Non-Abelian Gauge Theory in the Lorentz Violating Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganai, Prince A.; Shah, Mushtaq B.; Syed, Masood; Ahmad, Owais
2018-03-01
In this paper, we will discuss a simple non-Abelian gauge theory in the broken Lorentz spacetime background. We will study the partial breaking of Lorentz symmetry down to its sub-group. We will use the formalism of very special relativity for analysing this non-Abelian gauge theory. Moreover, we will discuss the quantisation of this theory using the BRST symmetry. Also, we will analyse this theory in the maximal Abelian gauge.
Abelian gauge symmetries in F-theory and dual theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Peng
In this dissertation, we focus on important physical and mathematical aspects, especially abelian gauge symmetries, of F-theory compactifications and its dual formulations within type IIB and heterotic string theory. F-theory is a non-perturbative formulation of type IIB string theory which enjoys important dualities with other string theories such as M-theory and E8 x E8 heterotic string theory. One of the main strengths of F-theory is its geometrization of many physical problems in the dual string theories. In particular, its study requires a lot of mathematical tools such as advanced techniques in algebraic geometry. Thus, it has also received a lot of interests among mathematicians, and is a vivid area of research within both the physics and the mathematics community. Although F-theory has been a long-standing theory, abelian gauge symmetry in Ftheory has been rarely studied, until recently. Within the mathematics community, in 2009, Grassi and Perduca first discovered the possibility of constructing elliptically fibered varieties with non-trivial toric Mordell-Weil group. In the physics community, in 2012, Morrison and Park first made a major advancement by constructing general F-theory compactifications with U(1) abelian gauge symmetry. They found that in such cases, the elliptically-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold that F-theory needs to be compactified on has its fiber being a generic elliptic curve in the blow-up of the weighted projective space P(1;1;2) at one point. Subsequent developments have been made by Cvetic, Klevers and Piragua extended the works of Morrison and Park and constructed general F-theory compactifications with U(1) x U(1) abelian gauge symmetry. They found that in the U(1) x U(1) abelian gauge symmetry case, the elliptically-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold that F-theory needs to be compactified on has its fiber being a generic elliptic curve in the del Pezzo surface dP2. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, I bring this a step further by
Construction of non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, B.; Möller, L.; Schraml, S.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.
We present a formalism to explicitly construct non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces (induced via a star product with a constant Poisson tensor) from a consistency relation. This results in an expansion of the gauge parameter, the noncommutative gauge potential and fields in the fundamental representation, in powers of a parameter of the noncommutativity. This allows the explicit construction of actions for these gauge theories.
Condition for confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaichian, Masud; Frasca, Marco
2018-06-01
We show that a criterion for confinement, based on the BRST invariance, holds in four dimensions, by solving a non-Abelian gauge theory with a set of exact solutions. The confinement condition we consider was obtained by Kugo and Ojima some decades ago. The current understanding of gauge theories permits us to apply the techniques straightforwardly for checking the validity of this criterion. In this way, we are able to show that the non-Abelian gauge theory is confining and that confinement is rooted in the BRST invariance and asymptotic freedom.
Quantization of higher abelian gauge theory in generalized differential cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabo, R.
We review and elaborate on some aspects of the quantization of certain classes of higher abelian gauge theories using techniques of generalized differential cohomology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examples of generalized Maxwell theory and Cheeger-Simons cohomology, and of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II superstring theory and differential K-theory.
Time evolution of complexity in Abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro; Sugishita, Sotaro
2017-12-01
Quantum complexity is conjectured to probe inside of black hole horizons (or wormholes) via gauge gravity correspondence. In order to have a better understanding of this correspondence, we study time evolutions of complexities for Abelian pure gauge theories. For this purpose, we discretize the U (1 ) gauge group as ZN and also the continuum spacetime as lattice spacetime, and this enables us to define a universal gate set for these gauge theories and to evaluate time evolutions of the complexities explicitly. We find that to achieve a large complexity ˜exp (entropy), which is one of the conjectured criteria necessary to have a dual black hole, the Abelian gauge theory needs to be maximally nonlocal.
Scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory
Hostler, L.C.
1986-09-01
The gauge field theory of an N-italic-dimensional multiplet of spin- 1/2 particles is investigated using the Klein--Gordon-type wave equation )Pi x (1+i-italicsigma) x Pi+m-italic/sup 2/)Phi = 0, Pi/sub ..mu../equivalentpartial/partiali-italicx-italic/sub ..mu../-e-italicA-italic/sub ..mu../, investigated before by a number of authors, to describe the fermions. Here Phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor, and sigma repesents a Lorentz spin tensor whose components sigma/sub ..mu..//sub ..nu../ are ordinary 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. Feynman rules for the scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory are derived starting from the conventional field theory of the multiplet and converting it to the new description. Themore » equivalence of the new and the old formalism for arbitrary radiative processes is thereby established. The conversion to the scalar formalism is accomplished in a novel way by working in terms of the path integral representation of the generating functional of the vacuum tau-functions, tau(2,1, xxx 3 xxx)equivalent<0-chemically bondT-italic(Psi/sub in/(2) Psi-bar/sub in/(1) xxx A-italic/sub ..mu../(3)/sub in/ xxx S-italic)chemically bond0->, where Psi/sub in/ is a Heisenberg operator belonging to a 4N-italic x 1 Dirac wave function of the multiplet. The Feynman rules obtained generalize earlier results for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics.« less
AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.
2016-05-01
We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.
Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te
2016-08-01
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adshead, Peter; Giblin, John T.; Weiner, Zachary J.
2017-12-01
We study preheating in models where a scalar inflaton is directly coupled to a non-Abelian S U (2 ) gauge field. In particular, we examine m2ϕ2 inflation with a conformal, dilatonlike coupling to the non-Abelian sector. We describe a numerical scheme that combines lattice gauge theory with standard finite difference methods applied to the scalar field. We show that a significant tachyonic instability allows for efficient preheating, which is parametrically suppressed by increasing the non-Abelian self-coupling. Additionally, we comment on the technical implementation of the evolution scheme and setting initial conditions.
