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Sample records for abdus salam ictp

  1. Abdus Salam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziman, John

    Mr. Vice-Chancellor Only connect! That is the theme that runs through the life and work of Abdus Salam. He has followed the teaching of Islam and has dedicated his life to the principle of unity — the unity of Nature and the unity of Mankind. As a natural philosopher he has seen that the various interactions of the elementary particles must be no more than diverse aspects of a single primary force. As a political and moral leader he has demonstrated that the various interactions of nations and cultures are no obstacle to the brotherhood of Man in science…

  2. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  3. FOREWORD: International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science. Sponsored by the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2005-01-01

    The "International Workshop on Theoretical Plasma Physics: Modern Plasma Science was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), Trieste, Italy during the period 5 16 July 2004. The workshop was organized by P K Shukla, R Bingham, S M Mahajan, J T Mendonça, L Stenflo, and others. The workshop enters into a series of previous biennial activities that we have held at the Abdus Salam ICTP since 1989. The scientific program of the workshop was split into two parts. In the first week, most of the lectures dealt with problems concerning astrophysical plasmas, while in the second week, diversity was introduced in order to address the important role of plasma physics in modern areas of science and technology. Here, attention was focused on cross-disciplinary topics including Schrödinger-like models, which are common in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, quantum engineering (Bose-Einstein condensates), and nonlinear fluid mechanics, as well as emerging topics in fundamental theoretical and computational plasma physics, space and dusty plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions, etc. The workshop was attended by approximately hundred-twenty participants from the developing countries, Europe, USA, and Japan. A large number of participants were young researchers from both the developing and industrial countries, as the directors of the workshop tried to keep a good balance in inviting senior and younger generations of theoretical, computational and experimental plasma physicists to our Trieste activities. In the first week, there were extensive discussions on the physics of electromagnetic wave emissions from pulsar magnetospheres, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical objects, different scale sizes turbulence and structures in astrophysics. The scientific program of the second week included five review talks (60 minutes) and about thirty invited topical lectures (30 minutes). In addition, during the two weeks, there

  4. Abdus Salam at Imperial College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom

    2008-07-01

    It is a privilege, as well as a great pleasure, for me to talk about Abdus Salam at Imperial College. He is someone to whom I owe a great personal debt. I have always felt that I was very fortunate to have found myself joining his group in 1959, less than three years after he first set it up. It was a very exciting place to be, and a very exciting time in theoretical physics.

  5. The remarkable life of Abdus Salam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, John W.

    2008-12-01

    Gordon Fraser's biography Cosmic Anger: Abdus Salam - The First Muslim Nobel Scientist is a fascinating account of the complex man who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for their work on unifying electromagnetic and weak interactions - the so-called electroweak theory.

  6. ICTP appoints new director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2009-11-01

    Fernando Quevedo of the University of Cambridge in the UK has been appointed as the new director of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy. Quevedo will officially begin his new role this month and replaces Katepalli Sreenivasan, the India-born physicist who has led the institute since 2003.

  7. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  8. ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics: an executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Mank, G.; Markowicz, A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Tuniz, C.; Crespo, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Workshop on Dense Magnetized Plasma and Plasma Diagnostics was held from 15 to 26 November 2010 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. It was attended by 60 participants, including 15 lecturers, 2 tutors and 37 trainees, representing 25 countries.

  9. Remembering Salam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Saeed; Duff, Michael; Adams, Bob

    2009-09-01

    I read with great interest Gordon Fraser's feature article on Abdus Salam and Srinivasa Ramanujan ("A tale of two minds" August pp32-35). I knew Salam very well. He was not only the external examiner for my PhD at Cambridge (1958) but had been talent-spotted by my greatuncle, Hakeem Muhammad Hussain, a great educationist of undivided India and the then-principal of the Government College Jhang, Salam's first alma mater.

  10. The ICTP-Elettra X-ray laboratory for cultural heritage and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuniz, C.; Bernardini, F.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dreossi, D.; Gianoncelli, A.; Mancini, L.; Mendoza Cuevas, A.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Zanini, F.; Zanolli, C.

    2013-05-01

    A set of portable/transportable X-ray analytical instruments based on radiography, microtomography, fluorescence and diffraction have been built and are being operated at the Multidisciplinary Laboratory (MLAB) of the 'Abdus Salam' International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. This is part of a project funded by the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and the ICTP, which aims to develop innovative X-ray analytical tools for noninvasive studies of cultural heritage objects and palaeontological remains. The X-ray instruments at MLAB are also used for hands-on training activities involving students and scientists from developing countries. The MLAB analytical tools complement the microtomography instruments available at Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. Examples of our first studies in archaeological and palaeontological applications are presented here.

  11. In Memoriam:. Abdus Salam (1926-1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelle, K. S.

    2008-07-01

    The 20th century has been one in which the science of physics has made tremendous progress, starting with the two great conceptual revolutions of Relativity (1905/1915) and Quantum Mechanics (1925). At the same time, however, entirely new domains of physical phenomena have been discovered and explored. These new domains have themselves also provided the tools for exploration, namely radioactive emissions, cosmic rays, and particle accelerators. Molecules, atoms, nuclei, particles, quarks -- layer after layer of matter has been revealed and understood. Great new questions, however, have thus also emerged: What are these various constituents, at each level, why just these -- and what are the forces acting between them, how are they induced, how do they depend on the constituents' mutual distances and velocities? The answer is given, at each level, in terms of such relevant parameters; yet it is, in fact, a collective "effective" force, really the integrated sum of forces at the level of the next immediate layer and its corresponding constituents. Thus, the most important and the most interesting description would be a reduction down to the "fundamental" layer, if there be one...

  12. Conference Salam/Musset

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG L.Van Hove introduit le Prof. A.Salam né en 1926 dans l'ouest du Pakistan, un des gagnants du prix nobel de physique de cette année. Célébration de ses contributions théoriques mondialement connues. Après chaque discours, un petit historique est présenté par Paul Musset. Mention honorable aussi pour l'expérience Gargamelle et ses collaborateurs.

  13. The International Centre for Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Faheem

    2008-07-01

    This talk traces in brief the genesis of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, as one of Prof. Abdus Salam's major achievements. It outlines why Salam felt the necessity for establishing such a centre to help physicists in the developing world. It situates the founding of the Centre within Salam's broader vision of the causes of underdevelopment and of science as an engine for scientific, technological, economic and social development. The talk reviews the successes and failures of the ICTP and gives a brief overall view of the current status of the Centre.

  14. Emeritus trio scoops the 2013 Dirac Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Dirac Medal has been awarded to three scientists whose wide-ranging work has brought profound advances in cosmology, astrophysics and fundamental physics. Thomas Kibble, James Peebles and Martin Rees all receive the honour, which is bestowed annually by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

  15. An operator approach to the Al-Salam-Carlitz polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, William Y. C.; Saad, Husam L.; Sun, Lisa H.

    2010-04-01

    We present an operator approach to Rogers-type formulas and Mehler's formula for the Al-Salam-Carlitz polynomials Un(x,y,a;q). By using the q-exponential operator, we obtain a Rogers-type formula, which leads to a linearization formula. With the aid of a bivariate augmentation operator, we get a simple derivation of Mehler's formula due to Al-Salam and Carlitz ["Some orthogonal q-polynomials," Math. Nachr. 30, 47 (1965)]. By means of the Cauchy companion augmentation operator, we obtain an equivalent form of Mehler's formula. We also give several identities on the generating functions for products of the Al-Salam-Carlitz polynomials, which are extensions of the formulas for the Rogers-Szegö polynomials.

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Levels of Pyridinoline Cross Linked Carboxyterminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (ICTP) in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Debasish; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Arun, K.V.; Kumar, Tirunveli Saravanan Subu; Devanathan, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional parameters (Pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, radiographic findings) have been used for a long time for the assessment of periodontal disease conditions. However, these parameters only indicate towards the periodontal damage that has already taken place but do not give any idea regarding the current status of the periodontal health or disease. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluating the concentration of the bone biomarker ICTP in saliva, which can give a better real time assessment of periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Forty three patients were selected and divided into three groups based on the recorded clinical parameters of probing pocket depth, attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Group I (Healthy, n = 11), Group II (Gingivitis, n = 17), Group III (Periodontitis. n = 15). Salivary samples were collected before scaling and root planning to avoid contamination by blood. ICTP levels were evaluated in the salivary samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the mean ICTP level of the three groups. Results ICTP was detected in all the samples. Highest mean ICTP concentrations in saliva were obtained for group III (periodontitis group) and the lowest mean ICTP concentrations were seen in group I (healthy group). This suggests that the level of ICTP in saliva increases proportionally from periodontal health to diseased conditions (gingivitis & periodontitis). Conclusion There is a substantial increase in the salivary concentration of ICTP in chronic periodontitis patients than in gingivitis and healthy patients. Salivary ICTP levels were the maximum in chronic periodontitis patients followed by gingivitis patients and the least in healthy individuals. ICTP may be considered as a biomarker in periodontal disease progression. PMID:26501013

  17. Fundamental of a Planar Type of Inductively Coupled Thermal Plasma (ICTP) on a Substrate for a Large-area Materials Processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suantial, Maikai; Akao, Mika; Irie, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Kanazawa University Team

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the fundamental of a planar type Ar inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP) with oxygen molecular gas have been studied on a substrate. Previously, we have developed a planar-ICTP torch with a rectangular quartz vessel with an air core coil or a ferrite core coil instead of a cylindrical tube for a large-area materials processing. For adoption of such a planar-ICTP to material processings, it needs to sustain the ICTP with molecular gases on a substrate stably. To consider the uniformity of the ICTP formed on the substrate, spectroscopic observation was carried out at 3 mm above the substrate. Results showed that the radiation intensities of specified O atomic lines were almost uniformly detected along the surface of the substrate. This means that O excited atoms, which are important radicals for thermal plasma oxidation, are present in planar-ICTP uniformly on the substrate.

  18. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  19. On finite energy monopole solutions in Weinberg-Salam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, D. G.; Zhang, P. M.; Zou, L. P.

    2015-09-01

    We study the problem of existence of finite energy monopole solutions in the Weinberg-Salam model starting with the most general ansatz for static axially-symmetric electroweak magnetic fields. The ansatz includes an explicit construction of field configurations with various topologies described by the monopole and Hopf charges. We introduce a unique SU(2) gauge invariant definition for the electromagnetic field. It has been proved that the magnetic charge of any finite energy monopole solution must be screened at far distance. This implies nonexistence of finite energy monopole solutions with a nonzero total magnetic charge. In the case of a special axially-symmetric Dashen-Hasslacher-Neveu ansatz, we revise the structure of the sphaleron solution and show that sphaleron represents a nontrivial system of monopole and antimonopole with their centers located in one point. This is different from the known interpretation of the sphaleron as a monopole-antimonopole pair like Nambu’s “dumb-bell.” In general, the axially-symmetric magnetic field may admit a helical structure. We conjecture that such a solution exists and estimate an upper bound for its energy, Ebound = 4.65TeV.

  20. Phenomenological analysis of D-brane Pati-Salam vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulos, P.; Leontaris, G. K.; Vlachos, N. D.

    2010-05-01

    In the present work, we perform a phenomenological analysis of the effective low energy models with Pati-Salam (PS) gauge symmetry derived in the context of D-branes. The main issue in these models arises from the fact that the right-handed fermions and the PS-symmetry breaking Higgs field transform identically under the symmetry, causing unnatural matter-Higgs mixing effects. We argue that this problem can be solved in particular D-brane setups where these fields arise in different intersections. We further observe that whenever a large Higgs mass term is being generated in a particular class of mass spectra, a splitting mechanism -reminiscent of the doublet triplet splitting- may protect the neutral Higgs components from becoming heavy. We analyze the implications of each individual representation available in these models in order to specify the minimal spectrum required to build up a consistent model that reconciles the low energy data. A short discussion is devoted to the effects of stringy instanton corrections, particularly those generating missing Yukawa couplings and contributing to the fermion mass textures. We discuss the correlations of the intersecting D-brane spectra with those obtained from Gepner constructions and analyze the superpotential, the resulting mass textures and the low energy implications of some examples of the latter along the lines proposed above.

  1. Pati-Salam version of subcritical hybrid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, B. Charles; Raby, Stuart

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a model of subcritical hybrid inflation with a Pati-Salam (PS) symmetry group. Both the inflaton and waterfall fields contribute to the necessary e -foldings of inflation, while only the waterfall field spontaneously breaks PS hence monopoles produced during inflation are diluted during the inflationary epoch. The model is able to produce a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r <0.09 consistent with the latest BICEP2/Keck and Planck data, as well as scalar density perturbations and spectral index, ns, consistent with Planck data. For particular values of the parameters, we find r =0.084 and ns=0.0963 . The energy density during inflation is directly related to the PS breaking scale, vPS. The model also incorporates a Z4R symmetry which can resolve the μ problem and suppress dimension 5 operators for proton decay, leaving over an exact R parity. Finally the model allows for a complete three-family extension with a D4 family symmetry which reproduces low energy precision electroweak and LHC data.

  2. One Year of ICTP Diploma Courses On-Line Using the Automated EyA Recording System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canessa, Enrique; Fonda, Carlo; Zennaro, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The 12-month pre-Ph.D. ICTP Diploma Courses in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics, High Energy Physics, Mathematics, Earth System Physics and Basics Physics have been recorded using the automated, low cost recording system called EyA developed in-house. We discuss the technical details on how these recordings were implemented, together with…

  3. Landau problem in noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayipjamal, Dulat; Li, Kang

    2008-02-01

    The Landau problem in non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is studied. First by solving the Schrödinger equations on noncommutative (NC) space we obtain the Landau energy levels and the energy correction that is caused by space-space noncommutativity. Then we discuss the noncommutative phase space case, namely, space-space and momentum-momentum non-commutative case, and we get the explicit expression of the Hamiltonian as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10465004, 10665001, 10575026) and Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy

  4. Pati-Salam unification from noncommutative geometry and the TeV-scale WR boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Ufuk; Minic, Djordje; Sun, Chen; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the compatibility of the unified left-right symmetric Pati-Salam models motivated by noncommutative geometry and the TeV-scale right-handed W boson suggested by recent LHC data. We find that the unification/matching conditions place conflicting demands on the symmetry breaking scales and that generating the required WR mass and coupling is nontrivial.

  5. Radiative Corrections for Wto e barν Decay in the Weinberg-Salam Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Kakuto, A.; Komatsu, H.; Takeshita, S.

    1980-09-01

    The one-loop corrections for the Wto e barν decay rate are calculated in the Weinberg-Salam model with arbitrary number of generations. The on-shell renormalization prescription and the 't Hooft-Feynman gauge are employed. Divergences are treated by the dimensional regularization method. Some numerical estimates for the decay rate are given in the three-generation model. It is found that there are significant corrections mainly owing to fermion-mass singularities.

  6. International Reference Ionosphere (IRI): Task Force Activity 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, D.

    2000-01-01

    The annual IRI Task Force Activity was held at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from July 10 to July 14. The participants included J. Adeniyi (University of Ilorin, Nigeria), D. Bilitza (NSSDC/RITSS, USA), D. Buresova (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic), B. Forte (ICTP, Italy), R. Leitinger (University of Graz, Austria), B. Nava (ICTP, Italy), M. Mosert (University National Tucuman, Argentina), S. Pulinets (IZMIRAN, Russia), S. Radicella (ICTP, Italy), and B. Reinisch (University of Mass. Lowell, USA). The main topic of this Task Force Activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability. Each day during the workshop week the team debated a specific modeling problem in the morning during informal presentations and round table discussions of all participants. Ways of resolving the specific modeling problem were devised and tested in the afternoon in front of the computers of the ICTP Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory using ICTP s computer networks and internet access.

  7. FOREWORD: International Topical Workshop on Plasma Physics: Coherent Processes in Nonlinear Media. Sponsored by the ICTP (Trieste) and the European Union (Brussels)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Bingham, R.; Stenflo, L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting in 1989 we have created a forum at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, where scientists from different parts of the world can meet and exchange information in the frontier areas of physics. In the three previous meetings, we focused on large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas, the physics of dusty plasmas, and wave-particle interactions and energization in plasmas. In 1995, we came up with a fresh idea of organizing somewhat enlarged but still well focused research topics that are cross-disciplinary. Thus, the usual 'fourth-week activity' of the Plasma Physics College at the ICTP was replaced by an International Topical Workshop on Plasma Physics: Coherent Processes in Nonlinear Media, which was held at the ICTP during the period 16-20 October, 1995. This provided us an opportunity to draw eminent speakers from many closely related fields such as plasma physics, fluid dynamics, nonlinear optics, and astrophysics. The Workshop was attended by 82 delegates from 34 countries, and the participation from the industrial and the developing countries was about half each. The programme included 4 review and 29 topical invited lectures. In addition, about 30 contributed papers were presented as posters in two sessions. The latter were created in order to give opportunities to younger physicists for displaying the results of their recent work and to obtain constructive comments from the other participants. During the five days at the ICTP, we focused on almost all the various aspects of nonlinear phenomena that are common in different branches of science. The review and topical lectures as well as the posters dealt with the most recent advances in coherent nonlinear processes in space and astrophysical plasmas, in fluids and optics, in low temperature dusty plasmas, as well as in laser produced and magnetically confined laboratory plasmas. The focus was on the physics of various types of waves and their generation mechanisms, the development

  8. Neutrino emission by the pair, plasma, and photo processes in the Weinberg-Salam model

    SciTech Connect

    Schinder, P.J.; Schramm, D.N.; Witta, P.J.; Margolis, S.H.; Tubbs, D.L.

    1986-06-01

    The results of numerical integrations of the rates and emissivities of the photo, pair, and plasma neutrino emission mechanisms in the Weinberg-Salam theory of the weak interaction are presented. The range of densities 10 gm cm/sup -3/ less than or equal to rho < 10/sup 14/ gm cm/sup -3/ and the temperature range 10/sup 8/K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 10/sup 11/K are considered. Fitting formulae, similar to those provided by Beaudet, Petrosian, and Salpeter, which reproduce the numerical result for the total emissivity to within 20% in the temperature range 10/sup 8.2/K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 10/sup 11/K are presented. 24 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  10. MAP, MAC, and vortex-rings configurations in the Weinberg-Salam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2015-11-01

    We report on the presence of new axially symmetric monopoles, antimonopoles and vortex-rings solutions of the SU(2)×U(1) Weinberg-Salam model of electromagnetic and weak interactions. When the ϕ-winding number n = 1, and 2, the configurations are monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and monopole-antimonopole chain (MAC) with poles of alternating sign magnetic charge arranged along the z-axis. Vortex-rings start to appear from the MAP and MAC configurations when the winding number n = 3. The MAP configurations possess zero net magnetic charge whereas the MAC configurations possess net magnetic charge of 4 πn / e. In the MAP configurations, the monopole-antimonopole pair is bounded by the Z0 field flux string and there is an electromagnetic current loop encircling it. The monopole and antimonopole possess magnetic charges ± 4πn/e sin2θW respectively. In the MAC configurations there is no string connecting the monopole and the adjacent antimonopole and they possess magnetic charges ± 4 πn/e respectively. The MAC configurations possess infinite total energy and zero magnetic dipole moment whereas the MAP configurations which are actually sphalerons possess finite total energy and magnetic dipole moment. The configurations were investigated for varying values of Higgs self-coupling constant 0 ≤ λ ≤ 40 at Weinberg angle θW = π/4.

  11. Sphaleron and sphaleron-antisphaleron pair of the Weinberg-Salam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present the full solutions of the Weinberg-Salam equations of motion for (1) the sphaleron and (2) the sphaleron-antisphaleron pair using numerical methods. In the SU(2) field part of the theory, the solutions obtained are (1) the one monopole-antimonopole pair and (2) the two monopole-antimonopole pairs respectively while in the U(1) field part, the solutions are (1) a one current loop and (2) two current loops respectively. In these sphaleron and sphaleron-antisphaleron pair solutions, both the sphaleron and antisphaleron are monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) lying along the z-axis with an electromagnetic current loop circulating around it. The monopole and antimonopole in the MAP is joined by a flux string of the neutral ℒ0 field. In these solutions, the Weinberg angle is not arbitrary but it takes the value of θW=π/4 . The magnetic charges of the monopole and antimonopole in each MAP is ±2/π e which is half the magnetic charge of a Cho-Maison monopole. Hence the MAP poles are half-monopoles. These new axially symmetric solutions possess finite energy and magnetic dipole moment and they are investigated for a range of Higgs field mass term 0 ≤ µ2 ≤ 40. Their total energies are found to increase almost linearly with µ, whereas the magnetic dipole moments decrease exponentially fast with µ.

  12. How to approach continuum physics in the lattice Weinberg-Salam model

    SciTech Connect

    Zubkov, M. A.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the lattice Weinberg-Salam model without fermions numerically for the realistic choice of coupling constants correspondent to the value of the Weinberg angle {theta}{sub W{approx}}30 deg., and bare fine structure constant around {alpha}{approx}(1/150). We consider the values of the scalar self-coupling corresponding to Higgs mass M{sub H{approx}}100, 150, 270 GeV. It has been found that nonperturbative effects become important while approaching continuum physics within the lattice model. When the ultraviolet cutoff {Lambda}=({pi}/a) (where a is the lattice spacing) is increased and achieves the value around 1 TeV, one encounters the fluctuational region (on the phase diagram of the lattice model), where the fluctuations of the scalar field become strong. The classical Nambu monopole can be considered as an embryo of the unphysical symmetric phase within the physical phase. In the fluctuational region quantum Nambu monopoles are dense, and therefore, the use of the perturbation expansion around the trivial vacuum in this region is limited. Further increase of the cutoff is accompanied by a transition to the region of the phase diagram, where the scalar field is not condensed (this happens at the value of {Lambda} around 1.4 TeV for the considered lattice sizes). Within this region further increase of the cutoff is possible, although we do not observe this in detail due to the strong fluctuations of the gauge boson correlator. Both above mentioned regions look unphysical. Therefore we come to the conclusion that the maximal value of the cutoff admitted within lattice electroweak theory cannot exceed the value of the order of 1 TeV.

  13. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  14. Active learning in optics and photonics: Fraunhofer diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalila, H.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Lahmar, S.; Dhouaidi, Z.; Majdi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    "Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP), funded by UNESCO within its Physics Program framework with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers), aimed to helps and promotes a friendly and interactive method in teaching optics using simple and inexpensive equipment. Many workshops were organized since 2005 the year when Z. BenLakhdar, whom is part of the creators of ALOP, proposed this project to STO (Société Tunisienne d'Optique). These workshops address several issues in optics, covering geometrical optics, wave optics, optical communication and they are dedicated to both teachers and students. We focus this lecture on Fraunhofer diffraction emphasizing the facility to achieve this mechanism in classroom, using small laser and operating a slit in a sheet of paper. We accompany this demonstration using mobile phone and numerical modeling to assist in the analysis of the diffraction pattern figure.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on the Climate Extremes of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Collu, Kamil; Deler, F. Busra; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The Middle East is one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. Because of the importance of the region and its vulnerability to global climate change, the studies including the investigation of projected changes in the climate of the Middle East play a crucial role in order to struggle with the negative effects of climate change. This research points out the relationship between the climate change and climate extremes indices in the Middle East and it investigates the changes in the number of extreme events as described by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). As part of the study, the regional climate model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) is run to obtain future projection data. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  16. Evaluation and analysis of RegCM3 simulated summer rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.

  17. A Journal of travel of an astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.

    2015-06-01

    The authors is descibing personal impressions from a number of scientific conferences took between 1993 and 1998 in Trieste (ICTP,with the participation of 2 Nobel Laureats Winners: Professor Abdus Salam (1926-1996) and Professor Gert t'Hooft), Catania astrophysical Observatory and University (1995-JENAM 1995), Athens Observatory and University (1996-Wide Field Spectroscopy), Prague Technicke Museum (1996- Symposium "Mysterium Cosmographicum"),Prague technical University (1998 -JENAM 1998),which in fact contained also a trip to Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Torun (Poland). Besides,some details on trips through Ukraine, Poland, Serbia, where a kind meeting with astronomers from Belgrade took place in 1995, former Yugoslav Countries: Monetnegro, Slovenija and Croatia, Bulgaria, where another meeting with physicists from the Academy of Sciences of Bulgaria took place has been given also.

  18. Majorana fermions in condensed-matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, A. J.

    2016-06-01

    It is an honor and a pleasure to have been invited to give a talk in this conference celebrating the memory of the late Professor Abdus Salam. To my regret, I did not know Professor Salam personally, but I am very aware of his work and of his impact on my area of specialization, condensed matter physics, both intellectually through his ideas on spontaneously broken symmetry and more practically through his foundation of the ICTP. Since I assume that most of this audience are not specialized in condensed-matter physics, I thought I would talk about one topic which to some extent bridges this field and the particle-physics interests of Salam, namely Majorana fermions (M.F.s). However, as we shall see, the parallels which are often drawn in the current literature may be a bit too simplistic. I will devote most of this talk to a stripped-down exposition of the current orthodoxy concerning M.F.s. in condensed-matter physics and their possible applications to topological quantum computing (TQC), and then at the end briefly indicate why I believe this orthodoxy may be seriously misleading.

  19. Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes.

    PubMed

    Abellan, Rosario; Ventura, Rosa; Palmi, Ilaria; di Carlo, Simonetta; Bacosi, Antonella; Bellver, Montse; Olive, Ramon; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pacifici, Roberta; Segura, Jordi; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pichini, Simona

    2008-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2 and -3 and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) have been proposed, among others, as indirect biomarkers of the recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays for biomarkers detection was performed. ELISA assays for total IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (IGF-II/ELISA1: DSLabs, IGFBP-2/ELISA2: Biosource, and IGFBP-3/ELISA3: BioSource) and an EIA assay for ICTP (ICTP/EIA: Orion Diagnostica) were evaluated. The inter- and intra-laboratory precision values were acceptable for all evaluated assays (maximum imprecision of 30% and 66% were found only for the lowest quality control samples of IGF-II and IGFBP-3). Correct accuracy was obtained for all inter-laboratory immunoassays and for IGFBP-2 intra-laboratory immunoassay. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, 11% and 15% of the samples felt below the estimated LOQ for IGF-II and ICTP, respectively, in the zone where lower precision was obtained. Although the majority of evaluated assays showed an overall reliability not always suitable for antidoping control analysis, relatively high concordances between laboratory results were obtained for all assays. Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3 and ICTP in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moments of the training season; in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum IGF-II was statistically higher both in recreational and elite athletes compared to sedentary individuals. Elite athletes showed lower IGFBP-2 and higher IGFBP-3 concentration with respect to recreational athletes and sedentary people. Among elite athletes, serum IGFBP-3 (synchronized

  20. Sequential extraction of Cs and Sr from Ain Oussera soils around Es-Salam research reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Abdelkader; Ararem, Abderrahmane; Imessaoudene, Djillali; Yabrir, Benalia

    2015-10-01

    Four types of undisturbed soil in Ain Oussera region around the Es-Salam reactor facility, located in the south of Algiers, Algeria, at about 200km, were artificially contaminated for one year with stable CsCl and SrCl2 in order to simulate an accidental release of these elements. This study was performed using sequential extraction procedure based on Shultz method and containing six fractions. The selectivity of the extraction protocol was confirmed by analyzing some elements (Ca, C, Fe, Mn, Si and Al) designed as indicators of the targeted phases. The obtained results showed an acceptable reproducibility, in view of the coefficients of variation that were in most cases less than 15%. The results revealed a clear proportional correlation between the extracted Cs and Sr in fractions for each soil and some of soils physicochemical properties. Organic matter appears to play an important role in the soil retention, particularly for Cs where the extracted percentage exceeds to 30% in whole soils. In contrast, strontium expresses a remarkable affinity for the fraction bound to carbonates. The obtained data also indicate that the availability of Cs in the four soils is less important compared to Sr availability. This is illustrated by the higher value of extracted Sr in the easily extractible phase, including the water-soluble and the exchangeable fraction. PMID:26456618

  1. A to Z of the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the MSSM with Pati-Salam at the GUT scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander S.; Camargo-Molina, José E.; King, Steve F.; Miller, David J.; Morais, António P.; Schaefers, Patrick B.

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the low energy predictions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) arising from a GUT scale Pati-Salam gauge group further constrained by an A 4 × Z 5 family symmetry, resulting in four soft scalar masses at the GUT scale: one left-handed soft mass m 0 and three right-handed soft masses m 1 , m 2 , m 3, one for each generation. We demonstrate that this model, which was initially developed to describe the neutrino sector, can explain collider and non-collider measurements such as the dark matter relic density, the Higgs boson mass and, in particular, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon ( g - 2) μ . Since about two decades, ( g - 2) μ suffers a puzzling about 3 σ excessoftheexperimentallymeasuredvalueoverthetheoreticalprediction,whichour model is able to fully resolve. As the consequence of this resolution, our model predicts specific regions of the parameter space with the specific properties including light smuons and neutralinos, which could also potentially explain di-lepton excesses observed by CMS and ATLAS.

  2. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-05-28

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work.

  3. FOREWORD: Workshop on Wave-Particle Interaction and Energization in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; de Angelis, U.; Bingham, R.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities. During the "1987 Spring College on Plasma Physics" Professor Abdus Salam asked us to help organize the plasma physics activity at the ICTP with the hope that more Europeans would get involved in the endeavors of diffusing modern plasma physics knowledge to the participants who come mostly from developing countries. In order to fulfill his expectations, we formed a European team for organizing at least a one-week workshop during the biennial activity of the Spring College on Plasma Physics at Trieste. Since 1989, we have taken an active part in organizing the fourth week of the Spring College on Plasma Physics at the ICTP. We have also brought out the lecture notes in the form of Topical Issues in Physica Scripta, for distributing the advanced scientific materials to the participants. This fourth week has now become a permanent feature of the ICTP plasma physics activity and serves the purpose of bringing together scientists from different parts of the world in a forum so that they can exchange ideas and interact for mutual benefits. This year we focused on wave-particle interaction and energization in plasmas. The present topics fall within one of the most advanced areas of plasma physics, where there is an urgent need to understand the turbulent as well as the coherent plasma wave phenomena. We invited distinguished lecturers, who presented the fundamentals of interactions in plasmas. The lectures covered basic as well as advanced topics dealing with wave phenomena, which are of current interest in laboratory and space plasmas. Accordingly, the morning lectures were centered around a unified theme covering quasilinear theory in the context of weak turbulence, wave-wave interactions, theory and computer simulations of magnetic field reconnection, as well as the generation of coherent nonlinear structures in laboratory plasmas. In the afternoon sessions, the lecturers went on to describe the present state of

  4. Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2013-12-01

    A historical simulation (1976-2002) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (ICTP RegCM4), coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, is validated against observed lake ice cover and snowfall across the Great Lakes Basin. The model reproduces the broad temporal and spatial features of both variables in terms of spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, including climatological characteristics of lake-effect snowfall, although the simulated ice cover is overly extensive largely due to the absence of lake circulations. A definition is introduced for identifying heavy lake-effect snowstorms in regional climate model output for all grid cells in the Great Lakes Basin, using criteria based on location, wind direction, lake ice cover, and snowfall. Simulated heavy lake-effect snowstorms occur most frequently downwind of the Great Lakes, particularly to the east of Lake Ontario and to the east and south of Lake Superior, and are most frequent in December-January. The mechanism for these events is attributed to an anticyclone over the central United States and related cold air outbreak for areas downwind of Lakes Ontario and Erie, in contrast to a nearby cyclone over the Great Lakes Basin and associated cold front for areas downwind of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Projections of mid- and late-21st century lake-effect snowstorms in the Great Lakes Basin will be summarized, based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five) simulations.

  5. Analysis of Projected Changes in Precipitation Regions of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbas, Abdullah; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Classification and clustering are important issues in climatology studies for water management. In this study, we examine the precipitation regions of Turkey with combination of the regional climate model outputs with a hierarchical cluster technique. Therefore, the outputs of the HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) for the period of 2070 - 2100 with respect to the present period of 1970 - 2000 under two distinct case scenarios (i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Thereafter, Ward's method, which is commonly used in climate research, was also performed in order to cluster the precipitation data. In this context, spatial variations in precipitation regions of Turkey were determined for different climate change pathways. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  6. Investigation of the Drought Probabilities over Turkey in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Akbas, Abdullah; Saygili, Sibel; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of the negative impacts of climate change, Turkey is under risk of an increased drought conditions. In this study, we aim to detect the possible changes in the intensity and frequency of drought conditions and to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of these changes throughout the country. Therefore, firstly the outputs of the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). RCP8.5, which is the worst case emission pathway, is used to make future projection for the period of 2071 - 2100 with respect to the reference period of 1971 - 2000 over Turkey. Thereafter, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values, which are computed by using monthly precipitation totals data of the model, are obtained and classified for three timescales (i.e. 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month). Lastly, the spatial distribution maps, which determine the changes in drought probabilities over Turkey, are created in order to characterize better the impact of climate change on Turkey's drought patterns. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  7. THE AIMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DECAY DATA EVALUATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLS,A.L.; TULI, J.K.

    2007-04-22

    International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centers in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals ''Nuclear Physics A'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', the World Wide Web, on CD-ROM, wall charts of the nuclides and ''Nuclear Wallet Cards''. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centers including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new evaluators to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics.

  8. A new version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Coïsson, P.; Radicella, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time dependent ionospheric electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and at the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly tailored for trans-ionospheric applications that allows one to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere and thus the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path by means of numerical integration. Taking advantage of the increasing amount of available data, the model formulation is continuously updated to improve NeQuick capabilities to provide representations of the ionosphere at global scales. Recently, major changes have been introduced in the model topside formulation and important modifications have also been introduced in the bottomside description. In addition, specific revisions have been applied to the computer package associated to NeQuick in order to improve its computational efficiency. It has therefore been considered appropriate to finalize all the model developments in a new version of the NeQuick. In the present work the main features of NeQuick 2 are illustrated and some results related to validation tests are reported.

  9. Analysis of climate projections for the Carpathian Region using dynamical downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita; Pieczka, Ildiko; Andre, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    Hungarian national climate and adaptation strategies have been recently revised, and a National Adaptation Geo-information System (NAGIS) is currently under development. This platform will serve as a central data collection for various end-users, impact researchers, and decision makers on national level in Hungary. In order to satisfy the demands for climate projection inputs within this framework, RegCM4.3 is one of the regional climate models used to provide results for detailed regional scale analysis and specific impact studies. RegCM is a 3-dimensional, sigma-coordinate, primitive equation model, originally developed by Giorgi et al. Currently, it is available from the ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics). We have already completed experiments with 50 km horizontal resolution covering both the second half of the past century (1951-2005), and the future (i.e., the 21st century, 2006-2100) using HadGEM2 global model outputs as initial and lateral boundary conditions. The outputs of the 50 km runs drive the further downscaling experiments using 10 km as a horizontal resolution for a smaller domain covering Central Europe with special focus on the Carpathian Region. For the future, RCP4.5 scenario run is analysed in this poster, and moreover, preliminary results of the RCP8.5 scenario run are also presented.

  10. Simulations of summer monsoon climate over East Asia with a Regional Climate Model (RegCM) using Tiedtke convective parameterization scheme (CPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we implemented the Tiedtke convective parameterization scheme (CPS) into the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) and simulated the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) climate. A 6-year experiment was completed, from September 1996 through August 2002, and compared with an analogous experiment employing the Grell CPS option available in RegCM3. The ability of the model to represent the average climatology was investigated. Our results indicate that the Tiedtke CPS shows a generally good performance in describing surface climate and large-scale circulation throughout the summer monsoon period. Compared to the simulation with Grell CPS, the simulation with Tiedtke scheme shows a number of improvements, including a better distribution of summer monsoon precipitation due to a better positioning of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) in the middle troposphere and the southwesterly jet in the lower troposphere, and more realistic seasonal evolution of the monsoon precipitation. The cold surface air temperature bias characteristic frequently seen in Grell scheme over this region is also reduced. Generally, the Tiedtke scheme simulates warm and wet atmospheric conditions in the middle and lower tropospheres, a result more in agreement with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40 Years analysis (ERA-40). The Tiedtke scheme is more prone to activate convection in the lower troposphere than the Grell scheme due to more moist static energy available for activating and supporting the development of convection systems.

  11. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  12. Reduction of future monsoon precipitation over China: comparison between a high resolution RCM simulation and the driving GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Shi, Y.; Song, R.; Giorgi, F.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, D.

    2008-08-01

    Multi-decadal high resolution climate change simulations over East Asia are performed using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, nested within the NASA/NCAR global model FvGCM. Two sets of simulations are conducted at 20-km grid spacing for present day and future climate (IPCC A2 scenario). The mean precipitation change during the monsoon season (May to September) over China is analyzed and intercompared between the RegCM and FvGCM. Simulation of the present day precipitation by the RegCM shows a better performance than that of the driving FvGCM in terms of both spatial pattern and amount. The main improvement of the RegCM is the removal of an artificial precipitation center over the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau simulated by the FvGCM. The FvGCM simulates a predominant increase of precipitation over the region, whereas the RegCM shows extended areas of decrease. The causes of these differences are investigated and explained in terms of the different topographical forcing on circulation and moisture flux in the two models. We also find that the RegCM-simulated changes are in better agreement with observed precipitation trends over East Asia. It is suggested that high resolution models are needed to better investigate future climate projections over China and East Asia.

  13. Changes in snow cover over China in the 21st century as simulated by a high resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Giorgi, Filippo

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of the climate change simulations conducted using a high resolution regional climate model, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, at 25 km grid spacing, future changes in snow cover over China are analyzed. The simulations are carried out for the period of 1951-2100 following the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. The results suggest good performances of the model in simulating the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, as well as the starting and ending dates of snow cover to the present day (1981-2000). Their spatial distributions and amounts show fair consistency between the simulation and observation, although with some discrepancies. In general, decreases in the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, together with postponed snow starting dates and advanced snow ending dates, are simulated for the future, except in some places where the opposite appears. The most dramatic changes are found over the Tibetan Plateau among the three major snow cover areas of Northeast, Northwest and the Tibetan Plateau in China.

  14. Physics in Africa: The Case of Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arame Boye-Faye, Ndeye

    2009-03-01

    For many years, the research activity in Senegal has been managed through the division of the Ministry of Education. In 2004 the current government established a full-fledged Ministry of Research. This has led to a renewed focus on the organization of the funding of research in Senegal. One important issue to underline is the lack of a budget line devoted to research in most of the local institutions, distinct from support for academic purposes. As a result, the research activity is funded through direct support from the government or thanks to international programs. The main tool for the government to support key research directions is the FIRST program, with a yearly budget of 700,000 US. For the last call for projects, up to 12 projects have been funded, which translates to about 58,000 US per project. The other option for research funding lies in different international programs specifically aimed at institutions within the least developed countries. The dominant ones are provided by the French-speaking community, the French-supported AIRE, the European Union framework and ICTP Abdus Salam Centre. In this general context of limited resources, physics is the least supported discipline both in terms of researchers and active laboratories. As a result, particular efforts have to be made to increase the impact of physics and the role of physicists so as to enable them to claim their proper role as the major player in making science and technology the driving forces in the development process of Africa.

  15. k0-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidatou, L. A.; Dekar, S.; Boukari, S.

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k0-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within±4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within±10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  16. Message from the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mirza Masroor

    2008-07-01

    Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...

  17. PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable

  18. 7th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Bytsenko, A. A.; Guimarães, M. E. X.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    The 7th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Physics took place in the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil, from 16 to 20 April 2012, and was jointly organized by the following Institutions: Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF/MCT), The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP, Italy), Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (IMPA, Brazil), The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS, Italy) and The Scuola Internazionale di Studi Avanzati (SISSA,Italy). The Organizing Committees were composed by: E. ABDALLA (USP, Brazil), L. BONORA (SISSA, Italy), H. BURSZTYN (IMPA, Brazil), A. A. BYTSENKO (UEL, Brazil), B. DUBROVIN (SISSA, Italy), M.E.X. GUIMARÃES (UFF, Brazil), J.A. HELAYËL-NETO (CBPF, Brazil). Advisory Committee: A. V. ASHTEKAR (Penn State University, U.S.A.), V. M. BUCHSTABER (Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russia), L. D. FADDEEV (St. Petersburg Dept. of Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russia), I. M. KRICHEVER (Columbia Univ., U.S.A./ Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, Russia), S. P. NOVIKOV (Univ. of Maryland, U.S.A./Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, Russia), J. PALIS (IMPA, Brazil), A. QADIR (National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan), F. QUEVEDO (ICTP, Italy), S. RANDJBAR-DAEMI (ICTP, Italy), G. THOMPSON (ICTP, Italy), C. VAFA (Harvard University, U.S.A.). The Main Goal: The aim of the Conference was to present the latest advances in Mathematical Methods of Physics to researchers, young scientists and students of Latin America in general, and Brazil in particular, in the areas of High Energy Physics, Cosmology, Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics. The main goal was to promote an updating of knowledge and to facilitate the interaction between mathematicians and theoretical physicists, through plenary sessions and seminars. This Conference can be considered as a part of a network activity in a special effort to

  19. EDITORIAL: Publisher's Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2006-12-01

    In addition to offering an excellent service to authors, referees and readers of the journal, one of the goals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) is to support the plasma community. We sponsor a number of prizes each year, usually focused on students' contributions to conferences. The poster prize winners from the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics can be found in Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 B1-B506 along with the invited talks from the conference. Other prizes include: A poster prize at the CCLRC-organised High Power Laser Science Christmas meeting, held in Abingdon, UK, in December 2005. The winning poster was: `Implicit Vlasov Fokker Planck simulations including hydrodynamic ion motion' Christopher Ridgers (Imperial College London). The second prize went to C Cecchitti (Queens University of Belfast), and the third prize to John Howe (University of York). For the first time in 2006 PPCF also sponsored a prize for the best poster presented at the International Workshop on Frontiers of Plasma Physics, held from 21 August-1 September 2006 at the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy. The winner of this prize was Dr Bhaskar Chaudhury (Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, India), for his work on `Plasma stealth technology: reduction of radar cross section of plasma shrouded objects'. Thank you to everyone who participated in these prizes, and congratulations to the winners and runners-up. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank the authors and referees of PPCF for all their hard work and support in making the journal a success in 2006 and to wish you all a successful 2007.

