01

    There is little information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phenotypes of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This study presents the MRI phenotyping of the upper and lower extremities of a large cohort of BMD patients. In this retrospective study, MRI images of 33 BMD subjects were evaluated for severity, distribution, and symmetry of involvement. Teres major, triceps long head, biceps brachii long head, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vasti, adductor longus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris muscles showed the highest severity and frequency of involvement. All analyzed muscles had a high frequency of symmetric involvement. There was significant variability of involvement between muscles within some muscle groups, most notably the arm abductors, posterior arm muscles, medial thigh muscles, and lateral hip rotators. This study showed a distinctive pattern of involvement of extremity muscles in BMD subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tendon Disorders After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Capogna, Brian M; Shenoy, Kartik; Youm, Thomas; Stuchin, Steven A

    2017-10-01

    Most patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty are very satisfied with their outcomes. However, there is a small subset of patients who have persistent pain after surgery. The etiology of pain after total hip arthroplasty varies widely; however, tendon disorders are a major cause of debilitating pain that often go unrecognized. We performed a literature review to identify the most common tendon pathologies after total hip arthroplasty which include iliopsoas tendinitis, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, snapping hip syndrome, and abductor tendinopathy. We present a simplified approach highlighting the presentation and management of patients with suspected tendinopathies after total hip arthroplasty. These tendinopathies are treatable, and management begins with nonoperative modalities; however, in cases not responsive to conservative management, operative intervention may be necessary. Tendinopathies after total hip arthroplasty sometimes go unrecognized but when treated can result in higher surgeon and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Assessment and Diagnostics of Patients With Hand Disorders: A Case Study Approach.

    PubMed

    Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lim, Rebecca Qian Ru; Tay, Shian Chao

    Clinical assessment of the hand is important for diagnosing underlying hand disorders. Using a case study approach, the clinical assessment for three disorders of the hands is presented: trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis), carpal tunnel syndrome, and ulnar-sided wrist injury (styloid impingement). We assess the annular one pulley and finger range of motion for patients with trigger finger. To diagnose for carpal tunnel syndrome, assessment for Tinel's sign, Phalen's sign, abductor pollicis brevis muscle bulk, two-point discrimination, and obtaining a nerve conduction study are performed. Assessment for ulnar-sided wrist injury includes wrist range of motion, assessment of distal radial ulnar joint stability, provocation tests, grip strength, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging. This article begins with a description of the hand and wrist anatomy. For each case study, the clinical history is described, followed by a discussion of the pathophysiology, clinical assessments, and diagnostic tests.

  20. Whole body frontal plane mechanics across walking, running, and sprinting in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, J-P; Korhonen, M T; Kuitunen, S; Suominen, H; Heinonen, A; Mikkola, A; Avela, J

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the whole body frontal plane mechanics among young (26 ± 6 years), early old (61 ± 5 years), and old (78 ± 4 years) adults during walking, running, and sprinting. The age-groups had similar walking (1.6 m/s) and running (4.0 m/s) speeds, but different maximal sprinting speed (young 9.3 m/s, early old 7.9 m/s, and old 6.6 m/s). Surprisingly, although the old group exerted much lower vertical ground reaction force during running and sprinting, the hip frontal plane moment did not differ between the age-groups. Kinematic analysis demonstrated increased hip adduction and pelvis drop, as well as reduced trunk lateral flexion among old adults, especially during sprinting. These alterations in the hip and pelvis motions may reflect insufficient force production of hip abductors to stabilize the pelvis during single-limb support, while limited trunk lateral flexion may enhance control of the mediolateral balance. On the other hand, larger trunk side-to-side movement among the young and early old adults may provide a mechanism to prevent the increase of the hip frontal moment despite greater vertical ground reaction force. This, in turn, can assist hip abductors to maintain stability of the pelvis during sprinting while allowing powerful force generation by a large adductor muscle group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study.

    PubMed

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE: To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). METHODS: An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. RESULTS: No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. CONCLUSIONS: Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race.