Existence of topological multi-string solutions in Abelian gauge field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jongmin; Sohn, Juhee
2017-11-01
In this paper, we consider a general form of self-dual equations arising from Abelian gauge field theories coupled with the Einstein equations. By applying the super/subsolution method, we prove that topological multi-string solutions exist for any coupling constant, which improves previously known results. We provide two examples for application: the self-dual Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs model and the gravitational Maxwell gauged O(3) sigma model.
Infrared problem in non-Abelian gauge theory
Yao, Y.
1976-03-22
I extend the Bloch--Nordsieck idea to show that in the lowest nontrivial order of radiative correction the fermion--fermion and gauge-meson--fermion scattering rates are finite, provided that they are averaged over the initial and summed over the final internal spin states. Questions of the physical gauge coupling and infrared slavery are discussed. (AIP)
Lattice implementation of Abelian gauge theories with Chern-Simons number and an axion field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa, Daniel G.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2018-01-01
Real time evolution of classical gauge fields is relevant for a number of applications in particle physics and cosmology, ranging from the early Universe to dynamics of quark-gluon plasma. We present an explicit non-compact lattice formulation of the interaction between a shift-symmetric field and some U (1) gauge sector, a (x)FμνF˜μν, reproducing the continuum limit to order O (dxμ2) and obeying the following properties: (i) the system is gauge invariant and (ii) shift symmetry is exact on the lattice. For this end we construct a definition of the topological number density K =FμνF˜μν that admits a lattice total derivative representation K = Δμ+ Kμ, reproducing to order O (dxμ2) the continuum expression K =∂μKμ ∝ E → ṡ B → . If we consider a homogeneous field a (x) = a (t), the system can be mapped into an Abelian gauge theory with Hamiltonian containing a Chern-Simons term for the gauge fields. This allow us to study in an accompanying paper the real time dynamics of fermion number non-conservation (or chirality breaking) in Abelian gauge theories at finite temperature. When a (x) = a (x → , t) is inhomogeneous, the set of lattice equations of motion do not admit however a simple explicit local solution (while preserving an O (dxμ2) accuracy). We discuss an iterative scheme allowing to overcome this difficulty.
Various Forms of BRST Symmetry in Abelian 2-FORM Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rai, Sumit Kumar; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
We derive the various forms of BRST symmetry using Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky approach in the case of Abelian 2-form gauge theory. We show that the so-called dual BRST symmetry is not an independent symmetry but the generalization of BRST symmetry obtained from the canonical transformation in the bosonic and ghost sector. We further obtain the new forms of both BRST and dual-BRST symmetry by making a general transformation in the Lagrange multipliers of the bosonic and ghost sector of the theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2010-08-01
It is shown that on curved backgrounds, the Coulomb gauge Faddeev-Popov operator can have zero modes even in the Abelian case. These zero modes cannot be eliminated by restricting the path integral over a certain region in the space of gauge potentials. The conditions for the existence of these zero modes are studied for static spherically symmetric spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions. For this class of metrics, the general analytic expression of the metric components in terms of the zero modes is constructed. Such expression allows one to find the asymptotic behavior of background metrics, which induce zero modes in the Coulomb gauge, an interesting example being the three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Some of the implications for quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-07-01
-orbit coupling (Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings), familiar from AMO and condensed matter physics. They lead to yet another variety of fascinating phenomena such as the quantum spin Hall effect, three-dimensional topological insulators, topological superconductors and superfluids of various kinds. One also expects here the appearance of excitations in a form of topological edge states that can support robust transport, or entangled Majorana fermions in the case of topological superconductors or superfluids. Again, while many kinds of topological insulators have been realized in condensed matter systems, a controlled way of creating them in AMO systems and studying quantum phase transitions between various kinds of them is obviously very appealing and challenging. The various systems listed so far correspond to static gauge fields, which are externally imposed by the experimentalists. Even more fascinating is the possibility of generating synthetically dynamical gauge fields, i.e. gauge fields that evolve in time according to an interacting gauge theory, e.g., a full lattice gauge theory (LGT). These dynamical gauge fields can also couple to matter fields, allowing the quantum simulation of such complex systems (notoriously hard to simulate using 'traditional' computers), which are particularly relevant for modern high-energy physics. So far, most of the theoretical proposals concern the simulation of Abelian gauge theories, however, several groups have recently proposed extensions to the non-Abelian scenarios. The scope of the present focused issue of Journal of Physics B is to cover all of these developments, with particular emphasis on the non-Abelian gauge fields. The 14 papers in this issue include contributions from the leading theory groups working in this field; we believe that this collection will provide the reference set for quantum simulations of gauge fields. Although the special issue contains exclusively theoretical proposals and studies, it should be stressed that
Origin of Abelian gauge symmetries in heterotic/F-theory duality
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Klevers, Denis; ...
2016-04-07
Here, we study aspects of heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory on general Calabi-Yau manifolds with a rank one Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. By rigorously performing the stable degeneration limit in a class of toric models, and also derive both the Calabi-Yau geometry and the spectral cover describing the vector bundle in the heterotic dual theory. We carefully investigate the spectral cover employing the group law on the elliptic curve in the heterotic theory. We find in explicit examples that there are three different classes of heterotic duals that have U(1) factors in theirmore » low energy effective theories: split spectral covers describing bundles with S(U(m) x U(1)) structure group, spectral covers containing torsional sections that seem to give rise to bundles with SU(m) x Z_k structure group and bundles with purely non-Abelian structure groups having a centralizer in E_8 containing a U(1) factor. In the former two cases, it is required that the elliptic fibration on the heterotic side has a non-trivial Mordell-Weil group. And while the number of geometrically massless U(1)'s is determined entirely by geometry on the F-theory side, on the heterotic side the correct number of U(1)'s is found by taking into account a Stuckelberg mechanism in the lower-dimensional effective theory. Finally, in geometry, this corresponds to the condition that sections in the two half K3 surfaces that arise in the stable degeneration limit of F-theory can be glued together globally.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivas, N.; Malik, R. P.