  20. Hydrological projections under climate change in the near future by RegCM4 in Southern Africa using a large-scale hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Diallo, Ismaïla; Xu, Chong-Yu; Stordal, Frode

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to provide model estimates of changes in hydrological elements, such as EvapoTranspiration (ET) and runoff, in Southern Africa in the near future until 2029. The climate change scenarios are projected by a high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM), RegCM4, which is the latest version of this model developed by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The hydrological projections are performed by using a large-scale hydrological model (WASMOD-D), which has been tested and customized on this region prior to this study. The results reveal that (1) the projected temperature shows an increasing tendency over Southern Africa in the near future, especially eastward of 25°E, while the precipitation changes are varying between different months and sub-regions; (2) an increase in runoff (and ET) was found in eastern part of Southern Africa, i.e. Southern Mozambique and Malawi, while a decrease was estimated across the driest region in a wide area encompassing Kalahari Desert, Namibia, southwest of South Africa and Angola; (3) the strongest climate change signals are found over humid tropical areas, i.e. north of Angola and Malawi and south of Dem Rep of Congo; and (4) large spatial and temporal variability of climate change signals is found in the near future over Southern Africa. This study presents the main results of work-package 2 (WP2) of the 'Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change in Sub-equatorial Africa (SoCoCA)' project, which is funded by the Research Council of Norway.

  1. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.

    2016-04-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  2. The Phase I CORDEX RegCM hyper-MAtrix (CREMA) experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.

    2013-12-01

    An ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) projections was produced with the RegCM4 modeling system as a first contribution to the CORDEX framework by the RegCM modeling community, the Phase I CORDEX RegCM hyper-MAtrix (CREMA) experiment. A total of 34 regional projections were completed covering the period 1970-2100 over five different CORDEX domains, Africa, Central America, South America, South Asia and the Mediterranean. The projections use different combinations of three driving GCMs (HadGEM, MPI and GFDL), two greenhouse gas concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and different land surface and convection schemes, which allows a first exploration of different sources of uncertainty. The paper will describe the CREMA phase I experiment and discuss some basic results from a first analysis of these runs, with emphasis on extreme events (including tropical storms), variability and regional circulations of relevance for the different domains (e.g. the monsoon). The CREMA Phase I experiment was completed as a collaboration between the Abdus Salam ICTP and the U. San Paolo, CICESE, and the Indian Institute of Technology, and the results from this first analysis are being published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The data from these projections is freely available following the CORDEX data policy for eventual further analysis and use in impact assessment studies. We plan to incrementally populate the CREMA ensemble with further simulations employing more driving GCMs and model configurations and to compare our resultswith other models participating to the CORDEX effort.

  3. Web services interface for Space Weather: NeQuick 2 web and experimental TEC Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca O.; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro M.; Alazo Cuartas, Katy; Luigi, Ciraolo

    2013-04-01

    A web front-end has been recently developed and released to allow retrieving and plotting ionospheric parameters computed by the latest version of the model, NeQuick 2. NeQuick is a quick-run ionospheric electron density model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications. It has been developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory (now T/ICT4D Laboratory) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology (IGAM) of the University of Graz, Austria. To describe the electron density of the ionosphere up to the peak of the F2 layer, NeQuick uses a profile formulation which includes five semi-Epstein layers with modelled thickness parameters. Through a simple web interface users can exploit all the model features including the possibility of computing the electron density and visualizing the corresponding Total Electron Content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite straight line ray-path. Indeed, the TEC is the ionospheric parameter retrieved from the GPS measurements. It complements the experimental data obtained with diverse kinds of sensors and can be considered a major source of ionospheric information. Since the TEC is not a direct measurement, a "de-biasing" procedure or calibration has to be applied to obtain the relevant values from the raw GPS observables. Using the observation and navigation RINEX files corresponding to a single receiver as input data, the web application allows the user to compute the slant and/or vertical TEC following the concept of the "arc-by-arc" offsets estimation. The combined use of both tools, freely available from the T/ICT4D Web site, will allow the comparison of experimentally derived slant and vertical TEC with modelled values. An online demonstration of the capabilities of the mentioned web services will be illustrated.

  4. Improvement of surface albedo parameterization within a regional climate model (RegCM3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y.; Lü, S.

    2009-03-01

    A parameterization for calculating surface albedo of Solar Zenith Angel (SZA) dependence with coefficient for each vegetation type determined on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) reformed by the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is incorporated within the latest Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3), and evaluated with a high resolution one-way nesting simulation in China using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) data and the observations from the Field Experiment on Interaction between Land and Atmosphere in Arid Region of Northwest China (NWC-ALIEX). The performance of the SZA method modeling surface characteristic is investigated.Results indicate, RegCM with SZA method (RCM_SZA) considerably improve the cold bias of original RegCM (RCM_ORI) in air surface temperature in East Asia with 1.2 degree increased in summer due to the lower albedo produced by SZA method which makes more solar radiation absorbed by the surface and used for heating the atmosphere near to the surface. The simulated diurnal cycle of ground temperature conforms fairly well to the observation in the nesting simulation in Northwest China, especially during the noon time when the SZA has the lowest value. However, the modification can not obviously affect the East Asia summer monsoon precipitation simulation although RCM_SZA produce more evapo-transpiration in surface with more than 2 Wm-2 increases in simulated latent heat fluxes both in East Asia and in Northwest China compared to RCM_ORI.

  5. Regional model simulation of summer rainfall over the Philippines: Effect of choice of driving fields and ocean flux schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, R. V.; Argete, J.; Giorgi, F.; Pal, J.; Bi, X.; Gutowski, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    The latest version of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional model RegCM is used to investigate summer monsoon precipitation over the Philippine archipelago and surrounding ocean waters, a region where regional climate models have not been applied before. The sensitivity of simulated precipitation to driving lateral boundary conditions (NCEP and ERA40 reanalyses) and ocean surface flux scheme (BATS and Zeng) is assessed for 5 monsoon seasons. The ability of the RegCM to simulate the spatial patterns and magnitude of monsoon precipitation is demonstrated, both in response to the prominent large scale circulations over the region and to the local forcing by the physiographical features of the Philippine islands. This provides encouraging indications concerning the development of a regional climate modeling system for the Philippine region. On the other hand, the model shows a substantial sensitivity to the analysis fields used for lateral boundary conditions as well as the ocean surface flux schemes. The use of ERA40 lateral boundary fields consistently yields greater precipitation amounts compared to the use of NCEP fields. Similarly, the BATS scheme consistently produces more precipitation compared to the Zeng scheme. As a result, different combinations of lateral boundary fields and surface ocean flux schemes provide a good simulation of precipitation amounts and spatial structure over the region. The response of simulated precipitation to using different forcing analysis fields is of the same order of magnitude as the response to using different surface flux parameterizations in the model. As a result it is difficult to unambiguously establish which of the model configurations is best performing.

  6. Simulation of South Asian aerosols for regional climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Babu, S. Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2012-02-01

    Extensive intercomparison of columnar and near-surface aerosols, simulated over the South Asian domain using the aerosol module included in the regional climate model (RegCM4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) have been carried out using ground-based network of Sun/sky Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) radiometers, satellite sensors such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and ground-based black carbon (BC) measurements made at Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) network stations. In general, RegCM4 simulations reproduced the spatial and seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over South Asia reasonably well, particularly over west Asia, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading. In contrast, RegCM4 simulations drastically underestimated the BC mass concentrations over most of the stations, by a factor of 2 to 5, with a large spatial variability. Seasonally, the discrepancy between the measured and simulated BC tended to be higher during winter and periods when the atmospheric boundary layer is convectively stable (such as nighttime and early mornings), while during summer season and during periods when the boundary layer is convectively unstable (daytime) the discrepancies were much lower, with the noontime values agreeing very closely with the observations. A detailed analysis revealed that the model does not reproduce the nocturnal high in BC, observed at most of the Indian sites especially during winter, because of the excessive vertical transport of aerosols under stable boundary layer conditions. As far as the vertical distribution was concerned, the simulated vertical profiles of BC agreed well with airborne measurements during daytime. This comprehensive validation exercise reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the model in simulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the aerosol fields over

  7. New Development of the Online Integrated Climate-Chemistry model framwork (RegCM-CHEM4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, A. S.; Shalaby, A. K.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, F.; Tawfik, A. B.; Steiner, A. L.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online integrated climate-chemistry model based on the regional climate model (RegCM4). The RegCM4 developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), is a hydrostatic, sigma coordinate model. Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism CBM-Z with lumped species that represent broad categories of organics based on carbon bond structure. The computationally rapid radical balance method RBM is coupled as a chemical solver to the gas-phase mechanism. Photolysis rates are determined as a function of meteorological and chemical inputs and interpolated from an array of pre-determined values based on the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible Model (TUV) with cloud cover corrections. Cloud optical depths and cloud altitudes from RegCM-CHEM4 are used in the photolysis calculations, thereby directly coupling the photolysis rates and chemical reactions to meteorological conditions at each model time step. In this study, we evaluate the model over Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a six-year simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show a good agreement with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the summer 2003 heat wave event. Analysis of the full six years of simulation indicates that the coupled chemistry-climate model can reproduce the seasonal cycle of ozone, with an overestimation of ozone in the non-event years of 5-15 ppb depending on the geographic region. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  8. On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, E. L.

    2006-04-01

    In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids. International Workshop on Biopolymers: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Mechanics of DNA, RNA and Proteins, 30.05.2005-3.06.2005, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy.

  9. High resolution climate change simulation of the 21st century over East Asia by RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejie

    2010-05-01

    To meet the increasing demands from the climate change impact assessment studies, a high resolution climate change simulation over East Asia region has being performed in the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The model employed in the study is the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A global model of the CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC3.2_hires is selected to drive RegCM3 because of its high resolution (T106) and its good performances in simulating the present day climate over the region. The simulation is conducted at 25-km grid spacing for the period of 1951-2100. Observed CO2 concentration are used for the present day simulation of 1951-2000 and the emission scenario of IPCC SRES A1B is used as the GHG (greenhouse gases) forcing. Simulations of present day climate over China by RegCM3 and MIROC3.2_hires are compared against observation to valid the model performances. Results show that both models reproduced the general pattern of surface air temperature and precipitation well over the region. Compared to the driving MIROC3.2_hires, RegCM3 provides with more spatial details of the surface fields. Differed from previous GCM-RegCM3 simulations, the RegCM3 did not improves the general pattern of the precipitation due to the good performances of MIROC3.2_hires. Preliminary analysis of the future changes simulated by the two models' show difference, in particular during June-July-August. For example while the MIROC3.2_hires projected a prevailing increase of precipitation in JJA over China, the RegCM3 projected extended areas of decreased precipitation. The data are available for those interested from the community of climate change impacts studies.

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    SPIE under the Federation of Optics College and University Students (FOCUS) conference grant, as well as contributions from other organizations: the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the Optical Society (OSA), the Laboratory of Terahertz Technology of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU), the RAU, the LT-Pyrkal, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), IPR of NAS, and Ritea.

  11. Preliminar Performance Assessment of NeQuick2-Plas Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro M.

    NeQuick is a semi-empirical model that describes spatial and temporal variations of the ionospheric electron density at global scale. It was jointly developed by the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. The model is able to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere as well as the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path. One of the recent major changes introduced in the NeQuick2 model is the integration of the plasmasphere formulation of IRI-Plas that gave origin to the NeQuick-Plas. The plasmasphere extension of IRI, IRI-Plas, is an empirical model derived from many years of measurements designed to represent typical ionospheric conditions as a function of geomagnetic and solar activity. For the smooth fitting of the NeQuick and plasmasphere models, the half-peak density point, h0.5p is searched iteratively from NeQuick topside electron density profile. The present study uses median values of IGS combined global vertical TEC maps as reference to be compared with NeQuick 2 and NeQuick-Plas models. Representative months of years of high, moderate and low solar activity have been utilized. The preliminary results indicate an improvement of the NeQuick 2 -Plas with respect to NeQuick 2 especially during periods of high and moderate solar activity as indicated by the average and standard deviation of the TEC error distributions (e.g. IGS-NeQ2 mean is -9.73, standard deviation is 5.6 while IGS-NePlas mean is 2.87, with a standard deviation of 4.8 for October 2000; IGS-NeQ2 mean is -5.28, standard deviation is 0.37 while IGS-NeQ-Plas mean is 1.25, standard deviation of 0.49 for Jul 2003). During low solar activity (year 2008), instead, there is a slight tendency of NeQuick-Plas to overestimate TEC values and so increase the

  12. A simple wavelength division multiplexing system for active learning teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghal, Mourad; Ghalila, Hassen; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2009-06-01

    The active learning project consists in a series of workshops for educators, researchers and students and promotes an innovative method of teaching physics using simple, inexpensive materials that can be fabricated locally. The objective of the project is to train trainers and inspire students to learn physics. The workshops are based on the use of laboratory work and hands-on activities in the classroom. The interpretation of these experiments is challenging for some students, and the experiments can lead to a significant amount of discussion. The workshops are organized within the framework of the project ``Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP) mainly funded by UNESCO, with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE. ALOP workshops offer high school, college or university physics teachers the opportunity to improve their conceptual understanding of optics. These workshops usually run for five days and cover several of the topics usually found in any introductory university physics program. Optics and photonics are used as subject matter because it is relevant as well as adaptable to research and educational conditions in many developing countries [1]. In this paper, we will mainly focus on a specific topic of the ALOP workshops, namely optical communications and Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology (WDM). This activity was originally developed by Mazzolini et al [2]. WDM is a technology used in fibre-optic communications for transmitting two or more separate signals over a single fibre optic cable by using a separate wavelength for each signal. Multiple signals are carried together as separate wavelengths of light in a multiplexed signal. Simple and inexpensive WDM system was implemented in our laboratory using light emitting diodes or diode lasers, plastic optical fibres, a set of optical filters and lenses, prism or grating, and photodiodes. Transmission of audio signals using home-made, simple

  13. List of Organizing Committees and Sponsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers DIRECTORS Maria L CalvoPresident of International Commission for Optics, Spain Aram V PapoyanDirector of Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia HEADS OF PROJECT Tigran Dadalyan YSU, Armenia Artsrun MartirosyanIPR, Armenia COORDINATOR Narine GevorgyanIPR, Armenia / ICTP, Italy MANAGERS Paytsar MantashyanIPR, Armenia Karen VardanyanIPR, Armenia INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Marcis AuzinshLatvia Roland AvagyanArmenia Tapash ChakrabortyCanada Yuri ChilingaryanArmenia Eduard KazaryanArmenia Albert KirakosyanArmenia Radik KostanyanArmenia Avinash PandeyIndia Marat SoskinUkraine INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMMITTEE David Sarkisyan (Chair)Armenia Roman AlaverdyanArmenia Dan ApostolRomania Levon AslanyanArmenia Aranya BhattacherjeeIndia Gagik BuniatyanArmenia Vigen ChaltykyanArmenia Roldao Da RochaBrazil Miltcho DanailovItaly Vladimir GerdtRussia Samvel GevorgyanArmenia Gayane GrigoryanArmenia Rafik HakobyanArmenia Takayuki MiyaderaJapan Levon MouradianArmenia Atom MuradyanArmenia Simon RochesterUSA Hayk SarkisyanArmenia Aleksandr VardanyanArmenia LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Narek AghekyanArmenia Anahit GogyanArmenia Melanya GrigoryanArmenia Armen HovhannisyanArmenia Lilit HovhannisyanArmenia Tatevik KhachatryanArmenia Astghik KuzanyanArmenia Satenik KuzanyanArmenia Vladimir LazarevRussia Lilit MantashyanArmenia Hripsime MkrtchyanArmenia Pavel MuzhikyanArmenia Wahi NarsisianArmenia Sahak OrdukhanyanArmenia Anna ReymersArmenia Narine TorosyanArmenia The Symposium was organized by YSU & NAS SPIE Armenian Student Chapter Institute for Physical Research (IPR) of National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (RAU) LT-PYRKAL cjsc Yerevan State University (YSU) Official Sponsors of the Symposium LT-PYRKAlRussian ArmenianSPIE LT-PYRKAL cjscRussian-Armenian UniversityYSU & NAS SPIE Student Chapter Further sponsors NFSATICTPSCSADevout Generation National Foundation of Science and Advanced TechnologiesThe Abdus Salam International Centre

  14. PREFACE: APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (AMSN08)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2009-09-01

    Dear friends To contribute to the enhancement of the international scientific cooperation of the ASEAN countries and in reply to the proposal of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Sub Committee on Materials Science and Technology (SCMST) of the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) agreed to organize this APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology with the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Rencontres du Vietnam, the Vietnam Physical Society, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnam National University in Hanoi. As well as the participants from 9 of the 10 ASEAN countries and many other countries/regions of APCTP (Australia, China, Chinese Taipei, Japan and Korea) we warmly welcome the guests from Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel. Without the financial support of the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics APCTP, Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics ICTP, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development AOARD, the US Office of Naval Research Global-Asia ONRG, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam MOST, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology VAST, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City VNU HCMC and other Sponsors, we would have been unable to hold this Workshop. On behalf of the International and Local Organizing Committees I would like to express our deep gratitude to the Sponsors. We highly appreciate the support and advice of the members of the International Advisory Committee, the scientific contribution of the invited speakers and all participants. We acknowledge the warm reception of the Khanh Hoa province Administration and citizens, and the hard work of the VAST staff for the success of the Workshop. We cordially wish all participants lively scientific

  15. Evaluation of NeQuick 2 derived vertical TEC at three northern mid-latitude locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazo Cuartas, Katy; Radicella, Sandro M.; Nava, Bruno; Lazo Olazabal, Bienvenido; Migoya Orue, Yenca O.

    2013-04-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the three-dimensional and time dependent ionospheric electron density model developed at the T/ICT4D (former ARPL) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy and at the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. The purpose of this work is to identify possible limitations of the model. Therefore, the ability of NeQuick 2 in reproducing the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) derived from GPS observations using different input sources has been evaluated. The daily solar flux in 10.7 cm, the monthly smoothed solar flux and the hourly daily ionosonde derived F2 peak parameters, foF2 and hmF2, have been therefore used as model drivers to compute the vTEC at the relevant locations. Peak parameter values from three ionosonde stations (Ebre, El Arenosillo and Ramey) and GPS-derived vTEC data obtained from the corresponding co-located receivers (ebre, sfer, pur3) have been processed for the present work. The available data for the years 2000 and 2004, corresponding to high and moderate solar activity periods, have been considered to be able to estimate the model performance in a wide range of geophysical conditions. For each location, the data analysis has been based on statistical comparisons between experimental and retrieved vTEC. The results indicate that the differences between NeQuick 2-computed and GPS-derived vTEC exhibit well defined diurnal and seasonal patterns that depend on the location and period considered. On average, NeQuick 2 underestimates the vTEC during nighttime, mainly in the winter months and slightly during the summer months. In the daytime hours on the European locations, the model generally overestimates the vTEC in winter months, having an opposite behavior in the summer months. At PRJ18/pur3 location the NeQuick 2 response is more complex. During high solar activity, the daily difference between modeled and GPS

  16. Regional modeling of Saharan dust events using the RegCM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santese, M.; Perrone, M. R.; Zakey, A.

    2009-04-01

    As one of the major components of the atmospheric aerosol, mineral dust plays an important role in the Earth's climate system. Dust has been found to redistribute the radiative energy from the surface to the dust loaded atmospheric column by cooling the surface while heating the dust layer. The resulting stabilizing effect on the vertical structure of the atmosphere can affect cloud formation and the dust production itself. In addition, dust may change the size number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus the optical and precipitation properties of clouds. All these impacts are difficult to quantify due to the highly variable spatio-temporal distribution of mineral dust and uncertainties determining its optical and physicochemical properties (IPCC 2001). The distribution of dust has been modeled in many studies using general circulation models (GCMs). However, because the aerosol effects are especially important at the regional scale, the recent development of high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) offers useful tools to assess the regional impacts of aerosols. Compared to global climate models (GCMs), the relatively high-resolution and detailed physical parameterizations by RCMs are particularly suitable to describe the complexity of aerosol processes (Solmon et al., 2006). Furthermore, the results from regional models are well suited for comparisons with measurements of individual events. Dust radiative effects on climate are likely to be especially important at the regional scale, thus RCMs can be particularly useful tools to investigate the regional climate effects of dust outbreaks (Zakey et al., 2006). In this work, we will use the regional climate model RegCM (Version 3.1), developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, to investigate dust event impacts over Mediterranean sites. The Sahara desert is the largest dust source on Earth, providing at least half of the emitted dust (Washington et al., 2003

  17. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen simulations over the Euro-CORDEX domain: model description and emission calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, li; Solmon, Fabien; Giorgi, Filippo; Vautard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a highly allergenic invasive plant. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007). In the context of the ATOPICA EU program we are studying the links between climate, land use and ecological changes on the ragweed pollen emissions and concentrations. For this purpose, we implemented a pollen emission/transport module in the RegCM4 regional climate model in collaboration with ATOPICA partners. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model, i.e. RegCM4 was adapted to incorporate the pollen emissions from (ORCHIDEE French) Global Land Surface Model and a pollen tracer model for describing pollen convective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition over extensive domains, using consistent assumption regarding the transport of multiple species (Fabien et al., 2008). We performed two families of recent-past simulations on the Euro-Cordex domain (simulation for future condition is been considering). Hindcast simulations (2000~2011) were driven by the ERA-Interim re-analyses and designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens, which were calibrated with parts of observations and verified by comparison with the additional observations. Historical simulations (1985~2004) were driven by HadGEM CMPI5 and designed to serve as a baseline for comparison with future airborne concentrations as obtained from climate and land-use scenarios. To reduce the uncertainties on the ragweed pollen emission, an assimilation-like method (Rouǐl et al., 2009) was used to calibrate release based on airborne pollen observations. The observations were divided into two groups and used for calibration and validation separately. A wide range of possible calibration coefficients were tested for each calibration station, making the bias between observations and simulations within an admissible value then

  18. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian

    2007-03-01

    extremely interesting historical record for all the participants who certainly shared with us a great admiration for this outstanding scientist and deep thinker. Accordingly, with the permission of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and with thanks to the financial support of the Consorzio per la Fisica of the Trieste University, we have produced from the original record a DVD which has been given to all participants although, unfortunately, the video tape of the event was not particularly good. Taking into account that the participants to the meetings represented only a very small subset of those scientists who might be interested in hearing what John Bell said in probably his last lecture, we considered that it would be useful for the scientific community interested in foundational problems to publish the text of this lecture in order to make it accessible to everybody. The lecture was preceded by a presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect, which we have also included. Due to the aforementioned low quality of the recording it has not been easy to pass from the tape to the text we are presenting below, and we have to thank, for her precious collaboration, Dr Julia Filingeri who did most of the work, as well as Mrs Anne Gatti from ICTP, Professors Detlef Düurr and Sheldon Goldstein, and the staff of IOP Publishing who contributed in an essential way in deciphering some particularly difficult passages. Obviously, we take full responsibility for any possible inappropriate rendering of the original talk. We thank the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics for authorizing IOP Publishing to publish this important document. Some final remarks are in order. Firstly, we have put in square brackets parenthetical remarks that John made while reading sentences from his transparencies. We have also indicated by parenthetical ellipsis (...) very short parts of the speech (usually one word) which we have not been able to decipher. We have

  19. An Additional Symmetry in the Weinberg-Salam Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Veselov, A.I.; Zubkov, M.A.

    2005-06-01

    An additional Z{sub 6} symmetry hidden in the fermion and Higgs sectors of the Standard Model has been found recently. It has a singular nature and is connected to the centers of the SU(3) and SU(2) subgroups of the gauge group. A lattice regularization of the Standard Model was constructed that possesses this symmetry. In this paper, we report our results on the numerical simulation of its electroweak sector.

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-13

    The aim of this historical article is to describe the development of the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories as seen from my perspective as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College London, UK. Beginning with an account of particle physics in the years after the Second World War, I describe early attempts at constructing a unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, the obstacles encountered and how they were eventually overcome with the mass-generating mechanism incorporating the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking, one of whose features is the now-famous Higgs boson.

  1. The Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, William

    It is a great honor to have been invited to deliver the Fourth B.M. Birla Memorial Lecture following in the footsteps of Fred Hoyle, Philip Morrison and Abdus Salam. I must express my gratitude to Dr. B.G. Sidharth, Director of the Birla Science Centre, for all he has done to make the arrangements for the travel here and the stay here of my wife and myself so pleasant and so comfortable. Finally we are most grateful to Mr. and Mrs. G.P. Birla for their gracious hospitality at their home and its beautiful gardens here in Hyderabad.

  2. Search for Lepton Flavor Violation in υ Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, William

    2006-04-01

    Using the data collected with the CLEO III detector at CESR we report on the first search for Lepton Flavor Violation in the decays of the υ(1S), υ(2S), and υ(3S) resonances. After describing the various components of our unbinned maximum-likelihood fit, we present fits to background data, signal Monte Carlo, and signal data. The discovery of LFV in υ decays could be explained by low-mass quantum gravity, Abdus-Salam leptoquarks, or neutrino oscillations arising in SUSY models.

  3. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Rodrigues, J. A.; Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The ``International Topical Conference on Plasma Science: Advanced Plasma Concepts'' was hosted by Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon and the University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal, during the period 24-28 September 2012. The conference was organized by Padma Kant Shukla, (Ruhr University Bochum, Germany), Robert Bingham (RAL, United Kingdom) and José Tito Mendonça, (IST, Portugal). The scientific activity belongs to a series of successful meetings, which started at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, in 1989, and which has also been taking place at various other locations, including Faro and Lisbon in Portugal, and Santorini in Greece.

  4. The effect of background turbulence on the propagation of large-scale flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matalon, Moshe

    2008-12-01

    This paper is based on an invited presentation at the Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond held in the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (August 2007). It consists of a summary of recent investigations aimed at understanding the nature and consequences of the Darrieus-Landau instability that is prominent in premixed combustion. It describes rigorous asymptotic methodologies used to simplify the propagation problem of multi-dimensional and time-dependent premixed flames in order to understand the nonlinear evolution of hydrodynamically unstable flames. In particular, it addresses the effect of background turbulent noise on the structure and propagation of large-scale flames.

  5. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  6. The ICTP Regional System Model (RESM) to simulate the monsoon in the South Asia CORDEX domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    South Asian climate is characterized mainly by the wet and dry dipole that divides the annual cycle in two seasons: the monsoon season and the dry season. The life and the economy of those regions is very much influenced by the climate variability and the monsoon variability therefore is crucial to understand the physical mechanism associated with them. The spatial and temporal representation of the monsoons over the South Asian region is one of the main challenge of global and regional climate models principally because they fail to represent the SST (sea surface temperature) induced rainfall when forced with observed SST resulting in a poor representation of the monsoon cycle (Fu et al. 2002). The coupling with the ocean is essential to be able to simulate the correct air-sea interaction; the results are in general much improved and the monsoon patterns and the time representation (like the onset for example) are closer to the observations (Fu et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2007; Ratnam et Al. 2008; Seo et Al. 2009). Here we present a Regional Earth System Model (RESM) composed by a regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al, 2012) coupled with the regional oceanic model MITgcm (Marshall et al, 1997) and two hydrological model: ChyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007) and HD model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). We simulate the Southern Asian Climate taking into account the whole hydrological cycle. Wind stress, water fluxes and heat fluxes are exchanged from the atmosphere to the ocean, SST are exchanged from ocean to the atmosphere and in order to conserve mass, the river discharge is calculated from the Hydrological model and sent to the ocean. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the impacts of local air-sea interaction in the simulation of the interannual variability, over the Indian CORDEX (Giorgi et al, 2009) domain through regionally ocean-atmosphere-river coupled and uncoupled simulations, with a focus on monsoon season. The impact of a simplified low-resolution hydrological model (HD model) and the physical based high-resolution hydrological model (CHyM model) is also assessed in the fully coupled RESM simulations. References: 1) Fu, X., Wang, B. and Li, T., 2002: Impacts of air-sea coupling on the simulation of mean Asian summer monsoon in the ECHAM4 model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2889-2904. 2) Fu, X., Wang, B., Waliser, D. E. and Tao, L., 2007: Impact of atmosphere-ocean coupling on the predictability of monsoon interseasonal oscillations, J. Atmos. Sci., 64,157-174. 3) Ratnam J. Venkata, Filippo Giorgi, Akshara Kaginalkar, Stefano Cozzini, 2008b: Simulation of Indian Monsoon using RegCM3 - ROMS regional coupled model, Climate Dynamics, 1432-0894. 4) Seo, H, Xie SP, Murtgudde R, Jochum M, Miller AJ. 2009. Seasonal effects of Indian Ocean freshwater forcing in a regional coupled model. Journal of Climate. 22:6577-6596. 5) Giorgi, F., et al. 2012: RegCM4: Model description and preliminary tests over multiple CORDEX domains, Clim. Res., 53(1), 7-29. 6) Marshall, J., C. Hill, L. Perelman, and A. Adcroft, 1997: Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. J. Geophysical Res., 102(C3), 5733-5752. 7) Hagemann, S., Dumenil, L., 1998: Application of a grid-scale lateral discharge model in the BALTEX region. MPI-Report No. 278 8) Coppola, E., Tomasetti, B., Mariotti, L., Verdecchia, M., Visconti, G., 2007: Cellular automata algorithms for drainage network extraction and rainfall data assimilation. Hydrol Sci J 2007;52(3). 9) Giorgi F., Jones C. Asrar G., 2009: Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework. WMO Bull 58:175-183

  7. The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian

    2007-03-01

    extremely interesting historical record for all the participants who certainly shared with us a great admiration for this outstanding scientist and deep thinker. Accordingly, with the permission of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and with thanks to the financial support of the Consorzio per la Fisica of the Trieste University, we have produced from the original record a DVD which has been given to all participants although, unfortunately, the video tape of the event was not particularly good. Taking into account that the participants to the meetings represented only a very small subset of those scientists who might be interested in hearing what John Bell said in probably his last lecture, we considered that it would be useful for the scientific community interested in foundational problems to publish the text of this lecture in order to make it accessible to everybody. The lecture was preceded by a presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect, which we have also included. Due to the aforementioned low quality of the recording it has not been easy to pass from the tape to the text we are presenting below, and we have to thank, for her precious collaboration, Dr Julia Filingeri who did most of the work, as well as Mrs Anne Gatti from ICTP, Professors Detlef Düurr and Sheldon Goldstein, and the staff of IOP Publishing who contributed in an essential way in deciphering some particularly difficult passages. Obviously, we take full responsibility for any possible inappropriate rendering of the original talk. We thank the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics for authorizing IOP Publishing to publish this important document. Some final remarks are in order. Firstly, we have put in square brackets parenthetical remarks that John made while reading sentences from his transparencies. We have also indicated by parenthetical ellipsis (...) very short parts of the speech (usually one word) which we have not been able to decipher. We have

  8. Honoris Causa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawson, M. A.

    Chancellor: Abdus Salam is a man of three worlds, the world of theoretical physics, the world of international co-operation, and the world of Islam. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979, for his theoretical unification of two of the fundamental forces of nature. One of these two is the familiar force of electromagnetism, the force which drives electric trains and which allows telecommunication. The other is a less familiar but equally important force, the so-called weak nuclear force which causes radioactivity and which is also largely responsible for the heat of the sun. It took the genius of Abdus Salam to show that these two forces are simply different manifestations of one and the same fundamental force. Predictions from his theory have been abundantly verified by experiment. So the four known fundamental forces of nature — gravitation, strong nuclear forces, weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism — have been reduced from four to three. Undoubtedly this marks one of the leading conceptual advances of the century…

  9. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes

  10. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by the Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modeling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, up to peta-scale level, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held on 27 July-7 August 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2007. TMB-2009 brought together over 180 participants from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry, from developed and developing countries. The success of TMB-2009 came from the successful work of all the participants, who were responsible professionals caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high; about 170 presentations included over 60 invited lectures and 15 tutorials (4500 minutes of talks in total), about 40 posters and two Round Tables. TMB-2009 covered 17 different topics

  11. International Symposium on Optics and its Applications (OPTICS-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Calvo, Maria L.; Kazaryan, Eduard M.; Papoyan, Aram V.; Sarkisyan, Hayk A.

    2012-03-01

    the direction of their further studies. We are confident that the publication of the Symposium proceedings in JPCS, a worldwide-known open access journal, will help to disseminate and promote current activities in optics, thus facilitating international cooperation and the integration of Armenian scientists into the worldwide optical community. We would like to thank the sponsors of the Symposium: National Foundation of Science and Advanced Technologies (NFSAT), The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), LT-PYRKAL, State Committee of Science of Armenia, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, and Devout Generation Foundation. We also express our gratitude to the members of the Program Committee for their organization of the manuscript reviewing. Special thanks go to Narine Gevorgyan, Lilit Mantashyan and Paytsar Mantashyan for their invaluable assistance in the compilation of this issue. The Editors, Aranya B Bhattacherjee, University of Delhi, India Maria L Calvo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Eduard M Kazaryan, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Armenia Aram V Papoyan, Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia Hayk A Sarkisyan, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Armenia OPTICS group photograph Participants of OPTICS-2011 in front of Yerevan State University Group in Khor Virap Participants of OPTICS-2011 in Khor Virap The PDF also contains additional photographs from the Symposium.

  12. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, (ICTP), Trieste, Italy on 27 July-7 August 2009. TMB-2009 united over 180 participants ranging from students to members of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry worldwide. Responding to the community's inquiry and reaffirming the practices established at TMB-2007, two Round Tables were organized for the participants of TMB-2009 on 30 July 2009 and 6 August 2009 in the Oppenheimer Room at the Centre. The goals of the Round Tables were to encourage the information exchange among the members of the interdisciplinary and international TMB community, promote discussions regarding the state-of-the-art in TMB-related scientific areas, identify directions for frontier research, and articulate recommendations for future developments. This article is a summary of the collective work of the Round Table participants (listed alphabetically below by their last names), whose contributions form its substance and, as such, are greatly appreciated. Abarzhi, Snezhana I (University of Chicago, USA) Andrews, Malcolm (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Belotserkovskii, Oleg (Institute for Computer Aided Design of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Bershadskii, Alexander (ICAR, Israel) Brandenburg, Axel (Nordita, Denmark) Chumakov, Sergei (Stanford University, USA) Desai, Tara (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) Galperin, Boris (University of South Florida, USA) Gauthier, Serge (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Gekelman, Walter (University of California at Los Angeles, USA) Gibson, Carl (University of California at San Diego, USA) Goddard III, William A (California Institute of Technology, USA) Grinstein, Fernando

  13. PREFACE: Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, R.; Khajehpour, M. R. H.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Rouhani, S.

    2005-04-01

    meeting, covered some of the various areas in statistical physics currently active in Iran. About half of the participants came from countries other than Iran, with a relatively broad geographic distribution. The meeting benefited greatly from the excellent administrative assistance of the conference secretary Ms Ashraf Moosavi and the IASBS staff. We are grateful to Professor Yousef Sobouti, the Director of IASBS, and Professor Reza Mansouri, the Head of the Physical Society of Iran, for their support. We also thank the organizers of STATPHYS22, Professor Rahul Pandit and his colleagues, for their suggestions and support. The conference was supported by donations from the Center for International Research and Collaboration (ISMO) and the Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education (IRPHE) of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, the Islamic Development Bank, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the Tehran Cluster Office of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Research and Development Directorate of the National Iranian Oil Company, the Physical Society of Iran, the Iranian Meteorological Organization, and the Zanjan City Water and Waste Water Company. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to Institute of Physics Publishing, and in particular to Professor Alexei Kornyshev and Dr Richard Palmer for suggesting publishing the proceedings of the meeting and carrying through the editorial processes with the utmost efficiency. Participants

  14. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2004-05-01

    Physics Laboratory, Sciences Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia) and the Co-Chairmen were Professor Sami Mahmood, Dean of Sciences at Yarmouk University (Jordan) and Professor Mohamed Akhavan from the Sharif University of Technology (Iran). The four-day conference consisted of several oral and poster sessions, followed by social programs in the evenings. The success of the event could be measured during the closing session on the last day, when several delegates emphasized the high-quality science that had been evident at the conference. A post conference three-day tour to the south of Tunisia (Matmata, Douz City: the gate of desert and the mountains oasis: Tamerza, Mides and Chebika) was also arranged. The conference was generously sponsored by: - The Tunisian Ministry of High Education, Scientific Research and Technology - The Tunisian Secretary of State for Scientific Research and Technology - The Tunisian National Office of Tourism - The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - French Institute for Cooperation in Tunisia - Tunisian-Italian Scientific Partnership - British Gas - Tunisian Society for Electricity and Gas - Imex Olive Oil -Confiserie TRIKI Le Moulin The next MSM conference in 2005 will be held in Morocco.

  15. Careers and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Simulation experts win Dirac Medal Condensed-matter theorists Roberto Car of Princeton University in the US and Michele Parrinello of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) have won the 2009 Dirac Medal for their work on numerical-simulation techniques. The pair began developing new methods of modelling molecular dynamics in the mid-1980s, using elements of density functional theory and Newtonian molecular dynamics to calculate the mechanical motion of atoms and molecules in real time. Now known as the Car-Parrinello method, their technique has become a standard tool in computational physics and chemistry. The award, which is announced each year on 8August, Dirac's birthday, carries a cash prize of 5000 and is sponsored by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy.

  16. The influence of horizontal boundaries on Ekman circulation and angular momentum transport in a cylindrical annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obabko, Aleksandr V.; Cattaneo, Fausto; F Fischer, Paul

    2008-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of circular Couette flow in axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional geometry of a cylindrical annulus inspired by Princeton magnetorotational instability (MRI) liquid gallium experiment. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the spectral element code Nek5000 incorporating realistic horizontal boundary conditions of differentially rotating rings. We investigate the effect of changing rotation rates (Reynolds number) and of the horizontal boundary conditions on flow structure, Ekman circulation and associated transport of angular momentum through the onset of unsteadiness and three-dimensionality. A mechanism for the explanation of the dependence of the Ekman flows and circulation on horizontal boundary conditions is proposed. First International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' held on 18-26 August 2007 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy.

  17. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    mixing dynamics are interplayed with fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the problem sensitivity to the initial conditions and to the boundary conditions at the discontinuities, and with its stochastic description. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the multi-phase non-equilibrium dynamics suggest new methods for capturing discontinuities and singularities and shock-interface interaction, for predictive modeling of the multi-scale dynamics in fluids and plasmas, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The First International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB-2007), was held on 18-26 August 2007 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, by all the standards a major success. The Conference brought together 120 participants (307 authors) from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers from the Universities, National Laboratories, Leading Scientific Institutions and Industry. TMB-2007 covered 16 different topics, maintaining the scope and the interdisciplinary character of the meeting, and kept the focus on a fundamental fluid dynamic problem of unsteady turbulent processes and the Conference Objectives. The success of the TMB-07 was a result of the successful work of all the participants, who were serious and professional people, caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high, and the presentations included 87 oral contributions, 32 invited lectures and 5 tutorials and over 30 poster contributions. The round table discussions held at TMB-2007 investigated the organization of a Collaborative Computing Environment for the Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Community. The abstracts of the 150 accepted Conference

  18. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by the Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modeling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, up to peta-scale level, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held on 27 July-7 August 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2007. TMB-2009 brought together over 180 participants from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry, from developed and developing countries. The success of TMB-2009 came from the successful work of all the participants, who were responsible professionals caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high; about 170 presentations included over 60 invited lectures and 15 tutorials (4500 minutes of talks in total), about 40 posters and two Round Tables. TMB-2009 covered 17 different topics

  19. Dynamic downscaling of South Asia summer monsoon precipitation over COREDEX South Asia using the regional climate model (RegCM4.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mujtaba; Pengfei, Du; Iqbal, Waheed; Ba, Wulong

    2015-04-01

    We used the latest version of Abdus Slam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4.3) in the present study to analyze the multiyear climate simulation over the CORDEX South Asia, which characterize by complex topographical features with extensive mountain ranges of Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalaya (HKH) regions. European Community-Hamburg atmospheric model (ECHAM5) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) 40 years reanalysis data (ERA-40) are used to provide the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Two experiments hereafter referred as RegCM-ERA40 and RegCM-ECHAM5, are performed for present day climate from 1970-2000 with a horizontal resolution of 50 km. Seasonal mean climatology, Interannual variability and annual cycle are compared against the observational data. The main features of spatial distribution of South Asia Summer Monsoon (SASM) precipitation are reproduced well by RegCM4.3 than ECHAM5 GCM. Regional climate model show wet bias over south peninsular India and dry bias over the central India. However RegCM4.3 improves the simulation results for SASM precipitation as compared to both of the driving fields. Our results show that the performance of RegCM4.3 is sufficient for climate change simulation and impact assessment studies over the complex topographical domain of South Asia. Keywords: Regional climate modeling. South Asia. Summer monsoon precipitation.

  20. Troposphere-lower-stratosphere connection in an intermediate complexity model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Paolo; King, Martin; Kucharski, Fred; Buizza, Roberto; Visconti, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical coupling between the troposphere and the lower stratosphere has been investigated using a low-top, intermediate complexity model provided by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (SPEEDY). The key question that we wanted to address is whether a simple model like SPEEDY can be used to understand troposphere-stratosphere interactions, e.g. forced by changes of sea-ice concentration in polar arctic regions. Three sets of experiments have been performed. Firstly, a potential vorticity perspective has been applied to understand the wave-like forcing of the troposphere on the stratosphere and to provide quantitative information on the sub seasonal variability of the coupling. Then, the zonally asymmetric, near-surface response to a lower-stratospheric forcing has been analysed in a set of forced experiments with an artificial heating imposed in the extra-tropical lower stratosphere. Finally, the lower-stratosphere response sensitivity to tropospheric initial conditions has been examined. Results indicate how SPEEDY captures the physics of the troposphere-stratosphere connection but also show the lack of stratospheric variability. Results also suggest that intermediate-complexity models such as SPEEDY could be used to investigate the effects that surface forcing (e.g. due to sea-ice concentration changes) have on the troposphere and the lower stratosphere.