  2. Prolotherapy for Refractory Rotator Cuff Disease: Retrospective Case-Control Study of 1-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Rah, Ueon Woo; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of prolotherapy for refractory rotator cuff disease. Retrospective case-control study. University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients with nontraumatic refractory rotator cuff disease (N=151) who were unresponsive to 3 months of aggressive conservative treatment. Of the patients, 63 received prolotherapies with 16.5% dextrose 10-ml solution (treatment group), and 63 continued conservative treatment (control group). Not applicable. Visual analog scale (VAS) score of the average shoulder pain level for the past 1 week, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score, isometric strength of the shoulder abductor, active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder, maximal tear size on ultrasonography, and number of analgesic ingestions per day. Over 1-year follow-up, 57 patients in the treatment group and 53 in the control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in age, sex, shoulder dominance, duration of symptoms, and ultrasonographic findings at pretreatment. The average number of injections in the treatment group is 4.8±1.3. Compared with the control group, VAS score, SPADI score, isometric strength of shoulder abductor, and shoulder AROM of flexion, abduction, and external rotation showed significant improvement in the treatment group. There were no adverse events. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy in rotator cuff disease. Prolotherapy showed improvement in pain, disability, isometric strength, and shoulder AROM in patients with refractory chronic rotator cuff disease. The results suggest positive outcomes, but one should still take caution in directly interpreting it as an effective treatment option, considering the limitations of this nonrandomized retrospective study. To show the efficacy of prolotherapy, further studies on prospective randomized controlled trials will be required. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  3. Effects of wide step walking on swing phase hip muscle forces and spatio-temporal gait parameters.

    PubMed

    Bajelan, Soheil; Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, Tony; Begg, Rezaul K

    2017-07-01

    Human walking can be viewed essentially as a continuum of anterior balance loss followed by a step that re-stabilizes balance. To secure balance an extended base of support can be assistive but healthy young adults tend to walk with relatively narrower steps compared to vulnerable populations (e.g. older adults and patients). It was, therefore, hypothesized that wide step walking may enhance dynamic balance at the cost of disturbed optimum coupling of muscle functions, leading to additional muscle work and associated reduction of gait economy. Young healthy adults may select relatively narrow steps for a more efficient gait. The current study focused on the effects of wide step walking on hip abductor and adductor muscles and spatio-temporal gait parameters. To this end, lower body kinematic data and ground reaction forces were obtained using an Optotrak motion capture system and AMTI force plates, respectively, while AnyBody software was employed for muscle force simulation. A single step of four healthy young male adults was captured during preferred walking and wide step walking. Based on preferred walking data, two parallel lines were drawn on the walkway to indicate 50% larger step width and participants targeted the lines with their heels as they walked. In addition to step width that defined walking conditions, other spatio-temporal gait parameters including step length, double support time and single support time were obtained. Average hip muscle forces during swing were modeled. Results showed that in wide step walking step length increased, Gluteus Minimus muscles were more active while Gracilis and Adductor Longus revealed considerably reduced forces. In conclusion, greater use of abductors and loss of adductor forces were found in wide step walking. Further validation is needed in future studies involving older adults and other pathological populations.

  4. Fast and singular muscle responses initiate the startle response of Pantodon buchholzi (Osteoglossomorpha).

    PubMed

    Starosciak, A K; Kalola, R P; Perkins, K P; Riley, J A; Saidel, W M

    2008-01-01

    The startle response of Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish, is a complete or incomplete ballistic jump resulting from abduction of the pectoral fins. This study analyzed the neuromuscular basis for such a jump by recording in vivo electromyograms (emgs) from the muscles of abduction, the muscularis abductor superficialis (MAS) and the muscularis abductor profundus (MAP). The motor neurons innervating the MAS muscle were localized by retrograde transport of biocytin. The latency between stimulus and the evoked emg in the MAS was less than 5 ms; the latency of the MAP was about 6.5 ms. A single emg was recorded per jump. High speed video demonstrated that onset of a startle movement began within 10 ms of the onset of fin abduction. The emg associated with this movement is short (<2 ms) and followed by a variably-shaped, slower and smaller potential of 10-30 ms duration. The brief period between stimulus and startle response of Pantodon suggests a Mauthner neuron-related response, only with the behavior occurring in the vertical plane. The MAS may act only in a startle response, whereas the MAP might have a role in other behaviors. Elicited jumping habituates after a single trial. Electrophysiological evidence is presented indicating that the innervating motor neurons are suppressed for seconds following a stimulus. The neurons innervating the MAS are located at the medullary-spinal cord junction and possess an average radius of approximately 17.9 mum. These fish have been historically described as 'fresh water' flying fish. As a single emg occurs per startle response, repetitive pectoral activity generating flying cannot be supported. Pantodon 'flight' is ballistic. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Gait Deviation Index Is Associated with Hip Muscle Strength and Patient-Reported Outcome in Patients with Severe Hip Osteoarthritis-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The Gait Deviation Index summarizes overall gait 'quality', based on kinematic data from a 3-dimensional gait analysis. However, it is unknown which clinical outcomes may affect the Gait Deviation Index in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait 'quality' and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the 'Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-Physical Function) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales for pain (HOOS-Pain) and quality-of-life (HOOS-QOL). Mean Gait Deviation Index was positively associated with hip abduction strength (p<0.01, r = 0.40), hip flexion strength (p = 0.01, r = 0.37), HOOS-Physical Function (p<0.01, r = 0.41) HOOS-QOL (p<0.01, r = 0.41), and negatively associated with HOOS-Pain after walking (p<0.01, r = -0.45). Adjusting the analysis for walking speed did not affect the association. Patients with the strongest hip abductor and hip flexor muscles had the best gait 'quality'. Furthermore, patients with higher physical function, quality of life scores and lower pain levels demonstrated better gait 'quality'. These findings indicate that interventions aimed at improving hip muscle strength and pain management may to a moderate degree improve the overall gait 'quality' in patients with primary hip OA.