2017-11-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory by using the theoretical techniques of the geometrical superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism. For this purpose, we exploit the augmented version of superfield approach (AVSA) and derive theoretically useful nilpotent (anti-)BRST, (anti-)co-BRST symmetries and Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restrictions for the self-interacting 2D non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (where there is no interaction with matter fields). The derivation of the (anti-)co-BRST symmetries and all possible CF-type restrictions are completely novel results within the framework of AVSA to BRST formalism where the ordinary 2D non-Abelian theory is generalized onto an appropriately chosen (2, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. The latter is parametrized by the superspace coordinates ZM = (xμ,𝜃,𝜃¯) where xμ (with μ = 0, 1) are the bosonic coordinates and a pair of Grassmannian variables (𝜃,𝜃¯) obey the relationships: 𝜃2 = 𝜃¯2 = 0, 𝜃𝜃¯ + 𝜃¯𝜃 = 0. The topological nature of our 2D theory allows the existence of a tower of CF-type restrictions.
S-duality in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroers, B. J.; Bais, F. A.
1998-12-01
It is observed that the magnetic charges of classical monopole solutions in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group H are in one-to-one correspondence with coherent states of a dual or magnetic group H˜. In the spirit of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive conjecture this observation is interpreted as evidence for a hidden magnetic symmetry of Yang-Mills theory. SU(3) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with unbroken gauge group U(2) is studied in detail. The action of the magnetic group on semi-classical states is given explicitly. Investigations of dyonic excitations show that electric and magnetic symmetry are never manifest at the same time: Non-abelian magnetic charge obstructs the realisation of electric symmetry and vice-versa. On the basis of this fact the charge sectors in the theory are classified and their fusion rules are discussed. Non-abelian electric-magnetic duality is formulated as a map between charge sectors. Coherent states obey particularly simple fusion rules, and in the set of coherent states S-duality can be formulated as an SL(2, Z) mapping between sectors which leaves the fusion rules invariant.
Type II string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with torsion and non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries
Braun, Volker; Cvetič, Mirjam; Donagi, Ron
Here, we provide the first explicit example of Type IIB string theory compactication on a globally defined Calabi-Yau threefold with torsion which results in a fourdimensional effective theory with a non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetry. Our example is based on a particular Calabi-Yau manifold, the quotient of a product of three elliptic curves by a fixed point free action of Z 2 X Z 2. Its cohomology contains torsion classes in various degrees. The main technical novelty is in determining the multiplicative structure of the (torsion part of) the cohomology ring, and in particular showing that the cup product of secondmore » cohomology torsion elements goes non-trivially to the fourth cohomology. This specifies a non-Abelian, Heisenberg-type discrete symmetry group of the four-dimensional theory.« less
Type II string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with torsion and non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries
Braun, Volker; Cvetič, Mirjam; Donagi, Ron; ...
2017-07-26
Here, we provide the first explicit example of Type IIB string theory compactication on a globally defined Calabi-Yau threefold with torsion which results in a fourdimensional effective theory with a non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetry. Our example is based on a particular Calabi-Yau manifold, the quotient of a product of three elliptic curves by a fixed point free action of Z 2 X Z 2. Its cohomology contains torsion classes in various degrees. The main technical novelty is in determining the multiplicative structure of the (torsion part of) the cohomology ring, and in particular showing that the cup product of secondmore » cohomology torsion elements goes non-trivially to the fourth cohomology. This specifies a non-Abelian, Heisenberg-type discrete symmetry group of the four-dimensional theory.« less
Viennot, David
We show that the holonomy of a connection defined on a principal composite bundle is related by a non-Abelian Stokes theorem to the composition of the holonomies associated with the connections of the component bundles of the composite. We apply this formalism to describe the non-Abelian geometric phase (when the geometric phase generator does not commute with the dynamical phase generator). We find then an assumption to obtain a new kind of separation between the dynamical and the geometric phases. We also apply this formalism to the gauge theory of gravity in the presence of a Dirac spinor field inmore » order to decompose the holonomy of the Lorentz connection into holonomies of the linear connection and of the Cartan connection.« less
Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation there is a fields family {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is themore » effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto
2017-04-01
Color symmetry is spontaneously broken in quark matter at high density as a consequence of di-quark condensations with exhibiting color superconductivity. Non-Abelian vortices or color magnetic flux tubes stably exist in the color-flavor locked phase at asymptotically high density. The effective worldsheet theory of a single non-Abelian vortex was previously calculated in the singular gauge to obtain the C P2 model
Confinement Driven by Scalar Field in 4d Non Abelian Gauge Theories
Chabab, Mohamed
2007-01-12
We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of tmechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.
Localization in abelian Chern-Simons theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLellan, B. D. K.
2013-02-01
Chern-Simons theory on a closed contact three-manifold is studied when the Lie group for gauge transformations is compact, connected, and abelian. The abelian Chern-Simons partition function is derived using the Faddeev-Popov gauge fixing method. The partition function is then formally computed using the technique of non-abelian localization. This study leads to a natural identification of the abelian Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections for the class of Sasakian three-manifolds. The torsion part of the abelian Chern-Simons partition function is computed explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given Sasakian three-manifold.
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153
Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando
Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM’s as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they dependmore » in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.« less
Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; ...
2018-04-01
Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM’s as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they dependmore » in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.« less
Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Santos-Silva, Roberto
2018-04-01
Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM's as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they depend in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.