  1. Cosmology and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, S.; Kehagias, A.; Sagnotti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Abdus Salam was a true master of 20th Century Theoretical Physics. Not only was he a pioneer of the Standard Model (for which he shared the Nobel Prize with S. Glashow and S. Weinberg), but he also (co)authored many other outstanding contributions to the field of Fundamental Interactions and their unification. In particular, he was a major contributor to the development of supersymmetric theories, where he also coined the word “Supersymmetry” (replacing the earlier “Supergauges” drawn from String Theory). He also introduced the basic concept of “Superspace” and the notion of “Goldstone Fermion” (Goldstino). These concepts proved instrumental for the exploration of the ultraviolet properties and for the study of spontaneously broken phases of super Yang-Mills theories and Supergravity. They continue to play a key role in current developments in Early-Universe Cosmology. In this contribution we review models of inflation based on Supergravity with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry, with emphasis on the role of nilpotent superfields to describe a de Sitter phase of our Universe.

  2. Aspects of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.

    2010-03-01

    Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.

  3. Unification of Einstein's Gravity with Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfatti, Jack

    2010-02-01

    The four tetrad and six spin-connection Cartan 1-forms of Einstein's GeoMetroDynamic (GMD) field emerge from the eight virtual gluon macro-quantum coherent QCD post-inflation vacuum condensates that form in the inflationary phase transition. This joint emergence of gravity and the strong force is similar to the emergence of irrotational superflow with vortex defects in liquid helium below the Lambda Point. Repulsive dark energy is from the residual random virtual bosons that did not cohere in the moment of inflation. Similarly, attractive dark matter is from the residual random virtual fermion-antifermion pairs. Therefore, I predict that the LHC will not detect any on-mass-shell real particles that can explain φDM˜0.23. As first suggested by Abdus Salam (f-gravity) the low energy tail of the nuclear force can be explained as strong short-range Yukawa gravity. QCD's IR confinement and UV asymptotic freedom are elementary consequences in this simple model. )

  4. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  5. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  6. Numerical simulations of thermal convection at high Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silano, Gabriella

    2008-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of thermal convection are conducted for a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 . The Prandtl number (Pr) varies from 10^0 to 10^4 and the Rayleigh numbers (Ra) are moderate (10^5 < Ra < 10^9). This study is motivated by the fact that the role of the Prandtl number in convective heat transport is not yet fully understood. The three-dimensional behaviors of the temperature and velocity fields, of the viscous and thermal dissipation fields, and of the diffusive and convective heat fluxes are explored. In the ranges of Pr and Ra considered, we find steady, periodic and chaotic regimes, and large-scale structures which are more complex than the single recirculation cell filling the whole volume. Multiple flow structures are found to be associated with a given set of conditions. The multiple solutions seem to be more probable at higher Pr numbers and could explain the scatter in some data trends. In collaboration with Katepalli Raju Sreenivasan, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics - Trieste, and Roberto Verzicco, DIM, Universitàdegli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata - Roma.

  7. Logical obstacles in learning planetary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dileep, V.; Sathe, D. V.

    Daniel Schaffer wrote now-a-days scientists and particularly theoretical physicists are not held in unquestioned esteem in his editorial This became the starting point of my presentation which was dedicated to the memory of Abdus Salam 1 Had he survived to witness the IYP he would have become surprised on knowing that Frank Wilczek had maximum trouble in learning classical mechanics 2 These facts require us to restudy learning O level physics from the logical point of view - in order to attract promising young students to take up challenges of physics and astronomy of the 21 st century Newton s laws of motion are known for more than 300 years and so there should not be any problems in learning and teaching these laws now in the 21 st century But findings of educators reported in the last 30 years show that there are some serious and global problems I have shown that there are some logical obstacles which make adverse effect on the comprehension of circular motion and related topics 3 In this presentation relevant aspects are discussed References begin enumerate item D V Sathe August 2001 Chemical Education International http www iupac org publications cei vol2 0201x0026 html item Frank Wilczek October 2004 Physics Today p 11 item D V Sathe December 2001 COSPAR Info Bulletin 152 p 53 end enumerate

  8. A brief review of E theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Peter

    2016-09-01

    I begin with some memories of Abdus Salam who was my PhD supervisor. After reviewing the theory of nonlinear realisations and Kac-Moody algebras, I explain how to construct the nonlinear realisation based on the Kac-Moody algebra E11 and its vector representation. I explain how this field theory leads to dynamical equations which contain an infinite number of fields defined on a space-time with an infinite number of coordinates. I then show that these unique dynamical equations, when truncated to low level fields and the usual coordinates of space-time, lead to precisely the equations of motion of 11-dimensional supergravity theory. By taking different group decompositions of E11 we find all the maximal supergravity theories, including the gauged maximal supergravities, and as a result the nonlinear realisation should be thought of as a unified theory that is the low energy effective action for type II strings and branes. These results essentially confirm the E11 conjecture given many years ago.

  9. Protocols for In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Analysis of Medicinally Important Phenolics of a Salep Orchid, Satyrium nepalense D.Don ("Salam Mishri").

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shashi B; Singh, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Satyrium nepalense is a rare and threatened medicinal orchid, populations of which in its native habitats are dwindling because of indiscriminate collections and habitat destruction, thus necessitating the development of methods for its in situ and ex situ conservation. Because of non-endospermous nature of the seeds and the immature embryos at seed dispersal stage, orchids cannot be seed-propagated as other plants. Micropropagation, using plant tissue culture techniques, offers an effective method for the multiplication of orchids. In this chapter, a five-step efficient reproducible protocol for large-scale in vitro multiplication of Satyrium nepalense is described. The first step involves asymbiotic germination of seeds isolated from immature green pods and cultured on Mitra's medium (M) gelled with 0.8 % agar and supplemented with 2 % sucrose and 1 % peptone (hereafter referred to as basal medium, BM). On this medium, seeds start germinating after a week of culture. Protocorms developed from the seeds are sub-cultured on BM fortified with 4 μM kinetin (Kn) after 8 weeks, for shoot differentiation and multiplication. The shoots developed on Kn-supplemented medium are transferred to BM alone for their elongation for the same period. The elongated shoots are transferred to the rooting medium, comprising BM supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid, for further 8 weeks. The regenerated plantlets are transferred to a potting mix of sand and vermiculite (1:1) for acclimatization. The tubers and leaves excised from both in vitro-developed plants and those from their native habitats are analyzed and compared for the contents and concentration of medicinally important phenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), details of which are provided in this chapter. PMID:27108306

  10. Protocols for In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Analysis of Medicinally Important Phenolics of a Salep Orchid, Satyrium nepalense D.Don ("Salam Mishri").

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shashi B; Singh, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Satyrium nepalense is a rare and threatened medicinal orchid, populations of which in its native habitats are dwindling because of indiscriminate collections and habitat destruction, thus necessitating the development of methods for its in situ and ex situ conservation. Because of non-endospermous nature of the seeds and the immature embryos at seed dispersal stage, orchids cannot be seed-propagated as other plants. Micropropagation, using plant tissue culture techniques, offers an effective method for the multiplication of orchids. In this chapter, a five-step efficient reproducible protocol for large-scale in vitro multiplication of Satyrium nepalense is described. The first step involves asymbiotic germination of seeds isolated from immature green pods and cultured on Mitra's medium (M) gelled with 0.8 % agar and supplemented with 2 % sucrose and 1 % peptone (hereafter referred to as basal medium, BM). On this medium, seeds start germinating after a week of culture. Protocorms developed from the seeds are sub-cultured on BM fortified with 4 μM kinetin (Kn) after 8 weeks, for shoot differentiation and multiplication. The shoots developed on Kn-supplemented medium are transferred to BM alone for their elongation for the same period. The elongated shoots are transferred to the rooting medium, comprising BM supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid, for further 8 weeks. The regenerated plantlets are transferred to a potting mix of sand and vermiculite (1:1) for acclimatization. The tubers and leaves excised from both in vitro-developed plants and those from their native habitats are analyzed and compared for the contents and concentration of medicinally important phenolics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), details of which are provided in this chapter.

  11. Investigating the relationship between Ambrosia pollen concentration and meteorological variables in a European domain based on CORDEX and CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torma, Csaba Zsolt; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    As part of the European project, ATOPICA (atopic diseases in changing climate, land use & air quality) evaluation and scenario simulations were accomplished on 50-km grid spacing over a European domain which was defined in the framework of the international initiation called COordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). Based on observational data collected from European pollen data bases, the pollen peak season of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (short or common ragweed) was found between the period: August-September (AS). One sub-region was selected (the most contaminated one: southern part of the Carpathian Basin) for further studies. Based on the ERA-Interim driven simulation of a regional climate model (RegCM) developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics: temperature and precipitation indices are introduced related to the total common ragweed pollen concentration amounts over the target region for the period 1984-2008. In each case (temperature, precipitation) the index was based on the August-September (AS, peak-season) and June-July (JJ, pre-season) means by subtracting the latter from the previous one. The results manifested in a relatively clear signal between total pollen amounts and the indices. The temperature index is negatively, while the precipitation index is positively correlated with the total pollen amounts. This means cooler and wetter pre-seasonal and relatively drier and warmer peak-season weather conditions are favorable for the common ragweed outburst with high pollen concentrations. In total twenty global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and five regional climate models from the CORDEX initiative were involved in the analyses in order to assess the link between the indices and the seasonal total pollen amounts. The temperature and precipitation indices presented in this study can be a useful tool for seasonal pollen forecasting in future studies.

  12. South Asian Summer Monsoon Dynamics In A High-Resolution Nested Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Ying, S.; Tung, W.; Trapp, R. J.; Gao, X.; Pal, J. S.; Diffenbuagh, N. S.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from a high-resolution climate simulation of the south Asian monsoon using the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). The RegCM3 experiment consists of a 30-year integration from 1961 to 1990 performed at a 25 km grid spacing. Atmospheric boundary conditions for the integration are provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Finite Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM). The ability of RegCM3 to simulate the dynamics of the summer monsoon is tested by comparing a number of fields with observations, including upper and lower level circulation patterns, seasonal mean precipitation and temperature, and variations in tropospheric temperature gradient and easterly vertical shear. Our results show that RegCM3 is able to simulate the dynamical features of the South Asian summer monsoon reasonably well. For instance, the seasonal reversal of tropospheric temperature gradient and strengthening of easterly vertical shear compare well with observations. Furthermore, summer monsoon onset dates over land match reasonably well with the long-term onset-climatology, and the interannual variations in the anomalies of the local Hadley circulation and summer monsoon precipitation are strongly correlated. The primary discrepancies occur over areas of high seasonal precipitation - such as the west coasts of India and Myanmar - where RegCM3 values exceed those found in the observations. Similarly, RegCM3 overestimates precipitation values on the lee side of the Western Ghats. Compared to the driving FVGCM simulation, the RegCM3 simulation shows significant improvement in spatial pattern of seasonal precipitation.

  13. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  14. INTRODUCTION: David Sherrington as a mentor of young scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul M.

    2008-08-01

    , unforgettable to the recipient. I usually appreciate the honesty and clarity that this straightforwardness embodies. But not always. Some years ago, I had the good fortune to spend a month in Oxford, thanks to David, and my family came with me, my son Ollie being about six years old at the time. One evening, David and his wife Margaret joined us for dinner and, some time after the meal was over, Ollie—who was still young enough to still regard his Dad as something of a superhero—wandered over to David and struck up a conversation: `Tho, Profethor Therrington. Wath my Daddy a good thtudent?' he asked. I can still see the look of horror on David's face. Should I lie and let the child find out the truth later? Or should I tell him what I really think? Well, as you might expect, honesty—delivered gently—prevailed. David rubbed his forehead, scrunched up his nose as if about to take a dose of medicine, and did the very best he could: 'Well, lad, fairly good,' he said, 'your Dad was a fairly good student.' I'd like to conclude with a reflection that often comes to my mind when I think of David. Not long ago, I happened to be in Trieste at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, a favorite destination of mine. Not so much for the scenery—although when you're coming from the heart of East Central Illinois, the Trieste scenery is not to be sniffed at. But, rather, I love ICTP for its palpable spirit of international and inter-cultural cooperation. While I was in Trieste it so happened that there were three workshops going on at the same time. One was on information processing and the visual cortex; another was on algorithmic complexity and combinatorial optimization; and the third was on glassy states of matter. I cannot have been alone in having the truly staggering realization that all three workshops were, to put it bluntly, exploring equivalent phenomena encoded in a common mathematical structure, and that the corresponding systems of equations were

  15. 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2013-07-01

    , technology and mathematics; (iii) TMB participants conduct highly innovative research and their interactions strengthen the community's might. Based on the success of the first and second conferences and on the recommendations of the conference round table discussions, and in response to the inquiry of the community, the Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond was organized. The Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond, TMB-2011, was held on 21-28 August 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2009 and 2007. The objectives of the Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond were to: (i) focus the integration of theory, experiments, large-scale numerical simulations and state-of-the-art technologies on the exploration of physical mechanisms of non-equilibrium dynamics, from micro to macro-scales, in both high and low energy density regimes; (ii) foster the application of innovative approaches for tackling the fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing problems and for understanding and further extending the range of applicability of canonical considerations; (iii) encourage the development of new approaches and stimulate the application of advanced data analysis techniques for unified characterization of experimental and numerical data sets, for estimation of their quality and information capacity, and for transforming data to knowledge; (iv) further develop the 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' community via organizing a positive and constructive collaborative environment, maintaining the quality of information flux in the community and sharing research methodologies, tools and data among the community members. The objectives were accomplished at TMB-2011. 4. Programme of TMB-2011 TMB-2011 brought together 150 participants, ranging from students to members of

  16. PREFACE: 3rd Italian-Pakistani Workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics (IPWRA2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paolis, Francesco; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2012-03-01

    into the world of research by Sir Roger Penrose, who was his PhD supervisor. They worked on Twistor theory, which was one of the foremost runners in the race to quantize gravity at the time. Later in 1971, he joined Quaid-i-Azam University (then Islamabad University) and developed research collaborations with several well-known physicists and mathematicians including John Archibald Wheeler and Remo Ruffini. Of special mention are his efforts with Abdus Salam (NL) for encouraging Physics and Mathematics in the Third World and especially in Pakistan (by running the Salam Prize in Science). Asghar has since become one of the world's top relativists and a leading name in the study of symmetries. In 2004, he founded the Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics at NUST. Under his dynamic leadership, the centre has become as influential as any other institute of Pakistan in the development of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics within a very short time. One of his many talents is his amazing ability to detect potential for science among his students. As a result he has been able to successfully guide an astonishing number of PhDs - 14 to be exact and still counting, and no doubt this has been his greatest contribution to Relativity in Pakistan. Asghar has received several national and international awards and honours for his services to science in and outside Pakistan. 65th Birthday Celebrations of the 65th birthday of Asghar Qadir during the third Italian-Pakistani workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics These Proceedings contain revised versions of selected papers presented at the Workshop, which has been sponsored by the Salento University, the National University of Sciences and Technology, the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN, Section of Lecce). All these institutions are acknowledged here for their support together with the bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena. Participants Participants of the third

  17. Fundamentals of planar-type inductively coupled thermal plasmas on a substrate for large-area material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tial, Mai Kai Suan; Irie, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the fundamentals of planar-type Ar inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTPs) with oxygen molecular gas on a substrate have been studied. Previously, aiming at large-area material processing, we developed a planar-type ICTP torch with a rectangular quartz vessel instead of a conventional cylindrical tube. For the adoption of such planar-type ICTP to material processing, it is necessary to sustain the ICTP with molecular gases on a substrate stably and uniformly. To determine the uniformity of the ICTP formed on the substrate, spectroscopic observation was carried out at 3 mm above the substrate. Results showed that the radiation intensities of specified O atomic lines were almost uniformly detected along the surface of the substrate. This means that excited O atoms, which are important radicals for thermal plasma oxidation, are present in the planar-type ICTP uniformly on the substrate.

  18. From Schawlow to Newton: An educational return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathe, D.

    Newton's laws of motion and his theory of gravitation are known for over 300 years. However, investigations of educators, from various countries and carried out in the last quarter of the 20t h century, show that the Aristotelian ideas keep persisting among students - in spite of learning thes e topics in schools and colleges. In the traditional examinations students do give answers in accordance with Newton's laws but in questionnaires of educators they ignore Newtonian laws unknowingly, and quite naturally give answers along the Aristotelian line of thought. Why do they give such contrasting answers? Should we take for granted that their understanding of Newtonian laws is satisfactory because of their correct answers in traditional exams, though not in questionnaires? Can these contrasting views affect their interest in physics? These are some questions that warrant our attention earnestly, as we gear up for the research and teaching in 21s t century. The author felt the need of focusing attention on the logical aspects of the subject, due to the global character of said problem. His decision was strengthened greatly, in late1970s, by the philosophy of Dennis Sciama and hence author's dedication of a letter to the editor to his memory, in the COSPAR Info. Bulletin /1/. Being a trained biochemist, author started looking for points, missed by the earlier educators - that means author started following the advice of Arthur Schawlow /2/ in late 1970s, though unknowingly. Sadly, author came to know of it after dedicating a lecture to the memory of Abdus Salam in a symposium in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Therefore he is dedicating this presentation to the memory of Arthur Schawlow. According to the present author, the persistence of Aristotelian ideas and consequent contrasting performances of students are due to the logical conflicts between the basic concepts of physics itself. For example, the conflict between the treatment of uniform circular motion and the concept of

  19. A projection of permafrost degradation on the Tibetan Plateau during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Donglin; Wang, Huijun; Li, Duo

    2012-03-01

    The current distribution and future change of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau were examined using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) with explicit treatment of frozen soil processes. When forced off-line with archived high-resolution data from The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model version 3 nested within the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2 HiRes, the CLM4 produced a near-surface permafrost area of 122.2 × 104 km2 for the Tibetan Plateau. This area compares reasonably with area estimates of 126.7 × 104 km2 for the Plateau frozen soil map. In response to the simulated strong Plateau warming (approximately 0.58°C per decade over the Tibetan Plateau for the period from 1980 to 2100 under the A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), the near-surface permafrost area is projected to decrease by approximately 39% by the mid-21st century and by approximately 81% by the end of the 21st century. The near-surface permafrost area exhibits a significant decreasing linear trend, with a rate of decrease of 9.9 × 104 km2 per decade. The simulated deep permafrost area remains longer than the near-surface permafrost for the same period. The active layer thickness of 0.5-1.5 m found in the present-day increases to approximately 1.5-2.0 m by the period of 2030-2050. This increase will continue and reach a level of 2.0-3.5 m by the period of 2080-2100. Surface runoff decreases but subsurface runoff increases, both relative to the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. This is related to the fact that the decrease in ground ice content, as caused by permafrost degradation, facilitates the percolation of more water to deeper soil layers, thus resulting in the reallocation of runoff. These results provide useful references for evaluating the level of permafrost degradation in response to climate warming on the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  1. High-resolution climate simulations for Central Europe: An assessment of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Huth, R.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.; Stepanek, P.

    2009-12-01

    To bridge the resolution gap between the outputs of global climate models (GCMs) and finer-scale data needed for studies of the climate change impacts, two approaches are widely used: dynamical downscaling, based on application of regional climate models (RCMs) embedded into the domain of the GCM simulation, and statistical downscaling (SDS), using empirical transfer functions between the large-scale data generated by the GCM and local measurements. In our contribution, we compare the performance of different variants of both techniques for the region of Central Europe. The dynamical downscaling is represented by the outputs of two regional models run in the 10 km horizontal grid, ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (co-developed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Meteo-France) and RegCM3 (developed by the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics). The applied statistical methods were based on multiple linear regression, as well as on several of its nonlinear alternatives, including techniques employing artificial neural networks. Validation of the downscaling outputs was carried out using measured data, gathered from weather stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary for the end of the 20th century; series of daily values of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity were analyzed. None of the regional models or statistical downscaling techniques could be identified as the universally best one. For instance, while most statistical methods misrepresented the shape of the statistical distribution of the target variables (especially in the more challenging cases such as estimation of daily precipitation), RCM-generated data often suffered from severe biases. It is also shown that further enhancement of the simulated fields of climate variables can be achieved through a combination of dynamical downscaling and statistical postprocessing. This can not only be used to reduce biases and other systematic flaws in the generated time

  2. ­­­The Role of the Tibetan Plateau in the South Asian Monsoon Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Arango, S.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    The role of the Tibetan Plateau in the South Asian Monsoon circulation is the focus of this study. Typically, the Tibetan Plateau is thought to affect the circulation by acting as an elevated heat source (Molnar et al. 1993). Through radiative effects, the Tibetan Plateau would induce a meridional pressure gradient at upper levels initiating the monsoon circulation. Indeed, numerical experiments have shown that global orography affects the timing of the monsoon onset (Chakraborty et al. 2006), and observations have shown significant correlations between the moist static energy of the Tibetan Plateau's lower atmosphere and the summer monsoon rainfall around the onset and withdraw periods (Rajagopalan and Molnar 2013). Yet, this notion has been recently questioned, and the shielding effect of the orography has been suggested to be the dominant effect in the circulation. This latter theory is supported by numerical experiments suggesting that summer precipitation does not change considerably when removing the Plateau while retaining the Himalayas (Boos and Kuang 2010). Nonetheless, both the Himalayas and the Plateau are likely to play important roles, and further experiments are needed. In this study we construct numerical experiments to further study the role of the Tibetan Plateau in the atmospheric circulation. For the experiments we use SPEEDY, a global climate model of intermediate complexity developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Molteni 2003). The experiments are conducted with different regional orographic conditions, so that we can evaluate the impact orography has in determining the characteristics of the monsoon circulation. In all experiments the atmosphere is started from a state of rest and we avoid using climatological fields for sea surface temperature, diabatic heating, and land temperature. This setup is particularly important as we wish to evaluate how the system evolves under different conditions without imposing

  3. International conference on Statistical Mechanics of Plasticity and Related Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    The papers compiled in this volume are based on talks and posters given at the International Conference on "Statistical Mechanics of Plasticity and Related Instabilities", (SMPRI 2005), held at the Materials Research Center of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, from August 29 to September 2, 2005. Our aim in organizing SMPRI 2005 was to promote and enhance interactions between researchers from the statistical physics, materials science and solid mechanics communities. While predicting the (macroscopic) deformation properties of materials is a classical topic of materials science and materials mechanics, statistical physicists have become increasingly interested in the collective processes which control the irreversible deformation of matter on microscopic and mesoscopic scales. The SMPRI 2005 meeting has been a forum for the exchange of concepts, research ideas, and results among these communities. We hope that the contributions contained in this proceedings volume will not only help to continue and deepen this exchange, but also to disseminate the results beyond the, necessarily limited, circle of the actual participants. We want to thank all contributors for the work in preparing their manuscripts. We are grateful to the institutions which have supported this conference, in particular the Asian Office for Aerospace Research and Developement (AOARD/AFOSR), the Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, the Indian Center for Scientific and Industrial Research, the Indian Defense Research and Developement Organization, The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy, the Indian Institute of Science, in particular the Center for Condensed Matter Theory and Materials Reseach Center, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Materials Research Society of India, and the Karnatake State Center for Science and Technology. We would also like to thank the staff and students of Materials Research Center, Indian

  4. Best convective parameterization scheme within RegCM4 to downscale CMIP5 multi-model data for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Islam, Md. Nazrul; Al-Khalaf, A. K.; Saeed, Fahad

    2016-05-01

    A suitable convective parameterization scheme within Regional Climate Model version 4.3.4 (RegCM4) developed by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, is investigated through 12 sensitivity runs for the period 2000-2010. RegCM4 is driven with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim 6-hourly boundary condition fields for the CORDEX-MENA/Arab domain. Besides ERA-Interim lateral boundary conditions data, the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data is also used to assess the performance of RegCM4. Different statistical measures are taken into consideration in assessing model performance for 11 sub-domains throughout the analysis domain, out of which 7 (4) sub-domains give drier (wetter) conditions for the area of interest. There is no common best option for the simulation of both rainfall and temperature (with lowest bias); however, one option each for temperature and rainfall has been found to be superior among the 12 options investigated in this study. These best options for the two variables vary from region to region as well. Overall, RegCM4 simulates large pressure and water vapor values along with lower wind speeds compared to the driving fields, which are the key sources of bias in simulating rainfall and temperature. Based on the climatic characteristics of most of the Arab countries located within the study domain, the drier sub-domains are given priority in the selection of a suitable convective scheme, albeit with a compromise for both rainfall and temperature simulations. The most suitable option Grell over Land and Emanuel over Ocean in wet (GLEO wet) delivers a rainfall wet bias of 2.96 % and a temperature cold bias of 0.26 °C, compared to CRU data. An ensemble derived from all 12 runs provides unsatisfactory results for rainfall (28.92 %) and temperature (-0.54 °C) bias in the drier region because some options highly overestimate rainfall (reaching up to 200 %) and underestimate

  5. Quantum Structure of Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.; Isham, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Foreword Abdus Salam; Preface; List of participants; Part I. Quantum Gravity, Fields and Topology: 1. Some remarks on gravity and quantum mechanics Roger Penrose; 2. An experimental test of quantum gravity Don N. Page and C. D. Geilker; 3. Quantum mechanical origin of the sandwich theorem in classical gravitation theory Claudio Teitelboim; 4. θ-States induced by the diffeomorphism group in canonically quantized gravity C. J. Isham; 5. Strong coupling quantum gravity: an introduction Martin Pilati; 6. Quantizing fourth order gravity theories S. M. Christensen; 7. Green's functions, states and renormalisation M. R. Brown and A. C. Ottewill; 8. Introduction to quantum regge calculus Martin Roček and Ruth Williams; 9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in curved space-time D. J. Toms; 10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking near a black hole M. S. Fawcett and B. F. Whiting; 11. Yang-Mills vacua in a general three-space G. Kunstatter; 12. Fermion fractionization in physics R. Jackiw; Part II. Supergravity: 13. The new minimal formulation of N=1 supergravity and its tensor calculus M. F. Sohnius and P. C. West; 14. A new deteriorated energy-momentum tensor M. J. Duff and P. K. Townsend; 15. Off-shell N=2 and N=4 supergravity in five dimensions P. Howe; 16. Supergravity in high dimensions P. van Niewenhuizen; 17. Building linearised extended supergravities J. G. Taylor; 18. (Super)gravity in the complex angular momentum plane M. T. Grisaru; 19. The multiplet structure of solitons in the O(2) supergravity theory G. W. Gibbons; 20. Ultra-violet properties of supersymmetric gauge theory S. Ferrara; 21. Extended supercurrents and the ultra-violet finiteness of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories K. S. Stelle; 22. Duality rotations B. Zumino; Part III. Cosmology and the Early Universe: 23. Energy, stability and cosmological constant S. Deser; 24. Phase transitions in the early universe T. W. B. Kibble; 25. Complete cosmological theories L. P. Grishchuk and Ya. B. Zeldovich; 26. The

  6. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes

  7. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, (ICTP), Trieste, Italy on 27 July-7 August 2009. TMB-2009 united over 180 participants ranging from students to members of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry worldwide. Responding to the community's inquiry and reaffirming the practices established at TMB-2007, two Round Tables were organized for the participants of TMB-2009 on 30 July 2009 and 6 August 2009 in the Oppenheimer Room at the Centre. The goals of the Round Tables were to encourage the information exchange among the members of the interdisciplinary and international TMB community, promote discussions regarding the state-of-the-art in TMB-related scientific areas, identify directions for frontier research, and articulate recommendations for future developments. This article is a summary of the collective work of the Round Table participants (listed alphabetically below by their last names), whose contributions form its substance and, as such, are greatly appreciated. Abarzhi, Snezhana I (University of Chicago, USA) Andrews, Malcolm (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Belotserkovskii, Oleg (Institute for Computer Aided Design of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Bershadskii, Alexander (ICAR, Israel) Brandenburg, Axel (Nordita, Denmark) Chumakov, Sergei (Stanford University, USA) Desai, Tara (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) Galperin, Boris (University of South Florida, USA) Gauthier, Serge (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Gekelman, Walter (University of California at Los Angeles, USA) Gibson, Carl (University of California at San Diego, USA) Goddard III, William A (California Institute of Technology, USA) Grinstein, Fernando

  8. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    foreseen at that time. But very soon Hertz understood how to generate them, Thomson how to receive them, and now we have the world all connected online. My next stamp goes to the Zhukovski equation of the hydrodynamics of a wing, which explained how aerodynamic lift force is generated. Now we can get from London to Washington in a third of a day, essentially due to that equation. Of the many things that the genius of Einstein discovered his energy-matter relation has led us to atomic power, whether we like it or not. Rutherford and Bohr unraveled the structure of atoms and all our materials science followed from it. Discovery of the transistor made the world of electronics and computers possible, and, again—whether we like it or not—most of us spend many hours daily staring at computer screens. Crick's equations and Franklin-Wilkins' observations (made possible by Roentgen's discovery that I omitted to mention after Maxwell) gave rise to the world of molecular biology which could also be easily forgotten by the wide public, if not our ever grateful forensic experts. Just two more milestones of much more 'modest' caliber. This is the discovery of lasers which are massively used for communication, in medicine and spectroscopy, including biological research. Next, I mention the discovery of scanning probe techniques, which allowed us to see individual atoms. For these two I did not even find stamps, but I am sure they must exist somewhere. The STM has just led Stuart Lindsey's team (University of Arizona) to the first steps towards ultrafast sequencing of DNA using functionalized STM tips. At the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics there is no need to convince anyone that involved mathematics and physics is needed. But neither do we need to explain to anyone there that the applications of physics may be equally exciting as its fundamentals. The appreciation of massive achievements of physical methods in DNA research made it possible to host and

  9. Investigation on evaporation of Ti feedstock and formation of precursor TiO molecules during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis in induction thermal plasma with time-controlled feedstock injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoto; Kita, Kentaro; Ishisaka, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Sueyasu, Shiori; Nakamura, Keitaro; Kanazawa University Team; Nisshin Seifun Group Inc. Team

    2015-09-01

    The method using inductively coupled thermal plasma(ICTP) is very effective for nanopowder(NPs) synthesis. However, NPs formation process in the ICTP torch has not been clarified. In this study, the two-dimensional spectroscopic observation was carried out for ICTP torch during TiO2 NPs synthesis process with time-controlled feedstock injection. In order to investigate evaporation process of feedstock and formation process of precursor molecules, Ti feedstock was intermittently injected into the ICTP. Ti I(453.32 nm) and TiO(621 nm) were observed by using an imaging spectroscopic system. Observation results show that injected Ti feedstock was evaporated in the ICTP. Then, generated Ti atoms were transported to downstream of the torch by gas flow and were diffused to the radial direction by density gradient. High concentration of TiO molecular gas was formed only around central axis region in the torch.

  10. Main natural hazards and vulnerability studies for some historical constructions and urban sectors of Valparaiso City (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Project "MAR VASTO" ("Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso, Servicios Técnicos", 2007) started in March 2007, with coordination of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), participation of several partners (Italy: University of Ferrara, Faculties of Architecture and Engineering; University of Padua, Faculty of Engineering; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics of Trieste; Chile: Valparaíso Technical University Federico Santa Maria, Civil Works Department; Santiago University of Chile, Division Structures Constructions Geotechnics), and support of local stakeholders. Being Valparaíso included since 2003 in the UNESCO Word Heritage List of protected sites, the project main goals are the following: to collect, analyze and elaborate the existing information, with a satisfying evaluation of main hazards; to develop a GIS digital archive, well organized, user-friendly and easy to be implemented in the future, providing maps and scenarios of specific and multiple risk; to provide a vulnerability analysis for three historical churches (San Francisco del Baron, Las Hermanitas de la Providencia, La Matríz, made by various materials - masonry, concrete, wood and adobe - and located in different city sites) and for a building stock in the Cerro Cordillera (partially inside the UNESCO area), analyzing more than 200 constructions; to suggest guidelines for future urban planning and strengthening interventions. In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project, the most important hazards have been investigated carried out. With regard to seismic hazard, "state-of-the-art" information has been provided by Chilean partners and stakeholders, using materials of several studies and stored in original earthquake reports, local newspapers and magazines. The activities performed by the Italian team regarded the definition, for the city of Valparaiso, of earthquake scenarios and maps based on the neo

  11. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    neutrino Frederick Reines; 25. Recollections on the establishment of the weak-interaction notion Bruno M. Pontecorvo; 26. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties Louis Michel; 27. A connection between the strong and weak interactions Sam B. Treiman; Part VII. Weak interactions and parity nonconservation; 29. The nondiscovery of parity nonconservation Allan Franklin; 30. K-meson decays and parity violation Richard H. Dalitz; 31. An Experimentalist's Perspective Val L. Fitch; 32. The early experiments leading to the V - A interaction Valentine L. Telegdi; 33. Midcentury adventures in particles physics E. C. G. Sudarshan; Part VIII. The particle physics community; 34. The postwar political economy of high-energy physics Robert Seidel; 35. The history of CERN during the early 1950s Edoardo Amaldi; 36. Arguments pro and contra the European laboratory in the participating countries Armin Hermann; 37. Physics and excellences of the life it brings Abdus Salam; 38. Social aspects of Japanese particle physics in the 1950s Michiji Konuma; Part IX. Theories of hadrons; 39. The early S-matrix theory and its propagation (1942-1952) Helmut Rechenberg; 40. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations Andy Pickering; 41. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy Geoffrey F. Chew; 42. The general theory of quantised fields in the 1950s Arthur S. Wrightman; 43. The classification and structure of hadrons Yuval Ne'eman; 44. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance and spontaneous symmetry breaking Yoichiro Nambu; Part X. Personal overviews; 45. Scientific impact of the first decade of the Rochester conferences (1950-1960) Robert E. Marshak; 46. Some reflections on the history of particle physics in the 1950s Silvan S. Schweber; 47. Progress in elementary particle theory 1950-1964 Murray Gell-Mann.

  12. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    mixing dynamics are interplayed with fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the problem sensitivity to the initial conditions and to the boundary conditions at the discontinuities, and with its stochastic description. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the multi-phase non-equilibrium dynamics suggest new methods for capturing discontinuities and singularities and shock-interface interaction, for predictive modeling of the multi-scale dynamics in fluids and plasmas, for error estimate and uncertainty quantification as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. The First International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB-2007), was held on 18-26 August 2007 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, by all the standards a major success. The Conference brought together 120 participants (307 authors) from five continents, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and including researchers from the Universities, National Laboratories, Leading Scientific Institutions and Industry. TMB-2007 covered 16 different topics, maintaining the scope and the interdisciplinary character of the meeting, and kept the focus on a fundamental fluid dynamic problem of unsteady turbulent processes and the Conference Objectives. The success of the TMB-07 was a result of the successful work of all the participants, who were serious and professional people, caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high, and the presentations included 87 oral contributions, 32 invited lectures and 5 tutorials and over 30 poster contributions. The round table discussions held at TMB-2007 investigated the organization of a Collaborative Computing Environment for the Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Community. The abstracts of the 150 accepted Conference

  13. The Ghost of Electricity: A History of Electron Theory from 1897 to 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, S. F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of electron theory from 1897 to 1987. Includes the works of some physicists, such as Thomson, Lorentz, De Broglie, Bohr, Pauli, Dirac, Feynman, Wheeler, Weinberg, and Salam. (YP)

  14. Tribute to Professor Padma Kant Shukla on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Asoka

    2010-08-01

    to his schoolteacher's expectations he later graduated (with honors) from Agra University at the age of 17 and then proceeded to obtain his PhD in physics from the Hindu Banaras University, at the age of 21. He then proceeded to the University of Umeå, Sweden, on scholarship, and quickly blossomed to his full potential under the caring guidance of Prof. Lennart Stenflo, while also earning his second PhD, three years later. These early experiences deeply influenced Padma; on the one hand he recognizes that raw talent exists in all corners of the world, and on the other hand he feels a deep commitment to help discover, nurture, and mentor such talent. Toward this end Padma did several things. He organized numerous international meetings in both developed and developing nations. He has also continued to organize the annual Plasma Physics Summer School at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy. He has used these opportunities to discover promising young scientists from the world over, helping them to come to his host university in Bochum, with support obtained from various international organizations, and mentored them. These young scholars, haling from every continent of the world, have gone on to become active scientists in their own right and many have proceeded to become leading researchers, educators, and administrators in their home countries. It is in recognition of his “extraordinary efforts in the discovery, the nurturing and mentoring of scientific talent across the globe” that he received the highly prestigious Nicholson Medal, awarded by the American Physical Society, for human outreach by a leading scientist in 2005. In recognition of his outstanding scientific contributions Padma has received numerous international honors including several honorary doctorates, foreign membership of several national academies, fellowships of a number of international scientific organizations and prizes. Yet, I think that among all

  15. Realistic modeling of seismic input for megacities and large urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panza, G. F.; Unesco/Iugs/Igcp Project 414 Team

    2003-04-01

    , supply a particularly powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defense. We present a selection of the main results obtained for the cities of Algiers, Beijing, Bucharest, Cairo, Debrecen, Delhi, Naples, Rome, Russe, Santiago de Cuba, Sofia, Thessaloniki and Zagreb. The UNESCO/IUGS/IGCP PROJECT 414 team members are: Giuliano F. Panza (1,2) (Chairman), Leonardo Alvarez (3), Abdelkrim Aoudia (1,2), Abdelhakim Ayadi (4), Hadj Benhallou (4,5), Djillali Benouar (6), Zoltan Bus (7), Yun-Tai Chen (8), Carmen Cioflan (9), Zhifeng Ding (8), Attia El-Sayed (10), Julio Garcia (3), Bartolomeo Garofalo (11), Alexander Gorshkov (12), Katalin Gribovszki (13), Assia Harbi (4), Panagiotis Hatzidimitriou (14), Marijan Herak (15), Mihaela Kouteva (16), Igor Kuznetzov (12), Ivan Lokmer (15), Said Maouche (4), Gheorghe Marmureanu (9), Margarita Matova (16), Maddalena Natale (11), Concettina Nunziata (11), Imtiyaz Parvez (17,1), Ivanka Paskaleva (16), Ramon Pico (18), Mircea Radulian (9), Fabio Romanelli (2), Alexander Soloviev (12), Peter Suhadolc (2), Gyõzõ Szeidovitz (7), Petros Triantafyllidis (14), Franco Vaccari (2,19). (1) The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, SAND Group, Mirarmar, Trieste, Italy. (2) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy. (3) Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Sismologicas, Cuba. (4) Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Geophysique, BP. 63, Bouzaréah, Alger, Algérie. (5) Faculté des Sciences de la Terre de l'Aménagment du Territoire et de la Géographie, USTHB, Alger, Algérie. (6) University of Algiers (USTHB), Civil Engineering Dpt., Alger, Algeria. (7) Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Seismological Observatory of GGRI, H-1112 Budapest, Meredek u. 18, Hungary. (8) Institute of Geophysics, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing, 100081, China. (9) National Institute for Earth Physics, Calugareni 12, P.O.Box: MG 2, 76900 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania. (10) Department of

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Control and Synchronization of Dynamical Systems (CSDS-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2005-01-01

    ) (General Director) A N Pisarchik (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) (Chair) R Roy (University of Maryland, USA) (SIAM representative) S Sinha (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, India) Local Organizing Committee V Aboites (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) R Espinosa-Luna (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) J H García-López (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) R Jaimes-Reátegui (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) A V Kir'yanov (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) E Kourmychev (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) V J Pinto-Robledo (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) R Rodriguez-Vera (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) (Research Director) G V Vazquéz-García (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) Funding Agencies Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnología de Estado Guanajuato, Mexico Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy International Mathematical Union, USA Centro Latinoamericano de Física, Brazil Academia Mexicana de Ciencias, Mexico Fundación México—Estados Unidos para la Ciencia, Mexico Cooperating Organizations International Society for Optical Engineering American Physical Society Optical Society of America Institute of Physics

  17. INTRODUCTION Summary of Papers Summary of Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    review various aspects of Turbulent Mixing that were discussed at the Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, held in summer 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author, with tutorials following research contributions. Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. The theme of canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing is considered by several authors. Casciola et al investigate the dynamics of inertial particles dispersed in a turbulent jet and compare their numerical modeling results with the classical similarity theory of the jet far-field. Remarkable agreement is found between the theory and the direct numerical simulations (DNS), including decay of Stokes numbers with the distance from the origin, self-similarity of the mean axial particle velocity profile, etc. Nagata considers complex turbulent flows, which are known to exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, and which are linearly stable at finite Reynolds numbers. Square duct flow and sliding Couette flow in an annulus are considered and nonlinear traveling-wave states are found for the flows with the use of the homotopy approach developed by the author. These states may constitute a skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized. Teitelbaum and Mininni study a decaying 3D incompressible turbulence, which mimicks turbulent mixing in geophysical flows, with rotation rendering the flow anisotropic at large scales. The authors analyze three DNS results (without and with rotation, and with helicity), observe a decoupling of the modes normal to the rotation axis, and show that the helicity decreases the decay rate of turbulence. Wang and Peters investigate the structure of turbulence by studying strain rates of various scalars, including a

  18. Comment on ``On the role of dissipation on the Casimir-Polder potential between molecules in dielectric media'' [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164501 (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Milonni, P. W.

    2011-07-01

    J. J. Rodriguez and A. Salam [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164501 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3495954 find discrepancies between their calculation and a previously published one [S. Spagnolo, D. A. R. Dalvit, and P. W. Milonni, Phys. Rev. A 75, 052117 (2007)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.052117 for the van der Waals interaction of two guest molecules in a host dielectric medium. We trace these discrepancies to what we regard as fundamental errors in the calculation by Rodriguez and Salam.