  6. Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E

    2016-10-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI < 85%), n = 18). Individual group (control vs high quadriceps vs low quadriceps) by limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P < 0.001), and the reconstructed limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.

  7. Preoperative Risk Factors Associated With Poor Outcomes of Revision Surgery for "Pseudotumors" in Patients With Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-12-01

    Revision surgery of failed metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) for adverse tissue reaction (pseudotumor) can be challenging as a consequence of soft tissue and muscle necrosis. The aims of this study were to (1) report the revision outcomes of patients who underwent revision surgery for failed MoM hip arthroplasty due to symptomatic pseudotumor and (2) identify preoperative risk factors associated with revision outcomes. Between January 2011 and January 2013, a total of 102 consecutive large head MoM hip arthroplasties in 97 patients (male: 62, female: 35), who underwent revision surgery were identified from the database of a multidisciplinary referral center. At minimum follow-up of 2 years (range: 26-52 months), at least one complication had occurred in 14 of 102 revisions (14%). Prerevision radiographic loosening (P = .01), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solid lesions with abductor deficiency on MRI (P < .001), and intraoperative grading of adverse tissue reactions (P = .05) were correlated with post-revision complications. The reoperation rate of revised MoM THA was 7% (7 of 102 hips). Implant survivorship was 88% at 3 years. Metal ion levels declined in most patients after removal of MoM articulation. Revision outcomes of revision surgery for failed MoM THA due to symptomatic pseudotumor demonstrated 14% complication rate and 7% re-revision rate at 30-month follow-up. Our study identified prerevision radiographic loosening, solid lesions/abductor deficiency on MRI, and high grade intraoperative tissue damage as risk factors associated with poorer revision outcomes. This provides clinically useful information for preoperative planning and perioperative counseling of MoM THA patients undergoing revision surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability of new software in measuring cervical multifidus diameters and shoulder muscle strength in a synchronized way; an ultrasonographic study

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Khalkhali-Zavieh, Minoo; Rahnama, Behnam; Noori-Kochi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the inter-session reliability of new software to measure the diameters of the cervical multifidus muscle (CMM), both at rest and during isometric contractions of the shoulder abductors in subjects with neck pain and in healthy individuals. METHOD: In the present study, the reliability of measuring the diameters of the CMM with the Sonosynch software was evaluated by using 24 participants, including 12 subjects with chronic neck pain and 12 healthy individuals. The anterior-posterior diameter (APD) and the lateral diameter (LD) of the CMM were measured in a resting state and then repeated during isometric contraction of the shoulder abductors. Measurements were taken on separate occasions 3 to 7 days apart in order to determine inter-session reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were used to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability, respectively. RESULTS: The Sonosynch software has shown to be highly reliable in measuring the diameters of the CMM both in healthy subjects and in those with neck pain. The ICCs 95% CI for APD ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.86 to 0.94 in healthy subjects. For LD, the ICC 95% CI ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.82 to 0.92 in healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic measurement of the diameters of the CMM using Sonosynch has proved to be reliable especially for APD in healthy subjects as well as subjects with neck pain. PMID:26443975

  9. Non-Weight-Bearing and Weight-Bearing Ultrasonography of Select Foot Muscles in Young, Asymptomatic Participants: A Descriptive and Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Patrick J; Mattox, Ross; Winchester, Brett; Kettner, Norman W