Gauge-independent Abelian mechanism of color confinement in gluodynamics
Suzuki, Tsuneo; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Sekido, Toru
Abelian mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is observed in a gauge-independent way by high precision lattice Monte Carlo simulations in gluodynamics. An Abelian gauge field is extracted with no gauge fixing. Then we decompose the Abelian field into regular photon and singular monopole parts using the Hodge decomposition. We find that only the monopole part is responsible for the string tension. The investigation of the flux-tube profile then shows that an Abelian electric field defined in an arbitrary color direction is squeezed by the monopole supercurrent with the same color direction, and the quantitative features of flux squeezing are consistentmore » with those observed previously after Abelian projections with gauge fixing. Non-Abelian color confinement is explained in the framework of the gauge-independent Abelian dual Meissner effect.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2015-01-01
String and particle braiding statistics are examined in a class of topological orders described by discrete gauge theories with a gauge group G and a 4-cocycle twist ω4 of G 's cohomology group H4(G ,R /Z ) in three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time (3 +1 D ) . We establish the topological spin and the spin-statistics relation for the closed strings and their multistring braiding statistics. The 3 +1 D twisted gauge theory can be characterized by a representation of a modular transformation group, SL (3 ,Z ) . We express the SL (3 ,Z ) generators Sx y z and Tx y in terms of the gauge group G and the 4-cocycle ω4. As we compactify one of the spatial directions z into a compact circle with a gauge flux b inserted, we can use the generators Sx y and Tx y of an SL (2 ,Z ) subgroup to study the dimensional reduction of the 3D topological order C3 D to a direct sum of degenerate states of 2D topological orders Cb2 D in different flux b sectors: C3 D=⊕bCb2 D . The 2D topological orders Cb2 D are described by 2D gauge theories of the group G twisted by the 3-cocycle ω3 (b ), dimensionally reduced from the 4-cocycle ω4. We show that the SL (2 ,Z ) generators, Sx y and Tx y, fully encode a particular type of three-string braiding statistics with a pattern that is the connected sum of two Hopf links. With certain 4-cocycle twists, we discover that, by threading a third string through two-string unlink into a three-string Hopf-link configuration, Abelian two-string braiding statistics is promoted to non-Abelian three-string braiding statistics.
Noncommutative gauge theory for Poisson manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Wess, Julius
2000-09-01
A noncommutative gauge theory is associated to every Abelian gauge theory on a Poisson manifold. The semi-classical and full quantum version of the map from the ordinary gauge theory to the noncommutative gauge theory (Seiberg-Witten map) is given explicitly to all orders for any Poisson manifold in the Abelian case. In the quantum case the construction is based on Kontsevich's formality theorem.
Interacting Non-Abelian Anti-Symmetric Tensor Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekambaram, K.; Vytheeswaran, A. S.
2018-04-01
Non-Abelian Anti-symmetric Tensor fields interacting with vector fields have a complicated constraint structure. We enlarge the gauge invariance in this system. Relevant gauge invariant quantities including the Hamiltonian are obtained. We also make introductory remarks on a different but more complicated gauge theory.
Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices
Paul, S.K.
1987-05-15
Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.
Extended gauge theory and gauged free differential algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado, P.; Salgado, S.
2018-01-01
Recently, Antoniadis, Konitopoulos and Savvidy introduced, in the context of the so-called extended gauge theory, a procedure to construct background-free gauge invariants, using non-abelian gauge potentials described by higher degree forms. In this article it is shown that the extended invariants found by Antoniadis, Konitopoulos and Savvidy can be constructed from an algebraic structure known as free differential algebra. In other words, we show that the above mentioned non-abelian gauge theory, where the gauge fields are described by p-forms with p ≥ 2, can be obtained by gauging free differential algebras.
Interaction of non-Abelian tensor gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savvidy, George
2018-01-01
The non-Abelian tensor gauge fields take value in extended Poincaré algebra. In order to define the invariant Lagrangian we introduce a vector variable in two alternative ways: through the transversal representation of the extended Poincaré algebra and through the path integral over the auxiliary vector field with the U(1) Abelian action. We demonstrate that this allows to fix the unitary gauge and derive scattering amplitudes in spinor representation.
Gravitational waves from non-Abelian gauge fields at a tachyonic transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tranberg, Anders; Tähtinen, Sara; Weir, David J.
2018-04-01
We compute the gravitational wave spectrum from a tachyonic preheating transition of a Standard Model-like SU(2)-Higgs system. Tachyonic preheating involves exponentially growing IR modes, at scales as large as the horizon. Such a transition at the electroweak scale could be detectable by LISA, if these non-perturbatively large modes translate into non-linear dynamics sourcing gravitational waves. Through large-scale numerical simulations, we find that the spectrum of gravitational waves does not exhibit such IR features. Instead, we find two peaks corresponding to the Higgs and gauge field mass, respectively. We find that the gravitational wave production is reduced when adding non-Abelian gauge fields to a scalar-only theory, but increases when adding Abelian gauge fields. In particular, gauge fields suppress the gravitational wave spectrum in the IR. A tachyonic transition in the early Universe will therefore not be detectable by LISA, even if it involves non-Abelian gauge fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattringer, Christof; Göschl, Daniel; Marchis, Carlotta
2018-03-01
We discuss recent developments for exact reformulations of lattice field theories in terms of worldlines and worldsheets. In particular we focus on a strategy which is applicable also to non-abelian theories: traces and matrix/vector products are written as explicit sums over color indices and a dual variable is introduced for each individual term. These dual variables correspond to fluxes in both, space-time and color for matter fields (Abelian color fluxes), or to fluxes in color space around space-time plaquettes for gauge fields (Abelian color cycles). Subsequently all original degrees of freedom, i.e., matter fields and gauge links, can be integrated out. Integrating over complex phases of matter fields gives rise to constraints that enforce conservation of matter flux on all sites. Integrating out phases of gauge fields enforces vanishing combined flux of matter-and gauge degrees of freedom. The constraints give rise to a system of worldlines and worldsheets. Integrating over the factors that are not phases (e.g., radial degrees of freedom or contributions from the Haar measure) generates additional weight factors that together with the constraints implement the full symmetry of the conventional formulation, now in the language of worldlines and worldsheets. We discuss the Abelian color flux and Abelian color cycle strategies for three examples: the SU(2) principal chiral model with chemical potential coupled to two of the Noether charges, SU(2) lattice gauge theory coupled to staggered fermions, as well as full lattice QCD with staggered fermions. For the principal chiral model we present some simulation results that illustrate properties of the worldline dynamics at finite chemical potentials.