  19. Can quaternary ammonium methacrylates inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins?

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Carrilho, Marcela; Tersariol, Ivarne L.; Nascimento, Fabio D.; Imazato, Satoshi; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dentin matrices release ICTP and CTX fragments during collagen degradation. ICTP fragments are known to be produced by MMPs. CTX fragments are thought to come from cathepsin K activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if quaternary methacrylates (QAMs) can inhibit matrix MMPs and cathepsins. Methods Dentin beams were demineralizated, and dried to constant weight. Beams were incubated with rh-cathepsin B, K, L or S for 24 h at pH 7.4 to identify which cathepsins release CTX at neutral pH. Beams were dipped in ATA, an antimicrobial QAM to determine if it can inhibit dentin matrix proteases. Other beams were dipped in another QAM (MDPB) to determine if it produced similar inhibition of dentin proteases. Results Only beams incubated with cathepsin K lost more dry mass than the controls and released CTX. Dentin beams dipped in ATA and incubated for 1 week at pH 7.4, showed a concentration-dependent reduction in weight-loss. There was no change in ICTP release from control values, meaning that ATA did not inhibit MMPs. Media concentrations of CTX fell significantly at 15 wt% ATA indicating that ATA inhibits capthesins. Beams dipped in increasing concentrations of MDPB lost progressively less mass, showing that MDPB is a protease-inhibitor. ICTP released from controls or beams exposed to low concentrations were the same, while 5 or 10% MDPB significantly lowered ICTP production. CTX levels were strongly inhibited by 2.5–10% MDPB, indicating that MDPB is a potent inhibitor of both MMPs and cathepsin K. Significance CTX seems to be released from dentin matrix only by cathepsin K. MMPs and cathepsin K and B may all contribute to matrix degradation. PMID:25467953

  20. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Yoon, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein-Weinberg-Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  1. EDITORIAL: The Fifth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    we had an unforgettable experience producing paper sheets ourselves in an old but still operational paper mill in the green enchanting spa of Duszniki Zdrój. A short intensive course in pottery handcraft was also offered to us in the Skansen. Hiking in the rocky labyrinth of Szczeliniec (please try to pronounce this name describing a magnificent cliffed hill with creviced rocks) was also a great adventure. This was followed by a ride on the serpentine Road of a Hundred Turns. And there was another event strongly supported by the local authorities. Two special tutorials on energy research and fusion for young scholars and the general public attracted nearly 200 people. The School was financially supported by the International Centre for Dense Magnetised Plasmas at IPPLM, European Commission, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria), the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) and the US Department of Energy. We would like to thank cordially our sponsors. Their financial support made it possible for a number of students and teachers to come to Kudowa Zdrój. We are very grateful to Dr Adam Ziembinski, the director of the spa in Kudowa, and his staff for the immense hospitality during our stay. We wish to thank Mr Czeslaw Krecichwost, the mayor of Kudowa Zdrój, for his strong support and interest in the School and help in organizing the lectures for scholars and residents of the region. And our most cordial thanks and gratitude go to Mr Ryszard Panfil for his great kindness, inexhaustible energy and organizational efficiency that helped all of us to enjoy the meeting. We thank all the participants for their contributions and we thank the reviewers of all submitted papers. Thank you for your hard work and co-operation. We are looking forward to the next school and all hope to meet again in Kudowa. Marek Rubel, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Irena Ivanova-Stanik, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion

  2. Fundamental study of Ti feedstock evaporation and the precursor formation process in inductively coupled thermal plasmas during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoto; Tanaka, Yasunori; Kita, K.; Ishisaka, Y.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.; Sueyasu, S.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were conducted for an inductively coupled thermal plasma (ICTP) torch during TiO2 nanopowder synthesis. The feedstock was injected intermittently into the ICTP torch to investigate the Ti feedstock evaporation process clearly and to elucidate the formation process of precursor species. Spatiotemporal distributions of Ti atomic lines and TiO spectra were observed simultaneously inside the plasma torch with the observation system developed. The observation results showed that the injected Ti feedstock was evaporated to form high-density Ti atomic vapour in the torch, and that the generated Ti atomic vapour is transported and diffused by gas flow and the density gradient. In addition, TiO molecular vapour was generated almost simultaneously around the on-axis region in the torch.

  3. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  4. Adiponectin and bone metabolism markers in female rowers: eumenorrheic and oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, J; Vaiksaar, S; Mäestu, J; Purge, P; Jürimäe, T

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated whether adiponectin, bone formation (osteocalcin) and bone resorption [type I carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)] values are influenced by menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use in female rowers. Twenty-four rowers divided into normally cycling athletes (NOC; no.=15) and athletes taking oral contraceptive pills (OC; no.=9) participated in this study. Fasting blood samples, body composition and aerobic capacity measurements were taken during the follicular (FP) and the luteal (LP) phases of the menstrual cycle. Adiponectin, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, body composition and aerobic capacity did not fluctuate significantly during menstrual cycle in both groups. Osteocalcin and ICTP were lower (p<0.05) in OC compared with NOC, but did not change significantly across menstrual cycle phases in both groups. Estradiol and progesterone were not related to adiponectin, osteocalcin or ICTP (r<0.147; p>0.05). Adiponectin was correlated (p<0.05) with osteocalcin (r=0.452) and fat free mass (r=0.428), and osteocalcin was related (p<0.05) to insulin (r=-0.413), glucose (r=-0.486) and insulin resistance (r=-0.528). In conclusion, adiponectin was not affected by menstrual cycle phase and OC use in female rowers, while bone metabolism markers were lower in OC compared to NOC groups. Adiponectin and osteocalcin were interrelated and may characterise energy homeostasis in female athletes. PMID:21169728

  5. [The effect of sodium fluoride on selected biochemical markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Bohatyrewicz, A

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fluoride on selected biochemical markers of bone remodelling in young growing rats and after ovariectomy performed on 12-weeks-old female Wistar rats. Seventy 6-weeks-old female Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups. The first baseline control group was sacrificed before the beginning of the experiment. Two groups served as controls receiving distilled water and the other groups received fluoridated water at different doses (two received 8 and two received 60 mgF-/l). 30 rats (ten from each group) were sacrificed after 6 weeks. Serum was then collected for measurement of fluoride concentration, serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and concentration of telopeptide of rat type I collagen (ICTP). Last three groups (ten rats each) were ovariectomized and received than only distilled water to drink. After following six weeks all rats were sacrificed. After six weeks of experiment the group receiving 8 mg F-/l showed the lowest ICTP values and the smallest decrease of serum ALP activity compared to the baseline control group. The rats with higher plasma fluoride concentrations after ovariectomy demonstrated lower ICTP concentrations and higher ALP activity than animals with lower fluoride concentrations. PMID:10101440

  6. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  7. Space-time structure of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, D.

    1982-02-01

    The generator of electromagnetic gauge transformations in the Dirac equation has a unique geometric interpretation and a unique extension to the generators of the gauge group SU(2) x U(1) for the Weinberg--Salam theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions. It follows that internal symmetries of the weak interactions can be interpreted as space-time symmetries of spinor fields in the Dirac algebra. The possibilities for interpreting strong interaction symmetries in a similar way are highly restricted.

  8. Process e/sup -/. -->. e/sup -/(. nu. nu-bar) in the field of a circularly polarized plane wave

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, V.V.

    1987-12-01

    The e/sup -/..-->..e/sup -/(..nu..nu-bar) process in the field of a circularly polarized plane wave is studied in the framework of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. General expressions for the probability of creation of neutrino pairs are obtained, and the case of a low-intensity wave is studied in detail. The effects of asymmetry of emission of electron and muon neutrinos are estimated, and comparison with previous results is performed.

  9. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  10. STS 51-G crewmembers participate in training in crew compartment trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Four members of the STS 51-G crew participate in a training exercise in the Shuttle mission simulator and training facility at JSC. Steven R. Nagel, left foreground, is a mission specialist. Sultan Salam Abdelazize Al-Saud (right foreground) is a payload specialist. In the background are Astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) in the commander's station and John O. Creighton in the pilot's position.

  11. Some phenomenological predictions of charged Higgs bosons in electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A. García; Santangelo, E. M.

    1984-06-01

    Some phenomenological consequences of an extended Salam-Weinberg model are studied. In particular, the existence, or absence, of e-μ asymmetry in beam-dump experiments is analyzed and an increase in same sign dilepton cross sections is shown to exist due to the contribution of charged Higgs-mediated diagrams. The model is shown to be compatible with experimental results for other processes.

  12. "That I may know the inmost force that binds the world and guides its course"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmelt, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The talk touches upon the following subjects: Goethe's Faust, the magic of Democritus' "ατoμoν", magnetism of the neutron, a neutral particle, the crucial problem of physics, crucial experiments, seeing an atom with my eyes, bringing an electron to rest, measuring electron magnetism, proton magnetism, electron radius from its magnetism, speculating on Salam's sub-sub-...-quarks and the cosmon, the simplest thing that ever was.

  13. Synthesis of chromone, quinolone, and benzoxazinone sulfonamide nucleosides as conformationally constrained inhibitors of adenylating enzymes required for siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Curtis A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2013-08-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5'-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group on the basis of computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors.

  14. Synthesis of Chromone, Quinolone, and Benzoxazinone Sulfonamide Nucleosides as Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors of Adenylating Enzymes Required for Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Curtis A.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb, but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group based on computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors. PMID:23805993

  15. Making ideas at scientific fabrication laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Carlo; Canessa, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Creativity, together with the making of ideas into fruition, is essential for progress. Today the evolution from an idea to its application can be facilitated by the implementation of Fabrication Laboratories, or FabLabs, having affordable digital tools for prototyping. FabLabs aiming at scientific research and invention are now starting to be established inside Universities, Research Centers and Schools. We review the setting up of the ICTP Scientific FabLab in Trieste, Italy, give concrete examples on the use in physics, and propose to replicate world-wide this class of multi-purpose workplaces within academia as a support for physics and math education and for community development.

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 211

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj; Abriola, Daniel; Baglin, Coral; Demetriou, Vivian; Johnson, Timothy; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Gopal; Singh, Sukhjeet; Sonzogni, Alejandro; Tuli, Jagdish

    2013-06-15

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 11 known nuclides of mass 211 (Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th). The {sup 211}Pa nuclide is included here but its identification remains uncertain. For {sup 211}Hg, {sup 211}Tl, {sup 211}Ac and {sup 211}Th nuclei, only the ground–state information is available. Their decay characteristics are mostly unknown. {sup 211}Fr is suggested to decay partially through ε decay mode, but its decay scheme remains poorly known. While high–spin excitations, including several isomers, are well studied in {sup 211}Pb, {sup 211}Bi, {sup 211}Po, {sup 211}At, {sup 211}Rn and {sup 211}Fr, the particle–transfer data are available for only {sup 211}Po and {sup 211}Bi. This evaluation was carried out as part of joint IAEA–ICTP workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data, organized and hosted by the IAEA, Vienna and ICTP, Trieste, August 6–17, 2012. This work supersedes previous A=211 evaluation (2004Br45) published by E. Browne which covered literature before January 2003.

  17. Zoledronate and ion-releasing resins impair dentin collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R; Feitosa, V P; Tay, F R; Watson, T F; Pashley, D H; Sauro, S

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzed the amounts of solubilized telopeptides cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) derived from matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTPs) subsequent to application of a filler-free (Res.A) or an ion-releasing resin (Res.B) to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-demineralized dentin with or without zoledronate-containing primer (Zol-primer) pre-treatment. The chemical modification induced following treatments and artificial saliva (AS) storage was also analyzed through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Totally EDTA-demineralized specimens were infiltrated with Res.A or Res.B with or without Zol-primer pre-treatment, light-cured, and immersed in AS for up to 4 wk. ICTP release was reduced following infiltration with Res.B and further reduced when Res.B was used with Zol-primer; remarkable phosphate mineral uptake was attained after AS storage. CTX release was increased in Res.A- and Res.B-treated dentin. However, when Zol-primer was used with Res.A, the CTX release fell significantly compared to the other tested resin-infiltration methods. In conclusion, zoledronate offers an additional inhibitory effect to the ion-releasing resins in MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, Zol-primer induces a modest reduction in CTX release only when used with resin-based systems containing no ion-releasing fillers.

  18. Using a new high resolution regional model for malaria that accounts for population density and surface hydrology to determine sensitivity of malaria risk to climate drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Ermert, Volker; Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as VECTRI: VECtor borne disease community model of ICTP, TRIeste (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations. Local host population density affects the transmission intensity, and the model thus reproduces the differences between peri-urban and rural transmission noted in Africa. A new simple pond model framework represents surface hydrology. The model can be used on with spatial resolutions finer than 10km to resolve individual health districts and thus can be used as a planning tool. Results of the models representation of interannual variability and longer term projections of malaria transmission will be shown for Africa. These will show that the model represents the seasonality and spatial variations of malaria transmission well matching a wide range of survey data of parasite rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from across West and East Africa taken in the period prior to large-scale interventions. The model is used to determine the sensitivity of malaria risk to climate variations, both in rainfall and temperature, and then its use in a prototype forecasting system coupled with ECMWF forecasts will be demonstrated.

  19. Use of Biomarkers of Collagen Types I and III Fibrosis Metabolism to Detect Cardiovascular and Renal Disease in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John J; Bishop, Micah A; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Steiner, Jörg M; Lee, D Rick

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among captive chimpanzees. The most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease among chimpanzees is sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis was the only significant pathologic lesion observed in affected animals at necropsy. We previously showed an association between myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. The presumed pathogenesis was interstitial myocardial fibrosis that led to decreased myocardial contractility and interrupted signal propagation in the heart, leading to fibrillation and resulting in sudden cardiac death. In this pilot study, we assayed 5 biomarkers of collagen types I and III metabolism and fibrogenesis and studied their association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarker MMP1 did not crossreact in chimpanzee sera and could not be studied further. Two biomarkers (TIMP1 and PINP) and their difference showed no significant association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarkers ICTP and PIIINP were significantly increased in cases of CVD with concurrent renal disease. Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. PMID:20412692

  20. Use of biomarkers of collagen types I and III fibrosis metabolism to detect cardiovascular and renal disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ely, John J; Bishop, Micah A; Lammey, Michael L; Sleeper, Meg M; Steiner, Jörg M; Lee, D Rick

    2010-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among captive chimpanzees. The most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease among chimpanzees is sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis was the only significant pathologic lesion observed in affected animals at necropsy. We previously showed an association between myocardial fibrosis and sudden cardiac death. The presumed pathogenesis was interstitial myocardial fibrosis that led to decreased myocardial contractility and interrupted signal propagation in the heart, leading to fibrillation and resulting in sudden cardiac death. In this pilot study, we assayed 5 biomarkers of collagen types I and III metabolism and fibrogenesis and studied their association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarker MMP1 did not crossreact in chimpanzee sera and could not be studied further. Two biomarkers (TIMP1 and PINP) and their difference showed no significant association with CVD in chimpanzees. The biomarkers ICTP and PIIINP were significantly increased in cases of CVD with concurrent renal disease. Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. PMID:20412692

  1. External circuit integration with electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of plasma focus devices

    SciTech Connect

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-15

    The pinch performance of a plasma focus (PF) device is sensitive to the physical conditions of the breakdown phase. It is therefore essential to model and study the initial phase in order to optimize device performance. An external circuit is self consistently coupled to the electromagnetic particle in cell code to model the breakdown and initial lift phase of the United Nations University/International Centre for Theoretical Physics (UNU-ICTP) plasma focus device. Gas breakdown during the breakdown phase is simulated successfully, following a drop in the applied voltage across the device and a concurrent substantial rise in the circuit current. As a result, the plasma becomes magnetized, with the growing value of the magnetic field over time leading to the gradual lift off of the well formed current sheath into the axial acceleration phase. This lifting off, with simultaneous outward sheath motion along the anode and vertical cathode, and the strong magnetic fields in the current sheath region, was demonstrated in this work, and hence validates our method of coupling the external circuit to PF devices. Our method produces voltage waveforms that are qualitatively similar to the observed experimental voltage profiles of the UNU-ICTP device. Values of the mean electron energy before and after voltage breakdown turned out to be different, with the values after breakdown being much lower. In both cases, the electron energy density function turned out to be non-Maxwellian.

  2. Soft X-Ray Emission in the Water Window Region with Nitrogen Filling in a Low Energy Plasma Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akel, M.; Lee, S.

    2013-02-01

    For operation of the plasma focus in nitrogen, a focus pinch compression temperature range of 74-173 eV (0.86 × 106-2 × 106 K) is found to be suitable for good yield of nitrogen soft X-rays in the water window region. Using this temperature window, numerical experiments using five phase Lee model have been investigated on UNU/ICTP PFF and APF plasma focus devices with nitrogen filling gas. The Lee model was applied to characterize and optimize these two plasma focus devices. The optimum nitrogen soft X-ray yield was found to be Ysxr = 2.73 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.13 % for UNU/ICTP PFF device, while for APF device it was Ysxr = 4.84 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.19 % without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments for optimizing soft X-ray yield with reducing L0, varying z0 and `a'. From these numerical experiments we expect to increase the nitrogen soft X-ray yield of low energy plasma focus devices to maximum value of near 8 J, with the corresponding efficiency of 0.4 %, at an achievable L0 = 10 nH.

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and serum collagen markers after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Magga, Jarkko; Puhakka, Mikko; Hietakorpi, Seppo; Punnonen, Kari; Uusimaa, Paavo; Risteli, Juha; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Peuhkurinen, Keijo

    2004-04-01

    Experimental data suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) act locally as antifibrotic factors in heart. We investigated the interrelationships of natriuretic peptides and collagen markers in 93 patients receiving thrombolytic treatment for their first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Collagen formation following AMI, evaluated as serum levels of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen, correlated with NH(2)-terminal proANP (r = 0.45, P < 0.001), BNP (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) and NH(2)-terminal proBNP (r = 0.50, P < 0.01) on day 4 after thrombolysis. Levels of intact amino terminal propeptide of type I procollagen decreased by 34% (P < 0.001), and levels of carboxy terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) increased by 65% (P < 0.001). ICTP levels correlated with NH(2)-terminal proBNP (r = 0.25, P < 0.05) and BNP (r = 0.28, P < 0.05) on day 4. Our results suggest that ANP and BNP may act as regulators of collagen scar formation and left ventricular remodeling after AMI in humans. Furthermore, degradation of type I collagen is increased after AMI and may be regulated by BNP. PMID:14607848

  4. VECTRI: A new dynamical disease model for malaria transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Ermert, V.; Lowe, R.

    2012-04-01

    In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as the VECToR borne disease model of ICTP (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations in a similar fashion to previous dynamical models, but additionally explicitly accounts for the local population density, allowing for the incorporation of such impacts as bednet useor migration, as well as including a new simple pond model framework for surface hydrology. These additions allow the model to be reasonably run on resolutions down to O(10km), essentially the resolution of the population and climate input data. Results from the model driven by ERAI reanalysis and FEWS/TRMM rainfall for various regions in Africa will be shown which are focus areas of the Healthy Futures and QWeCI project which demonstrate that the model produces a realistic spatial and temporal variability of malaria transmission

  5. Markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in term infants

    PubMed Central

    Hytinantti, T; Rutanen, E; Turpeinen, M; Sorva, R; Andersson, S

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study the relation between fetal growth and markers of collagen metabolism and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in term infants.
METHODS—Cord vein plasma was obtained from 67 term infants of gestational age 37.1-41.7 weeks (39 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 large for gestational age (LGA; relative birth weight ⩾ 2.0 SD), and 17 small for gestational age (SGA; relative birth weight ⩽ −2.0 SD)) for analysis of markers of metabolism of collagen type I (PICP and ICTP) and III (PIIINP) and of IGFBP-1.
RESULTS—Negative correlations existed between gestational age and PICP (r = −0.294, p = 0.0158), ICTP (r = −0.338, p = 0.0052), and PIIINP (r = −0.432, p = 0.0003). These correlations were also found in SGA infants (all p < 0.05). IGFBP-1 showed negative correlations with birth weight and relative birth weight (r = −0.644, p = 0.0001, and r = −0.693, p = 0.0001 respectively) but not with gestational age (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—In the term fetus, collagen metabolism is primarily dependent on maturity and not on intrauterine growth status, whereas IGFBP-1 reflects intrauterine growth independently of maturity.

 PMID:10873165

  6. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  7. Interacting topological insulator and emergent grand unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the Pati-Salam grand unified theory [J. C. Pati and A. Salam, Phys. Rev. D 10, 275 (1974), 10.1103/PhysRevD.10.275], we study (4 +1 )d topological insulators with SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 symmetry, whose (3 +1 )d boundary has 16 flavors of left-chiral fermions, which form representations (4 ,2 ,1 ) and (4 ¯,1 ,2 ) . The key result we obtain is that, without any interaction, this topological insulator has a Z classification, namely, any quadratic fermion mass operator at the (3 +1 )d boundary is prohibited by the symmetries listed above; while under interaction, this system becomes trivial, namely, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be gapped out by a properly designed short-range interaction without generating nonzero vacuum expectation value of any fermion bilinear mass, or in other words, its (3 +1 )d boundary can be driven into a "strongly-coupled symmetric gapped (SCSG) phase." Based on this observation, we propose that after coupling the system to a dynamical SU (4 ) ×SU (2) 1×SU (2) 2 lattice gauge field, the Pati-Salam GUT can be fully regularized as the boundary states of a (4 +1 )d topological insulator with a thin fourth spatial dimension, the thin fourth dimension makes the entire system generically a (3 +1 )d system. The mirror sector on the opposite boundary will not interfere with the desired GUT, because the mirror sector is driven to the SCSG phase by a carefully designed interaction and is hence decoupled from the GUT.

  8. The distribution of zeros of general q-polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Nodarse, R.; Buendía, E.; Dehesa, J. S.

    1997-10-01

    A general system of q-orthogonal polynomials is defined by means of its three-term recurrence relation. This system encompasses many of the known families of q-polynomials, among them the q-analogue of the classical orthogonal polynomials. The asymptotic density of zeros of the system is shown to be a simple and compact expression of the parameters which characterize the asymptotic behaviour of the coefficients of the recurrence relation. This result is applied to specific classes of polynomials known by the names q-Hahn, q-Kravchuk, q-Racah, q-Askey and Wilson, Al Salam - Carlitz and the celebrated little and big q-Jacobi.

  9. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  10. Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

    2014-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  11. Summing pomeron loops in the dipole approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.; Miller, J.; Prygarin, A.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we argue that in the kinematic range given by 1≪ln(1/αS2)≪αY≪1/α, we can reduce the pomeron calculus to the exchange of non-interacting pomerons, with the renormalised amplitude of their interaction with the target. Therefore, the summation of the pomeron loops can be performed using the improved Mueller, Patel, Salam and Iancu approximation, and this leads to the geometrical scaling solution. This solution, is found for the simplified BFKL kernel. We reproduce the findings of Hatta and Mueller, that there are overlapping singularities. We suggest a way of dealing with these singularities.

  12. The Production Cross Sections of the Weak Vector Bosons in Proton Antiproton Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV and a Measurement of the W Boson Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Varganov, Alexei Valerievich

    2004-04-01

    The theory that describes the fundamental particle interactions is called the Standard Model, which is a gauge field theory that comprises the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model [1, 2, 3] of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) [4, 5, 6], the theory of the strong interactions. The discovery of the W [7, 8] and Z [9, 10] bosons in 1983 by the UA1 and UA2 collaborations at the CERN p{bar p} collider provided a direct confirmation of the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. Since then, many experiments have refined our understanding of the characteristics of the W and Z bosons.

  13. Origin of a peculiar extra U(1)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.M.; Dorsner, I.

    2005-07-01

    The origin of a family-independent ''extra U(1)'', discovered by Barr, Bednarz, and Benesh and independently by Ma, and whose phenomenology has recently been studied by Ma and Roy, is discussed. Even though it satisfies anomaly constraints in a highly economical way, with just a single extra triplet of leptons per family, this extra U(1) cannot come from four-dimensional grand unification. However, it is shown here that it can come from a Pati-Salam scheme with an extra U(1), which explains the otherwise surprising cancellation of anomalies.

  14. Induction of strong gravitation and the hierarchical picture of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, V. F.

    1983-09-01

    A nontraditional approach is taken to strong gravitation, i.e., from the point of view of gravitation induction. A 'cutoff factor' is calculated in the ase of which the Salam gravitational constant and the cosmological term of strong gravitation are induced due to zero oscillations of vacuum in curved space. Attention is given to the induction of the strong-gravitational constant due to quantum effects in curved space. The relation between gravitation induction and the hierarchical structure of the world is examined.

  15. Spontaneous SU(2) symmetry violation in the SU(2){sub L} Multiplication-Sign SU(2){sub R} Multiplication-Sign SU(4) electroweak model

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, Yu. A.

    2012-09-15

    A new approach to electroweak (EW) composite scalars is developed starting from the fundamental gauge interaction on high scale. The latter is assumed to have the group structure SU(2){sub L} Multiplication-Sign SU(2){sub R} Multiplication-Sign SU(4), where SU(4) is the Pati-Salam color-lepton group. The topological EW vacuum filled by instantons is explicitly constructed and the resulting equations for fermion masses exhibit spontaneous SU(2) flavor symmetry violation with possibility of very large mass ratios.

  16. Final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhentao

    2015-11-01

    We study the effect of final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. We consider three major processes of the pair production in the model: lepton pair annihilation, ZZ fusion, and WW fusion. We find that the corrections caused by the effect for these processes are markedly different. According to our results, the effect can cause non-negligible corrections to the cross sections for lepton pair annihilation and small corrections for ZZ fusion, and this effect is negligible for WW fusion.

  17. Higgs boson as a dilaton

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskin, M. G.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2010-06-15

    We study possible phenomenological consequences of the recently proposed new approach to the Weinberg-Salam model. The electroweak theory is considered as a gravity and the Higgs particle is interpreted in it as a dilaton, without the usual potential of interaction in the Higgs sector. We have taken as a test the process of photon pair production, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {sup {yields}}Z + {gamma} + {gamma}. In the framework of new formulation this reaction is mediated in the lowest order by the dilaton. The cross section is found to be rather small.

  18. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  19. Correlation between growth differentiation factor-15 and collagen metabolism indicators in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Fang; Chen, Bao-Xia; Yu, Hai-Yi; Mi, Lin; Li, Zi-Jian; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta super-family does appear to be up-regulated in response to experimental pressure overload and progression of heart failure (HF). HF frequently develops after myocardial infarction (MI), contributing to worse outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between GDF-15 levels and markers related to collagen turnover in different stages of HF. Methods The study consists of a cohort of 179 patients, including stable angina pectoris patients (AP group, n = 50), old MI patients without HF (OMI group, n = 56), old MI patients with HF (OMI-HF group, n = 38) and normal Control group (n = 35). Both indicators reflecting the synthesis and degradation rates of collagen including precollagen I N-terminal peptide (PINP), type I collagen carboxy-terminal peptide (ICTP), precollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP) and GDF-15 were measured using an enzyme-linked inmunosorbent assay. Results The plasma GDF-15 level was higher in OMI-HF group (1373.4 ± 275.4 ng/L) than OMI group (1036.1 ± 248.6 ng/L), AP group (784.6 ± 222.4 ng/L) and Control group (483.8 ± 186.4 ng/L) (P < 0.001). The indicators of collagen turnover (ICTP, PINP, PIIINP) all increased in the OMI-HF group compared with Control group (3.03 ± 1.02 µg/L vs. 2.08 ± 0.95 µg/L, 22.2 ± 6.6 µg/L vs. 16.7 ± 5.1 µg/L and 13.2 ± 7.9 µg/L vs. 6.4 ± 2.1 µg/L, respectively; P < 0.01). GDF-15 positively correlated with ICTP and PIIINP (r = 0.302, P < 0.001 and r = 0.206, P = 0.006, respectively). GDF-15 positively correlated to the echocardiographic diastolic indicators E/Em and left atrial pressure (r = 0.349 and r = 0.358, respectively; P < 0.01), and inversely correlated to the systolic indicators left ventricular ejection fraction and the average of peak systolic myocardial velocities (Sm) (r = −0.623 and r = −0.365, respectively; P < 0.01). Conclusion Plasma GDF-15 is associated with

  20. Numerical Experiments on Oxygen Plasma Focus: Scaling Laws of Soft X-Ray Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akel, M.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical experiments have been investigated on UNU/ICTP PFF low energy plasma focus device with oxygen filling gas. In these numerical experiments, the temperature window of 119-260 eV has been used as a suitable temperature range for generating oxygen soft X-rays. The Lee model was applied to characterize the UNU/ICTP PFF plasma focus. The optimum soft X-ray yield (Ysxr) was found to be 0.75 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.03 % at pressure of 2.36 Torr and the end axial speed was va = 5 cm/μs. The practical optimum combination of p0, z0 and `a' for oxygen Ysxr was found to be 0.69 Torr, 4.8 cm and 2.366 cm respectively, with the outer radius b = 3.2 cm. This combination gives Ysxr ~ 5 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.16 %. Thus we expect to increase the oxygen Ysxr of UNU/ICTP PFF, without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and operating pressure. Scaling laws on oxygen soft X-ray yield, in terms of storage energies E0, peak discharge current Ipeak and focus pinch current Ipinch were found over the range from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. It was found that the oxygen soft X-ray yields scale well with and for the low inductance (L0 = 30 nH) (where yields are in J and currents in kA). While the soft X-ray yield scaling laws in terms of storage energies were found to be as (E0 in kJ and Ysxr in J) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E0 rises over the range. The oxygen soft X-ray yield emitted from plasma focus is found to be about 8.7 kJ for storage energy of 1 MJ. The optimum efficiency for soft X-ray yield (1.1 %) is with capacitor bank energy of 120 kJ. This indicates that oxygen plasma focus is a good soft X-ray source when properly designed.

  1. Osteoprotegerin and bone mass in squamous cell head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Valero, C; Olmos, J M; Rivera, F; Hernández, J L; Vega, M E; Macías, J González

    2006-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is considered one of the main regulators of bone remodeling. Various patterns of serum OPG levels have been described in different types of tumors. We undertook this study to determine serum OPG levels in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCHNC), analyzing their relationship with other metabolic bone parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as the possible influence of chemotherapy. Forty male patients with localized SCHNC were studied, and their results were compared with those of 40 healthy male controls. The type of treatment followed by each patient was noted. Age, weight, height, and lifestyle habits were recorded; and OPG, Ca(2+), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D), bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and serum C-terminal cross-links telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were determined. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and hip was also measured. Serum OPG was higher in patients than in controls (91.7 +/- 25.8 vs. 77.2 +/- 26.3, P = 0.02). ICTP (a bone resorption marker) was 37% higher in patients (P = 0.007). Bone mass was lower in patients at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Lumbar spine Z-score showed a significant progressive decrease in controls, stage I-III patients, and stage IV patients. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the disease and serum OPG levels, the odds ratio per standard deviation increase of this being 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.8, P = 0.04) after adjusting for bone mass and ICTP serum levels, as well as for alcohol and smoking history. Adjustment for alcohol intake and tobacco use did not cancel out BMD differences between patients and controls. Patients with SCHNC show increased OPG serum levels, increased bone resorption, and decreased bone mass. The OPG rise appears to be unrelated to the BMD decrease, and the BMD

  2. Future Projections of Air Temperature and Precipitation for the CORDEX-MENA Domain by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the projected changes for the periods of 2016 - 2035, 2046 - 2065, and 2081 - 2100 in the seasonal averages of air temperature and precipitation variables with respect to the reference period of 1981 - 2000 were examined for the Middle East and North Africa region. In this context, Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was run by using two different global climate models. MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and HadGEM2 of the Met Office Hadley Centre were dynamically downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX-MENA domain. The projections were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change).

  3. A Terrella Device for Simulating Aurora-Like Phenomena in a Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerotti, M.; Baccomi, R.; Iugovaz, D.; Lilensten, J.

    2009-04-01

    A Terrella device was developed and setup in Trieste in 2006 to be used as an experimental training device during practicum sessions of the Advanced International School on Space Weather at ICTP. The Terrella consisted of a vacuum chamber, where an aluminum sphere with an embedded permanent magnet bar mimics the Earth (Terrella) and its magnetic field, and a system of electrodes is set to a high potential difference to generate an electron flow (particle wind) that ionizes the residual air around the sphere. This results in aurora-like glowing patterns whose geometry is dependent on the orientation and distance of the bar magnet, so that various configurations can be experimented. This Terrella device proved to be an effective tool not only for academic but also for outreach purposes. We will briefly present both applications, focusing in particular on the latter, and on the planned use for IHY EPO activities.

  4. The Analysis of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Properties of the Classical Relativistic Electrodynamics Models and Their Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolubov, Nikolai N.; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.

    2010-05-01

    The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian properties of classical electrodynamics models and their associated Dirac quantizations are studied. Using the vacuum field theory approach developed in (Prykarpatsky et al. Theor. Math. Phys. 160(2): 1079-1095, 2009 and The field structure of a vacuum, Maxwell equations and relativity theory aspects. Preprint ICTP) consistent canonical Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised, and these formulations include the Lorentz condition in a natural way. The Dirac quantization procedure corresponding to the Hamiltonian formulations is developed. The crucial importance of the rest reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized. A concise expression for the Lorentz force is derived by suitably taking into account the duality of electromagnetic field and charged particle interactions. Finally, a physical explanation of the vacuum field medium and its relativistic properties fitting the mathematical framework developed is formulated and discussed.

  5. Excellence in Physics Education Award Talk: Sharing Active Learning Strategies in the Developed and Developing Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, David

    2010-02-01

    Since the first series of National Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) Institutes for Teachers of Physics in Summer, 1987, the Activity Based Physics Group (ABP) has presented numerous professional development institutes and workshops to thousands of high school, college and university faculty, sponsored by National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and others. An overview of these programs and details of our instructional strategies will be presented. Some common features of these include: (1) motivating participants through introduction to active learning research literature, including exposure to conceptual evaluations and student learning gains in traditional and active learning courses, (2) exposing participants to active learning strategies through intensive hands-on work using classroom tested curricular materials, (3) relying on these materials to enhance teacher knowledge and correct misconceptions---when necessary, (4) providing opportunities to practice active learning instruction with other participants and (5) distributing or facilitating procurement of equipment and supplies needed to get started. Recently, ABP group members have been working with physics educators from other countries to introduce active learning strategies in the developing world. New programs such as Active Learning in Optics and Photonics (ALOP, UNESCO) and Physware (ICTP/UNESCO/IUPAP), that support active learning using low-cost equipment, have been developed for this purpose. To date, ALOP workshops have been presented to over 500 secondary and college faculty in Ghana, Tunisia, Morocco, India, Tanzania, Brazil, Mexico, Zambia, Cameroon, Colombia, Nepal and Chile, and the ALOP Training Manual has been translated into French and Spanish. The first Physware workshop, held at ICTP in Trieste in 2009, had 32 participants most of whom were from developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. These programs will be described. )

  6. Long-term effects of intermittent equine parathyroid hormone fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Weisrock, Katharina U; Winkelsett, Sarah; Martin-Rosset, William; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Parvizi, Nahid; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an anabolic therapy for osteoporotic conditions in humans. This study evaluated the effects of equine PTH fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in 12 healthy horses. Six horses each were treated once daily for 120days with subcutaneous injections of 0.5μg/kg ePTH-1-37 or placebo. Blood was collected to determine ionized calcium (Ca(++)), total Ca (Ca(T)), inorganic phosphorus, serum equine osteocalcin (eOC), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry of the metacarpus and calcaneus. Significantly higher blood Ca(++) and plasma Ca(T) concentrations were measured 5h after ePTH-1-37 administration compared to placebo. Higher serum eOC concentrations were found for ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 90 (P<0.05) and 120 (P=0.05). Significantly higher serum ICTP levels were observed with ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 60 and 90. For both study groups, BMD increased significantly in the calcaneus. Long-term use of ePTH-1-37 seemed to have no negative effects on bone metabolism in healthy horses. The absence of undesirable side effects is the premise to ensure safety for further clinical investigations in horses with increased bone resorption processes.

  7. NaF Inhibits Matrix-Bound Cathepsin-Mediated Dentin Matrix Degradation.

    PubMed

    Altinci, Pinar; Mutluay, Murat; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Pashley, David; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs) degrade the collagen fibrils of demineralized dentin. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has previously been shown to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NaF on the inhibition of dentin-bound MMPs and CCs. Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. The baseline total MMP activity and dry masses were measured. Beams were assigned to test groups based on similar MMP activity and dry mass (n = 10/group), and incubated in artificial saliva (control) or artificial saliva with NaF containing 6-238 mM fluoride for 1, 7 and 21 days. The dry mass loss and MMP activities were reassessed at each time point. The proteolytic activity was screened by gelatin zymography. ICTP and CTX released to the incubation medium were analyzed as indices of MMP and cathepsin K activity, respectively. The beams were examined under scanning electron microscopy. All NaF doses reduced the dry mass loss after 21 days (p < 0.05). NaF inhibition of the total MMP activity ranged between 5 and 80%. In gelatin zymography, the bands of MMP-2 and MMP-9 became less prominent with increasing NaF levels. NaF did not decrease the released ICTP (p > 0.05). Less CTX release was detected with F ≥179 mM (p < 0.05). CaF2-like minerals were observed on the beams. High levels of NaF may slow the degradation of the dentin matrix due to the inhibition of cathepsin K. Fluoride does not seem effective in the direct inhibition of proteolysis by dentin matrix-bound MMPs.

  8. NaF Inhibits Matrix-Bound Cathepsin-Mediated Dentin Matrix Degradation.

    PubMed

    Altinci, Pinar; Mutluay, Murat; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Pashley, David; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs) degrade the collagen fibrils of demineralized dentin. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has previously been shown to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NaF on the inhibition of dentin-bound MMPs and CCs. Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. The baseline total MMP activity and dry masses were measured. Beams were assigned to test groups based on similar MMP activity and dry mass (n = 10/group), and incubated in artificial saliva (control) or artificial saliva with NaF containing 6-238 mM fluoride for 1, 7 and 21 days. The dry mass loss and MMP activities were reassessed at each time point. The proteolytic activity was screened by gelatin zymography. ICTP and CTX released to the incubation medium were analyzed as indices of MMP and cathepsin K activity, respectively. The beams were examined under scanning electron microscopy. All NaF doses reduced the dry mass loss after 21 days (p < 0.05). NaF inhibition of the total MMP activity ranged between 5 and 80%. In gelatin zymography, the bands of MMP-2 and MMP-9 became less prominent with increasing NaF levels. NaF did not decrease the released ICTP (p > 0.05). Less CTX release was detected with F ≥179 mM (p < 0.05). CaF2-like minerals were observed on the beams. High levels of NaF may slow the degradation of the dentin matrix due to the inhibition of cathepsin K. Fluoride does not seem effective in the direct inhibition of proteolysis by dentin matrix-bound MMPs. PMID:26986079

  9. Influence of a vegetarian diet versus a diet with fishmeal on bone in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liesegang, A; Bürgi, E; Sassi, M L; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2002-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if substantial bone loss occurs in growing pigs fed a vegetarian diet in comparison with a diet containing fishmeal. Twelve 6-week-old weaned pigs were assigned to two groups: group V [vegetarian diet; 0.61% phosphorus (P) in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment] and group F (fishmeal diet; 0.61% P in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment). Phytase was added to both diets. These two diets were fed to the two groups for a period of 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected weekly, faeces were collected three times a week. Concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured in serum, using a radioimmunoassay, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were determined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) in the tibia and phalanx. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in serum. The digestibility of P was significantly decreased in group V. Significant changes in bAP activities and OC concentrations occurred with time during the 6 weeks. ICTP concentrations were significantly higher in group V. Total BMC and BMD in the tibia and BMD in the phalanx significantly decreased in group V. The results show that a vegetarian diet induces a significant loss of bone and a higher bone formation in group V compared with group F, although phytase was added to both diets. The dietary requirements for P in pigs, especially in the context of feeding vegetarian diets and adding an appropriate amount of phytase, should be investigated further.