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the reliability of diagnostic ultrasound imaging for select intrinsic foot muscles using both non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Our secondary aim was to describe the change in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight. An ultrasound examination was performed with a linear ultrasound transducer operating between 9 and 12 MHz. Long-axis and short-axis ultrasound images of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae were obtained in both the non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Two examiners independently collected ultrasound images to allow for interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability calculation. The change in muscle CSA and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight was also studied. There were 26 participants (17 female) with a mean age of 25.5 ± 3.8 years and a mean body mass index of 28.0 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 . Inter-examiner reliability was excellent when measuring the muscles in short axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) and fair to good in long axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.4). Intraexaminer reliability was excellent for the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis and ranged from fair to good to excellent for the quadratus plantae. Bearing weight did not reduce interexaminer or intraexaminer reliability. All muscles exhibited a significant increase in CSA when bearing weight. This is the first report to describe weight-bearing diagnostic ultrasound of the intrinsic foot muscles. Ultrasound imaging is reliable when imaging these muscles bearing weight. Furthermore, muscle CSA increases in the weight-bearing posture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effects of squat lift training and free weight muscle training on maximum lifting load and isolinetic peak torque of young adults without impairments.

    PubMed

    Yeung, S S; Ng, G Y

    2000-06-01

    Manual lifting is a frequent cause of back injury, and there is no evidence as to which training mode can provide the best training effect for lifting performance and muscle force. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a squat lift training and a free weight muscle training program on the maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque in subjects without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments. Thirty-six adults (20 male, 16 female) without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments participated. The subjects' mean age was 21.25 years (SD=1.16, range=20-24). Subjects were divided into 3 groups. Subjects in group 1 (n=12) performed squat lift training. Subjects in group 2 (n=12) participated in free weight resistance training of their shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, knee extensors and trunk extensors. Subjects in group 3 (n=12) served as controls. The maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torques of the trunk extensors, knee extensors, elbow flexors, and shoulder abductors of each subject were measured before and after the study. Training was conducted on alternate days for 4 weeks, with an initial load of 80% of each subject's maximum capacity and with the load increased by 5% weekly. All groups were comparable for all measured variables before the study. After 4 weeks, subjects in groups 1 and 2 demonstrated more improvement in maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque of the back extensors compared with the subjects in group 3, but the 2 training groups were not different. The findings demonstrate that both squat lift and free weight resistance training are equally effective in improving the lifting load and isokinetic back extension performance of individuals without impairments.

  11. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Battistella, G; Fuertinger, S; Fleysher, L; Ozelius, L J; Simonyan, K

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor versus adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial versus sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in patients with SD compared with healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortices. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from the left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  12. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fuertinger, Stefan; Fleysher, Lazar; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional MRI data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor vs. adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial vs. sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. Results We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in SD patients compared to healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortex. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Conclusions Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. PMID:27346568

  13. Age-related differences in the maintenance of frontal plane dynamic stability while stepping to targets

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Christopher P.; Grabiner, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be vulnerable to frontal plane dynamic instability, which is of clinical significance. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the age-related differences in frontal plane dynamic stability by quantifying the margin of stability and hip abductor moment generation of subjects performing a single crossover step and sidestep to targets that created three different step widths during forward locomotion. Nineteen young adults (9 males, age: 22.9±3.1 years, height: 174.3±10.2 cm, mass: 71.7±13.0 kg) and 18 older adults (9 males, age: 72.8±5.2 years, height: 174.9±8.6 cm, mass: 78.0±16.3 kg) participated. For each walking trial, subjects performed a single laterally-directed step to a target on a force plate. Subjects were instructed to “perform the lateral step and keep walking forward”. The peak hip abductor moment of the stepping limb was 42% larger by older adults compared to younger adults (p<0.001). Older adults were also more stable than younger adults at all step targets (p<0.001). Older adults executed the lateral step with slower forward-directed and lateral-directed velocity despite similar step widths. Age-related differences in hip abduction moments may reflect greater muscular effort by older adults to reduce the likelihood of becoming unstable. The results of this investigation, in which subjects performed progressively larger lateral-directed steps, provide evidence that older adults may not be more laterally unstable than younger adults. However, age-related differences in this study could also reflect a compensatory strategy by older adults to ensure stability while performing this task. PMID:25627870

  14. Age-related differences in the maintenance of frontal plane dynamic stability while stepping to targets.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Christopher P; Grabiner, Mark D