Digital lattice gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
Semistrict higher gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin
2015-04-01
We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.
Upper bound on the Abelian gauge coupling from asymptotic safety
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Versteegen, Fleur
2018-01-01
We explore the impact of asymptotically safe quantum gravity on the Abelian gauge coupling in a model including a charged scalar, confirming indications that asymptotically safe quantum fluctuations of gravity could trigger a power-law running towards a free fixed point for the gauge coupling above the Planck scale. Simultaneously, quantum gravity fluctuations balance against matter fluctuations to generate an interacting fixed point, which acts as a boundary of the basin of attraction of the free fixed point. This enforces an upper bound on the infrared value of the Abelian gauge coupling. In the regime of gravity couplings which in our approximation also allows for a prediction of the top quark and Higgs mass close to the experimental value [1], we obtain an upper bound approximately 35% above the infrared value of the hypercharge coupling in the Standard Model.
The static quark potential from the gauge independent Abelian decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cundy, Nigel; Cho, Y. M.; Lee, Weonjong; Leem, Jaehoon
2015-06-01
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field n; the principle novelty of our study is that we have used a unique definition of this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This allows us to establish an equivalence between the path-ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields and an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without requiring an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field n winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to an area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. Unlike most studies of confinement using the Abelian decomposition, we do not rely on a dual-Meissner effect to create the inter-quark potential. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks of a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects, or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for
Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories.
Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B; Verstraete, Frank
2016-09-23
We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws-including a topological correction-emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.
Noncommutative gauge theories and Kontsevich's formality theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, B.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.
2001-09-01
The equivalence of star products that arise from the background field with and without fluctuations and Kontsevich's formality theorem allow an explicitly construction of a map that relates ordinary gauge theory and noncommutative gauge theory (Seiberg-Witten map.) Using noncommutative extra dimensions the construction is extended to noncommutative nonabelian gauge theory for arbitrary gauge groups; as a byproduct we obtain a "Mini Seiberg-Witten map" that explicitly relates ordinary abelian and nonabelian gauge fields. All constructions are also valid for non-constant B-field, and even more generally for any Poisson tensor.
Quantum corrections to non-Abelian SUSY theories on orbifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan; Hillenbach, Mark
2006-07-01
We consider supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theories coupled to hyper multiplets on five and six dimensional orbifolds, S/Z and T/Z, respectively. We compute the bulk and local fixed point renormalizations of the gauge couplings. To this end we extend supergraph techniques to these orbifolds by defining orbifold compatible delta functions. We develop their properties in detail. To cancel the bulk one-loop divergences the bulk gauge kinetic terms and dimension six higher derivative operators are required. The gauge couplings renormalize at the Z fixed points due to vector multiplet self interactions; the hyper multiplet renormalizes only non- Z fixed points. In 6D the Wess-Zumino-Witten term and a higher derivative analogue have to renormalize in the bulk as well to preserve 6D gauge invariance.
Flavored gauge mediation with discrete non-Abelian symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everett, Lisa L.; Garon, Todd S.
2018-05-01
We explore the model building and phenomenology of flavored gauge-mediation models of supersymmetry breaking in which the electroweak Higgs doublets and the S U (2 ) messenger doublets are connected by a discrete non-Abelian symmetry. The embedding of the Higgs and messenger fields into representations of this non-Abelian Higgs-messenger symmetry results in specific relations between the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and the messenger-matter Yukawa interactions. Taking the concrete example of an S3 Higgs-messenger symmetry, we demonstrate that, while the minimal implementation of this scenario suffers from a severe μ /Bμ problem that is well known from ordinary gauge mediation, expanding the Higgs-messenger field content allows for the possibility that μ and Bμ can be separately tuned, allowing for the possibility of phenomenologically viable models of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We construct toy examples of this type that are consistent with the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass.
Dirichlet to Neumann operator for Abelian Yang-Mills gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz-Marín, Homero G.
We consider the Dirichlet to Neumann operator for Abelian Yang-Mills boundary conditions. The aim is constructing a complex structure for the symplectic space of boundary conditions of Euler-Lagrange solutions modulo gauge for space-time manifolds with smooth boundary. Thus we prepare a suitable scenario for geometric quantization within the reduced symplectic space of boundary conditions of Abelian gauge fields.
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
Zohar, Erez, E-mail: erez.zohar@mpq.mpg.de; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele, E-mail: michele.burrello@mpq.mpg.de
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of amore » simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.« less
Feynman rules for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-09-24
Feynman rules for an abelian extension of gauge theories are discussed and explicitly derived. Vertices with three and four abelian gauge bosons are obtained. A discussion on an eventual structure for the photon is presented.
Unveiling a spinor field classification with non-Abelian gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Luca; da Rocha, Roldão
2018-05-01
A spinor fields classification with non-Abelian gauge symmetries is introduced, generalizing the U(1) gauge symmetries-based Lounesto's classification. Here, a more general classification, contrary to the Lounesto's one, encompasses spinor multiplets, corresponding to non-Abelian gauge fields. The particular case of SU(2) gauge symmetry, encompassing electroweak and electromagnetic conserved charges, is then implemented by a non-Abelian spinor classification, now involving 14 mixed classes of spinor doublets. A richer flagpole, dipole, and flag-dipole structure naturally descends from this general classification. The Lounesto's classification of spinors is shown to arise as a Pauli's singlet, into this more general classification.
Path-integral invariants in abelian Chern-Simons theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guadagnini, E.; Thuillier, F.