  10. WE-E-19A-01: Globalization of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehani, M; Meghzifene, A; Tsapaki, V; Pipman, Y; Lief, E

    2014-06-15

    Following successful 2012–2013 International Professional Symposiums as a part of Annual AAPM meetings, representatives of AAPM and International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) suggested to make this tradiational Symposium a permanent part of Annual AAPM meetings in future. Following the tradition, this session includes presentations of representatives of AAPM, IOMP, European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The speakers will cover various aspects of International collaboration such as educational, professional, and scientific issues, as well as help to developing countries. With further developments of medicine and technology and increased communication with our colleagues overseas, Medical Physics becomes more and more global profession. Use of the same technology, significant progress in medical physics research and developing practical regulations worldwide makes it increasingly useful to organize global collaboration of medical physicists. Several international organizations are tasked to promote such collaboration and provide help to developing countries. Not all AAPM members are fully aware of these international efforts. It is very useful for medical physicists to know about success of our profession in other countries. Different schools present different approaches to the same problem, which allows to find the best solution. By communicating with colleagues overseas, one can learn more than from just reading scientific publications. At this session the attendees will receive a glimpse of International Medical Physics activities. Learning Objectives: Understand the globalization of Medical Physics profession and advantages of collaboration with foreign colleagues. See what role AAPM is playing in establishing contacts with colleagues overseas. Understand the role of IOMP and main directions of its activity. Learn about IAEA and how it helps

  11. Zoledronate and ion-releasing resins impair dentin collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R; Feitosa, V P; Tay, F R; Watson, T F; Pashley, D H; Sauro, S

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzed the amounts of solubilized telopeptides cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) derived from matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTPs) subsequent to application of a filler-free (Res.A) or an ion-releasing resin (Res.B) to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-demineralized dentin with or without zoledronate-containing primer (Zol-primer) pre-treatment. The chemical modification induced following treatments and artificial saliva (AS) storage was also analyzed through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Totally EDTA-demineralized specimens were infiltrated with Res.A or Res.B with or without Zol-primer pre-treatment, light-cured, and immersed in AS for up to 4 wk. ICTP release was reduced following infiltration with Res.B and further reduced when Res.B was used with Zol-primer; remarkable phosphate mineral uptake was attained after AS storage. CTX release was increased in Res.A- and Res.B-treated dentin. However, when Zol-primer was used with Res.A, the CTX release fell significantly compared to the other tested resin-infiltration methods. In conclusion, zoledronate offers an additional inhibitory effect to the ion-releasing resins in MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, Zol-primer induces a modest reduction in CTX release only when used with resin-based systems containing no ion-releasing fillers. PMID:25074494

  12. Bone Remodeling Associated Salivary Biomarker MIP-1α Distinguishes Periodontal Disease from Health

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Alladah, Amjad; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Thomas, Mark V.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective The field of salivary diagnostics lacks an accepted and validated biomarker of alveolar bone remodeling. To address this we examined levels of salivary biomolecules specifically associated with biological aspects of bone remodeling in subjects with chronic periodontitis in a case-control study. Methods Levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, osteoprotegerin (OPG), C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen (ICTP), and β-C-terminal type I collagen telopeptide (β-CTX) in unstimulated whole saliva of 80 subjects (40 subjects with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and 40 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects) were measured using enzyme immunosorbent assays. Saliva was collected before clinical examination that included probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Results The mean level of MIP-1α in periodontitis subjects was 18-fold higher than in healthy subjects (p < 0.0001). Clinical periodontal indices significantly correlated with MIP-1α levels (p < 0.0001). MIP-1α, of the biomolecules examined, demonstrated the highest ability to discriminate between periodontal disease and health as determined by area under the curve (AUC = 0.94) and classification and regression tree analysis (sensitivity 94%, specificity 92.7%). OPG levels were elevated 1.6-fold (P = 0.055), whereas ICTP and β-CTX levels were below the level of detection in the majority of subjects. Conclusion These findings suggest that the chemokine MIP-1α may aid in identifying periodontitis. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to determine whether this biomarker can help to ascertain progression of bone loss in subjects with periodontal disease. PMID:22126530

  13. Zoledronate and Ion-releasing Resins Impair Dentin Collagen Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R.; Feitosa, V.P.; Tay, F.R.; Watson, T.F.; Pashley, D.H.; Sauro, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the amounts of solubilized telopeptides cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) derived from matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTPs) subsequent to application of a filler-free (Res.A) or an ion-releasing resin (Res.B) to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-demineralized dentin with or without zoledronate-containing primer (Zol-primer) pre-treatment. The chemical modification induced following treatments and artificial saliva (AS) storage was also analyzed through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Totally EDTA-demineralized specimens were infiltrated with Res.A or Res.B with or without Zol-primer pre-treatment, light-cured, and immersed in AS for up to 4 wk. ICTP release was reduced following infiltration with Res.B and further reduced when Res.B was used with Zol-primer; remarkable phosphate mineral uptake was attained after AS storage. CTX release was increased in Res.A- and Res.B-treated dentin. However, when Zol-primer was used with Res.A, the CTX release fell significantly compared to the other tested resin-infiltration methods. In conclusion, zoledronate offers an additional inhibitory effect to the ion-releasing resins in MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, Zol-primer induces a modest reduction in CTX release only when used with resin-based systems containing no ion-releasing fillers. PMID:25074494

  14. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in growing thoroughbreds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Jackson, B F; Gray, J A; Harris, P A; Wright, I M; Pfeiffer, D U; Robins, S P; Eastell, R; Ricketts, S W

    2001-08-01

    This study describes longitudinal changes in serum levels of biochemical markers of bone cell activity in a group of 24 thoroughbred foals from birth to 18 months of age. The markers of bone formation included the type I collagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), the bone-specific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and osteocalcin (OC). Levels of the cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), a marker of bone resorption, and the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PNIIIP), a marker of soft tissue turnover, were also measured. Levels of all markers fell significantly between birth and 18 months of age (70-80 per cent); this decrease being most marked between 0 and 6 months. However, a transient increase in levels of the markers then occurred between 6 and 14 months of age. The timing of this increase was specific for each parameter. ICTP and OC concentrations increased between October and December. PICP concentrations increased between December and April whereas the increase in PIIINP was coincident with the peak in weight gain between April and June. Changes in BAP concentration were less distinct at this time. Season was shown to have significant effects on the biochemical markers independent from the effect of age. Concentrations of all markers decreased with increasing body weight and at any given age heavier horses had lower marker levels. These results show that biochemical markers of bone cell activity and soft tissue turnover follow characteristic patterns of change in growing thoroughbreds influenced by age, season and bodyweight. The demonstration that the reference ranges for the biochemical markers change from month to month means that single samples from individuals are of little value for monitoring bone cell activity in growing thoroughbreds.

  15. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A{sub b} is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is A{sub b} = 0.91 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A{sub b} = 0.935.

  16. Baryon and lepton number violation in the electroweak theory at TeV energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the standard Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory baryon and lepton number (B and L) are NOT exactly conserved. The nonconservation of B and L can be traced to the existence of parity violation in the electroweak theory, together with the chiral current anomaly. This subtle effect gives negligibly small amplitudes for B and L violation at energies and temperatures significantly smaller than M{sub w} sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}/{alpha} {approximately} 10 TeV. However, recent theoretical work shows that the rate for B and L nonconservation is unsuppressed at higher energies. The consequences of this for cosmology and the baryon asymmetry of the universe, as well as the prospects for direct verification at the SSC are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Elementary Particles and the Universe Elementary Particles and the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John H.

    1991-10-01

    Professor Murray Gell-Mann is one of the most influential and brilliant scientists of the twentieth century. His work on symmetries, including the invention of the "quark," in the 1950s and early 1960s provided the foundation for much of modern particle physics. His contribution to the field earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1969. This book is a collection of research articles by eminent scientists written especially to celebrate Gell-Mann's 60th birthday, in September 1989. The main body of contributions is concerned with theoretical particle physics and its applications to cosmology, and includes papers by such notables as J. Hartle, E. Witten, H. Fritzsch, T.D. Lee, I.M. Singer, V. Telegdi, and some personal remarks by A. Salam and M.L. Goldberger.

  18. Elementary Particles and the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John H.

    1991-10-01

    Professor Murray Gell-Mann is one of the most influential and brilliant scientists of the twentieth century. His work on symmetries, including the invention of the "quark," in the 1950s and early 1960s provided the foundation for much of modern particle physics. His contribution to the field earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1969. This book is a collection of research articles by eminent scientists written especially to celebrate Gell-Mann's 60th birthday, in September 1989. The main body of contributions is concerned with theoretical particle physics and its applications to cosmology, and includes papers by such notables as J. Hartle, E. Witten, H. Fritzsch, T.D. Lee, I.M. Singer, V. Telegdi, and some personal remarks by A. Salam and M.L. Goldberger.

  19. The BFKL pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimensions: Diffractive processes and survival probability for central diffractive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M.; Levin, E.; Khachatryan, V.; Miller, J.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the processes of diffractive production in the framework of the BFKL pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimension. Considering the diffractive production of a bunch of particles with not very large masses, namely, ln(M/m)≪1/αln(Nc2α¯S2), we found explicit formulae for calculation of the cross sections for the single and double diffractive production as well as for the value of the survival probability for the diffractive central production. These formulae include the influence of the correlations due to so-called pomeron loops on the values of all discussed observables. The comparison with the other approaches on the market is given. The main conclusion of this comparison: the Mueller-Patel-Salam-Iancu approximation gives sufficiently good descriptions and close to the exact result for elastic and diffractive cross section but considerable overshoot the value of the survival probability.

  20. Pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimensions: Summation of pomeron loops and generating functional for multiparticle production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.; Prygarin, A.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we address two problems in pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimensions: the summation of the pomeron loops and the calculation of the processes of multiparticle generation. We introduce a new generating functional for these processes and obtain the evolution equation for it. We argue that in the kinematic range given by 1 ≪ln(1/α_{text{S}}2) ≪α_{text{S}} Y ≪1/α_{text{S}}, we can reduce the pomeron calculus to the exchange of non-interacting pomerons with the renormalized amplitude of their interaction with the target. Therefore, the summation of the pomeron loops can be performed using the Mueller Patel Salam Iancu approximation.

  1. Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honecker, Gabriele; Staessens, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete ℤn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/ℤ2N and T6/ℤ2 × ℤ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent ℤ2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial ℤ3 charge.

  2. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1989-10-16

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs.

  3. Higgs inflation, reheating and gravitino production in no-scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of e-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, as well as discussing the gravitino production following inflation.

  4. Spinning electroweak sphalerons

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, Eugen; Volkov, Mikhail S.

    2009-03-15

    We present numerical evidence for the existence of stationary spinning generalizations for the static sphaleron in the Weinberg-Salam theory. Our results suggest that, for any value of the mixing angle {theta}{sub W} and for any Higgs mass, the spinning sphalerons comprise a family labeled by their angular momentum J. For {theta}{sub W}{ne}0 they possess an electric charge Q=eJ, where e is the electron charge. Inside they contain a monopole-antimonopole pair and a spinning loop of electric current, and for large J, a Regge-type behavior. It is likely that these sphalerons mediate the topological transitions in sectors with J{ne}0, thus enlarging the number of transition channels. Their action decreases with J, which may considerably affect the total transition rate.

  5. Neutrino self-energy in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Erdas, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Using the exact propagators in a constant magnetic field, the neutrino self-energy has been calculated to all orders in the field strength B within the minimal extension of the Weinberg-Salam model with massive Dirac neutrinos. A simple and very accurate formula for the self-energy is obtained, that is valid for 0{<=}B<

  6. Planck scale unification and dynamical symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; Willenbrock, Scott

    1993-09-01

    We explore the possibility of unification of gauge couplings near the Planck scale in models of extended technicolor. We observe that models of the form G X SU(3)_c X SU(2)_L X U(1)_Y cannot be realized, due to the presence of massless neutral Goldstone bosons (axions) and light charged pseudo-Goldstone bosons; thus, unification of the known forces near the Planck scale cannot be achieved. The next simplest possibility, G X SU(4)_{PS} X SU(2)_L X U(1)_{T_{3R}}, cannot lead to unification of the Pati-Salam and weak gauge groups near the Planck scale. However, superstring theory provides relations between couplings at the Planck scale without the need for an underlying grand-unified gauge group, which allows unification of the SU(4)PS and SU(2)L couplings.

  7. Overview of the physics issues at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents an overview of physics issues at the SSC. It discusses the progress made at the DPF Summer Study on the Design and Utilization of the SSC and emphasizes the important problems which remain. The discussion of the physics issues is divided into Standard Model, by which is meant the combination of QCD and the Weinberg-Salam model, and Non-Standard Physics, which includes supersymmetry, technicolor, new gauge bosons, compositeness and all the more or less speculative ideas in which theorists like to indulge. Then the work on identification of final states which contain W's, Z's or heavy quarks is discussed, and the impact of this work on some proposed signals for new physics is considered. Finally, some of the areas in which more work is required are discussed. 110 references. (WHK)

  8. Geometrical gauge theory of ghost and Goldstone fields and of ghost symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Yuval; Thierry-Mieg, Jean

    1980-01-01

    We provide a geometrical identification of the ghost fields, essential to the renormalization procedure in the non-Abelian (Yang-Mills) case. These are some of the local components of a connection on a principal bundle. They multiply the differentials of coordinates spanning directions orthogonal to those of a given section, whereas the Yang-Mills potential multiplies the coordinates in the section itself. In the case of a supergroup, the ghosts become commutative for the odd directions, and represent Nambu-Goldstone fields. We apply the results to chiral “flavor” SU(3)L × SU(3)R and to SU(2/1). The latter reproduces a highly constrained Weinberg-Salam model. PMID:16592778

  9. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  10. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  11. Towards a systematic construction of realistic D-brane models on a del Pezzo singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Krippendorf, Sven; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    A systematic approach is followed in order to identify realistic D-brane models at toric del Pezzo singularities. Requiring quark and lepton spectrum and Yukawas from D3 branes and massless hypercharge, we are led to Pati-Salam extensions of the Standard Model. Hierarchies of masses, flavour mixings and control of couplings select higher order del Pezzo singularities, minimising the Higgs sector prefers toric del Pezzos with dP 3 providing the most successful compromise. Then a supersymmetric local string model is presented with the following properties at low energies: (i) the MSSM spectrum plus a local B - L gauge field or additional Higgs fields depending on the breaking pattern, (ii) a realistic hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and (iii) realistic flavour mixing between quark and lepton families with computable CKM and PMNS matrices, and CP violation consistent with observations. In this construction, kinetic terms are diagonal and under calculational control suppressing standard FCNC contributions. Proton decay operators of dimension 4, 5, 6 are suppressed, and gauge couplings can unify depending on the breaking scales from string scales at energies in the range 1012-1016 GeV, consistent with TeV soft-masses from moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking. The GUT scale model corresponds to D3 branes at dP 3 with two copies of the Pati-Salam gauge symmetry SU(4) × SU(2) R × SU(2) L . D-brane instantons generate a non-vanishing μ-term. Right handed sneutrinos can break the B - L symmetry and induce a see-saw mechanism of neutrino masses and R-parity violating operators with observable low-energy implications.

  12. Interrelationship between bone turnover markers and dietary calcium intake in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Susana N; Ortela Soler, Carlos R; Lazzari, Araceli; López, Laura; Suarez, Marisa; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Somoza, Julia I; de Portela, Maria L

    2003-10-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated bone turnover and the interrelationship between changes in bone biomarkers and habitual dietary calcium intake during pregnancy in a group of women ranging widely with regard to dietary calcium intake. Thirty-nine healthy pregnant and 30 nonpregnant women were studied. Calcium, phosphorus, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25diHOD), bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), carboxyterminal propeptides of type I procollagen (PICP) and carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen (betaCTX and ICTP) were measured in serum and calcium, and creatinine and aminoterminal telopeptide (NTX) were determined in urine. Serum calcium and phosphorus did not change but the urinary Ca/Creat ratio and 1,25diHOD increased throughout pregnancy (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Serum b-ALP and PICP increased during the last two trimesters (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). All studied bone resorption markers increased compared to nonpregnant values throughout pregnancy. The highest increment was observed in the third trimester. The level of significance decreased as follows: betaCTX > NTX >ICTP. Serum 1,25 diHOD versus calcium intake showed a positive and significant correlation (r = 0.51, P < 0.02). A negative correlation between the absolute change in betaCTX, NTX, and b-ALP between the third and second trimester and calcium intake at the end of pregnancy was observed in pregnant women who did not cover adequately calcium intake requirements (r = -0.47, P < 0.03; r = -0.41, P < 0.05; and r = -0.43, P < 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that skeletal response to pregnancy may not be entirely independent of maternal calcium intake, especially in women with usually low calcium intake. In summary, not only hormonal changes in calcium metabolism that occur during pregnancy but also other considerations, such as low dietary calcium intake, may lead to an increment in the biological activity of the skeleton. Additional studies must be

  13. Assessment of ENSEMBLES regional climate models for the representation of monthly wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea (Greece): Mean and extremes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Tolika, Konstantia; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2013-04-01

    The main scope of the present study is the assessment of the ability of three of the most updated regional climate models, developed under the frame of the European research project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/), to simulate the wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea in Greece. The examined models are KNMI-RACMO2, MPI-MREMO, and ICTP - RegCM3. They all have the same spatial resolution (25x25km) and for their future projections they are using the A1B SRES emission scenarios. Their simulated wind data (speed and direction) were compared with observational data from several stations over the domain of study for a time period of 25 years, from 1980 to 2004 on a monthly basis. The primer data were available every three or six hours from which we computed the mean daily wind speed and the prevailing daily wind direction. It should be mentioned, that the comparison was made for the grid point that was the closest to each station over land. Moreover, the extreme speed values were also calculated both for the observational and the simulated data, in order to assess the ability of the models in capturing the most intense wind conditions. The first results of the study showed that the prevailing winds during the winter and spring months have a north - northeastern or a south - south western direction in most parts of the Aegean sea. The models under examination seem to capture quite satisfactorily this pattern as well as the general characteristics of the winds in this area. During summer, winds in the Aegean Sea have mainly north direction and the models have quite good agreement both in simulating this direction and the wind speed. Concerning the extreme wind speed (percentiles) it was found that for the stations in the northern Aegean all the models overestimate the extreme wind indices. For the eastern parts of the Aegean the KNMI and the MPI model underestimate the extreme wind speeds while on the other hand the ICTP model overestimates them. Finally for the

  14. Implementation and evaluation of online gas-phase chemistry within a regional climate model (RegCM-CHEM4)

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, A. K.; Zakey, A. S.; Tawfik, A. B.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, Filippo; Stordal, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Steiner, A. L.

    2012-05-22

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online climate-chemistry model based on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4). Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-Z; Zaveri and Peters, 1999) with a fast solver based on radical balances. We evaluate the model over Continental Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a sixyear simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show good agreement with European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the August 2003 heat wave event. For long-term climate simulations, the model captures the seasonal cycle of ozone concentrations with some over prediction of ozone concentrations in non-heat wave summers. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  15. Climate-vegetation interactions in the coupled RegCM4 - CLM4.5 CNDV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, Luca; Giuliani, Graziano; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    We use the latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) including a dynamic vegetation model to study biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system related to vegetation composition and structure. Sets of parallel experiments are conducted over the Africa and South America CORDEX domains using the RegCM4-CLM4.5 in its standard configuration and with the CNDV activated (CLM 4.5 with both the Carbon Nitrogen and the Dynamic Vegetation Model activated). The potential role of regional vegetation feedbacks within the climate system and the impact of climate variability and change on the ecosystem dynamics is assessed for both domains. In addition, the sensitivity to initial vegetation conditions and different idealized climate forcings is investigated. Preliminary results show that the changes in the climate forcing can have substantial effects on the dynamics and evolution of different vegetation types over both domains, and that the vegetation coupling can have a substantial effect on the simulated regional climate regimes. Our results thus indicate on the one hand that climate change can have profound effects on the evolution of important ecosystems for the two regions, and on the other that vegetation dynamics can indeed affect the climate response at the regional scale.

  16. 24-Week Exposure to Oxidized Tyrosine Induces Hepatic Fibrosis Involving Activation of the MAPK/TGF-β1 Signaling Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuqing Leslie; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei; Ding, Yinyi; Zhao, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Scope. Oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) has been widely detected in many consumer protein products. O-Tyr products such as dityrosine (Dityr) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) are universal biomarkers of protein oxidation and have been demonstrated to be associated with metabolic disorders in biological system. Evaluation of potential intracorporal effects of dietary O-Tyr is important since the mechanism of biological impacts induced by oral oxidized protein products (OPPs) is still limited although we have proved that some dietary OPPs would induce oxidative injury to liver and kidney. Methods and Results. The present study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent hepatic injury caused by oral O-Tyr in rats. 24-week feeding of O-Tyr enhanced aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, increased total bilirubin (TBiL) content, and led to oxidative damage in rats liver. Besides, O-Tyr distinctly increased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK2 MAPKs and enhanced fibrosis-related TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 levels. Higher extracellular matrix (ECM) indexes (ICTP, PIIINP) and histological examination (HE and Masson staining) also supported dose-dependent hepatic fibrosis caused by O-Tyr. Conclusion. These findings reveal that O-Tyr may induce oxidative damage and hepatic fibrosis via MAPK/TGF-β1 signaling pathway, in which ROS together with malondialdehyde (MDA) and OPPs act as the pivotal mediators. PMID:26788244

  17. Planck 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-02

    Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.

  18. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on Pd(Pt) decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Narayan; Khaniya, Asim; Lamichhane, Saran; Pantha, Nurapati

    2015-03-01

    We have performed the first-principles based Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to study the stability, geometrical structures, and electronic properties of a Pd(Pt) atom adsorbed graphene to investigate the possibility of using Pd(Pt) decorated graphene as energy storage materials with reference to pristine graphene. The London dispersion forces have been incorporated by the DFT-D2 levels of calculations implemented in Quantum Espresso packages. Our findings show that Pd and Pt both adsorb on graphene at Bridge site. The electronic structures of Pd(Pt) adsorbed graphene possesses band gap opening due to breaking of the symmetry of graphene. Further we have studied the adsorption of moelcular hydrogen ((H 2) n , n = 1-7) on the Pd(Pt)-graphene system. The adatom Pd(Pt) enhances the binding energy per hydrogen molecule in Pd(Pt)-graphene system in comparison to that in the pristine graphene. The binding energy per hydrogen molecule of the adatom-graphene system decreases as the number of H 2 molecules increases and finally it saturates to 0.15 eV (0.16 eV) per hydrogen molecule for Pd-graphene (Pt-graphene) systems respectively. ICTP-NET 56/TWAS.

  19. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    1998-05-13

    Version 00 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a modular computer code used for converting evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format into libraries useful for applications calculations. Because the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format is used all around the world (e.g., ENDF/B-VI in the US, JEF-2.2 in Europe, JENDL-3.2 in Japan, BROND-2.2 in Russia), NJOY gives its users access to a wide variety of the most up-to-date nuclear data. NJOY provides comprehensivemore » capabilities for processing evaluated data, and it can serve applications ranging from continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MCNP), through deterministic transport codes (DANT, ANISN, DORT), to reactor lattice codes (WIMS, EPRI). NJOY handles a wide variety of nuclear effects, including resonances, Doppler broadening, heating (KERMA), radiation damage, thermal scattering (even cold moderators), gas production, neutrons and charged particles, photoatomic interactions, self shielding, probability tables, photon production, and high-energy interactions (to 150 MeV). Output can include printed listings, special library files for applications, and Postscript graphics (plus color). More information on NJOY is available from the developer's home page at http://t2.lanl.gov. Follow the Tourbus section of the Tour area to find notes from the ICTP lectures held at Trieste in March 1998 on the ENDF format and on the NJOY code.« less

  20. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-07-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L 1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. All the authors were partially supported by ICTP and by EU Marie-Curie IRSES Brazilian–European partnership in Dynamical Systems (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES 318999 BREUDS), SG thanks The Leverhulme Trust for support through Network Grant IN-2014-021.

  1. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  2. Impact of climate change on runoff timing over the Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Erika; Raffaele, Francesca; Giorgi, Filippo; Giuliani, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    In this work we focus our attention on the snowmelt-driven runoff (SDR) on the Alpine region. We use the Regional Climate model output from Med-CORDEX simulation and in particular the ICTP regional climate model RegCM4 at 2 different resolutions (12km, 50km) and the output from other 3 EURO-CORDEX Models (RACMO22E and HIRHAM5, both driven by EC-EARTH and CCLM4-8-17, driven by MPI-ESM-LR; all of them at 44 and 11 km resolutions). Comparison with the European Water Archive (EWA) observed runoff dataset (242 stations) over Alps show a good performance of all the models in the present day representation of the SDR at the highest resolution. The low-resolution simulations are less accurate in representing the runoff timing. For the future projection we analyzed the RCP 8.5 scenario for the whole ensemble. All the models show a temperature increase up to 4 degrees in the Alps and this leads to a change of SDR timing that can span from 1 to 3 months depending on the model space resolution. These large changes are probably due to the snow-albedo feedback that is amplified over the complex Alpine topography. Such a change in runoff timing can be really important for water storage regulation rules for energy production, irrigation and therefore agricolture, and domestic use.

  3. APS Wheatley Prize Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyde, Henry R.

    2001-03-01

    It is a pleasure to describe our collaborative program in International Development [1] between the University of Ottawa, Canada and Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. The goal of our linked program was broadly to develop physics and graduate education at Chulalongkorn with an emphasis on semiconductor materials and theoretical science. The aim of my description is to illustrate how links that combine several important components of development sustained over many years can greatly assist research institutions in developing countries. The link was initially funded between 1979-85 by the Canadian International Development Agency. The link included (1) Ph.D. education for junior Thai faculty at Ottawa, (2) secondment of faculty between Chulalongkorn and Ottawa, (3) equipment and technical assistance and (4) institution building at Chulalongkorn. With assistance of the link and other agencies the first Ph.D. program in physics in Thailand was initiated, the Semiconductor Physics Research Lab was created and the Forum for Theoretical Science was established. The FTS was also greatly assisted by ICTP. Later, activity involved the university of Delaware and the FTS obtained major funding for superconductivity research in Thailand from the USAID between 1987-91. The successes, disappointments, benefits and costs of these programs, which exist today, will be discussed. [1]Institutional Links. An example in science and technology, Henry R. Glyde and Virulh Sa-yakanit, Higher Education in Europe, X4, 51 (1985); Asia-Pacific Physics News 2, 29 (1987).

  4. Levels of bone collagen markers in preterm infants: relation to antenatal glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed

    Korakaki, Eftichia; Gourgiotis, Dimitrios; Aligizakis, Agisilaos; Manoura, Antonia; Hatzidaki, Eleftheria; Giahnakis, Emmanuel; Marmarinos, Antonios; Kalmanti, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects of antenatally administered glucocorticoids are well documented, data on the potential of adverse consequences are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of antenatally administered glucocorticoids on biochemical markers of bone metabolism of 55 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-34 weeks who were enrolled in the study. Neonates were divided into two groups according to antenatal exposure to corticosteroids. There were no significant differences between the groups in clinical characteristics and anthropometric variables. We studied blood levels of osteocalcin (OC), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) at the time of delivery, on postnatal day 10, and at 2 and 4 months of life. Comparing the groups, we found statistically significant reduction in PICP levels at birth in corticosteroid-exposed neonates (P < 0.05). The levels of bone markers increased progressively on the first days of life. There were no significant differences between groups in bone markers at 10 days or at 2 and 4 months of life. We found no significant difference for bone markers between groups of infants exposed to single or repeated maternal corticosteroid treatments. In summary, antenatal glucocorticoid treatments are suggested to have a negative impact on fetal bone formation as reflected by low PICP levels at birth. However, this negative effect on bone markers seems to be a temporary effect that subsides on the first days of life and afterward.

  5. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-07-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota-Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L 1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein-Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. All the authors were partially supported by ICTP and by EU Marie-Curie IRSES Brazilian-European partnership in Dynamical Systems (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES 318999 BREUDS), SG thanks The Leverhulme Trust for support through Network Grant IN-2014-021.

  6. Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Simonnet, Eric

    2011-10-13

    The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both nite and in nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented first on a delay-diff erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of AgSbTe2 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Hadi; Rezaei, Nafiseh; Hashemifar, S.; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2013-03-01

    Recently, novel thermoelectric materials are extensively investigated for providing sustainable energy resource. In this regard, AgSbTe2 as a p-type semiconductor is widely investigated due to its low lattice thermal conductivity and relatively large Seebeck coefficient. We study electronic, vibrational, and thermoelectric properties of FCC and rhombohedral structures of AgSbTe2 by first-principles calculations. The hybrid HSE03 functional is employed to correct wrong prediction of semimetal behavior in GGA and obtain a band gap of about 0.5 eV. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and electronic part of thermal conductivity are calculated by using a combination of maximally localized Wannier functions and semi-classical Boltzmann equation. By matching the calculated Seebeck coefficient with the experimental data, we predict the carrier concentration and band gap of several experimental samples. Our results indicate that the band gap and hole concentration of pure samples should be in the range of 0.2-0.5 eV and 2-5 × 1019 holes/cm3. Finally, we use the experimental electrical conductivity and the constant relaxation time assumption to estimate the relaxation time of this compound. This work was supported jointly by the Vice Chancellor for Research Affairs of Isfahan University of Technology, Center of Excellence for Applied Nanotechnology, and ICTP Affiliated Centre

  8. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron T.

    2015-09-18

    The String theory workshop was held from March 4-7, 2015 on the University of Michigan campus. Local organizers were Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce. Piyush Kumar (Yale), Jim Halverson (KITP), Bobby Acharya (ICTP) and Sven Krippendorf (Oxford) served as external organizers.The meeting focused on the status of work to project 10 or 11 dimensional string/M theories onto our 4 spacetime dimensions (compactification). The workshop had 31 participants, half from outside the U.S. Participants were encouraged to focus on predictions for recent and forthcoming data, particularly for Higgs physics and LHC and dark matter, rather than on the traditional approach of embedding the Standard Model particles and forces. The Higgs boson sympoosium was locally organized by James Wells (chair), Aaron Pierce and Jianming Qian. Additional input in the early stages by Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) who was unable to attend in the end. The workshop consistent of 22 talks from experts around the world, both theoretical and experimental. Experimentalists summarized the current state of knowledge of the Higgs boson and its varients. The theory talks ranged from technical calculations of Standard Model processes to speculative novel ideas. The YHET visitor program invited weekly young visitors to the University of Michigan campus to present their work. This year 24 participants came under the program, with 17 of them receiving at least partial support for their visits.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Projected Solar Irradiance Change over Turkey by Using the RegCM4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Tufan Turp, M.; An, Nazan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this research, we aim to make an alternative contribution to the studies about the prediction of solar power potential. As is well known, the largest contribution to the current climate change comes from the energy sector. In order to cope with global climate change, we have to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions mainly in the fossil fuel-based energy sector. Therefore, we need to place great emphasis on renewable energy resources such as wind and solar. Turkey is one of those countries, which have huge solar power potential depending on its geographical location. In this study, projected future changes for the periods of 2040 - 2070 and 2070 - 2100 in the net downward shortwave flux over Turkey with respect to the reference period (1970 - 2000) were investigated. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was used for the simulations of future and reference climate conditions. The HadGEM2 global climate model (Hadley Global Environment Model 2), which is developed by the Met Office Hadley Centre, was dynamically downscaled based on RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios for Turkey. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  10. Large Data set management tools in European Grid middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzini, S.

    2005-12-01

    Today scientific computational tasks are becoming more and more data-intensive and therefore in the Grid computing environment is important to have tools that easily integrate storage resources that provide high capacity, redundancy and scalability. Data movement and replication are also important functions to guarantee optimized access to files. Making storage resources shareable through the Grid middleware technology requires that those systems expose a uniform standard interface. The need for a homogeneous, transparent interface to storage leaded to the definition of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) interface. Thus, space management for any storage manager implementation looks the same to a client. The StoRM project, a joint collaboration between CNAF/INAF, ICTP Egrid project and CERN, aims at implementing the SRM standard over parallel file systems like GPFS and Lustre. In this talk I will briefly discuss data managements tools developed within the most important European Grid projects and I will shortly present Storm and its features. I finally will discuss typical case studies where large data set produced by ab-initio simulations can be easily handled within computational grids with appropriated tools like the one described before.

  11. Current sheath formation dynamics and structure for different insulator lengths of plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-11-15

    The breakdown phase of the UNU-ICTP plasma focus (PF) device was successfully simulated using the electromagnetic particle in cell method. A clear uplift of the current sheath (CS) layer was observed near the insulator surface, accompanied with an exponential increase in the plasma density. Both phenomena were found to coincide with the surge in the electric current, which is indicative of voltage breakdown. Simulations performed on the device with different insulator lengths showed an increase in the fast ionization wave velocity with length. The voltage breakdown time was found to scale linearly with the insulator length. Different spatial profiles of the CS electron density, and the associated degree of uniformity, were found to vary with different insulator lengths. The ordering, according to the degree of uniformity, among insulator lengths of 19, 22, and 26 mm agreed with that in terms of soft X-ray radiation yield observed from experiments. This suggests a direct correlation between CS density homogeneity near breakdown and the radiation yield performance. These studies were performed with a linearly increasing voltage time profile as input to the PF device.

  12. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Du, Maobo; Hou, Wei; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63 g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05). Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all). Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats. PMID:25691907

  13. Implementation of a Semi-Lagrangian scheme for water vapour and tracer advection in RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Tompkins, Adrian; Giorgi, Filippo; Bonaventura, Luca

    2013-04-01

    A semi-Lagrangian approach is introduced in the latest version of the ICTP regional climate model (RegCM4) for water vapor and tracer advection. A 'quasi' cubic interpolation and McGregor's third order accurate trajectory calculation are used in the advection scheme. The modified scheme is evaluated on idealized as well as realistic case studies and its results are compared against those of the Eulerian scheme originally employed in RegCM4. In the idealized test cases the semi-Lagrangian scheme appears to be superior to the Eulerian scheme in terms of the dissipative and dispersive errors, especially when large gradients are present in the advected quantity. Two realistic cases of meso-scale phenomena over the European domain were also tested in a short range mode for specific humidity transport. In both cases, the semi-Lagrangian scheme has captured better the detailed structure and improved the overall pattern of the vertically integrated humidity field. In the present preliminary implementation, the scheme is more expensive than the Eulerian one. This is because the same time step is used for tracer advection as the explicit time discretization employed by the dynamical core. However, greater computational gains are expected as the number of tracers considered increases, for instance when the gas phase chemistry is switched on.

  14. Planck 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.

  15. FOREST-SAGE, a new deforestation model for climate models and an example deforestation climate impact experiment in the Congo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Bell, J.-P.; Caporaso, L.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of deforestation on climate is often studied using highly idealized "instant deforestation" experiments due to the lack of generalized deforestation scenario generators coupled to climate model land-surface schemes. A new deforestation scenario generator has been therefore developed to fulfill this role known as the deFORESTation ScenArio GEnerator, or FOREST-SAGE. The model produces distributed maps of deforestation rates that account for local factors such as proximity to transport networks, distance weighted population density, forest fragmentation and presence of protected areas and logging concessions. The integrated deforestation risk is scaled to give the deforestation rate as specified by macro-region scenarios such as "business as usual" or "increased protection legislation" which are a function of future time. FOREST-SAGE is based on the framework of the widely used Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land model for the Community Earth System Model (CESM), the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and the 4th generation ICTP regional climate model REGCM4. Example potential future deforestation scenarios for central Africa are shown, along with the resulting climate impact as modelled by REGCM coupled to CLM.

  16. Ageism Discrimination Crowdlynching Shames Physics Pretentions of Intellectual Honesty and Ethics: Extension Throughout Universities Shaming Education By Bankrupting Overdebted Student Defrauding: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isalie, J.; Codben, Druid; Seidwinder, Gruald; Heiller, Ereich; Young, Muddlekent; Stuntley, Hugene; Siegel, L. E. E.; Deliesie, Charlatan

    2014-03-01

    Ageism discrimination sociological-dysfunctionality crowdlynching shames physics pretentions of intellectual honesty and ethics! Extension to other departments:philo.,psych.,geo.,maths shames claims of honest education:BU,HU,NEU,UW,SDSU,ICTP/SISSA. Defrauding overdebted students, would be ``sciences'' become alas mere séances! Witness:70 year old Edward Siegel,PhD(70) firsts:multiband Hubbard-model decades pre-``Emery'' with Rosen/Feynman[IBM Conf.Comp./Math.(86)] trendy/ hyped ``Q-computing'' in ANN AI, google search-engine Page-Brin adaption; pre-trendy nanophysics [PSS(a) 11, 45(72);Scripta Met.13,913(79)];decade-earlier GMR discoverer[JMMM 7,312(78)] pre ``Fert''-``Gruenberg'' decade-earlier acoustic-emission F =ma rediscovery in Bak/BNL-hyped SOC; FUZZYICS Aristotle SoO rediscovery eliminating jargonial-obfuscation plaguing physics via implementation of Cohen-Stewart[Collapse of Chaos:Discovering Simplicity in ``Complex'' World] called for compl-icity/ simple-xity both simultaneously automaticallybig-`data'disambiguation via HoT;AMS Joint Mtg.(02) proofs:FLT;P ≠NPBSD conj.,Riemann-hypothesis as BEC; Benford's-law inversion discovering digits = bosons; (87) Majorana-fermion & HDM discoverer in complex-quantum-statistics in fractal-dimensions; ``it's a jack-in-the-box'' universe cosmology.

  17. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    miniaturized mass spectrometry. From these arguments we may conclude that a penetration of measuring instruments (penetrators) into the icy surface of Europa just beyond the few millimeters beyond the stopping-depth would be sufficient for an accurate estimate of the delta-34 S parameter. This would be a possible way for rejecting, or supporting, the hypothesis of biogenicity of the Europan sulfur patches. The fact that missions such as LAPLACE, or others, can envisage, and undertake, such measurements (in the foreseeable future) is of the utmost importance for astrobiology's most significant question: Are there other environments in our own Solar System where we could settle the question of habitability, by making use of the available technologies? These results suggest that with the optimum stopping-depth we have calculated, sulfate-reducing bacteria would leave a measurable trace of their activity that is not affected by the harsh external environment. In addition, we have related sulfur transport in microbial mats that are known to take place in the Antarctica subglacial lakes with a mechanism that might rationalize what is taking place in the sulfur patches of the icy surface of Europa. Lake Vostok has given us preliminary hints from microorganisms retrieved from the accreted ice that lies just above its still-unexplored liquid water. References (*) Blanc, M. and the LAPLACE consortium (2008) LAPLACE: a mission to Europa and the Jupiter System, Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, in press, http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss186.html,Team Members http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss164.html. Chela-Flores J. and Kumar N. (2008) Returning to Europa: Can traces of surficial life be detected? International Journal of Astrobiology 7: (3), 263-269, http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A28gqjIw Chyba, C. (2000) Energy for microbial life on Europa, Nature 403: 381-383. Dudeja, S., Bhattacherjee, A. B. and Chela-Flores, J. (2009) Microbial mats in Antarctica as models for the search of life on

  18. Model of earlier stage of universe's evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Melnikov, V. N.

    1987-06-01

    A scenario of the evolution of the universe has been proposed on the basis of an open nonsingular model symmetric in time and consisting of four stages: (1) spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry in unified theories of the Weinberg-Salam type with gravitational background, assuming that only a conformal Higgs field and a gravitational field have nonzero averages in vacuum; (2) spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry of a Higgs field in a gravitational field; (3) generation of particles in a nonsteady gravitational field; (4) variation of the effective gravitational coupling. The model is initially cold and then becomes hot as particles are generated or phase transition occurs. The dynamics of this model and the corresponding earlier stage of evolution are determined by the time term in the Einstein equations, analysis and solution of which require that deviation of the scalar field from classical and a possible attendant effect on the polarization of vacuum be taken into account. The essential underlying feature of this model is the concept of evolution from a perfect vacuum and thus a cold state with subsequent expansion from a nonsingular state and expansion implied by the cosmological constant.

  19. Towards geometric D6-brane model building on non-factorisable toroidal ℤ 4-orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasaluce-González, Mikel; Honecker, Gabriele; Seifert, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We present a geometric approach to D-brane model building on the non-factorisable torus backgrounds of T 6/ ℤ 4, which are A 3 × A 3 and A 3 × A 1 × B 2. Based on the counting of `short' supersymmetric three-cycles per complex structure vev, the number of physically inequivalent lattice orientations with respect to the anti-holomorphic involution ℛ of the Type IIA/Ωℛ orientifold can be reduced to three for the A 3 × A 3 lattice and four for the A 3 × A 1 × B 2 lattice. While four independent three-cycles on A 3 × A 3 cannot accommodate phenomenologically interesting global models with a chiral spectrum, the eight-dimensional space of three-cycles on A 3 × A 1 × B 2 is rich enough to provide for particle physics models, with several globally consistent two- and four-generation Pati-Salam models presented here.

  20. Calculability, natura flavor conservation, and a left-right symmetric gauge model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two of the most powerful theoretical constraints on gague theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions are calculability of the generalized Cabibbo mixing angles and Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) in gauge boson and Higgs mediated neutral currents. Much of the work in these areas has been done in the context of the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge model Calculability is defined here in a precise way for an arbitrary gauge model with an unbroken U(1) symmetry (WET) for the first time and tis implications are explored. Also in the context of an arbitrary WET, it is found that NFC requires all quarks of a given charge and helicity to transform identically under the gauge group. The question as to whether a WET that obeys the fiats of NFC can support calculable mixing angles is answered in the negative. Similar results have been obtained for the standard model. This thesis addresses other outstanding problems in these areas, as well as formulating and examining a new left-right symmetric gauge model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions which exploits the gauge group SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) employed first by Pati, Salam, and Mohapatra.

  1. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  2. On the origins and the historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A.; Marx, W.; Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.

    2014-06-01

    The subject of our present paper is the analysis of the origins or historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective, using a segmented regression analysis in combination with a method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS). Our analysis is based on the references cited in the Higgs boson publications published since 1974. The objective of our analysis consists of identifying specific individual publications in the Higgs boson research context to which the scientific community frequently had referred to. We are interested in seminal works which contributed to a high extent to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Our results show that researchers in the Higgs boson field preferably refer to more recently published papers —particularly papers published since the beginning of the sixties. For example, our analysis reveals seven major contributions which appeared within the sixties: Englert and Brout (1964), Higgs (1964, 2 papers), and Guralnik et al. (1964) on the Higgs mechanism as well as Glashow (1961), Weinberg (1967), and Salam (1968) on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interaction. Even if the Nobel Prize award highlights the outstanding importance of the work of Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, bibliometrics offer the additional possibility of getting hints to other publications in this research field (especially to historical publications), which are of vital importance from the expert point of view.

  3. Baryon-Plus Number Violation at High Temperatures for Arbitrary Higgs Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu.

    In this thesis, baryon-plus-lepton (B + L) number violation in the electroweak theory of the Weinberg-Salam model is systematically studied. B + L number non-conservation in the electroweak theory is believed to be a consequence of the axial U(1) anomaly. It is argued that sphaleron, not instanton dominates the topological vacuum-to-vacuum transitions for B + L number change at high temperatures. The rate of change is reduced to a dimensionless prefactor kappa which is related to the determinants of small fluctuations around the sphaleron configuration. And kappa is exactly computed at high temperatures exploiting symmetries of sphaleron under spatial rotations combined with isospin and custodial SU(2) transformations. For the ratio lambda/g^2 of scalar four point coupling lambda to gauge coupling g^2 near unity, it is found that kappa is 0.03. and the rate of B + L number change at temperatures of order 1 Tev is about 8 to 9 orders of magnitude faster than the expansion rate of the big bang theory. For lambda/g ^2 large corresponding to a strongly coupled Higgs phase, or for lambda/g^2 very small tending to the Coleman-Weinberg limit, it is found that the determinant strongly suppresses the rate of baryon number changing processes.