    2015-02-26

    Older adults may be vulnerable to frontal plane dynamic instability, which is of clinical significance. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the age-related differences in frontal plane dynamic stability by quantifying the margin of stability and hip abductor moment generation of subjects performing a single crossover step and sidestep to targets that created three different step widths during forward locomotion. Nineteen young adults (9 males, age: 22.9±3.1 years, height: 174.3±10.2cm, mass: 71.7±13.0kg) and 18 older adults (9 males, age: 72.8±5.2 years, height: 174.9±8.6cm, mass: 78.0±16.3kg) participated. For each walking trial, subjects performed a single laterally-directed step to a target on a force plate. Subjects were instructed to "perform the lateral step and keep walking forward". The peak hip abductor moment of the stepping limb was 42% larger by older adults compared to younger adults (p<0.001). Older adults were also more stable than younger adults at all step targets (p<0.001). Older adults executed the lateral step with slower forward-directed and lateral-directed velocity despite similar step widths. Age-related differences in hip abduction moments may reflect greater muscular effort by older adults to reduce the likelihood of becoming unstable. The results of this investigation, in which subjects performed progressively larger lateral-directed steps, provide evidence that older adults may not be more laterally unstable than younger adults. However, age-related differences in this study could also reflect a compensatory strategy by older adults to ensure stability while performing this task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is the price for the Duchenne gait pattern in patients with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Salami, Firooz; Niklasch, Mirjam; Krautwurst, Britta K; Dreher, Thomas; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion. Subjects had been monitored by conventional 3D gait analysis of the lower extremity including four markers for monitoring trunk motion. Post-hoc, a generic musculoskeletal full body model (OpenSim 3.3) assuming a rigid trunk articulated to the pelvis by a single ball joint was applied for analyzing joint kinematics and kinetics of the lower limb joints including this spine joint. Joint angle ranges of motion, maximum joint moments and powers in the frontal plane as well as mechanical work were calculated and averaged within groups showing prominent differences between groups in all parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work explicitly looking into the kinetics of Duchenne gait in patients with CP, clinically known as compensation for unloading hip abductor muscles. The results show that excessive lateral trunk motion may indeed be an extremely effective compensation mechanism to unload the hip abductors in single limb stance but for the price of a drastic increase in demand on trunk muscle effort and work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gait rehabilitation for a patient with an osseointegrated prosthesis following transfemoral amputation.

    PubMed

    Leijendekkers, Ruud A; van Hinte, Gerben; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria Wg; Staal, J Bart

    2017-02-01

    In patients with a transfemoral amputation socket-related problems are associated with reduced prosthetic use, activity, and quality of life. Furthermore, gait asymmetries are present that may explain secondary complaints. Bone-anchored prostheses (BAPs) may help these patients. Two types of BAP are available, screw and press-fit implants. Rehabilitation following surgery for a press-fit BAP is poorly described. To describe a rehabilitation program designed to minimize compensation strategies and increase activity using a case-report of an active, 70-year-old man with a traumatic transfemoral amputation who had used a socket prosthesis for 52 years and received a press-fit BAP [Endo-Exo Femoral Prosthesis - EEFP]. A 13-week physiotherapy program. Outcomes were assessed before surgery, at the end of rehabilitation, and six-month and one-year follow-ups. After rehabilitation gait had improved, the patient had more arm movement, more pelvic shift, less hip rotation during swing phase on the prosthetic side, and absence of vaulting on the sound side. Isometric hip abductor strength was 15% higher on the sound side and 16% higher on the prosthetic side, and walking distance increased from 200 m to 1500 m. At the six-month follow-up, the patient had lower back complications and reduced hip abductor strength and walking distance. At one-year follow-up, walking distance had recovered to 1000 m and gait pattern had improved again, with yielding and absence of terminal impact on the prosthetic side. The described rehabilitation program may be an effective method of improving gait in patients with an EEFP even after long-term socket usage.