2014-05-01
We consider the U(1) Chern-Simons gauge theory defined in a general closed oriented 3-manifold M; the functional integration is used to compute the normalized partition function and the expectation values of the link holonomies. The non-perturbative path-integral is defined in the space of the gauge orbits of the connections which belong to the various inequivalent U(1) principal bundles over M; the different sectors of configuration space are labelled by the elements of the first homology group of M and are characterized by appropriate background connections. The gauge orbits of flat connections, whose classification is also based on the homology group, control the non-perturbative contributions to the mean values. The functional integration is carried out in any 3-manifold M, and the corresponding path-integral invariants turn out to be strictly related with the abelian Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery invariants.
Anisotopic inflation with a non-abelian gauge field in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Lahiri, Sayantani, E-mail: sayantani.lahiri@gmail.com
2017-01-01
In presence of Gauss-Bonnet corrections, we study anisotropic inflation aided by a massless SU(2) gauge field where both the gauge field and the Gauss-Bonnet term are non-minimally coupled to the inflaton. In this scenario, under slow-roll approximations, the anisotropic inflation is realized as an attractor solution with quadratic forms of inflaton potential and Gauss-Bonnet coupling function. We show that the degree of anisotropy is proportional to the additive combination of two slow-roll parameters of the theory. The anisotropy may become either positive or negative similar to the non-Gauss-Bonnet framework, a feature of the model for anisotropic inflation supported by amore » non-abelian gauge field but the effect of Gauss-Bonnet term further enhances or suppresses the generated anisotropy.« less
Dark gauge bosons: LHC signatures of non-abelian kinetic mixing
Argüelles, Carlos A.; He, Xiao-Gang; Ovanesyan, Grigory; ...
2017-04-20
We consider non-abelian kinetic mixing between the Standard Model and a dark sector gauge group associated with the presence of a scalar triplet. The magnitude of the resulting dark photon coupling ϵ is determined by the ratio of the triplet vacuum expectation value, constrained to by by electroweak precision tests, to the scale Λ of the effective theory. The corresponding effective operator Wilson coefficient can be while accommodating null results for dark photon searches, allowing for a distinctive LHC dark photon phenomenology. After outlining the possible LHC signatures, we illustrate by recasting current ATLAS dark photon results into the non-abelianmore » mixing context.« less
Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials
Satija, Indubala I.; National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899; Dakin, Daniel C.
2006-11-24
We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. For Abelian gauges, such transitions occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case includemore » the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta.« less
Abelian Toda field theories on the noncommutative plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera-Carnero, Iraida
2005-10-01
Generalizations of GL(n) abelian Toda and GL with tilde above(n) abelian affine Toda field theories to the noncommutative plane are constructed. Our proposal relies on the noncommutative extension of a zero-curvature condition satisfied by algebra-valued gauge potentials dependent on the fields. This condition can be expressed as noncommutative Leznov-Saveliev equations which make possible to define the noncommutative generalizations as systems of second order differential equations, with an infinite chain of conserved currents. The actions corresponding to these field theories are also provided. The special cases of GL(2) Liouville and GL with tilde above(2) sinh/sine-Gordon are explicitly studied. It is also shown that from the noncommutative (anti-)self-dual Yang-Mills equations in four dimensions it is possible to obtain by dimensional reduction the equations of motion of the two-dimensional models constructed. This fact supports the validity of the noncommutative version of the Ward conjecture. The relation of our proposal to previous versions of some specific Toda field theories reported in the literature is presented as well.
Radially separated classical lumps in non-Abelian gauge models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burzlaff, Jürgen
1985-04-01
We search for smooth and time-independent finite-energy solutions to Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with an arbitrary compact gauge group. Excluding the monopole solutions which have been studied before, we concentrate on configurations with no long-range fields, which include the saddle points corresponding to noncontractible (hyper-) loops. It is shown that if the radial dependence of the fields is factorized, only one solution satisfies all these conditions. This solution is the one which has been studied before by Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu and by Boguta, and whose existence has recently been proved rigorously. Formulas for the asymptotic behavior of this solution are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieh, H. T.
2018-02-01
The potential conflict between torsion and gauge symmetry in the Riemann-Cartan curved spacetime was noted by Kibble in his 1961 pioneering paper and has since been discussed by many authors. Kibble suggested that, to preserve gauge symmetry, one should forgo the covariant derivative in favor of the ordinary derivative in the definition of the field strength Fμ ν for massless gauge theories, while for massive vector fields, covariant derivatives should be adopted. This view was further emphasized by Hehl et al. in their influential 1976 review paper. We address the question of whether this deviation from normal procedure by forgoing covariant derivatives in curved spacetime with torsion could give rise to inconsistencies in the theory, such as the quantum renormalizability of a realistic interacting theory. We demonstrate in this paper the one-loop renormalizability of a realistic gauge theory of gauge bosons interacting with Dirac spinors, such as the SU(3) chromodynamics, for the case of a curved Riemann-Cartan spacetime with totally antisymmetric torsion. This affirmative confirmation is one step toward providing justification for the assertion that the flat-space definition of the gauge-field strength should be adopted as the proper definition.
Perturbative Quantum Gauge Theories on Manifolds with Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Mnev, Pavel; Reshetikhin, Nicolai
2018-01-01
This paper introduces a general perturbative quantization scheme for gauge theories on manifolds with boundary, compatible with cutting and gluing, in the cohomological symplectic (BV-BFV) formalism. Explicit examples, like abelian BF theory and its perturbations, including nontopological ones, are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor; Marnelius, Robert
1998-02-01
A general field-antifield BV formalism for antisymplectic first class constraints is proposed. It is as general as the corresponding symplectic BFV-BRST formulation and it is demonstrated to be consistent with a previously proposed formalism for antisymplectic second class constraints through a generalized conversion to corresponding first class constraints. Thereby the basic concept of gauge symmetry is extended to apply to quite a new class of gauge theories potentially possible to exist.