  4. Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report for period ending June 30, 1980. [Syracuse Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The High Energy Theory Group at Syracuse conducted basic research in several areas of current interest. A great deal of progress was made in the understanding of systems with unusual topological properties. A variational formulation of the equations that govern spinning particles in general relativity was accomplished. Perturbative as well as nonperturbative properties (incorporated in an effective Lagrangian) of quantum chromodynamics aspects were investigated. The question concerning gauge fixing in non-Abelian gauge theories was studied. Several new phenomenological aspects of unified electroweak interactions were explored with the object of finding experimental tests for models other than the currently accepted Salam-Weinberg theory. A unified electroweak model based on the group (SU(2) x U(1)) x U'(1) was investigated to account for the repeated fermionic generations and to incorporate CP violations and explain the CP violation as well as the Cabibbo-like angles in terms of the quark masses. A unified theory for all interactions (with the exception of gravitational interactions) based on the group SU(5) x SU(5) was proposed. Finally, axially symmetric multi-instanton solutions were shown to be generated from a set of conformal mappings. The work performed is described briefly; references are given.

  5. Precision experiments in electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1990-03-01

    The electroweak theory of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) has become one of the twin pillars upon which our understanding of all particle physics phenomena rests. It is a brilliant achievement that qualitatively and quantitatively describes all of the vast quantity of experimental data that have been accumulated over some forty years. Note that the word quantitatively must be qualified. The low energy limiting cases of the GWS theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and the V-A Theory of Weak Interactions, have withstood rigorous testing. The high energy synthesis of these ideas, the GWS theory, has not yet been subjected to comparably precise scrutiny. The recent operation of a new generation of proton-antiproton (p{bar p}) and electron-positron (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) colliders has made it possible to produce and study large samples of the electroweak gauge bosons W{sup {plus minus}} and Z{sup 0}. We expect that these facilities will enable very precise tests of the GWS theory to be performed in the near future. In keeping with the theme of this Institute, Physics at the 100 GeV Mass Scale, these lectures will explore the current status and the near-future prospects of these experiments.

  6. Search for the lepton-flavor-violating decays B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McSkelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-10-01

    A search for the lepton-flavor-violating decays B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓) is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions at √s=7 TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓) candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be B(B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓))<1.1(1.4)×10(-8) and B(B0→e(±)μ(∓))<2.8(3.7)×10(-9) at 90% (95%) confidence level (C.L.). These limits are a factor of 20 lower than those set by previous experiments. Lower bounds on the Pati-Salam leptoquark masses are also calculated, M(LQ)(B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓))>101 TeV/c(2) and M(LQ)(B0→e(±)μ(∓))>126 TeV/c(2) at 95% C.L., and are a factor of 2 higher than the previous bounds. PMID:24138232

  7. Models of neutrino mass, mixing and CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2015-12-01

    In this topical review we argue that neutrino mass and mixing data motivates extending the Standard Model (SM) to include a non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetry in order to accurately predict the large leptonic mixing angles and {C}{P} violation. We begin with an overview of the SM puzzles, followed by a description of some classic lepton mixing patterns. Lepton mixing may be regarded as a deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing, with charged lepton corrections leading to solar mixing sum rules, or tri-maximal lepton mixing leading to atmospheric mixing rules. We survey neutrino mass models, using a roadmap based on the open questions in neutrino physics. We then focus on the seesaw mechanism with right-handed neutrinos, where sequential dominance (SD) can account for large lepton mixing angles and {C}{P} violation, with precise predictions emerging from constrained SD (CSD). We define the flavour problem and discuss progress towards a theory of favour using GUTs and discrete family symmetry. We classify models as direct, semidirect or indirect, according to the relation between the Klein symmetry of the mass matrices and the discrete family symmetry, in all cases focussing on spontaneous {C}{P} violation. Finally we give two examples of realistic and highly predictive indirect models with CSD, namely an A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam and a fairly complete A 4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT of flavour, where both models have interesting implications for leptogenesis.

  8. Introduction to gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1980-07-01

    The plan of these notes is as follows. Chapter 1 is devoted to a brief evocative review of current beliefs and prejudices that form the context for the discussion to follow. The idea of Gauge Invariance is introduced in Chapter 2, and the connection between conservation laws and symmetries of the Lagrangian is recalled. Non-Abelian gauge field theories are constructed in Chapter 3, by analogy with the familiar case of electromagnetism. The Yang-Mills theory based upon isospin symmetry is constructed explicitly, and the generalization is made to other gauge groups. Chapter 4 is concerned with spontaneous symmetry breaking and the phenomena that occur in the presence or absence of local gauge symmetries. The existence of massless scalar fields (Goldstone particles) and their metamorphosis by means of the Higgs mechanism are illustrated by simple examples. The Weinberg-Salam model is presented in Chapter 5, and a brief resume of applications to experiment is given. Quantum Chromodynamics, the gauge theory of colored quarks and gluons, is developed in Chapter 6. Asymptotic freedom is derived schematically, and a few simple applications of perturbative QCD ae exhibited. Details of the conjectured confinement mechanism are omitted. The strategy of grand unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions is laid out in Chapter 7. Some properties and consequences of the minimal unifying group SU(5) are presented, and the gauge hierarchy problem is introduced in passing. The final chapter contains an essay on the current outlook: aspirations, unanswered questions, and bold scenarios.

  9. Measurement of elastic muon-neutrino scattering off protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faissner, H.; Frenzel, E.; Hansl, T.; Hoffmann, D.; Radermacher, E.; Reithler, H.; Samm, U.; de Witt, H.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Huzita, H.; Loreti, M.; Puglierin, G.

    1980-02-01

    Single recoil protons have been detected in a multiplate Al spark chamber exposed to the 2-GeV wide-band neutrino beam from the CERN proton synchrotron. Neutron-induced protons were suppressed by suitable geometrical and kinematical cuts. After correction for remaining neutron background (110+/-15 events) and single-pion contribution (45+/-6 events), the final sample contains 62+/-19 genuine neutrino-induced single protons. This yields an effective ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) events of RN=(15+/-5)%, in the range 0.2<-q2<1.0 (GeV/c)2. This number is due to a mixture of elastic neutrino scatterings off protons and neutrons. From the probability fnp for a recoil neutron to give an accepted proton, one derives a model-independent combination of the NC/CC ratios Rp+fnpRn, with fnp=0.31+/-0.04. This favors axial-vector-isovector-dominant NC coupling constants and is consistent with the Weinberg-Salam model with 2θW=0.29+0.21-0.11. In terms of this model, this corresponds to Rp=(10+/-3)% and Rn=(15+3-5)%.

  10. Classification of flipped SU(5) heterotic-string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Rizos, John; Sonmez, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    We extend the classification of free fermionic heterotic-string vacua to models in which the SO(10) GUT symmetry is reduced at the string level to the flipped SU(5) subgroup. In our classification method the set of boundary condition basis vectors is fixed and the enumeration of string vacua is obtained in terms of the Generalised GSO (GGSO) projection coefficients entering the one-loop partition function. We derive algebraic expressions for the GGSO projections for all the physical states appearing in the sectors generated by the set of basis vectors. This enables the programming of the entire spectrum analysis in a computer code. For that purpose we developed two independent codes, based on FORTRAN95 and JAVA, and all results presented are confirmed by the two independent routines. We perform a statistical sampling in the space of 244∼1013 flipped SU(5) vacua, and scan up to 1012 GGSO configurations. Contrary to the corresponding Pati-Salam classification results, we do not find exophobic flipped SU(5) vacua with an odd number of generations. We study the structure of exotic states appearing in the three generation models, that additionally contain a viable Higgs spectrum, and demonstrate the existence of models in which all the exotic states are confined by a hidden sector non-Abelian gauge symmetry, as well as models that may admit the racetrack mechanism.

  11. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  12. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  13. CP violation makes left-right symmetric extensions with non-Hermitian mass matrices appear unnatural

    SciTech Connect

    Gielen, Steffen

    2010-04-01

    Following a similar recent analysis for CP violation in the electroweak sector of the standard model, we estimate the naturalness of a magnitude of CP violation (measured by the Jarlskog invariant J) close to the observed value in extensions of the standard model with left-right symmetry, such as the Pati-Salam model, where quark mass matrices are not Hermitian in general. We construct a simple and natural measure on the space of complex matrices which is both geometrically motivated and uses the observed quark mass hierarchy. We find that, unlike in the case of the standard model where the observed value for J seemed rather typical, one would now expect to observe |J|<10{sup -7}, clearly in conflict with the observed value J{approx_equal}3x10{sup -5}. The crucial difference in the calculation lies in the non-Hermiticity of mass matrices that modifies the measure. We conclude that one would need additional assumptions modifying the measure to reproduce the observed value, and that in this sense the standard model is preferred to certain classes of left-right symmetric extensions: It does not need additional assumptions to explain the magnitude of CP violation.

  14. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  15. A vector model for electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifler, Frank

    1985-03-01

    In this paper we present a vector model for the electroweak interactions. The Cartan map gives an isomorphism between Dirac bispinors and an isotropic class of Yang-Mills vector fields. The isotropic Yang-Mills vector fields Fk =Ek +iHk with k=1,2,3, satisfy the condition that the matrix of scalar invariants (Fj ṡFk) equals a scalar multiple of the identity matrix. We show that all the bispinor observables commute with the Cartan isomorphism, including all gauge transformations, as well as Lorentz transformations. We derive the Yang-Mills equivalent Dirac equation. As a consequence of the vector model, we obtain a new Lagrangian for electroweak interactions, which is an alternative to the Weinberg-Salam Lagrangian. Moreover, we show that the vector model predicts that the Weinberg angle θw satisfies sin2 θw =0.25, which is close to the measured value of sin2 θw =0.23. The vector model accommodates all the lepton and quark flavors. Furthermore, it predicts the conservation of baryon number and lepton number, as well as electric charge in electroweak interactions. The vector model also gives a new interpretation to antiparticles. In the vector model, an antiparticle is characterized by its opposite baryon number, lepton number, and electric charge; yet both particles and antiparticles propagate forward in time with positive energies.

  16. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries. PMID:27244964

  17. Search for the decays B_{(s)};{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-} and B_{(s)};{0} --> e;{+} e;{-} in CDF run II.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Griso, S Pagan; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-05-22

    We report results from a search for the lepton flavor violating decays B_{s};{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-} and B;{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}, and the flavor-changing neutral-current decays B_{s};{0} --> e;{+} e;{-} and B;{0} --> e;{+} e;{-}. The analysis uses data corresponding to 2 fb;{-1} of integrated luminosity of pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV collected with the upgraded Collider Detector (CDF II) at the Fermilab Tevatron. The observed number of B0 and B_{s};{0} candidates is consistent with background expectations. The resulting Bayesian upper limits on the branching ratios at 90% credibility level are B(B_{s};{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}) < 2.0 x 10;{-7}, B(B;{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}) < 6.4 x 10;{-8}, B(B_{s};{0} --> e;{+} e;{-}) < 2.8 x 10;{-7}, and B(B;{0} --> e;{+} e;{-}) < 8.3 x 10;{-8}. From the limits on B(B_{(s)};{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}), the following lower bounds on the Pati-Salam leptoquark masses are also derived: M_{LQ}(B_{s};{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}) > 47.8 TeV/c;{2}, and M_{LQ}(B;{0} --> e;{+} micro;{-}) > 59.3 TeV / c;{2}, at 90% credibility level.

  18. Schrödinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmister, C. W.

    1989-03-01

    1. Introduction C. W. Kilmister; 2. Boltzmann's influence on Schrödinger Dieter Flamm; 3. Schrödinger's original interpretation of the Schrödinger equation: a rescue attempt Jon Dorling; 4. Are there quantum jumps? J. S. Bell; 5. Square root of minus one, complex phases and Erwin Schrödinger Chen Ning Yung; 6. Consequences of the Schrödinger equation for atomic and molecular physics W. E. Thirring; 7. Molecular dynamics: from H + H, to biomolecules Martin Karplus; 8. Orbital presentation of chemical reactions Kenichi Fukui; 9. Quantum chemistry A. D. Buckingham; 10. Eamon de Valera, Erwin Schrödinger and the Dublin Institute Sir William McCrea; 11. Do bosons condense? J. T. Lewis; 12. Schrödinger's nonlinear optics James McConnell; 13. Schrödinger's unified field theory seen 40 years later O. Hittmair; 14. The Schrödinger equation of the Universe S. W. Hawking; 15. Overview of particle physics A. Salam; 16. Gauge fields, topological defects and cosmology T. W. B. Kibble; 17. Quantum theory and astronomy M. J. Seaton; 18. Schrödinger's contributions to chemistry and biology Linus Pawling; 19. Erwin Schrödinger's What is Life? and molecular biology M. F. Perutz.

  19. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  20. Baryogenesis via leptogenesis from quark-lepton symmetry and a compact heavy N{sub R} spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Buccella, F.; Falcone, D.; Oliver, L.

    2011-05-01

    By demanding a compact spectrum for the right-handed neutrinos and an approximate quark-lepton symmetry inspired from SO(10) gauge unification (assuming a Dirac neutrino mass matrix close to the up quark mass matrix), we construct a fine-tuning scenario for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We find two solutions with a normal hierarchy, with the lightest neutrino mass m{sub 1} different from zero, providing an absolute scale for the spectrum. In the approximations of the model, there are three independent CP phases: {delta}{sub L} (that we take of the order of the quark Kobayashi-Maskawa phase) and the two light neutrino Majorana phases {alpha} and {beta}. A main conclusion is that, although this general scheme is rather flexible, in some regions of parameter space we find that the necessary baryogenesis with its sign is given in terms of the {delta}{sub L} phase alone. The light Majorana phases can also be computed, and they turn out to be close to {pi}/2 or very small. Moreover, SO(10) breaks down to the Pati-Salam group SU(4)xSU(2)xSU(2) at the expected natural intermediate scale of about 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} GeV. A prediction is made for the effective mass in ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} decay, the {nu}{sub e} mass, and the sum of all light neutrino masses.

  1. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized Gaussians on a doubly dense Von Neumann lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2012-12-14

    In a series of earlier articles [B. Poirier, J. Theor. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003); B. Poirier and A. Salam, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1690 (2004); and ibid. 121, 1704 (2004)], a new method was introduced for performing exact quantum dynamics calculations. The method uses a 'weylet' basis set (orthogonalized Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets) combined with phase space truncation, to defeat the exponential scaling of CPU effort with system dimensionality-the first method ever able to achieve this long-standing goal. Here, we develop another such method, which uses a much more convenient basis of momentum-symmetrized Gaussians. Despite being non-orthogonal, symmetrized Gaussians are collectively local, allowing for effective phase space truncation. A dimension-independent code for computing energy eigenstates of both coupled and uncoupled systems has been created, exploiting massively parallel algorithms. Results are presented for model isotropic uncoupled harmonic oscillators and coupled anharmonic oscillators up to 27 dimensions. These are compared with the previous weylet calculations (uncoupled harmonic oscillators up to 15 dimensions), and found to be essentially just as efficient. Coupled system results are also compared to corresponding exact results obtained using a harmonic oscillator basis, and also to approximate results obtained using first-order perturbation theory up to the maximum dimensionality for which the latter may be feasibly obtained (four dimensions).

  2. Chirality, phase transitions and their induction in amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    1992-08-01

    “Atoms such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen, the major constituents of biological molecules, are less than 0.4 nm in diameter…. The behaviour of small molecules is a reflection of the intrinsic properties of the constituent atoms. Hence it might be expected that the behaviour of large macromolecules can be explained by a knowledge of atomic properties. Since organelles, whole cells and organisms are essentially macromolecular assemblies, it may be possible in time to derive an atomic theory of life” [A.R. Rees and M.J.E. Sternberg, From cells to atoms-An illustrated introduction to molecular biology (Blackwell, Oxford, 1984) p. 3]. It has been suggested that chirality among the twenty amino acids which make up the proteins may be a consequence of a phase transition which is analogous to that due to BCS superconductivity [A. Salam, J. Mol. Evol. 33 (1991) 105]. We explore these ideas in this paper and show, following Lee and Drell [I.H. Lee and S.D. Drell, in: Fermion masses in the standard model, M.A.B. Bég Memorial Volume, eds. A. Ali and P. Hoodbhoy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991) p. 13], that a crucial form for the transition temperature Tc involves dynamical symmetry breaking. The t-quarks or supersymmetry (or something similar which ensures a heavy mass) appear to be essential if such mechanisms are to hold.

  3. Search for the lepton-flavor-violating decays B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McSkelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-10-01

    A search for the lepton-flavor-violating decays B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓) is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions at √s=7 TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓) and B0→e(±)μ(∓) candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be B(B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓))<1.1(1.4)×10(-8) and B(B0→e(±)μ(∓))<2.8(3.7)×10(-9) at 90% (95%) confidence level (C.L.). These limits are a factor of 20 lower than those set by previous experiments. Lower bounds on the Pati-Salam leptoquark masses are also calculated, M(LQ)(B(s)0→e(±)μ(∓))>101 TeV/c(2) and M(LQ)(B0→e(±)μ(∓))>126 TeV/c(2) at 95% C.L., and are a factor of 2 higher than the previous bounds.

  4. Three Family Models from the Heterotic String

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Stuart

    2005-12-02

    In this talk I outline work done in collaboration with R.J. Zhang and T. Kobayashi. We show how to construct the equivalent of three family orbifold GUTs in five dimensions from the heterotic string. I focus on one particular model with E(6) gauge symmetry in 5D, the third family and Higgs doublet coming from the 5D bulk and the first two families living on 4D SO(10) branes. Note the E(6) gauge symmetry is broken to Pati-Salam in 4D which subsequently breaks to the Standard Model gauge symmetry via the Higgs mechanism. The model has two flaws, one fatal and one perhaps only unaesthetic. The model has a small set of vector-like exotics with fractional electromagnetic charge. Unfortunately not all of these states obtain mass at the compactification scale. This flaw is fatal. The second problem is R parity violating interactions. These problems may be avoidable in alternate orbifold compactification schemes. It is these problems which we discuss in this talk.

  5. Extra Z^' }s and W^' }s in heterotic-string derived models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Guzzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible excess in the di-boson production at the di-boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional Z^' } and/or W^' } at that scale. We survey the extra Z^' }s and W^' }s that may arise from semi-realistic heterotic-string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in the seven distinct cases: U(1)_{Z^' }}in SO(10); family universal U(1)_{Z^' }}notin SO(10); non-universal U(1)_{Z^' }}; hidden sector U(1) symmetries and kinetic mixing; left-right symmetric models; Pati-Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. The existence of an extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.

  6. PREFACE: Conceptual and Technical Challenges for Quantum Gravity 2014 - Parallel session: Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, P.; Wallet, J.-C.; Amelino-Camelia, G.

    2015-08-01

    The conference Conceptual and Technical Challenges for Quantum Gravity at Sapienza University of Rome, from 8 to 12 September 2014, has provided a beautiful opportunity for an encounter between different approaches and different perspectives on the quantum-gravity problem. It contributed to a higher level of shared knowledge among the quantum-gravity communities pursuing each specific research program. There were plenary talks on many different approaches, including in particular string theory, loop quantum gravity, spacetime noncommutativity, causal dynamical triangulations, asymptotic safety and causal sets. Contributions from the perspective of philosophy of science were also welcomed. In addition several parallel sessions were organized. The present volume collects contributions from the Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity parallel session4, with additional invited contributions from specialists in the field. Noncommutative geometry in its many incarnations appears at the crossroad of many researches in theoretical and mathematical physics: • from models of quantum space-time (with or without breaking of Lorentz symmetry) to loop gravity and string theory, • from early considerations on UV-divergencies in quantum field theory to recent models of gauge theories on noncommutative spacetime, • from Connes description of the standard model of elementary particles to recent Pati-Salam like extensions. This volume provides an overview of these various topics, interesting for the specialist as well as accessible to the newcomer. 4partially funded by CNRS PEPS /PTI ''Metric aspect of noncommutative geometry: from Monge to Higgs''

  7. Microbial analyses of traditional Italian salami reveal microorganisms transfer from the natural casing to the meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Pisacane, Vincenza; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Puglisi, Edoardo; Dallolio, Giuliano; Rebecchi, Annalisa

    2015-08-17

    In this study the bacterial biodiversity, during the maturation process of traditional sausages (Salame Mantovano), produced with two different kinds of casing (hog middle or "Crespone" and hog bung or "Gentile"), was investigated by means of culture-dependent and -independent methods. In order to assess the natural variability linked to the type of casing used in production, the ingredients, as well as ripening conditions, were identical in both productions. The aim of the study was to understand the contribution of casing microflora during sausage ripening by identifying the dominant species and strains. The bacterial ecology of casings and salami at different ripening stages, as determined by plating, revealed higher staphylococci and enterococci counts for Gentile casing and for the entire ripening period of the salami studied. After molecular identification of 219 Lactobacilli and 225 cocci gram positive catalase positive (GPCP) isolates, the species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some L. sakei and S. saprophyticus strains, coming from casing, were also found in the salami at different times of ripening. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. We also report the first detection, by PCR-DGGE method, of Arcobacter marinus and Brochothrix thermosphacta species in casings and Kokuria salsicia in fresh sausage. Results suggesting that casing can be an important source of bacteria during natural fermentation when starter cultures are not used.

  8. Standard-smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-12-15

    We consider the extended supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which, for {mu}>0 and universal boundary conditions, succeeds to yield experimentally acceptable b-quark masses by moderately violating Yukawa unification. It is known that this model can lead to new shifted or new smooth hybrid inflation. We show that a successful two-stage inflationary scenario can be realized within this model based only on renormalizable superpotential interactions. The cosmological scales exit the horizon during the first stage of inflation, which is of the standard hybrid type and takes place along the trivial flat direction with the inflaton driven by radiative corrections. Spectral indices compatible with the recent data can be achieved in global supersymmetry or minimal supergravity by restricting the number of e-foldings of our present horizon during the first inflationary stage. The additional e-foldings needed for solving the horizon and flatness problems are naturally provided by a second stage of inflation, which occurs mainly along the built-in new smooth hybrid inflationary path appearing right after the destabilization of the trivial flat direction at its critical point. Monopoles are formed at the end of the first stage of inflation and are, subsequently, diluted by the second stage of inflation to become utterly negligible in the present universe for almost all (for all) the allowed values of the parameters in the case of global supersymmetry (minimal supergravity)

  9. Finite temperature corrections and embedded strings in noncommutative geometry and the standard model with neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, R. A.

    2007-08-15

    The recent extension of the standard model to include massive neutrinos in the framework of noncommutative geometry and the spectral action principle involves new scalar fields and their interactions with the usual complex scalar doublet. After ensuring that they bring no unphysical consequences, we address the question of how these fields affect the physics predicted in the Weinberg-Salam theory, particularly in the context of the electroweak phase transition. Applying the Dolan-Jackiw procedure, we calculate the finite temperature corrections, and find that the phase transition is first order. The new scalar interactions significantly improve the stability of the electroweak Z string, through the 'bag' phenomenon described by Vachaspati and Watkins ['Bound states can stabilize electroweak strings', Phys. Lett. B 318, 163-168 (1993)]. (Recently, cosmic strings have climbed back into interest due to a new evidence.) Sourced by static embedded strings, an internal space analogy of Cartan's torsion is drawn, and a possible Higgs-force-like 'gravitational' effect of this nonpropagating torsion on the fermion masses is described. We also check that the field generating the Majorana mass for the {nu}{sub R} is nonzero in the physical vacuum.

  10. Microbial analyses of traditional Italian salami reveal microorganisms transfer from the natural casing to the meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Pisacane, Vincenza; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Puglisi, Edoardo; Dallolio, Giuliano; Rebecchi, Annalisa

    2015-08-17

    In this study the bacterial biodiversity, during the maturation process of traditional sausages (Salame Mantovano), produced with two different kinds of casing (hog middle or "Crespone" and hog bung or "Gentile"), was investigated by means of culture-dependent and -independent methods. In order to assess the natural variability linked to the type of casing used in production, the ingredients, as well as ripening conditions, were identical in both productions. The aim of the study was to understand the contribution of casing microflora during sausage ripening by identifying the dominant species and strains. The bacterial ecology of casings and salami at different ripening stages, as determined by plating, revealed higher staphylococci and enterococci counts for Gentile casing and for the entire ripening period of the salami studied. After molecular identification of 219 Lactobacilli and 225 cocci gram positive catalase positive (GPCP) isolates, the species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some L. sakei and S. saprophyticus strains, coming from casing, were also found in the salami at different times of ripening. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. We also report the first detection, by PCR-DGGE method, of Arcobacter marinus and Brochothrix thermosphacta species in casings and Kokuria salsicia in fresh sausage. Results suggesting that casing can be an important source of bacteria during natural fermentation when starter cultures are not used. PMID:26001060

  11. Systems astrobiology for a reliable biomarker on exo-worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2013-04-01

    moons of our solar system (Chela-Flores, 2010), and will learn in the foreseeable future with the JUICE Mission will be relevant to systems astrobiology. The distribution of systems of habitable worlds with their biomarkers will be testable in the short term with forthcoming space missions: FINNESSE, EChO and TESS. This would justify subsequent use of quantitative systems biology methods that are available from its repertoire of analytic approaches. References Catling et al. (2005). Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time", Astrobiology, 5, 415-438. Chela-Flores, J. (2010). Instrumentation for the search of habitable ecosystems in the future exploration of Europa and Ganymede. International Journal of Astrobiology, 9, 101-108. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/jcf_IJA_2010.pdf Chela-Flores, J. (2013). From systems chemistry to systems astrobiology: Life in the universe as an emergent phenomenon. Published online: 26 July 2012. International Journal of Astrobiology, 12,8-16. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Int_J_AB_SAB_3.pdf Kiang, N.Y., et al (2007). Spectral signatures of photosynthesis II. Astrobiology 7, 252-274. Kipping, D. M. et al (2012). The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler. arXiv:1201.0752 [astro-ph.EP]. Wolstencroft, R.D. and Raven, J.A. (2002). Photosynthesis: likelihood of occurrence and possibility of detection on earth-like planets. Icarus 157, 535-548.

  12. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor system components and relationship to bone metabolism in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Jehle, P M; Jehle, D R; Mohan, S; Böhm, B O

    1998-11-01

    Osteopenia has been ascribed to diabetics without residual insulin secretion and high insulin requirement. However, it is not known if this is partially due to disturbances in the IGF system, which is a key regulator of bone cell function. To address this question, we performed a cross-sectional study measuring serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 by specific immunoassays in 52 adults with Type 1 (n=27) and Type 2 (n=25) diabetes mellitus and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy blood donors. In the diabetic patients, we further determined serum levels of proinsulin, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several biochemical bone markers, including osteocalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and type I collagen cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP). Urinary albumin excretion was ascertained as a marker of diabetic nephropathy. Bone mineral density (BMD) of hip and lumbar spine was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data are presented as means+/-s.e.m. Differences between the experimental groups were determined by performing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between variables were assessed using univariate linear regression analysis and partial correlation analysis. Type 1 diabetics showed significantly lower IGF-I (119+/-8 ng/ml) and IGFBP-3 (2590+/-104 ng/ml) but higher IGFBP-1 levels (38+/-10 ng/ml) compared with Type 2 patients (170+/-13, 2910+/-118, 11+/-3 respectively; P<0.05) or healthy controls (169+/-5, 4620+/-192, 3.5+/-0.4 respectively; P<0.01). IGFBP-5 levels were markedly lower in both diabetic groups (Type 1, 228+/-9; Type 2, 242+/-11 ng/ml) than in controls (460+/-7 ng/ml,P<0. 01), whereas IGFBP-4 levels were similar in diabetics and controls. IGF-I correlated positively with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 and negatively with IGFBP-1

  13. An outreach activity at the frontier of science: the Planeterrella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, J.; Simon, C.; Barthélemy, M.

    2007-08-01

    In 1899, the Norwegian physicist Kristian Birkeland developed an experiment called Terrella, which enabled him to show the mechanism of formation of the auroral oval. An electron gun was shooting electrons (then called "cathode rays") to a magnetized sphere in a vacuum chamber. This enabled him to see also (without identifying them) the ring currents, discovered later by James Van Allen. One of us (J.L.) built several Terrellas, initially for the Olympiads of physics in 1999, then with undergraduate students and finally assembled a Terrella experiment in a school of geophysics in Trieste in May 2006 (ICTP - UNESCO - COST 724 - NSF). We recently assembled a new experiment inspired from the Terrella. We completely reconsidered the experiment of Birkeland, in order to give the greatest flexibility. A great number of planetary situations of the interactions sun - planets is now possible: Uranus and Neptune, the interaction between Ganymede and Jupiter, and even the interaction between a magnetized exoplanet and a close star. This is why this experiment has been renamed Planeterrella. The experiment is now under a calibration process in order to check whether it can still be used for scientific purposes. However, we already presented it in public activities several times. It is very beautiful, and allows to show plasma physics in action, and especially the Sun-Planets relationships in a very spectacular way. In this talk, we will explain this simple experiment and show slides of the outreach activities we carried out. In the future, we intend to set up an international program to lower the price of the unit (actually about 20 kE) in order to allow all universities, including in developing countries, to get a Planeterrella. This will be hopefully a UNESCO program.

  14. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter, No. 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    This fourth issue of the Newsletter contains a (1) contribution in the series of reports on national fusion programs from Algeria; (2) a letter from Dr J. A. M. de Villiers, manager: fusion studies, at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, informing about the close down of the small tokamak project there, and soliciting ways to use some manpower and supportive sources to salvage the wealth of information still left behind in the project, and offering, in the possible absence of such manpower and supportive sources, the entire facility for sale (specifications of the Tokoloshe Tokamak plus diagnostic systems are enclosed); (3) the e-mail address of the Third World Plasma Research Network (TWPRN), namely: 'PLASNET.NERUS.PFC.MIT.EDU'; (4) minutes of the TWPRN Steering Committee Meeting held in May 1991, at the I.C.T.P., Trieste, Italy; (5) a news item on the ITER Tokamak project; (6) a reiteration of the announcement of the 14th IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, to be held in Wuerzburg, Germany, September 30 to October 7, 1992; (7) a list of IAEA Technical Committee Meetings during 1991; (8) the First Announcement of the V Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, to be held in Mexico City, July 21-30, 1992, accompanied with a call for papers; all correspondence on this conference should be addressed to: Dr. Julio Herrera, V LAWPP, ICN-UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-543, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. Mexico (e-mail: 'HERRE.UNAMVM1.BITNET'); (9) the announcement for the Second South North International Workshop on Fusion Theory, Lisbon, Portugal, March 1993 (contact: Pr. Tito Mendonca, Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superio Tecnico, 1096 Lisbon Codex, Portugal).

  15. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase.

    PubMed

    Paleckis, Vidas; Mickevičius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Streckis, Vytautas; Pääsuke, Mati; Rutkauskas, Saulius; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9) performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP), patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1) steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2) larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3) increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4) increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement. Key pointsFrequent drop jump training induces activation mode dependent muscle torque depression late in the training period.No significant changes in the thickness of patellar and Achilles tendons are observed during frequent training, while CSA increases towards the end of training period.Longitudinal effect for jump height but not for muscle strength is evident after

  16. On the development of a coupled regional climate-vegetation model RCM-CLM-CN-DV and its validation in Tropical Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy S.; Mei, Rui; Bonan, Gordon B.; Levis, Samuel; Thornton, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a regional climate system model RCM-CLM-CN-DV and its validation over Tropical Africa. The model development involves the initial coupling between the ICTP regional climate model RegCM4.3.4 (RCM) and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) including models of carbon-nitrogen dynamics (CN) and vegetation dynamics (DV), and further improvements of the models. Model improvements derive from the new parameterization from CLM4.5 that addresses the well documented overestimation of gross primary production (GPP), a refinement of stress deciduous phenology scheme in CN that addresses a spurious LAI fluctuation for drought-deciduous plants, and the incorporation of a survival rule into the DV model to prevent tropical broadleaf evergreens trees from growing in areas with a prolonged drought season. The impact of the modifications on model results is documented based on numerical experiments using various subcomponents of the model. The performance of the coupled model is then validated against observational data based on three configurations with increasing capacity: RCM-CLM with prescribed leaf area index and fractional coverage of different plant functional types (PFTs); RCM-CLM-CN with prescribed PFTs coverage but prognostic plant phenology; RCM-CLM-CN-DV in which both the plant phenology and PFTs coverage are simulated by the model. Results from these three models are compared against the FLUXNET up-scaled GPP and ET data, LAI and PFT coverages from remote sensing data including MODIS and GIMMS, University of Delaware precipitation and temperature data, and surface radiation data from MVIRI and SRB. Our results indicate that the models perform well in reproducing the physical climate and surface radiative budgets in the domain of interest. However, PFTs coverage is significantly underestimated by the model over arid and semi-arid regions of Tropical Africa, caused by an underestimation of LAI in these regions by the CN model that gets exacerbated

  17. Long-term climate change impacts on agricultural productivity in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Chavas, Daniel R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Gao, Xuejie

    2009-06-15

    Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce significant climate change over the next century and beyond, but the impacts on society remain highly uncertain. This work examines potential climate change impacts on the productivity of five major crops in northeastern China: canola, corn, potato, rice, and winter wheat. In addition to determining domain-wide trends, the objective is to identify vulnerable and emergent regions under future climate conditions, defined as having a greater than 10% decrease and increase in productivity, respectively. Data from the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model for baseline (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) periods under A2 scenario conditions are used as input in the EPIC agro-ecosystem simulation model in the domain [30ºN, 108ºE] to [42ºN, 123ºE]. Simulations are performed with and without the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect. Results indicate that aggregate potential productivity (i.e. if the crop is grown everywhere) increases 6.5% for rice, 8.3% for canola, 18.6% for corn, 22.9% for potato, and 24.9% for winter wheat, although with significant spatial variability for each crop. However, absent the enhanced CO2 fertilization effect, potential productivity declines in all cases ranging from 2.5-12%. Interannual yield variability remains constant or declines in all cases except rice. Climate variables are found to be more significant drivers of simulated yield changes than changes in soil properties, except in the case of potato production in the northwest where the effects of wind erosion are more significant. Overall, in the future period corn and winter wheat benefit significantly in the North China Plain, rice remains dominant in the southeast and emerges in the northeast, potato and corn yields become viable in the northwest, and potato yields suffer in the southwest with no other crop emerging as a clear beneficiary from among those simulated in this study.

  18. UNESCO active learning approach in optics and photonics leads to significant change in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.; Channa, R.; Outzourhit, A.; Azizan, M.; Oueriagli, A.

    2014-07-01

    There are many difficulties in teaching science and technology in developing countries. Several different teaching strategies have to be applied in these cases. More specifically, for developing countries competencies in teaching science in the introductory classroom has attracted much attention. As a specific example we will consider the Moroccan system. In most developing countries everything is moving so slowly that the progress stays static for development. Also, any change needs time, effort and engagement. In our case we discovered that many teachers feel uncomfortable when introducing new teaching methods and evaluation in classes at introductory physics. However, the introduction of an Active Learning in our curricula showed difficulties that students have in understanding physics and especially concepts. Students were interested in having Active Learning courses much more than passive and traditional ones. Changing believes on physical phenomena and reality of the world students become more attractive and their way of thinking Science changed. The main philosophy of fostering modern hands-on learning techniques -adapted to local needs and availability of teaching resources- is elaborated. The Active Learning program provides the teachers with a conceptual evaluation instrument, drawn from relevant physics education research, giving teachers an important tool to measure student learning. We will try to describe the UNESCO Chair project in physics created in 2010 at Cadi Ayyad University since our first experience with UNESCO ALOP program. Many efforts have been done so far and the project helps now to develop more national and international collaborations between universities and Regional Academies of Education and Training. As a new result of these actions and according to our local needs, the translation of the ALOP program into Arabic is now available under the auspice of UNESCO and encouragement of international partners SPIE, ICTP, ICO and OSA.

  19. Representation of Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in Regional Climate Model: Sensitivity to Convective Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, U.

    2015-12-01

    We use latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM4.4 for the study of seasonal mean and monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) during Indian summer monsoon season over south Asian CORDEX domain. First time we have done detailed analysis to evaluate RegCM4.4 for space-time evolution characteristics of MISOs. The model is initialized at 1st January, 2000 for a 13-year continuous simulation at a spatial resolution of 50km. The sensitivity of the model performance to cumulus physics in simulating MISOs has been evaluated by considering three different combinations of Grell (G) and Emanuel (E) cumulus schemes. The models reasonably simulate the seasonal mean precipitation and 850-hPa wind with a notable bias in precipitation over Indian subcontinent and Equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO). The models exhibit higher skill in simulating seasonal mean wind than moisture and precipitation. On seasonal scale, the performance of RegCM-EG is more close to observation. However, on intraseasonal time scales, RegCM-EG fails to capture 25-90 day filtered precipitation variance over EIO which reflects in improper representation of features of MISOs. The space-time characteristics of MISOs are well captured by RegCM-EE over RegCM-GE, however it fails to show the eastward propagation of the convection across the Maritime Continent. Except RegCM-EE all other models completely underestimated the moisture advection from EIO onto Indian land region throughout the life-cycle of MISOs. It is found that the improvement in the representation of moist processes in RegCM-EE makes it useful for the study of characteristics of MISOs at regional scales. Figure below is lag composite of vertically integrated 25-90 day filtered horizontal moisture advection (shaded) and precipitation (black contour).

  20. The Impact of the SESAME Project on Science and Society in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2008-04-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a UNESCO-sponsored project that is constructing an international research laboratory, closely modeled on CERN, in Jordan (www.sesame.org.jo). Ten Members of the governing Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Turkey) have responsibility for the project, led by Herwig Schopper, Council President since 1999. In late 2008 Chris Llewellyn-Smith will become Council President. SESAME was initiated by a gift from Germany of the decommissioned BESSY I facility. The BESSY I 0.8 GeV injector is now being installed in the recently completed building, funded by Jordan, as components are procured for a new 133 m circumference, 2.5 GeV third-generation storage ring with 12 locations for insertion devices. Beam line equipment has been provided by laboratories in France, UK, and US. Support also comes from EU, IAEA, ICTP, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the US Department of Energy and State Department, and laboratories around the world. The broad scientific program includes biomedical, environmental, and archaeological programs particularly relevant to the Middle East. Five scientific workshops and six annual Users' meetings have brought together several hundred scientists from the region, along with researchers from around the world. Training programs have enabled about 100 scientists from the region to work at synchrotron radiation laboratories. These activities have already had significant impact on science and society in the Middle East, for example leading to collaborations between scientists from countries that are not particularly friendly with each other, and to national planning emphasizing synchrotron radiation research. When research starts in 2011 this impact will grow as graduate students are trained in the region in many scientific disciplines, and scientists working abroad are attracted to return.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Madalina; Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Breza, Traian

    2014-05-01

    Climate change scenarios assume significant modifications in the precipitation characteristics over the South-Eastern Europe (SEE), raising a huge interest from the general public and stakeholders. In the recent period, the scientific community has produced many reports showing that the overall precipitation amounts are likely to decrease until the end of the 21st century with variations related to geography, seasons, and parameters. The distribution of the precipitation along the year is key information for water management in hydrologic and agricultural applications, which are very sensitive issues for the SEE countries. This study investigates the observed variability of the seasonality over the SEE (1961-2020), and the expected changes according to IPCC scenarios for the next decades (2021-2050). The analysis exploits the outputs of the Regional Climate Models (RCMs) RegCM3 (ICTP), Aladin (CNRM), and Promes (UCLM), at 25-km spatial resolution and seasonal focus, while ECA&D, and E-OBS datasets were used for featuring the actual climate. Markham (a), and Walsh & Lawler (b) seasonality indices (SI) were computed and employed for the whole area, while the trend analysis was conducted using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall statistics (c), and the Pettitt test (d) and Rodionov Regime Shift Index (e) tests were employed to identify the shifting points. The results pointed out strong differentiations between the different climates in the studied region (e.g. Mediterranean and Carpathian regions), and significant changes in certain spots. Correlated with the variability of the water resources, consumption and availability, the results can be extremely useful for the water management activities. This study is the result of activities developed within the CC-WARE Project (Mitigating Vulnerability of Water Resources under Climate Change), contract no. SEE/D/0143/2.1/X.

  2. Simulation of Indian summer monsoon onset with different parameterization convection schemes of RegCM-4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatla, R.; Ghosh, S.; Mandal, B.; Mall, R. K.; Sharma, Kuldeep

    2016-07-01

    Simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) onset over South Asia Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) domain in pentad composite pattern is considered for this study. The latest version of the International Center for Theoretical Physics' (ICTP's) Regional Climate Model version 4.3 (RegCM-4.3) is used for the simulation of a pentad composite onset for three time period: Pre-onset, Onset and Post-onset periods of ISM. Each pentad composite is average of five consecutive days. 10 years (2001-2010) worth of pentad composites of rainfall, mean sea level pressure (MSLP), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), wind at 850 hPa and 925 hPa levels till 7 days prior to the date of onset of monsoon and 7 days after the onset are analyzed to find out the predictive skill. Six Parameterization convection schemes (PCSs) viz. Kuo, Mix98, Mix99, Tiedtke, Emanuel and Grell are used in sensitivity experiment and estimation of their performance has been done. From the experiment, some modulation is found in the OLR field (≤ 200 Wm- 2) within the region 5°N-10°N and 70°N-75°E. Yearly analysis has shown the strength of wind at 925 hPa over the region 5°N-10°N and 70°E-80°E on pentad composite onset of ISM. Yearly analysis is conducted for finding the best fitted PCS which has provided the precursor for simulating the onset.