  17. Fixation of Trochanteric Fragments in Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture: Cerclage Wiring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an option for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients. There is a raising concern regarding cable-grip related complications for the fixation of trochanteric fragments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate outcome of cementless HA with fixation for the trochanteric fragments using monofilament wires in unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Materials and Methods We reviewed 92 cementless bipolar HAs using a grit-blasted long stem design for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in 91 elderly patients with a mean age of 81.7 years. During the arthroplasty, trochanteric fracture fragments were fixed using 1 or 2 vertical wires and transverse wires. We evaluated the clinical outcomes such as abductor power, ambulatory ability and wire-related complications, and radiologic outcomes including the union of the trochanteric fragment and subsidence of stem. Results Sixty-two patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 59 months) postoperatively. The mean abductor power and Koval category was 4.1 (range, 3 to 5) and 4.6 (range, 1 to 6). The wire was broken in 3 hips (4.8%) and the nonunion of the greater trochanter occurred in 1 hips (1.6%). Two stems subsided by 3 mm and 8 mm, respectively, during postoperative 6 weeks, after which the subsidence was not progressive. Conclusion Cerclage wiring of the trochanter using monofilament wire leads to acceptable outcome in cementless HA for senile patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Cerclage wiring using a monofilament wire is recommended for the fixation of trochanteric fragments. PMID:29250501

  18. Motor fatigability in persons with multiple sclerosis: Relation between different upper limb muscles, and with fatigue and the perceived use of the arm in daily life.

    PubMed

    Severijns, Deborah; Van Geel, Fanny; Feys, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Motor fatigability is increasingly acknowledged in persons with MS (pwMS). It is unknown whether fatigability is generalized across upper limb muscles and relates to fatigue and perceived difficulties in upper limb use. This observational case-controlled study included twenty PwMS (median EDSS = 3, range 1.5-6.5) and twenty healthy controls who performed 30″ sustained maximal muscle contractions for index finger abduction, hand grip, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. A static fatigue index (SFI) was calculated to assess motor fatigability for each muscle group. PwMS completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Modified Fatigue Index Scale (MFIS), to quantify severity and perceived impact of fatigue and the Manual Ability Measure (MAM-36) reflecting perceived difficulty in using the upper limbs. Comparisons between groups and muscles was made by t-tests. Associations between outcomes were calculated with correlation coefficients. Fatigue was highest in pwMS. PwMS showed preserved muscle strength and a greater motor fatigability in elbow flexors compared to healthy controls. SFI of elbow flexors and shoulder abductors were associated, and contributed to FSS and MFIS. SFI of elbow flexors and finger abductors predicted half of the variation in MAM-36. Increased motor fatigability was only present in elbow flexors of PwMS, indicating that expression of motor fatigability is not generalized. Fatigability was associated with perceived fatigue (impact) and daily life upper limb use. Results are preliminary given the small sample size with predominantly persons with mild MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population.

    PubMed

    Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O'Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2014-03-27

    Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20-45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an "upright standing" reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may provide important insights into injury

  20. [A special soft tissue procedure for treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Waizy, H; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Abbara-Czardybon, M; Emmerich, J; Windhagen, H; Frank, D

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining the corrected position of the first metatasophalangeal axis. Reducing postoperative stiffness by forgoing a medial capsular shift. Hallux valgus deformities or recurrent hallux valgus deformities. Existing osteoarthritis, joint stiffness, large bone defects, osteonecrosis. General medical contraindications to surgical interventions and anesthesiological procedures. Operation under regional anesthesia (foot block) or general anesthesia. Tourniquet. Longitudinal skin incision medial over the pseudexostosis of the first metatarsal bone. Preparing the tendon of the Musculus abductor hallucis. Detaching the tendon from the capsule. Incision of the joint capsule with protection of the extensor hallucis longus tendon and the dorsal neurovascular bundle in an L-wise manner. Osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone. Lax sutures of the capsule in correct position and reattachment of the Musculus abductor hallucis tendon shifted toward distal and dorsal, regarding the rotation of the hallux. Postoperative elevation of the operated foot. Analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Postoperative weight-bearing according to the osteotomy. Passive mobilization of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Dressing for 4 weeks postoperatively in the corrected position. Radiologic control after 6 weeks. Hallux valgus orthosis at night and a toe spreader for a further 6 weeks. A total of 30 isolated hallux valgus deformities with a mean preoperative intermetatarsal (IMA) angle of 12.9° (range 11-15°) were operated with a chevron osteotomy. The mean follow-up was 14.4 (range 8-17) months. The mean dorsiflexion at the last follow-up was 44° (range 20-60°). Only 2 patients had a dorsiflexion <40°. The mean reduction of the IM angle was 5.6° (range 3-7°). One patient required wound revision. There was no infection or avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head observed in the patients. At follow-up, 20 (67%) patients were completely satisfied, 9 (30%) satisfied, and 1 (3