A note on local BRST cohomology of Yang-Mills type theories with free Abelian factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnich, Glenn; Boulanger, Nicolas
2018-05-01
We extend previous work on antifield dependent local Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) cohomology for matter coupled gauge theories of Yang-Mills type to the case of gauge groups that involve free Abelian factors. More precisely, we first investigate in a model independent way how the dynamics enters the computation of the cohomology for a general class of Lagrangians in general spacetime dimensions. We then discuss explicit solutions in the case of specific models. Our analysis has implications for the structure of characteristic cohomology and for consistent deformations of the classical models, as well as for divergences/counterterms and for gauge anomalies that may appear during perturbative quantization.
Experimental evidence for non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Long-Jing; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Zuo, Wei-Jie; Li, Wen-Tian; He, Lin
2015-08-01
Non-Abelian gauge potentials are quite relevant in subatomic physics, but they are relatively rare in a condensed matter context. Here we report the experimental evidence for non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. At a magic twisted angle, θ ≈(1.11±0.05 ) ∘ , a pronounced sharp peak, which arises from the nondispersive flat bands at the charge neutrality point, is observed in the tunneling density of states due to the action of the non-Abelian gauge fields. Moreover, we observe confined electronic states in the twisted bilayer, as manifested by regularly spaced tunneling peaks with energy spacing δ E ≈vF/D ≈70 meV (here vF is the Fermi velocity of graphene and D is the period of the moiré patterns). This indicates that the non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers confine low-energy electrons into a triangular array of quantum dots following the modulation of the moiré patterns. Our results also directly demonstrate that the Fermi velocity in twisted bilayers can be tuned from about 106m /s to zero by simply reducing the twisted angle of about 2∘.
Gauge and integrable theories in loop spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.
2012-05-01
We propose an integral formulation of the equations of motion of a large class of field theories which leads in a quite natural and direct way to the construction of conservation laws. The approach is based on generalized non-abelian Stokes theorems for p-form connections, and its appropriate mathematical language is that of loop spaces. The equations of motion are written as the equality of a hyper-volume ordered integral to a hyper-surface ordered integral on the border of that hyper-volume. The approach applies to integrable field theories in (1+1) dimensions, Chern-Simons theories in (2+1) dimensions, and non-abelian gauge theories in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions. The results presented in this paper are relevant for the understanding of global properties of those theories. As a special byproduct we solve a long standing problem in (3+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, namely the construction of conserved charges, valid for any solution, which are invariant under arbitrary gauge transformations.
Non-Abelian sigma models from Yang-Mills theory compactified on a circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, Tatiana A.; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.
2018-06-01
We consider SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on R 2 , 1 ×S1, where S1 is a spatial circle. In the infrared limit of a small-circle radius the Yang-Mills action reduces to the action of a sigma model on R 2 , 1 whose target space is a 2 (N - 1)-dimensional torus modulo the Weyl-group action. We argue that there is freedom in the choice of the framing of the gauge bundles, which leads to more general options. In particular, we show that this low-energy limit can give rise to a target space SU (N) ×SU (N) /ZN. The latter is the direct product of SU(N) and its Langlands dual SU (N) /ZN, and it contains the above-mentioned torus as its maximal Abelian subgroup. An analogous result is obtained for any non-Abelian gauge group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Vysoký, Jan
2014-06-01
We generalize noncommutative gauge theory using Nambu-Poisson structures to obtain a new type of gauge theory with higher brackets and gauge fields. The approach is based on covariant coordinates and higher versions of the Seiberg-Witten map. We construct a covariant Nambu-Poisson gauge theory action, give its first order expansion in the Nambu-Poisson tensor and relate it to a Nambu-Poisson matrix model.
BFV-BRST analysis of equivalence between noncommutative and ordinary gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dayi, O. F.
2000-05-01
Constrained hamiltonian structure of noncommutative gauge theory for the gauge group /U(1) is discussed. Constraints are shown to be first class, although, they do not give an Abelian algebra in terms of Poisson brackets. The related BFV-BRST charge gives a vanishing generalized Poisson bracket by itself due to the associativity of /*-product. Equivalence of noncommutative and ordinary gauge theories is formulated in generalized phase space by using BFV-BRST charge and a solution is obtained. Gauge fixing is discussed.
Confining and repulsive potentials from effective non-Abelian gauge fields in graphene bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of shear and strain in graphene bilayers, under conditions where the distortion of the lattice gives rise to a smooth one-dimensional modulation in the stacking sequence of the bilayer. We show that strain and shear produce characteristic Moiré patterns which can have the same visual appearance on a large scale, but representing graphene bilayers with quite different electronic properties. The different features in the low-energy electronic bands can be ascribed to the effect of a fictitious non-Abelian gauge field mimicking the smooth modulation of the stacking order. Strained and sheared bilayers show a complementary behavior, which can be understood from the fact that the non-Abelian gauge field acts as a repulsive interaction in the former, expelling the electron density away from the stacking domain walls, while behaving as a confining interaction leading to localization of the electronic states in the sheared bilayers. In this latter case, the presence of the effective gauge field explains the development of almost flat low-energy bands, resembling the form of the zeroth Landau level characteristic of a Dirac fermion field. The estimate of the gauge field strength in those systems gives a magnitude of the order of several tens of tesla, implying a robust phenomenology that should be susceptible of being observed in suitably distorted bilayer samples.
Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makeenko, Yuri
2002-08-01
Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.
Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makeenko, Yuri
2005-11-01
Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Min
2018-03-01
We consider the gauged U (1) clockwork theory with a product of multiple gauge groups and discuss the continuum limit of the theory to a massless gauged U (1) with linear dilaton background in five dimensions. The localization of the lightest state of gauge fields on a site in the theory space naturally leads to exponentially small effective couplings of external matter fields localized away from the site. We discuss the implications of our general discussion with some examples, such as mediators of dark matter interactions, flavor-changing B-meson decays as well as D-term SUSY breaking.