  3. Effect of Ultraviolet A-induced Crosslinking on Dentin Collagen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Tjäderhane, Leo; Pashley, David H; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using UVA-induced crosslinking with or without riboflavin as photosensitizers on degradation of dentin matrix by dentin proteases. Methods Demineralized dentin specimens (0.4×3×6mm, n=10/group) were subjected to: (RP1), 0.1% riboflavin-5 phosphate/UVA for 1 min; (RP5), 0.1% riboflavin-5 phosphate/UVA for 5 min; (R1), 0.1% riboflavin/UVA for 1 min; (R5), 0.1% riboflavin-UVA for 5 min; (UV1), UVA for 1 min; (UV5), UVA for 5 min. Specimens were incubated in 1 mL zinc and calcium containing media for 1 day and 1 week. An untreated group served as control (CM). After incubation, the loss of dry mass of samples was measured and aliquots of media were analyzed for the release of C-terminal fragment telopeptide (ICTP vs CTX) of collagen to evaluate for cathepsin K (CA-K) and total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated degradation. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA at α=0.05. Results Although UVA radiation alone reduced dentin degradation, UVA-activated riboflavin or riboflavin-5 phosphate inhibited MMP and CA-K activities more than UVA alone. The effects of crosslinking were more pronounced in 7-day samples; only with CA-K were the effects of crosslinking with or without photosensitizer significantly different from controls in 1-day samples. Significance The use of bioactive forms (RP) or longer treatment time did not result with better effect. The use of UVA crosslinking reduces dentin matrix degradation, especially with photosensitizers. PMID:26314255

  4. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. T.; Ozturk, T.; An, N.; Türkeş, M.; Kurnaz, L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period of 2071-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3°C up to more than 7°C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  5. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  6. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be

  7. Impaired bone resorption in cathepsin K-deficient mice is partially compensated for by enhanced osteoclastogenesis and increased expression of other proteases via an increased RANKL/OPG ratio.

    PubMed

    Kiviranta, Riku; Morko, Jukka; Alatalo, Sari L; NicAmhlaoibh, Roisin; Risteli, Juha; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Vuorio, Eero

    2005-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that mice deficient for cathepsin K (Ctsk), a key protease in osteoclastic bone resorption, develop osteopetrosis due to their inability to properly degrade organic bone matrix. Some features of the phenotype of Ctsk knockout mice, however, suggest the presence of mechanisms by which Ctsk-deficient mice compensate for the lack of cathepsin K. To study these mechanisms in detail, we generated Ctsk-deficient (Ctsk-/-) mice and analyzed them at the age of 2, 7, and 12 months using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, histomorphometry, resorption marker measurements, osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation cultures, and gene expression analyses. The present study verified the previously published osteopetrotic features of Ctsk-deficient mice. However, these changes did not exacerbate during aging indicating the absence of Ctsk to have its most severe effects during the rapid growth period. Resorption markers ICTP and CTX were decreased in the media of Ctsk-/- osteoclasts cultured on bone slices indicating impaired bone resorption. Ctsk-/- mice exhibited several mechanisms attempting to compensate for Ctsk deficiency. The number of osteoclasts in trabecular bone was significantly increased in Ctsk-/- mice compared to controls, as was the number of osteoclast precursors in bone marrow. The mRNA levels for receptor activator of nuclear factor (kappa)B ligand (RANKL) in Ctsk-/- bones were increased resulting in increased RANKL/OPG ratio favoring osteoclastogenesis. In addition, expression of mRNAs of osteoclastic enzymes (MMP-9, TRACP) and for osteoblastic proteases (MMP-13, MMP-14) were increased in Ctsk-/- mice compared to controls. Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption in Ctsk-/- mice results in activation of osteoblastic cells to produce increased amounts of other proteolytic enzymes and RANKL in vivo. We suggest that increased RANKL expression mediates enhanced osteoclastogenesis and increased protease expression by osteoclasts

  8. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  9. Proton decay and new contribution to 0 ν2 β decay in SO(10) with low-mass Z' boson, observable oscillation, lepton flavor violation, and rare kaon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, M. K.; Awasthi, Ram Lal; Sahu, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the conventional approach to observable oscillation through Pati-Salam intermediate gauge symmetry in SO(10), the canonical seesaw mechanism is also constrained by the symmetry breaking scale M R ˜ M C ≤ 106 GeV which yields light neutrino masses several orders larger than the neutrino oscillation data. A method to evade this difficulty is through TeV scale gauged inverse seesaw mechanism which has been recently exploited while predicting experimentally verifiable W {/R ±}, Z R bosons with a new dominant contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay in the W L - W L channel and other observable phenomena, but with proton lifetime far beyond the accessible limits. In the present work, adopting the view that W {/R ±} may be heavy and currently inaccessible to accelerator tests, we show how a class of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models allows a TeV scale Z' boson, experimentally testable proton decay along with observable oscillation, and lepto-quark gauge boson mediated rare kaon decays without resorting to additional fine-tuning of parameters. The occurrence of Pati-Salam gauge symmetry with unbroken D-parity and two gauge couplings at the highest intermediate scale guarantees precision unification with vanishing GUT-threshold or gravitational corrections on sin2 θ W ( M Z ) prediction in this model. Predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay in the W L - W L channel is analysed in detail including light and heavy sterile neutrino exchange contributions by means of normal and band plots and also by scattered plots while a new formula for half-life is derived. Comparison with available data from various groups by normal and scattered plots reveals how the existing experimental bounds are satisfied irrespective of the mass hierarchy in the light neutrino sector leading to the lower bound on the lightest sterile neutrino mass, GeV. The model also predicts branching ratios for charged lepton flavor violation verifiable by ongoing search experiments. We also

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option.

  11. A summary of recent experimental results from Mark J: High energy e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collisions at PETRA: Report Number 131

    SciTech Connect

    Adeva, B.; Barber, D.P.; Becker, U.; Berdugo, J.; Bohm, A.; Branson, J.G.; Burger, J.D.; Capell, M.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, C.C.

    1983-12-01

    The PETRA electron-positron collider at DESY in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, began operating in 1978, with four intersection regions devoted to experiments. In the intervening five years, five detector devices, CELLO, JADE, MARK-J, PLUTO and TASSO have accumulated and published a substantial variety of experimental results. The limits of validity of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) have been extended; the pointlike nature of leptons and quarks have been probed at exceedingly small distances; the Glashow, Weinberg and Salam (GWS) '' standard electroweak model'' has been tested and found to describe interactions remarkably well; the predicted interference between electromagnetic and weak forces has been conclusively demonstrated; events with three jets have been discovered and interpreted as resulting from gluons, as predicted by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD); the sixth, ''top,'' quark has not been found yet, although an energy search for ''toponium'' (top + antitop) has been carried out up to 43.1 GeV center of mass energy. An integrated luminosity of about 100 pb/sup /minus/1/ mostly at energies above 30 GeV, has produced a very large sample of events. The present paper is a complete review and up-dating of all MARK-J physics results either published or unpublished. Since the amount of interesting information is so large, we realized that a coherent summation could be of substantial usefulness to the community. In order that this review can serve many needs, we include, a brief description of the apparatus and the data acquisition and analysis.

  12. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Amira L.; Youssef, Hanan H.; Amer, Wafaa M.; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A.

    2012-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa,Bacillus macerans,Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans,Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera,Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola.Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam

  13. Algebraic description of external and internal attributes of fundamental fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    2012-02-01

    To describe external and internal attributes of fundamental fermions, a theory of multi-spinor fields is developed on an algebra, a triplet algebra, which consists of all the triple-direct-products of Dirac γ-matrices. The triplet algebra is decomposed into the product of two subalgebras, an external algebra and an internal algebra, which are exclusively related with external and internal characteristic of the multi-spinor field named triplet fields. All elements of the external algebra which is isomorphic to the original Dirac algebra Aγ are invariant under the action of permutation group S3 which works to exchange the order of the Aγ elements in the triple-direct-product. The internal algebra is decomposed into the product of two 42 dimensional algebras, called the family and color algebras, which describe the family and color degrees of freedom. The family and color algebras have fine substructures with "trio plus solo" (3 + 1) conformations which are irreducible under the action of S3. The triplet field has trio plus solo family modes with ordinary tricolor quark and colorless solo lepton components. To incorporate the Weinberg-Salam mechanism, it is required to introduce two types of triplet fields, a left-handed doublet and right-handed singlets of electroweak iso-spin. It is possible to qualify the Yukawa interaction and to make a new interpretation of its coupling constants naturally in an intrinsic mechanism of the triplet field formalism. The ordinary Higgs mechanism leads to the Dirac mass matrices which can explain all data of quark sector within experimental accuracy.

  14. Implications of the CMS search for W R on grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Triparno; Brahmachari, Biswajoy; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2016-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has reported a 2.8σ excess in the (2 e)(2 jets) channel around 2.1 TeV. Interpretation of this data is reconsidered in terms of the production of a right-handed weak gauge boson, W R , of the left-right symmetric model and in an SO(10) grand unified theory abiding by the Extended Survival Hypothesis. The left-right symmetric model can be consistent with this excess if (a) the heavy right-handed neutrino has a mass near W R , or (b) if g L ≠ g R , or (c) the right-handed CKM matrix is nontrivial. Combinations of the above possibilities are also viable. A W R with a mass in the TeV region if embedded in SO(10) is not compatible with g L = g R . Rather, it implies 0 .64 ≤ g R /g L ≤ 0 .78. Further, a unique symmetry-breaking route — the order being left-right discrete symmetry breaking first, followed by SU(4) C and finally SU(2) R — to the standard model is picked out. The L ↔ R discrete symmetry has to be broken at around 1016 GeV. The grand unification scale is pushed to 1018 GeV making the detection of proton decay in ongoing searches rather unlikely. The SU(4) C breaking scale can be at its allowed lower limit of 106 GeV so that n-overline{n} oscillation or flavour changing processes such as K L → μe and B d,s → μe may be detectable. The Higgs scalar multiplets responsible for SO(10) symmetry breaking at various stages are uniquely identified so long as one adheres to a minimalist principle. We also remark, en passant, about a partially unified Pati-Salam model.

  15. A minimal non-supersymmetric S O(10) model: Gauge coupling unification, proton decay and fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saki

    2016-06-01

    We present a minimal renormalizable non-supersymmetric S O(10) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 54H + 126H + 10H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Including threshold corrections self-consistently, obtained from a full analysis of the Higgs potential, we show that the model is compatible with the current experimental bound on proton lifetime. The model generally predicts an upper bound of few times 1035 yrs for proton lifetime, which is not too far from the present Super-Kamiokande limit of τp ≳ 1.29 × 1034 yrs. With the help of a Pecci-Quinn symmetry and the resulting axion, the model provides a suitable dark matter candidate while also solving the strong CP problem. The intermediate scale, MI ≈ (1013 - 1014) GeV which is also the B - L scale, is of the right order for the right-handed neutrino mass which enables a successful description of light neutrino masses and oscillations. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two matrices in family space and leads to a predictive scenario for quark and lepton masses and mixings. The branching ratios for proton decay are calculable with the leading modes being p → e+π0 and p →v ¯π+ . Even though the model predicts no new physics within the reach of LHC, the next generation proton decay detectors and axion search experiments have the capability to pass verdict on this minimal scenario.

  16. Probing molecular conformations in momentum space: The case of n-pentane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippenberg, S.; Huang, Y. R.; Hajgató, B.; François, J.-P.; Deng, J. K.; Deleuze, M. S.

    2007-11-01

    A comprehensive study, throughout the valence region, of the electronic structure and electron momentum density distributions of the four conformational isomers of n-pentane is presented. Theoretical (e,2e) valence ionization spectra at high electron impact energies (1200eV+electron binding energy) and at azimuthal angles ranging from 0° to 10° in a noncoplanar symmetric kinematical setup are generated according to the results of large scale one-particle Green's function calculations of Dyson orbitals and related electron binding energies, using the third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme. The results of a focal point analysis (FPA) of relative conformer energies [A. Salam and M. S. Deleuze, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 1296 (2002)] and improved thermodynamical calculations accounting for hindered rotations are also employed in order to quantitatively evaluate the abundance of each conformer in the gas phase at room temperature and reliably predict the outcome of experiments on n-pentane employing high resolution electron momentum spectroscopy. Comparison with available photoelectron measurements confirms the suggestion that, due to entropy effects, the trans-gauche (tg) conformer strongly dominates the conformational mixture characterizing n-pentane at room temperature. Our simulations demonstrate therefore that experimental measurements of (e,2e) valence ionization spectra and electron momentum distributions would very consistently and straightforwardly image the topological changes and energy variations that molecular orbitals undergo due to torsion of the carbon backbone. The strongest fingerprints for the most stable conformer (tt) are found for the electron momentum distributions associated with ionization channels at the top of the inner-valence region, which sensitively image the development of methylenic hyperconjugation in all-staggered n-alkane chains.

  17. Successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis with flavour coupling effects in realistic unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.

    2015-10-02

    In realistic unified models involving so-called SO(10)-inspired patterns of Dirac and heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino masses, the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1} is too light to yield successful thermal leptogenesis, barring highly fine tuned solutions, while the second heaviest right-handed neutrino N{sub 2} is typically in the correct mass range. We show that flavour coupling effects in the Boltzmann equations may be crucial to the success of such N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis, by helping to ensure that the flavour asymmetries produced at the N{sub 2} scale survive N{sub 1} washout. To illustrate these effects we focus on N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis in an existing model, the A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam, where the neutrino Dirac mass matrix may be equal to an up-type quark mass matrix and has a particular constrained structure. The numerical results, supported by analytical insight, show that in order to achieve successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis, consistent with neutrino phenomenology, requires a “flavour swap scenario” together with a less hierarchical pattern of RH neutrino masses than naively expected, at the expense of some mild fine-tuning. In the considered A to Z model neutrino masses are predicted to be normal ordered, with an atmospheric neutrino mixing angle well into the second octant and the Dirac phase δ≃20{sup ∘}, a set of predictions that will be tested in the next years in neutrino oscillation experiments. Flavour coupling effects may be relevant for other SO(10)-inspired unified models where N{sub 2} leptogenesis is necessary.

  18. Search for the Decays B0(s) ---> e+ mu- and B0(s) ---> e+ e- in CDF Run. II.

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report results from a search for the lepton flavor violating decays B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, and the flavor-changing neutral-current decays B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}. The analysis uses data corresponding to 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected with the upgraded Collider Detector (CDF II) at the Fermilab Tevatron. The observed number of B{sub (s)}{sup 0} candidates is consistent with background expectations. The resulting bayesian upper limits on the branching ratios at 90% credibility level are {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) < 2.0 x 10{sup -7}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) < 6.4 x 10{sup -8}, {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) < 2.8 x 10{sup -7} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) < 8.3 x 10{sup -8}. From the limits on {Beta}(B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), the following lower bounds on the Pati-Salam leptoquark masses are also derived: M{sub LQ}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 47.8 TeV/c{sup 2}, and M{sub LQ}(B{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 59.3 TeV/c{sup 2}, at 90% credibility level.

  19. Comparative Study on Synergetic Degradation of a Reactive Dye Using Different Types of Fly Ash in Combined Adsorption and Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Babu, P. V. S.; Swaminathan, G.

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on four different fly ashes used as a catalyst for the degradation of Acid Red 1 using ultraviolet rays. These fly ashes are collected from different thermal power stations located at various places in India and having different chemical compositions. Three fly ashes are from lignite-based thermal power plants, and one is from the coal-based power plant. One fly ash is classified as Class F, two fly ashes are classified as Class C and remaining one is not conforming to ASTM C618 classification. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was used to identify the chemical composition of fly ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3 and TiO2 were found to be the major elements present in different proportions. Various analysis were carried out on all the fly ashes like Scanning Electron Microscopy to identify the microphysical properties, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy to quantify the elements present in the catalyst and X-Ray Diffraction to identify the catalyst phase analysis. The radical generated during the reaction was identified by Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The parameters such as initial pH of the dye solution, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration which influence the dye degradation efficiency were studied and optimised. In 60 min duration, the dye degradation efficiency at optimum parametric values of pH 2.5, initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L and catalyst dosage of 1.0 g/L using various fly ashes, i.e., Salam Power Plant, Barmer Lignite Power Plant, Kutch Lignite Power Plant and Neyveli Lignite Thermal Power plant (NLTP) were found to be 40, 60, 67 and 95 % respectively. The contribution of adsorption alone was 18 % at the above mentioned optimum parametric values. Among the above four fly ash NLTP fly ashes proved to be most efficient.

  20. Successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis with flavour coupling effects in realistic unified models

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F. E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk

    2015-10-01

    In realistic unified models involving so-called SO(10)-inspired patterns of Dirac and heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino masses, the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1} is too light to yield successful thermal leptogenesis, barring highly fine tuned solutions, while the second heaviest right-handed neutrino N{sub 2} is typically in the correct mass range. We show that flavour coupling effects in the Boltzmann equations may be crucial to the success of such N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis, by helping to ensure that the flavour asymmetries produced at the N{sub 2} scale survive N{sub 1} washout. To illustrate these effects we focus on N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis in an existing model, the A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam, where the neutrino Dirac mass matrix may be equal to an up-type quark mass matrix and has a particular constrained structure. The numerical results, supported by analytical insight, show that in order to achieve successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis, consistent with neutrino phenomenology, requires a ''flavour swap scenario'' together with a less hierarchical pattern of RH neutrino masses than naively expected, at the expense of some mild fine-tuning. In the considered A to Z model neutrino masses are predicted to be normal ordered, with an atmospheric neutrino mixing angle well into the second octant and the Dirac phase δ≅ 20{sup o}, a set of predictions that will be tested in the next years in neutrino oscillation experiments. Flavour coupling effects may be relevant for other SO(10)-inspired unified models where N{sub 2} leptogenesis is necessary.

  1. Comparative Study on Synergetic Degradation of a Reactive Dye Using Different Types of Fly Ash in Combined Adsorption and Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri Babu, P. V. S.; Swaminathan, G.

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on four different fly ashes used as a catalyst for the degradation of Acid Red 1 using ultraviolet rays. These fly ashes are collected from different thermal power stations located at various places in India and having different chemical compositions. Three fly ashes are from lignite-based thermal power plants, and one is from the coal-based power plant. One fly ash is classified as Class F, two fly ashes are classified as Class C and remaining one is not conforming to ASTM C618 classification. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis was used to identify the chemical composition of fly ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3 and TiO2 were found to be the major elements present in different proportions. Various analysis were carried out on all the fly ashes like Scanning Electron Microscopy to identify the microphysical properties, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy to quantify the elements present in the catalyst and X-Ray Diffraction to identify the catalyst phase analysis. The radical generated during the reaction was identified by Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The parameters such as initial pH of the dye solution, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration which influence the dye degradation efficiency were studied and optimised. In 60 min duration, the dye degradation efficiency at optimum parametric values of pH 2.5, initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L and catalyst dosage of 1.0 g/L using various fly ashes, i.e., Salam Power Plant, Barmer Lignite Power Plant, Kutch Lignite Power Plant and Neyveli Lignite Thermal Power plant (NLTP) were found to be 40, 60, 67 and 95 % respectively. The contribution of adsorption alone was 18 % at the above mentioned optimum parametric values. Among the above four fly ash NLTP fly ashes proved to be most efficient.

  2. Minimal nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) model: Gauge coupling unification, proton decay, and fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Khan, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a minimal renormalizable nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) grand unified model with a symmetry breaking sector consisting of Higgs fields in the 5 4H+12 6H+1 0H representations. This model admits a single intermediate scale associated with Pati-Salam symmetry along with a discrete parity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, the unification of gauge couplings, and proton lifetime estimates are studied in detail in this framework. Including threshold corrections self-consistently obtained from a full analysis of the Higgs potential, we show that the model is compatible with the current experimental bound on proton lifetime. The model generally predicts an upper bound of few times 1035 yr for proton lifetime, which is not too far from the present Super-Kamiokande limit of τp≳1.29 ×1034 yr . With the help of a Pecci-Quinn symmetry and the resulting axion, the model provides a suitable dark matter candidate while also solving the strong C P problem. The intermediate scale, MI≈(1013- 1014) GeV which is also the B -L scale, is of the right order for the right-handed neutrino mass which enables a successful description of light neutrino masses and oscillations. The Yukawa sector of the model consists of only two matrices in family space and leads to a predictive scenario for quark and lepton masses and mixings. The branching ratios for proton decay are calculable with the leading modes being p →e+π0 and p →ν ¯π+. Even though the model predicts no new physics within the reach of the LHC, the next-generation proton decay detectors and axion search experiments have the capability to reach a verdict on this minimal scenario.

  3. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Bucksbaum, P.H.

    1980-11-01

    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is ..delta../sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is ..delta../sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from ..delta../sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  4. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Amira L; Youssef, Hanan H; Amer, Wafaa M; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam

  5. Left-right symmetric heterotic-string derived models

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, Gerald B.; Faraggi, Alon E.; Savage, Christopher

    2001-03-15

    Recently it was demonstrated that free fermionic heterotic strings can produce models with solely the minimal supersymmetric standard model states in the low energy spectrum. This unprecedented result provides further strong evidence for the possibility that the true string vacuum shares some of the properties of the free fermionic models. Past free fermionic models have focused on several possible unbroken observable SO(10) subgroups at the string scale, which include the flipped SU(5) (FSU5), the Pati-Salam (PS) string models, and the string standard-like models (SLM). We extend this study to include the case in which the SO(10) symmetry is broken to the left-right symmetric (LRS) gauge group, SO(10){yields}SU(3){sub C}xU(1){sub B-L}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}. We present several models of this type and discuss their phenomenological features. The most striking new outcome of the LRS string models, in contrast with the case of the FSU5, the PS, and the SLM string models, is that they can produce effective field theories that are free of Abelian anomalies. We discuss the distinction between the two types of free fermionic models which result in the presence, or absence, of an anomalous U(1). As a counterexample we also present a LRS model that does contain an anomalous U(1). Additionally, we discuss how in string models the standard model spectrum may arise from the three 16 representations of SO(10), while the weak hypercharge does not have the canonical SO(10) embedding.

  6. Double beta decay, lepton flavor violation, and collider signatures of left-right symmetric models with spontaneous D -parity breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Gonzalo, Tomas E.; Patra, Sudhanwa; Sahu, Narendra; Sarkar, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    We propose a class of left-right symmetric models (LRSMs) with spontaneous D -parity breaking, where S U (2 )R breaks at the TeV scale while discrete left-right symmetry breaks around 1 09 GeV . By embedding this framework in a nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) grand unified theory (GUT) with Pati-Salam symmetry as the highest intermediate breaking step, we obtain gR/gL≈0.6 between the right- and left-handed gauge couplings at the TeV scale. This leads to a suppression of beyond the Standard Model phenomena induced by the right-handed gauge coupling. Here we focus specifically on the consequences for neutrinoless double beta decay, low-energy lepton flavor violation, and LHC signatures due to the suppressed right handed currents. Interestingly, the reduced gR allows us to interpret an excess of events observed recently in the range of 1.9 to 2.4 TeV by the CMS group at the LHC as the signature of a right-handed gauge boson in LRSMs with spontaneous D -parity breaking. Moreover, the reduced right-handed gauge coupling also strongly suppresses the nonstandard contribution of heavy states to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate as well as the amplitude of low-energy lepton flavor violating processes. In a dominant type-II seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation, we find that both sets of observables provide stringent and complimentary bounds which make it challenging to observe the scenario at the LHC.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  8. Changes in the serum sex steroids, IL-7 and RANKL-OPG system after bone marrow transplantation: influences on bone and mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Tae, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kim, Chun Choo; Kang, Moo Il

    2006-12-01

    This study prospectively investigated the changes of the serum levels of the sex steroids, IL-7, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. This study also examined whether the changes of these cytokine levels and sex steroids actually influence bone turnover and post-BMT bone loss by correlation analysis. Data were analyzed from 39 patients (33.6+/-6.4 years, 19 men and 20 women) who had DXA performed before BMT and at 1 year after BMT. The bone turnover markers, sex steroids and the cytokine levels were measured before BMT and serially after BMT. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine and the total proximal femur was 5.9% (P < 0.01) and 11.3% (P < 0.01), respectively. During the immediate post-BMT period, bone formation decreased, whereas the bone resorption increased. For the female recipients, the estradiol levels declined at 1 week after BMT, and they did not recover to the basal levels. For the male recipients, the testosterone levels decreased at 1 week and then it increased to its baseline level. The IL-7 levels reached their maximum at 1 week and then declined to baseline level by 3 months. The serum sRANKL, OPG levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio showed their peak at post-BMT 3 weeks. The mean daily dose of steroid was associated with suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption and increased sRANKL levels. The IL-7 levels were also noted to be either positively correlated with the levels of ICTP or they were negatively correlated with the levels of osteocalcin at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur was influenced by the decreased sex steroids and increased IL-7 levels. During the observation period, the IL-7 levels showed positive correlations with the sRANKL levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio. For the female patients, the serum IL-7 levels were negatively associated with the estradiol levels at 1 and 3 weeks after

  9. Event attribution using data assimilation in an intermediate complexity atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, Sammy; Hannart, Alexis; Ruiz, Juan; Carrassi, Alberto; Bocquet, Marc; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A new approach, coined DADA (Data Assimilation for Detection and Attribution) has been recently introduced by Hannart et al. 2015, and is potentially useful for near real time, systematic causal attribution of weather and climate-related events The method is purposely designed to allow its operability at meteorological centers by synergizing causal attribution with Data Assimilation (DA) methods usually designed to deal with large nonlinear models. In Hannart et al. 2015, the DADA proposal is illustrated in the context of a low-order nonlinear model (forced three-variable Lorenz model) that is of course not realistic to represent the events considered. As a continuation of this stream of work, we therefore propose an implementation of the DADA approach in a realistic intermediate complexity atmospheric model (ICTP AGCM, nicknamed SPEEDY). The SPEEDY model is based on a spectral dynamical core developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (see Held and Suarez 1994). It is a hydrostatic, r-coordinate, spectral-transform model in the vorticity-divergence form described by Bourke (1974). A synthetic dataset of observations of an extreme precipitation event over Southeastern South America is extracted from a long SPEEDY simulation under present climatic conditions (i.e. factual conditions). Then, following the DADA approach, observations of this event are assimilated twice in the SPEEDY model: first in the factual configuration of the model and second under its counterfactual, pre-industrial configuration. We show that attribution can be performed based on the likelihood ratio as in Hannart et al. 2015, but we further extend this result by showing that the likelihood can be split in space, time and variables in order to help identify the specific physical features of the event that bear the causal signature. References: Hannart A., A. Carrassi, M. Bocquet, M. Ghil, P. Naveau, M. Pulido, J. Ruiz, P. Tandeo (2015) DADA: Data assimilation for the detection and

  10. The skill of ECMWF long range Forecasting System to drive impact models for health and hydrology in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giuseppe, F.; Tompkins, A. M.; Lowe, R.; Dutra, E.; Wetterhall, F.

    2012-04-01

    As the quality of numerical weather prediction over the monthly to seasonal leadtimes steadily improves there is an increasing motivation to apply these fruitfully to the impacts sectors of health, water, energy and agriculture. Despite these improvements, the accuracy of fields such as temperature and precipitation that are required to drive sectoral models can still be poor. This is true globally, but particularly so in Africa, the region of focus in the present study. In the last year ECMWF has been particularly active through EU research founded projects in demonstrating the capability of its longer range forecasting system to drive impact modeling systems in this region. A first assessment on the consequences of the documented errors in ECMWF forecasting system is therefore presented here looking at two different application fields which we found particularly critical for Africa - vector-born diseases prevention and hydrological monitoring. A new malaria community model (VECTRI) has been developed at ICTP and tested for the 3 target regions participating in the QWECI project. The impacts on the mean malaria climate is assessed using the newly realized seasonal forecasting system (Sys4) with the dismissed system 3 (Sys3) which had the same model cycle of the up-to-date ECMWF re-analysis product (ERA-Interim). The predictive skill of Sys4 to be employed for malaria monitoring and forecast are also evaluated by aggregating the fields to country level. As a part of the DEWFORA projects, ECMWF is also developing a system for drought monitoring and forecasting over Africa whose main meteorological input is precipitation. Similarly to what is done for the VECTRI model, the skill of seasonal forecasts of precipitation is, in this application, translated into the capability of predicting drought while ERA-Interim is used in monitoring. On a monitoring level, the near real-time update of ERA-Interim could compensate the lack of observations in the regions. However, ERA

  11. Short-term changes in bone and mineral metabolism following gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Jeon, Hae Myung; Lee, Seong Su; Lim, Dong Jun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kang, Moo Il

    2008-01-01

    Changes in bone and mineral metabolism that occur after gastrectomy have long been recognized. Gastrectomy has been identified as a risk factor for decreased bone mass and the increased fracture incidence. Previous investigations concerning postgastrectomy bone disease have been observational studies. No prospective studies have been reported that quantify the amount of bone loss after gastrectomy within the same patients. This study investigated 46 patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma and analyzed 36 patients (58.1+/-10.8 years, 24 men and 12 women) who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed before and 1 year after gastrectomy. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 14 patients. Blood was sampled from all patients to determine serum calcium, phosphorous, and bone turnover marker levels before gastrectomy and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels before and 12 months after surgery. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter, which was calculated as the percentage change from the baseline to the level measured at 12 months, was 5.7% (P<0.01), 5.4% (P<0.01), 6.6% (P<0.01) and 8.7% (P<0.01), respectively. Bone loss was generally greater in the group receiving chemotherapy. The serum calcium and phosphorous levels were not changed significantly and remained within the normal range throughout the observation period. After gastrectomy, the level of ICTP increased and reached a peak at 1 and 3 months, and progressively declined to baseline by 12 months. The osteocalcin levels were not coupled to an increase before 6 months. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 12 months postgastrectomy was not significantly changed compared to the baseline, however, the PTH levels increased by a mean of 63.6% at 12 months compared to the baseline (P<0.01). Significant correlations were found between the percent change in the BMD at the

  12. Climate change and land-use change impact on Western African river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    The main resource in western Africa is agriculture and therefore availability and quality of fresh water resources threaten food production in many regions. Quantifying the impact of climate and land-use change in very vulnerable regions like western Africa is therefore of crucial importance for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this work the International Center for theoretical Physic (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM3) is used to perform a 120 (1980-2100) years climate change simulation under the A1B scenario using ECHAM5 as boundary condition (BC). To further investigate which it would be the combined effect of the land-use change together with the climate change a 10 years time simulation has been completed using the future projected land-use from IIASA (The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). Both simulations have been coupled with a physical based fully distributed hydrological model (CHyM) to asses which it would be the final effect of climate and land-use change on the river discharge. The two rivers used for this analysis are the Niger and Volta basin. The CHyM model has been validated coupling fist the hydrological model with a perfect boundary regional model simulation using ERA-interim as BC and using the runoff observations available along the two river basins. The model is able to reproduce the monthly seasonal cycle in both river basins reasonably well, therefore this allow us to use the same setting for a climate and land-use change simulation. Two hydrological time slice simulations have been performed with and without land-use change included. Results are presented and discussed for the monsoon season (JJA) on a station based, for the same stations used for validation purposed, but also the spatial change in discharge is presented in both cases and compared with the simple precipitation change observed in the region. Although the portion of change in precipitation due to the green house gases

  13. The Regional Earth System Model (RegESM) using RegCM4 coupled with the MITgcm ocean model: First assessments over the MED-CORDEX domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Laura; Utku Turunçoǧlu, Ufuk; Farneti, Riccardo; Sannino, Gianmaria; Vittoria Struglia, Maria; Carillo, Adriana; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of global climate studies, there is an increasingly growing concern about the vulnerability of the Mediterranean region, where high population density and intense exploitation activities pose severe questions on the sustainability of terrestrial water management, both for the present and the future. Ocean modeling studies suggest that the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation could be weakened in conditions of global greenhouse warming, an event which would undoubtedly affect regional climate, possibly triggering global feedback processes. Experiments with the atmosphere-ocean coupled system confirmed that a good comprehension of Mediterranean processes requires the explicit inclusion of the feedbacks between the atmospheric and the oceanic components, thus achieving a complete, fully coupled description of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle, at the same time gaining new insights in our current ability to reproduce the atmospheric hydrological processes and to close the hydrological balance. These issues are addressed by the upgraded PROTHEUS system which was jointly developed by ENEA and ICTP. Here we present a first evaluation of the performances of the new PROTHEUS system (called PROTHEUS 2.0) composed by the regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al. 2012) coupled with both the ocean model MITgcm (Marshall J. et al. 1997a,b) and the HD river model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998) using RegESM (Regional Earth System Model) as a driver. The three-component (atmosphere, ocean and river routing) fully coupled model exchanges sea surface temperature (SST) from the ocean to the atmospheric model, surface wind stress, energy and freshwater fluxes from the atmosphere to the ocean model, surface and sub-surface runoff from the atmospheric component to the river routing model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). In order to have water conservation within the system, the river routing component sends the

  14. Modeling an Extreme Precipitation Event over the Atacama Desert: The Impact of Warmer SST Anomalies in the Eastern Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, D.; Rondanelli, R. F.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Chile (NC), located along the west coast of South America between 28°S-20°S, hosts the driest place on Earth, Quillagua in the Atacama Desert (annual mean precipitation of 0.05 mm for 1969-2000 period). Nonetheless, an extreme precipitation event affected the region on 24-26 March 2015 with 1-day accumulated precipitation exceeding 40 mm in several locations and 4 mm in Quillagua, producing floods and resulting in casualties and significant damage. Two favorable conditions existed during the event: (i) a specific synoptic condition dominated by a cut-off low (COL) pressure system off the coasts of NC and (ii) positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over eastern tropical Pacific favored by the onset of El Niño pattern. The main issue of the present study is to disentangle the relative role of SST anomaly and the COL in explaining this extreme precipitation event. The event is investigated using a regional climate model and its sensitivity to SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific is tested. The ICTP-RegCM4 model is applied in a nested configuration with two domains at 60- and 10-km resolutions using different convective precipitation schemes. Boundary conditions are provided by ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and different temporal SST input fields (weekly and daily) are used. Results indicate that simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily SST data realistically represent the precipitation distribution and associated convective systems over NC under the mixed convective scheme. The precipitation maxima appeared to be in the coastal areas and propagate inland, following the location of the COL center that allowed northerly moisture transport towards the Atacama Desert. In order to test sensitivity of precipitation to SST, the warm anomaly of SST in the eastern tropical Pacific is removed, which leads to a cooler SST forcing in the sensitivity experiment. The cooler SST simulation reproduced a very similar COL

  15. Evaluation of the capability of RegCM4.0 in simulating East African climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogwang, Bob Alex; Chen, Haishan; Li, Xing; Gao, Chujie

    2016-04-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM4.0 is used in this study to examine its ability to reproduce the climate of East Africa (EA) in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August (JJA) seasonal climatology. Two domain sizes [large domain (LD) and small domain (SD)] and two cumulus convection schemes [Grell convection scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GRE scheme) and MIT scheme (EMA scheme)] are used. Simulations were done for the period 1989-2008 at a resolution of 50 km. The experiments were performed with the initial and lateral boundary conditions obtained from ERA-Interim-gridded reanalysis data at a 1.5° resolution. The variables investigated are precipitation, temperature, humidity, diurnal temperature range, and 850-hPa winds. Results show that the model realistically reproduces the East African climate, with a few discrepancies due to the different cumulus convection schemes and the domain sizes used. Grell with Fritsch-Chappell (Grell-FC) scheme captures well the observed climate in regard to the annual cycle and June-to-August seasonal climatology, with a tendency to underestimate rainfall over the JJA rainfall maximum region (RMR). This scheme performs better in LD than in SD. EMA scheme similarly captures well the observed climatology. It tends to overestimate rainfall over RMR. It however performs better in SD than in LD. The ensemble mean of simulations with GRE and EMA schemes (ENSM) tends to offer an improved representation of the observed climate, with a few discrepancies owing to the individual schemes used. In general, therefore, considering the performance of the model in both domains, the East African climate based on this study is better simulated by the Grell-FC scheme over LD. The observed biases in this study signify that the ability of the model in simulating climate over East Africa is still a significant challenge. Thus, future work must focus on improving the performance of

  16. Building climate adaptation capabilities through technology and community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D.; McWhirter, J.; Intsiful, J. D.; Cozzini, S.

    2011-12-01

    To effectively plan for adaptation to changes in climate, decision makers require infrastructure and tools that will provide them with timely access to current and future climate information. For example, climate scientists and operational forecasters need to access global and regional model projections and current climate information that they can use to prepare monitoring products and reports and then publish these for the decision makers. Through the UNDP African Adaption Programme, an infrastructure is being built across Africa that will provide multi-tiered access to such information. Web accessible servers running RAMADDA, an open source content management system for geoscience information, will provide access to the information at many levels: from the raw and processed climate model output to real-time climate conditions and predictions to documents and presentation for government officials. Output from regional climate models (e.g. RegCM4) and downscaled global climate models will be accessible through RAMADDA. The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) is being used by scientists to create visualizations that assist the understanding of climate processes and projections, using the data on these as well as external servers. Since RAMADDA is more than a data server, it is also being used as a publishing platform for the generated material that will be available and searchable by the decision makers. Users can wade through the enormous volumes of information and extract subsets for their region or project of interest. Participants from 20 countries attended workshops at ICTP during 2011. They received training on setting up and installing the servers and necessary software and are now working on deploying the systems in their respective countries. This is the first time an integrated and comprehensive approach to climate change adaptation has been widely applied in Africa. It is expected that this infrastructure will enhance North-South collaboration and improve the

  17. Trend analysis of extreme climate indices using simulated temperature and precipitation time series for the Carpathian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Szabo, P.; Kovacs, G.

    2009-09-01

    Global warming may be recognized both in shifts of regional mean climate, and also, in the frequency and intensity changes of different climate extremes. Several climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) following the guidelines suggested by the joint WMO-CCl/CLIVAR Working Group on climate change detection. Our statistical trend analysis includes the evaluation of several extreme temperature and precipitation indices using different threshold values. In order to evaluate the expected trends (by 2071-2100 relative to the 1961-1990 reference period) in the Carpathian basin, daily values of meteorological variables are obtained from the outputs of various regional climate model (RCM) experiments accomplished in the frame of the completed EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). Horizontal resolution of the applied RCMs is 50 km. Two emission scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to compare past and future simulated values of the extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin. Furthermore, fine-resolution climate experiments of two additional RCMs adapted and run at the Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University are used to extend the trend analysis of climate extremes for the Carpathian basin. (1) Model PRECIS (run at 25 km horizontal resolution) was developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre, and it uses the boundary conditions from the HadCM3 GCM. (2) Model RegCM3 (run at 10 km horizontal resolution) was developed by Giorgi et al. and it is available from the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics). Analysis of the simulated daily temperature datasets suggests that the detected regional warming is expected to continue in the 21st century. Cold temperature extremes are projected to decrease while warm extremes tend to increase significantly. Expected changes of annual precipitation indices are

  18. Simulated trends of extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin using outputs of different regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Szabo, P.; Pieczka, I.; Torma, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    CM3 (run at 10 km horizontal resolution) was developed by Giorgi et al. and it is available from the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics). Analysis of the simulated daily temperature datasets suggests that the detected regional warming is expected to continue in the 21st century. Cold temperature extremes are projected to decrease while warm extremes tend to increase significantly. Expected changes of annual precipitation indices are small, but generally consistent with the detected trends of the 20th century. Based on the simulations, extreme precipitation events are expected to become more intense and more frequent in winter, while a general decrease of extreme precipitation indices is expected in summer.

  19. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  20. The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosol on Climate in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Zakey, A.; Steiner, A. L.; Shokr, M. E.; El-Raey, M.; Ahmed, Y.; Al-Hadidi, A.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols are indicators of air quality as they reduce visibility and adversely affect public health. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the radiation extinction due to interaction of radiation with aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Using this optical measure of atmospheric aerosols we explore the seasonal and annual patterns of aerosols from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources over Egypt. Here, we use an integrated environment-climate-aerosol model in conjunction with inversion technique to identify the aerosol particle size distribution over different locations in Egypt. The online-integrated Environment-Climate-Aerosol model (EnvClimA), which is based on the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (ICTP-RegCM), is used to study the emission of different aerosols and their impact on climate parameters for a long-term base line simulation run over Egypt and North Africa. The global emission inventory is downscaled and remapping them over Egypt using local factors such as population, traffic and industrial activities to identify the sources of anthropogenic and biogenic emission from local emission over Egypt. The results indicated that the dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are dust emissions that frequently occur during the transitional seasons (Spring and Autumn). From the local observation we identify the number of dust and sand storm occurrences over Egypt. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is used to identify the optical characterizations of different types of aerosols over Egypt. Modeled aerosol optical depth and MISR observed (at 555 nm) are compared from March 2000 through November 2013. The results identify that the MISR AOD captures the maximum peaks of AOD in March/April that coincide with the Khamasin dust storms. However, peaks in May are either due to photochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities. Note: This presentation is for a Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER

  1. Projections for Changes in Natural and Technical Snow Reliability of a Major Turkish Ski Resort by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Cenk Demiroglu, O.; Tufan Turp, M.; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has been and increasingly will be a major threat to the ski tourism industry whose survival is highly dependent on existence of snow cover of sufficient depth and duration. The common knowledge requires that in order for a ski resort to be viable, it has to perform operations for at least 100 days in seven out of ten winters. For this matter, it is now even more usual for the ski resorts to adapt to this issue by technical snowmaking. In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100 in air temperature, relative humidity, and snow depth climatology and variability with respect to the control period of 1970-2000 were assessed for the domain of a major ski resort in Turkey. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre, MPI-ESM-MR of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, GFDL-ESM2M of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory were downscaled to 10 km for the resort and its surrounding region. Both the projections and the downscaling were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC. The outputs on snow depth were used for a count of the changes on snow cover duration sufficient for skiing actitivies, signaling natural snow-reliability, whereas the outputs on air temperature and relative humidity were utilized for determination of wet-bulb temperatures. The latter measure was used to interpret the changes in the snowmaking capacity, in other words; technical snow-reliability, of the resort. This work was supported by the BU Reasearch Fund under the project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  2. Eccentric rehabilitation exercise increases peritendinous type I collagen synthesis in humans with Achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Langberg, H; Ellingsgaard, H; Madsen, T; Jansson, J; Magnusson, S P; Aagaard, P; Kjaer, M

    2007-02-01

    It has been shown that 12 weeks of eccentric heavy resistance training can reduce pain in runners suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis, but the mechanism behind the effectiveness of this treatment is unknown. The present study investigates the local effect of an eccentric training regime on elite soccer players suffering from chronic Achilles tendinosis on the turnover of the peritendinous connective tissue. Twelve elite male soccer players, of whom six suffered from unilateral tendinosis and six were healthy controls, participated in this study. All participants performed 12 weeks of heavy-resistance eccentric training apart from their regular training and soccer activity. Before and after the training period the tissue concentration of indicators of collagen turnover was measured by the use of the microdialysis technique. After training, collagen synthesis was increased in the initially injured tendon (n=6; carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP): pre 3.9+/-2.5 microg/L to post 19.7+/-5.4 microg/L, P<0.05). The collagen synthesis was unchanged in healthy tendons in response to training (n=6; PICP: pre 8.3+/-5.2 microg/L to post 11.5+/-5.0 microg/L, P>0.05). Collagen degradation, measured as carboxyterminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (ICTP), was not affected by training neither in the injured nor in the healthy tendons. The clinical effect of the 12 weeks of eccentric training was determined by using a standardized loading procedure of the Achilles tendons showing a decrease in pain in all the chronic injured tendons (VAS before 44+/-9, after 13+/-9; P<0.05), and all subjects were back playing soccer following the eccentric training regime. The present study demonstrates that chronically injured Achilles tendons respond to 12 weeks of eccentric training by increasing collagen synthesis rate. In contrast, the collagen metabolism in healthy control tendons seems not to be affected by eccentric training. These findings could indicate a

  3. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  4. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    . Bilenky, JINR Dubna/ICTP Trieste D. O. Caldwell, U.C. Santa Barbara J. Cronin, U. Chicago A. Dar, Technion Haifa G. Domogatsky, INR Moscow H. Ejiri, U. Osaka J. Ellis, CERN E. Fernández, IFAE Barcelona E. Fiorini, U. Milano/INFN G. Fogli, U. Bari/INFN M. Fukushima, ICCR Tokyo T. Gaisser, U. Delaware G. Gelmini, UCLA A. Giazotto, INFN, Pisa F. Halzen, U. Wisconsin W. Haxton, U. Washington E. Iarocci, U. Roma/INFN T. Kirsten, MPI Heidelberg L. Maiani, U. Roma/INFN A. McDonald, Queen's U. L. Mosca, Saclay/LSM Frejus E. Peterson, U. Minneapolis/Soudan R. Petronzio, INFN/U. Roma Tor Vergata G. Raffelt, MPI München R. Rebolo, IAC Tenerife L. Resvanis, U. Athens P. Salati, U. Savoie/LAPTH Annecy A. Smirnov, ICTP Trieste N. Spooner, U. Sheffield S. Ting, MIT/CERN M. S. Turner, FNAL/U. Chicago J.W.F. Valle, IFIC Valencia D. Vignaud, CdF Paris F. von Feilitzsch, T.U. München G. Zatsepin, INR Moscow TAUP 2005 ORGANIZING COMMITTEE V.S. Berezinsky, INFN/LNGS J. Bernabéu, U. Valencia A. Bottino, U. Torino/INFN E. Coccia (co-chair), INFN/LNGS/U. Roma Tor Vergata J. Morales (co-chair), U. Zaragoza J. Puimed¢n (scientific secretary), U. Zaragoza J. A. Villar, U. Zaragoza

  5. Can a future mission detect a habitable ecosystem on Europa, or Ganymede?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2010-05-01

    habitable ecosystem has emerged on Europa. The test is well within reach of available technology that is needed for planning the eventual penetrator payload. References (*) Bland, M. T. et al. (2009) The orbital-thermal evolution and global expansion of Ganymede. Icarus 200, 207-221. Carlson, R. W. et al. (1999) Sulfuric Acid on Europa and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle. Science 286, 97-99. Chela-Flores, J. (2010) Instrumentation for the search of habitable ecosystems in the future exploration of Europa and Ganymede. International Journal of Astrobiology, in press. http://www.ictp.it/chelaf/jcfSeamless.pdf Gowen, R. et al. (2009) Looking for Astrobiological Signatures with Penetrators on Europa. Physical and Engineering Sciences Exploratory Workshops, Abstracts, Mulhouse, France. http://www.ictp.it/chelaf/ESFsummary.pdf Grasset, O. et al. (2009) "The Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter as part of the ESA/NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM),EPSC Abstracts, 4: EPSC2009-784, European Planetary Science Congress. Kiyosu, Y. and Krouse, H.R. (1990) The role of organic acid in the abiogenic reduction of sulfate and the sulfur isotope effect. Geochemical Journal 24, 21-27. McCord et al. (1997) Organics and Other Molecules in the Surfaces of Callisto and Ganymede. Science 278, 271 - 275. McCord, T. B. et al. (1999) Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's Surface from the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827-11851. Shen, Y. and Buick, R. (2004) The antiquity of microbial sulfate reduction. Earth-Science Reviews 64, 243-272. Wortmann, U.G. et al. (2001) Hypersulfidic deep biosphere indicates extreme sulfur isotope fractionation during single-step microbial sulfate reduction. Geology 29, 647-650. (*) Please notice that in both website references to the Academic Page of the author, the reader should insert the symbol twiddle in front of chelaf.

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    KhodelVictorKurchatov Institute, Moscowvak@wuphys.wustl.edu KimuraMasaakiHokkaido University, Sapporomasaaki@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp LacroixDenisGANIL, Caenlacroix@ganil.fr LiangHaozhaoPeking University, Beijinghzliang@pku.edu.cn MargueronJérômeIPN Orsayjerome.margueron@ipno.in2p3.fr MassotElisabethIPN Orsaymassot@ipno.in2p3.fr MengJiePeking University, Beijingmengj@pku.edu.cn MillerTomaszWarsaw University of Technologymillert@student.mini.pw.edu.pl MoghrabiKassemIPN Orsaymoghrabi@ipno.in2p3.fr NapolitaniPaoloIPN Orsaynapolita@ipno.in2p3.fr NeffThomasGSI Darmstadtt.neff@gsi.de NguyenVan GiaiIPN Orsaynguyen@ipno.in2p3.fr OtsukaTakaharuUniversity of Tokyootsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp PilletNathalie-MarieCEA-DAM, Arpajonnathalie.pillet@cea.fr QiChongKTH Stockholmchongq@kth.se RamananSunethraICTP Triestesramanan@ictp.it RingPeterTU Munichring@ph.tum.de Rios HuguetArnauUniversity of Surreya.rios@surrey.ac.uk RivetMarie-FranceIPN Orsayrivet@ipno.in2p3.fr RobledoLuisUniversidad Autonoma de Madridluis.robledo@uam.es Roca MazaXavierINFN Milanoxavier.roca.maza@mi.infn.it RöpkeGerdRostock Universitygerd.roepke@uni-rostock.de RowleyNeilIPN Orsayrowley@ipno.in2p3.fr SagawaHiroyukiUniversity of Aizusagawa@u-aizu.ac.jp SandulescuNicolaeIFIN-HH, Bucharestsandulescu@theory.nipne.ro SchuckPeterIPN Orsayschuck@ipno.in2p3.fr SedrakianArmenGoethe Universität Frankfurtsedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de SeveryukhinAlexeyJINR Dubnasever@theor.jinr.ru SogoTakaakiIPN Orsaysogo@ipno.in2p3.fr SomàVittorioCEA Saclayvittorio.soma@cea.fr StrinatiGiancarloUniversità di Camerinogiancarlo.strinati@gmail.com SuharaTadahiroKyoto Universitysuhara@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp SukhoruchkinSergeiPetersburg Nuclear Physics Institutesergeis@pnpi.spb.ru SuzukiToruTokyo Metropolitan Universitysuzukitr@tmu.ac.jp SuzukiToshioNihon University, Tokyosuzuki@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp TarpanovDimitarINRNE, Sofiadimitert@yahoo.co.uk Tohsaki-SuzukiAkihiroOsaka Universitytohsaki@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp TypelStefanGSI Darmstadts

  7. Message from Vice-Chancellor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir Ibrahim, Daing

    2013-12-01

    Salam Malaysia! First and foremost, I want to thank all 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2013) organisers for inviting me to address and officiate this conference. This 2nd ICMER 2013 provides a platform to bring together not only researchers, postgraduate students but also industrial people. With this platform, ICMER will embark on a whole process of making new discoveries and then translating them into products and services for the marketplace and this is only made possible with people like all of you. I would like to congratulate the ICMER 2013 organisers for the achievement of collecting 208 papers for this conference. Submissions received from 17 local universities, 7 industrial companies and 9 different countries is a great achievement for UMP. I am very happy to welcome all of you from Malaysia, Iran, Turkey, Japan, India, Australia, Ireland, Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh to this conference. As one of Malaysia's Public Universities, UMP's main challenge is to remain competitive and relevant by offering high quality technical academic programmes and research activities, focusing on its niche areas. New knowledge and findings cannot be generated without any research and development (R&D) activities. These efforts will undoubtedly generate lots of interesting results and new knowledge either bring further commercialisation activities. The Malaysian government has invested a huge sum of Ringgits in R&D over the years. Therefore, UMP must produce more quality researchers and graduates to ensure Malaysia reaps the returns from these investments vice versa of progressive economic growth for the country. UMP's 2011-2015 Strategic Plan determines to strengthen and sustained its financial support by allocating research grants and industry collaboration and consultations through its business and commercial unit. On behalf of UMP, I would like to express my appreciation to all committee members of ICMER 2013 from Faculty of Mechanical

  8. Time of sinistral slip along the polochic fault of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, B. C.; Burkart, Burke

    1984-02-01

    The Polochic fault of Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico was a Neogene transform segment of the North American — Caribbean plate boundary, with a total sinistral slip of 130 km. Principal activity was within the interval from about 10.3 to 6.6 m.y. B.P. or less, a time bracket based upon K-Ar ages from volcanic rock clasts in the Colotenango beds of northwest Guatemala. Earliest possible movement was established from ages of volcanic rock constituents of the older Colotenango conglomerates, deposited by streams that flowed north from a terrane now in Central Guatemala and onto terrane that was subsequently offset along the Polochic fault. It is believed that the Selegua River was connected to the Chixoy River of Central Guatemala. This river system deposited the older part of the Colotenango conglomerate now in western Guatemala about 130 km west of its source area. Two volcanic clasts from the conglomerate yield ages of 12.3 ± 1.0 and 10.3 ±1.0 m.y. The younger age is believed to set the maximum age of sedimentation of this older part of the conglomerate and is probably close in time to initiation of fault activity. Distinctive brown serpentinite clasts in the conglomerate have been shown to be petrographically, mineralogically, and geochemically similar to serpentinite from the presumed source area north of Salamá, Guatemala. A youngest age of major offset is established by the younger part of the Colotenango beds, a volcaniclastic deposit which fills much of the ancient Polochic fault-controlled Cuilco River Valley. Our studies of volcanic clasts of the younger Colotenango conglomerate reveal pristine glass, attesting to its relatively young age. K-Ar determination establishes an age of 6.6 ± 0.3 m.y. B.P. for these clasts. The youngest age of movement has not been established with certainty. It lies between the 6.6 m.y. age and the age of the uppermost volcaniclastic valley fill. The synchroneity of spreading in the Cayman Trough (Macdonald and Holcombe, 1978

  9. A realistic intersecting D6-brane model after the first LHC run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Raza, Shabbar; Wang, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    With the Higgs boson mass around 125 GeV and the LHC supersymmetry search constraints, we revisit a three-family Pati-Salam model from intersecting D6-branes in Type IIA string theory on the T 6/(ℤ2 × ℤ2) orientifold which has a realistic phenomenology. We systematically scan the parameter space for μ < 0 and μ > 0, and find that the gravitino mass is generically heavier than about 2 TeV for both cases due to the Higgs mass low bound 123 GeV. In particular, we identify a region of parameter space with the electroweak fine-tuning as small as Δ EW ~ 24-32 (3-4%). In the viable parameter space which is consistent with all the current constraints, the mass ranges for gluino, the first two-generation squarks and sleptons are respectively [3, 18] TeV, [3, 16] TeV, and [2, 7] TeV. For the third-generation sfermions, the light stop satisfying 5 σ WMAP bounds via neutralino-stop coannihilation has mass from 0.5 to 1.2 TeV, and the light stau can be as light as 800 GeV. We also show various coannihilation and resonance scenarios through which the observed dark matter relic density is achieved. Interestingly, the certain portions of parameter space has excellent t- b- τ and b- τ Yukawa coupling unification. Three regions of parameter space are highlighted as well where the dominant component of the lightest neutralino is a bino, wino or higgsino. We discuss various scenarios in which such solutions may avoid recent astrophysical bounds in case if they satisfy or above observed relic density bounds. Prospects of finding higgsino-like neutralino in direct and indirect searches are also studied. And we display six tables of benchmark points depicting various interesting features of our model. Note that the lightest neutralino can be heavy up to 2.8 TeV, and there exists a natural region of parameter space from low-energy fine-tuning definition with heavy gluino and first two-generation squarks/sleptons, we point out that the 33 TeV and 100 TeV proton-proton colliders

  10. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Adams, L V; Olotu, R; Talbot, E A; Cronin, B J; Christopher, R; Mkomwa, Z

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Structures de soins de santé à Dar es Salam, Pwani et Arusha, Tanzanie.Objectif : Evaluer les connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé (HCW) un an après une formation spécifique à la tuberculose de l'enfant (TB).Schéma : Grâce à une enquête standardisée, nous avons interviewé un échantillon de complaisance de HCW offrant des soins à la fois généraux et spécialisés à des enfants.Résultats : Nous avons interviewé 117 HCW dans des dispensaires de TB, des centres de santé maternelle et infantile, des dispensaires pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), des consultations externes et des services de pédiatrie dans 12 établissements. Un total de 81 HCW (62% d'infirmières, 74% de cliniciens) a affirmé avoir bénéficié de la formation nationale relative à la TB de l'enfant. La majorité a répondu correctement aux questions relatives au diagnostic de la TB de l'enfant, à son traitement et à la prise en charge conjointe de la TB et du VIH, quels que soient les antécédents de formation. La plupart ont dit demander en routine des radiographies pulmonaires, un test VIH et une recherche de contacts tuberculeux lors de l'évaluation des enfants. Moins de la moitié des HCW a affirmé recueillir des crachats en routine pour une culture mycobactérienne ou réaliser un test cutané à la tuberculine. La prescription de thérapie préventive par isoniazide (IPT) a été faite trois fois plus souvent par des HCW formés que par ceux qui ne l'avaient pas été (P < 0,05).Conclusion : En général, les connaissances en matière de TB de l'enfant étaient élevées et les pratiques conformes aux directives nationales. L'étude a identifié des lacunes spécifiques en matière de diagnostic, de traitement et d'utilisation de l'IPT afin de mieux cibler les futures formations.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis and reconfiguration of genera in the cestode order Diphyllidea.

    PubMed

    Caira, Janine N; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    The generic boundaries of the Diphyllidea are reassessed based on parsimony and likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA (ribonucleic acid large subunit), 18S rDNA (ribonucleic acid small subunit), and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) sequence data for 31 species representing morphological variation across the order. Trees resulting from these analyses yielded a number of well-supported clades that are congruent with unique morphological features mandating generic revision of the order and erection of at least two new genera. Species originally assigned to Echinobothriumvan Beneden, 1849 but bearing a corona of spines on the region of the scolex anterior to the bothria and posterior to the apical organ armature are transferred to Coronocestus n. gen.; members of this genus typically parasitize triakid sharks, although one report from a hemiscylliid shark exists. Species with lateral hooklets arranged in continuous bands, rather than in two distinct clusters, are transferred to Halysioncum n. gen.; all species parasitize batoids, mostly myliobatids and rhinopterids, but a few records also exist from arhynchobatids, rhinobatids, platyrhinids and urotrygonids. Our analyses support transfer of the five species originally assigned to MacrobothridiumKhalil and Abdul-Salam, 1989 owing to their lack of cephalic peduncle spines to Echinobothrium. As a consequence, Echinobothrium sensu stricto includes species both with and without spines on the cephalic peduncle, but all members of the genus possess lateral hooklets arranged in clusters on either side of the dorsal and ventral apical hooks. With respect to diphyllideans parasitizing catsharks, AhamulinaMarques, Jensen and Caira, 2012 is unique in possessing apical hooks but lacking lateral hooklets and DitrachybothridiumRees, 1959 is unique in entirely lacking scolex armature. By far the majority of species of Echinobothrium sensu stricto parasitize skates of the family Rajidae, guitarfish of the family Rhinobatidae

  12. PASCOS 2012 - 18th International Symposium on Particles Strings and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    (Sociedad Mexicana de Física), ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics), BUAP (Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla), the Government of the State of Yucatán, the University of Hamburg, and Telmex. We also want to acknowledge the invaluable help of the staff of the Mexican Physical Society, in particular Lic. Santos Zúñniga Sánchez and Ms. Claudia Velasco Marín, and of the conference secretaries, Ms. Lizette Ramírez Bermúdez (UNAM) and Ms. Mariana del Castillo Sánchez (Cinvestav), for their support before, during and after the organization of PASCOS 2012. Last but not least, we would like to thank all the PASCOS 2012 participants for their attendance and for contributing to make the conference an engaging and stimulating event. The organizers, Myriam Mondragón, Adnan Bashir, David Delepine, Francisco Larios, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra, Lukas Nellen, Sarira Sahu, Humberto Salazar and Liliana Velasco-Sevilla.

  13. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    , condensed matter and ultra-cold plasmas. One hundred and thirty participants came from twenty countries and four continents to participate in the conference. Those giving presentations were asked to contribute to this special issue to make a representative record of an interesting conference. We thank the International Advisory Board and the Programme Committee for their support and suggestions. We thank the Local Organizing Committee (Stefania De Palo, Vittorio Pellegrini, Andrea Perali and Pierbiagio Pieri) for all their efforts. We highlight for special mention the dedication displayed by Andrea Perali, by Rocco di Marco for computer support, and by our tireless conference secretary Fiorella Paino. The knowledgeable guided tour of the historic centre of Camerino given by Fiorella Paino was appreciated by many participants. It is no exaggeration to say that without the extraordinary efforts put in by these three, the conference could not have been the success that it was. For their sustained interest and support we thank Fulvio Esposito, Rector of the University of Camerino, Fabio Beltram, Director of NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, and Daniel Cox, Co-Director of ICAM, University of California at Davis. We thank the Institute of Complex and Adaptive Matter ICAM-I2CAM, USA for providing a video record of the conference on the web (found at http://sccs2008.df.unicam.it/). Finally we thank the conference sponsors for their very generous support: the University of Camerino, the Institute of Complex and Adaptive Matter ICAM-I2CAM, USA, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP Trieste, and CNR-INFM DEMOCRITOS Modeling Center for Research in Atomistic Simulation, Trieste. Participants at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) (University of Camerino, Italy, 29 July-2 August 2008).

  14. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

  15. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia

    2011-11-01

    and by invited authors selected by the editor. We are grateful to IUPAP, ICTP and the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, United States Air Force Laboratory. We would like to acknowledge the authors for their careful work, and finally we thank Dr L Smith the publisher of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for her patience and help. Superconducting materials contents Raman spectrum in the pseudogap phase of the underdoped cuprates: effect of phase coherence and the signature of the KT-type superconducting transitionTao Li and Haijun Liao Pressure effects on Dirac fermions in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3Takahiro Himura, Takao Morinari and Takami Tohyama Effect of Zn doping in hole-type 1111 phase (Pr, Sr)FeAsOXiao Lin, Chenyi Shen, Chen Lv, Jianjian Miao, Hao Tan, Guanghan Cao and Zhu-An Xu Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in EuFe2(As1 - xPx)2*Guanghan Cao, Shenggao Xu, Zhi Ren, Shuai Jiang, Chunmu Feng and Zhu'an Xu OInhomogeneous superconductivity in organic conductors: the role of disorder and magnetic fieldS Haddad, S Charfi-Kaddour and J-P Pouget

  16. Analysis of heat wave occurrences in the Carpathian basin using regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartha, E. B.; Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.

    2012-04-01

    Human health is very likely affected by regional consequences of global warming. One of the most severe impacts is probably associated to temperature-related climatological extremes, such as heat waves. In the coming decades hot conditions in most regions of the world are very likely to occur more frequently and more intensely than in the recent decades. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies on local scale, it is essential to analyze the projected changes related to warming climatic conditions including heat waves. In 2004, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in Hungary on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. In the frame of this recently introduced Health Watch System, three levels of heat wave warning are applied. They are associated to the daily mean temperature values, and defined as follows: - Warning level 1 (advisory for internal use) is issued when the daily mean temperature exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 2 (heat wave watch) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 3 (heat wave alert) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 27 °C. In the present study, frequency of the above climatic conditions are analyzed using regional climate model (RCM) experiments are analyzed for the recent past and the coming decades (1961-2100) for the Carpathian basin. At the Dept. of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University two different RCMs have been adapted: RegCM (with 10 km horizontal resolution, originally developed by Giorgi et al., currently, available from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP) and PRECIS (with 25 km horizontal resolution, developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre). Their initial and lateral boundary conditions have been provided by global climate models ECHAM and HadCM3, respectively. For

  17. The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling (SEACLID) / CORDEX Southeast Asia Project and The Results of Its Sensitivity Experiments of RegCM4 Cumulus and Ocean Fluxes Parameterization Schemes on Temperature and Extremes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Cruz, Faye; Narisma, Gemma; Dado, Julie; Van, Tan-Phan; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Trinh-Tuan, Long; Nguyen-Xuan, Thanh; Santisirisomboon, Jerasorn; Singhruck, Patama; Gunawan, Dodo; Aldrian, Edvin

    2015-04-01

    The Southeast Asia (SEA) region is one of the more vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change because of the large population exposed to climate-related hazards, mostly living in countries with low adaptive capabilities. In order to adequately prepare and adapt to these future climate change impacts, it is therefore crucial for high-resolution climate projections to be available for this region. The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/CORDEX Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project aims to provide these projections through a collaborative effort in regional climate downscaling. As a first step, model simulations with the 4th version of Regional Climate Model system (RegCM4) developed by International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were performed for the SEA domain (80°E-145°E; 15°S-40°N) at 36 km spatial resolution, to determine an optimal configuration of the model for the region. Using the ECMWF ERA Interim data as boundary condition, a total of 18 sensitivity experiments were done with different cumulus parameterization and ocean flux schemes for the period of 1989-2008. In this study, the model's performance in simulating mean temperature is evaluated against APHRODITE, a gridded observed temperature dataset. Initial results showed that RegCM4 tends to enhance the cold bias from the boundary forcing. There is also a consistent cold bias among all simulations over the Tibetan plateau and Indochina, especially during the boreal winter. Consequently, simulations had the smallest biases during boreal summer. The correlation of the model with the observed data is high over the northern half of the region, in contrast with the low correlation over the southern half, which may be due to uncertainties in the APHRODITE dataset over this region. Consistent with the spatial analysis, the analysis of the regional means indicates an overall better performance of the MIT Emanuel scheme, in terms of seasonality and spatial distribution. The

  18. Message from Vice Chancellor, UMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir Ibrahim, Daing

    2012-09-01

    Assalamualaikumwarahmatullahiwabarakatuh and Salam i Malaysia First and foremost, I want to thank the International Conference Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) organisers for inviting me to address and officiate at this conference. It is a privilege and an honour for me on this momentous occasion to grace the ceremony. The ICMER provides a platform to bring together not only researchers but also postgraduate students in Mechanical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Biomechanical Engineering, Material Engineering and Industrial Engineering. With this platform, ICMER will embark on a whole process of making new discoveries and then translating them into products and services for the marketplace; this is only made possible by people like all of you. It might be only a starting point but with hard work and perseverance I am sure you will succeed with flying colours. As one of Malaysia's Public Universities, UMP's main challenge is to remain competitive and relevant by offering high quality technical academic programmes and research activities, focusing on its niche areas. New knowledge and findings cannot be generated without research and development (R&D) therefore, Malaysia has had substantial investment in research and development facilities. These efforts will undoubtedly generate lots of interesting results and new knowledge as either further investigation or commercial activities. Therefore, researchers like you must see this as the generator of new knowledge to extend your research outcomes from laboratory experiments to the marketplace and towards commercialisation. Naybe this doesn't appear significant in the short term but it may make a tremendous impact in the future. The Malaysian government has invested a huge sum of Ringgits in R&D over the years. Therefore, public universities such as UMP must produce more quality researchers and graduates to ensure Malaysia reaps the returns from these investments and consequently

  19. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    atmosphere achieved during their stay. We hope that the experience of spending these days in Valladolid has been most fruitful for all of them. O Arratia, J A Calzada, F Gómez-Cubillo, J Negro and M A del Olmo Universidad de Valladolid, Spain Editors of the QTS5 Proceedings Conference Board S T Ali (Montreal) L L Boyle (Canterbury) M A del Olmo (Valladolid) V K Dobrev (Sofia) H D Doebner (Clausthal), Chair E Kapuscik (Cracow) V I Man'ko (Moscow) G Marmo (Naples) G S Pogosyan (Yerevan and Dubna) T H Seligman (Cuernavaca) A I Solomon (Paris and Open University) P Suranyi (Cincinnati) L C R Wijewardhana (Cincinnati) International Advisory Committee L Accardi, (Roma) M Asorey, (Zaragoza) M T Batchelor, (Canberra) C M Bender, (Washington) A Bohm, (Texas) E Celeghini, (Firenze) I Cirac, (Garching) S Ferrara, (CERN) J P Gazeau, (Paris) G Goldin , (Rutgers) F Iachello, (Yale) T Janssen, (Nijmegen) J Klauder, (Gainesville) P Kulish, (St Petersburg) B Mielnik, (Mexico DF) W Miller, (Minneapolis) M Plyushchay, (Santiago de Chile) O Ragnisco, (Roma) S Randjbar-Daemi, (ICTP) M Santander, (Valladolid) G Sierra, (Madrid) P Townsend, (Cambridge) S Twarock, (York) F Wilczek, (Boston) P Winternitz, (Montreal) K B Wolf, (Cuernavaca) Local Organizing Committee (University of Valladolid) Oscar Arratia Juan A Calzada Manuel Gadella Fernando Gómez-Cubillo José Manuel Izquierdo Sengül Kuru Javier Negro Mariano A del Olmo (Chairman) Official photograph

  20. Atmospheric response to a realistic coastal polynya in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) simulated by ETA model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, S.; Casini, G.; Parmiggiani, F.

    2009-04-01

    events over the Terra Nova Bay area, Antarctica'. Third ICTP conference on "Current Efforts Toward Advancing the Skill of Regional Weather Prediction. Challenges and Outlook", 8-10 October 2008.

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberauer, Lothar; Raffelt, Georg; Wagner, Robert

    2012-07-01

    'Tor Vergata' K DanzmannMax Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics S DodelsonFermilab G DomogatskyINR Moscow E FioriniUniversità di Milano Bicocca & INFN K FreeseUniversity of Michigan M FukugitaICRR Tokyo T GaisserUniversity of Delaware G GerbierCEA Saclay F HalzenUniversity of Wisconsin W HaxtonLNBL & UC Berkeley J HoughGlasgow University E KomatsuUniversity of Texas E KatsavounidisMassachusetts Institute of Technology M LindnerMax Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics K LeskoLBNL & UC Berkeley A McDonaldQueens University & SNO Laboratory H MurayamaIPMU Tokyo & UC Berkeley A OlintoUniversity of Chicago L ResvanisUniversity of Athens A RubbiaETH Zurich S SarkarUniversity of Oxford A SmirnovICTP Trieste N SmithSNO Laboratory C SpieringDESY Zeuthen N SpoonerUniversity of Sheffield Y SuzukiICRR Tokyo M TeshimaMax Planck Institute for Physics J W F ValleIFIC & University of Valencia L VotanoLNGS E WaxmanWeizmann Institute J WilkersonUniversity of North Carolina TAUP Steering Committee F T AvignoneUniversity of South Carolina B C BarishCaltech E BellottiUniversity of Milan Bicoccia & INFN J BernabeuUniversity of Valencia A BottinoUniversity of Turin & INFN (chair) N FornengoUniversity of Turin & INFN T KajitaICRR Tokyo C W KimJohns Hopkins University & KIAS V MatveevINR Moscow G RaffeltMax Planck Institute for Physics D SinclairUniversity of Carleton M SpiroCEA Saclay Parallel Session Conveners Dark Matter - Candidates and Searches J-C LanfranchiTechnische Universität München T Marrodán UndagoitiaUniversity of Zurich T BringmannUniversität Hamburg Cosmology J WellerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität München S HannestadUniversity of Aarhus Double Beta Decay, Neutrino Mass M HirschIFIC/CSIC - University of Valencia A GiulianiCNRS Orsay Neutrino Oscillations T LachenmaierUniversität Tübingen F SuekaneTohoku University Low-Energy Neutrinos (Geo, Solar, Supernova) A DigheTIFR Mumbai M ChenQueen's University M WurmUniversität Hamburg Gravitational Waves E Coccia

  2. PREFACE: A tribute to Virginio Bortolani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo

    2007-08-01

    I met Virginio Bortolani at a meeting in Salerno (Italy) in summer 1977, when I was a fresh post-doc, just back to Italy after two years at the University of Liverpool (UK). At that time since 1972, Bortolani was the first Chairman of the Surface Physics Section of GNSM (Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia) of the Italian science research council (CNR), position which he held for about a decade. So I approached him with the formal respect due to a senior scientist by a younger fellow, which was customary at Italian Universities. However, his manners looked very non-conventional for those times. While smoking his daily nth cigarette, first he said to me 'Diamoci del tu' The literal translation would be: let us switch from 'you' to 'thou', and in modern English it is equivalent to being on first-name terms, and then started getting information about my work in a way which was both friendly and fatherly. Since then we crossed each other at several meeting, often discussing physics, but we only began to collaborate at a summer school at ICTP (Trieste) in 1988. There Bortolani, one of the Directors, had the excellent idea of involving T B Grimley and myself in a project in order to investigate theoretically trapping/desorption phenomena of noble gases at metal surfaces owing to phonon interaction. Eventually we understood the limits of validity of Knudsen's law for phenomena out of equilibrium such as those in chopped beam experiments. During that school, which lasted for many weeks, I was most impressed by the relaxed atmosphere that Bortolani was able to create and maintain throughout the event. Everyone from the newcomer student from Asia, Africa or Latin America, to the top scientist felt at ease. This helped students from developing countries to interact with the lecturers beneficially, and allowed other people like me to start a few very fruitful collaborations. By the way the proceedings of that school, edited by V Bortolani, N H March and M P Tosi, and

  3. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    Model runs show that a polynya modifies the atmosphere up to a height of several hundred meters and over a long distance from its location. A structure, as a thermal cyclone, develops over the eastern side of the polynyas. This structure is embedded in the pressure field simulated also without taking into account the polynya. References: Casini, G., Morelli, S. (2007) ‘Katabatic wind and Terra Nova Bay polynya: a study using two different versions of ETA model', Geophysical Research Abstract, vol. 9, 02656. Mesinger F., Jovic D., Sin Chan Chou, Gomes J.L., Bustamante J.F. (2006) ‘Wind forecast around the andes using the sloping discretization of the Eta coordinate', Proceedings of 8 ICSHMO, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, 24-28 April 2006, INPE. Morelli S. (2008) ‘ETA Model simulation of winter katabatic events over the Terra Nova Bay area, Antarctica'. Third ICTP conference on "Current Efforts Toward Advancing the Skill of Regional Weather Prediction. Challenges and Outlook", 8-10 October 2008. Morelli S., Casini G. (2008) ‘Antarctic katabatic winds and their interaction with a coastal polynya in Terra Nova Bay, studied by ETA model simulations and satellite images', Geophysical Research Abstract, vol. 10. Morelli S., Parmiggiani F. (2009) " Eta Model simulations and AMSR images to study a real event of polynya at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Milutin Milankovitch 130 Anniversary Symposium: Climate Change at the Eve of the Second Decade of the Century. Belgrade, 22-25 September 2009. Morelli S., Casini G., Parmiggiani F. (2007) ‘Wintertime katabatic event and polynya at Terra Nova Bay: a study by ETA simulations and AMSR-E images', Extended Abstract of 2nd Antarctic Meteorological Observation, Modeling and Forecasting (AMOMF) Workshop, June 2007. Morelli S., Casini G., Parmiggiani F. (2009) "Atmospheric response to a realistic coastal polynya in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) simulated by ETA model.", Geophysical Research Abstract, vol. 11.

  4. FOREWORD: TAUP 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Alessandro; Coccia, Eugenio; Morales, Julio; Puimedónv, Jorge

    2006-04-01

    . Bilenky, JINR Dubna/ICTP Trieste D. O. Caldwell, U.C. Santa Barbara J. Cronin, U. Chicago A.

  5. PREFACE: Tenth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kunio; Suzuki, Atsuto; Mitsui, Tadao

    2008-07-01

    Otsuka, and Ms Yuri Endo, our workshop secretaries, for their continuous and excellent work in the organization of the conference, and to Ms Chiyo Itoh, and Ms Machiko Mizutani, for their invaluable assistance during the conference. We also gratefully thank the technical staff: Tomoaki Takayama, Hiromitsu Hanada, Takashi Nakajima, for their invaluable help. As announced at the end of the conference, TAUP 2009 will be held in Gran Sasso, Italy, hosted by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) with the chair of Professor Eugenio Coccia. Kunio Inoue, Atsuto Suzuki and Tadao Mitsui COMMITTEES TAUP Steering Committee F T Avignone U South Carolina B C Barish CALTECH E Bellotti U Milano/INFN J Bernabéu U Valencia A Bottino (chair) U Torino/INFN V de Alfaro U Torino/INFN T Kajita ICRR U Tokyo C W Kim Johns Hopkins Univ /KIAS E Lorenz U München V Matveev INR Moskow J Morales U Zaragoza D Sinclair U Carleton M Spiro IN2P3 TAUP 2007 International Advisory Committee J J Aubert CNRS Marseille M Baldo-Ceolin U Padova/INFN V Berezinsky INFN-LNGS/INR L Bergström U Stockholm R Bernabei U Roma Tor Vergata/INFN A Bettini U Padova/INFN S Bilenky JINR Dubna D O Caldwell U C Santa Barbara E Coccia INFN-LNGS/U Roma Tor Vergata J Cronin U Chicago A Dar Technion Haifa G Domogatsky INR Moscow H Ejiri U Osaka J Ellis CERN E Fernández IFAE Barcelona E Fiorini U Milano/INFN G Fogli U Bari/INFN T Gaisser U Delaware G Gelmini UCLA G Gerbier CEA Saclay F Halzen U Wisconsin W Haxton U Washington T Kirsten MPI Heidelberg L Maiani U Roma/INFN A McDonald Queen's U K Nakamura KEK E Peterson U Minneapolis R Petronzio INFN/U Roma Tor Vergata G Raffelt MPI München R Rebolo IAC Tenerife L Resvanis U Athens P Salati U Savoie/LAPTH Annecy A Smirnov ICTP Trieste N Spooner U Sheffield S Ting MIT/CERN Y Totsuka U Tokyo M S Turner FNAL/U Chicago J W F Valle IFIC Valencia D Vignaud APC Paris F von Feilitzsch T U München G Zatsepin INR Moscow TAUP 2007 Organizing Committee A Bottino U Torino/INFN D

  6. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  7. Message from Vice Chancellor, UMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir Ibrahim, Daing

    2012-09-01

    Assalamualaikumwarahmatullahiwabarakatuh and Salam i Malaysia First and foremost, I want to thank the International Conference Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) organisers for inviting me to address and officiate at this conference. It is a privilege and an honour for me on this momentous occasion to grace the ceremony. The ICMER provides a platform to bring together not only researchers but also postgraduate students in Mechanical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Biomechanical Engineering, Material Engineering and Industrial Engineering. With this platform, ICMER will embark on a whole process of making new discoveries and then translating them into products and services for the marketplace; this is only made possible by people like all of you. It might be only a starting point but with hard work and perseverance I am sure you will succeed with flying colours. As one of Malaysia's Public Universities, UMP's main challenge is to remain competitive and relevant by offering high quality technical academic programmes and research activities, focusing on its niche areas. New knowledge and findings cannot be generated without research and development (R&D) therefore, Malaysia has had substantial investment in research and development facilities. These efforts will undoubtedly generate lots of interesting results and new knowledge as either further investigation or commercial activities. Therefore, researchers like you must see this as the generator of new knowledge to extend your research outcomes from laboratory experiments to the marketplace and towards commercialisation. Naybe this doesn't appear significant in the short term but it may make a tremendous impact in the future. The Malaysian government has invested a huge sum of Ringgits in R&D over the years. Therefore, public universities such as UMP must produce more quality researchers and graduates to ensure Malaysia reaps the returns from these investments and consequently

  8. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    2005-06-01

    briefly. The basic idea of renormalization is explained using the λphi4 theory as an example. There is a very lucid discussion on the `running coupling' constant in section 5.9. Chapter 6 explains the use of the matrix elements, formally given in the previous chapter, to compute decay rates and cross sections. The exposition is such that the reader will have no difficulty in following the steps. However, bearing in mind the continuity of the other chapters, this material could have been consigned to an appendix. In the short chapter 7, the QED Lagrangian is shown to respect P, C and T invariance. One-loop divergences are described. Dimensional and Pauli Villars regularization are introduced and explained, although there is no account of their use in evaluating a typical one-loop divergent integral. Chapter 8 describes the low energy limit of the Weinberg Salam theory. Examples for μ-→ e-barnueν μ, π+→ l+νl and K0→ π-l+νl are explicitly solved, although the serious reader should work them out independently. On page 197 the `V-A structure of the currents proposed by Feynman and Gell-Mann' is stated; the first such proposal was by E C G Sudarshan and R E Marshak. In chapter 9 the path integral quantization method is developed. After deriving the transition amplitude as the sum over all paths, in quantum mechanics, a demonstration that the integration of functions in the path integral gives the expectation value of the time ordered product of the corresponding operators is given and applied to real scalar free field theory to get the Feynman propagator. Then the Euclidean formulation is introduced and its `tailor made' role in critical phenomena is illustrated with the 2-d Ising model as an example, including the RG equation. Chapter 10 introduces Yang Mills theory. After writing down the typical gauge invariant Lagrangian and outlining the ingredients of QCD, the adjoint representation for fields is given. It could have been made complete by giving the Feynman

  9. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    British Penetrator Consortium (Smith et al., 2008), a modest penetration depth of penetrators (instruments in the process of development to be deployed on planetary bodies such as the Moon to bury themselves into the surface) into the icy surface of Europa would be sufficient to obtain samples that can be used to correctly interpret isotopic abundances of sulfur. When derived from the activity of putative S-reducing microbes, the sulfur can be used as a biomarker, based on its characteristic isotopic composition, not influenced by radiation interference. References Blanc, M. and the LAPLACE consortium (2008). LAPLACE: a mission to Europa and the Jupiter System, Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, in press. (The LAPLACE Consortium: http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss164.html). Chela-Flores, J. (2006). The sulphur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface? International Journal of Astrobiology 5: 17-22. Chela-Flores, J. and Kumar, N. (2008). Returning to Europa: Can traces of surficial life be detected? International Journal of Astrobiology, in press. Dudeja, S., Bhattacherjee, A.B. and Chela-Flores, J. (2008). Manuscript in preparation. Greenberg, R. (2005). Europa - The Ocean Moon. Springer and Praxia Publishing, Chichester, 328 pp. Oren, A. (2002). Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments. Kluwer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, 575 pp. Oren, A. (2008). Life at low water activity. Halophilic micro-organisms and their adaptations. The Biochemist, in press. Seckbach, J. (1994). The natural history of Cyanidium (Geitler 1933): past and present perspectives. in: Seckbach, J. (ed.), Evolutionary Pathways and Enigmatic Algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 99-112. Seckbach, J., Baker, F.A. and Shugarman, P.M. (1970). Algae thrive under pure CO2. Nature 227: 744-745. Seckbach, J. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007). Extremophiles and chemotrophs as contributors to astrobiological signatures

  10. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

    2011-03-01

    Merida - Venezuela Othon Cabo WinterUNESP - "Júlio de Mesquisa Filho"Guaratinguetá - SP - Brazil Ricardo Luiz VianaUniversidade Federal do ParanáCuritiba - PA - Brazil Silvina Ponce DawsonUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos Aires - Argentina Vivian M GomesINPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas EspaciaisSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Realization INPE logo Promotion ABCM logo   SBA logo SBF logo   SBMAC logo Sponsorship CAPES logo   CNPq logo FAPESP logo   ICTP logo Claf logo   SOARD AFOSR logo TAM logo

  11. PREFACE: A tribute to Virginio Bortolani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo

    2007-08-01

    I met Virginio Bortolani at a meeting in Salerno (Italy) in summer 1977, when I was a fresh post-doc, just back to Italy after two years at the University of Liverpool (UK). At that time since 1972, Bortolani was the first Chairman of the Surface Physics Section of GNSM (Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia) of the Italian science research council (CNR), position which he held for about a decade. So I approached him with the formal respect due to a senior scientist by a younger fellow, which was customary at Italian Universities. However, his manners looked very non-conventional for those times. While smoking his daily nth cigarette, first he said to me 'Diamoci del tu' The literal translation would be: let us switch from 'you' to 'thou', and in modern English it is equivalent to being on first-name terms, and then started getting information about my work in a way which was both friendly and fatherly. Since then we crossed each other at several meeting, often discussing physics, but we only began to collaborate at a summer school at ICTP (Trieste) in 1988. There Bortolani, one of the Directors, had the excellent idea of involving T B Grimley and myself in a project in order to investigate theoretically trapping/desorption phenomena of noble gases at metal surfaces owing to phonon interaction. Eventually we understood the limits of validity of Knudsen's law for phenomena out of equilibrium such as those in chopped beam experiments. During that school, which lasted for many weeks, I was most impressed by the relaxed atmosphere that Bortolani was able to create and maintain throughout the event. Everyone from the newcomer student from Asia, Africa or Latin America, to the top scientist felt at ease. This helped students from developing countries to interact with the lecturers beneficially, and allowed other people like me to start a few very fruitful collaborations. By the way the proceedings of that school, edited by V Bortolani, N H March and M P Tosi, and