A string realisation of Ω-deformed Abelian N =2* theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelantonj, Carlo; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Samsonyan, Marine
2017-10-01
The N =2* supersymmetric gauge theory is a massive deformation of N = 4, in which the adjoint hypermultiplet gets a mass. We present a D-brane realisation of the (non-)Abelian N =2* theory, and compute suitable topological amplitudes, which are expressed as a double series expansion. The coefficients determine couplings of higher-dimensional operators in the effective supergravity action that involve powers of the anti-self-dual N = 2 chiral Weyl superfield and of self-dual gauge field strengths superpartners of the D5-brane coupling modulus. In the field theory limit, the result reproduces the Nekrasov partition function in the two-parameter Ω-background, in agreement with a recent proposal.
Progress in lattice gauge theory
Creutz, M.
1983-01-01
These lectures first provide an overview of the current status of lattice gauge theory calculations. They then review some technical points on group integration, gauge fixing, and order parameters. Various Monte Carlo algorithms are discussed. Finally, alternatives to the Wilson action are considered in the context of universality for the continuum limit. 41 references.
Nonabelian noncommutative gauge theory via noncommutative extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Wess, Julius
2001-06-01
The concept of covariant coordinates on noncommutative spaces leads directly to gauge theories with generalized noncommutative gauge fields of the type that arises in string theory with background B-fields. The theory is naturally expressed in terms of cochains in an appropriate cohomology; we discuss how it fits into the framework of projective modules. The equivalence of star products that arise from the background field with and without fluctuations and Kontsevich's formality theorem allow an explicitly construction of a map that relates ordinary gauge theory and noncommutative gauge theory (Seiberg-Witten map). As application we show the exact equality of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action with B-field in the commutative setting and its semi-noncommutative cousin in the intermediate picture. Using noncommutative extra dimensions the construction is extended to noncommutative nonabelian gauge theory for arbitrary gauge groups; an explicit map between abelian and nonabelian gauge fields is given. All constructions are also valid for non-constant B-field, Poisson structure and metric.
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2015-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress in understanding quark confinement. The emphasis of this review is placed on how to obtain a manifestly gauge-independent picture for quark confinement supporting the dual superconductivity in the Yang-Mills theory, which should be compared with the Abelian projection proposed by 't Hooft. The basic tools are novel reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory based on change of variables extending the decomposition of the SU(N) Yang-Mills field due to Cho, Duan-Ge and Faddeev-Niemi, together with the combined use of extended versions of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the SU(N) Wilson loop operator. Moreover, we give the lattice gauge theoretical versions of the reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which enables us to perform the numerical simulations on the lattice. In fact, we present some numerical evidences for supporting the dual superconductivity for quark confinement. The numerical simulations include the derivation of the linear potential for static interquark potential, i.e., non-vanishing string tension, in which the "Abelian" dominance and magnetic monopole dominance are established, confirmation of the dual Meissner effect by measuring the chromoelectric flux tube between quark-antiquark pair, the induced magnetic-monopole current, and the type of dual superconductivity, etc. In addition, we give a direct connection between the topological configuration of the Yang-Mills field such as instantons/merons and the magnetic monopole. We show especially that magnetic monopoles in the Yang-Mills theory can be constructed in a manifestly gauge-invariant way starting from the gauge-invariant Wilson loop operator and thereby the contribution from the magnetic monopoles can be extracted from the Wilson loop in a gauge-invariant way through the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator, which is a prerequisite for exhibiting magnetic monopole dominance for quark
Strolling along gauge theory vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seraj, Ali; Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2017-08-01
We consider classical, pure Yang-Mills theory in a box. We show how a set of static electric fields that solve the theory in an adiabatic limit correspond to geodesic motion on the space of vacua, equipped with a particular Riemannian metric that we identify. The vacua are generated by spontaneously broken global gauge symmetries, leading to an infinite number of conserved momenta of the geodesic motion. We show that these correspond to the soft multipole charges of Yang-Mills theory.
Mass gap in the weak coupling limit of (2 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anishetty, Ramesh; Sreeraj, T. P.
2018-04-01
We develop the dual description of (2 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory as interacting "Abelian-like" electric loops by using Schwinger bosons. "Point splitting" of the lattice enables us to construct explicit Hilbert space for the gauge invariant theory which in turn makes dynamics more transparent. Using path integral representation in phase space, the interacting closed loop dynamics is analyzed in the weak coupling limit to get the mass gap.
Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.
2011-01-01
AdS/QCD, light-front holography, and the nonperturbative running coupling / Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy de Teramond and Alexandre Deur -- New results on non-abelian vortices - Further insights into monopole, vortex and confinement / K. Konishi -- Study on exotic hadrons at B-factories / Toru Iijima -- Cold compressed baryonic matter with hidden local symmetry and holography / Mannque Rho -- Aspects of baryons in holographic QCD / T. Sakai -- Nuclear force from string theory / K. Hashimoto -- Integrating out holographic QCD back to hidden local symmetry / Masayasu Harada, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Holographic heavy quarks and the giant Polyakov loop / Gianluca Grignani, Joanna Karczmarek and Gordon W. Semenoff -- Effect of vector-axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum in hot and/or dense matter / Masayasu Harada and Chihiro Sasaki -- Infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators compatible with color confinement in Yang-Mills theory with the Gribov horizon / Kei-Ichi Kondo -- Chiral symmetry breaking on the lattice / Hidenori Fukaya [for JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations] -- Gauge-Higgs unification: Stable Higgs bosons as cold dark matter / Yutaka Hosotani -- The limits of custodial symmetry / R. Sekhar Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Higgs searches at the tevatron / Kazuhiro Yamamoto [for the CDF and D[symbol] collaborations] -- The top triangle moose / R. S. Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Conformal phase transition in QCD like theories and beyond / V. A. Miransky -- Gauge-Higgs unification at LHC / Nobuhito Maru and Nobuchika Okada -- W[symbol]W[symbol] scattering in Higgsless models: Identifying better effective theories / Alexander S. Belyaev ... [et al.] -- Holographic estimate of Muon g - 2 / Deog Ki Hong -- Gauge-Higgs dark matter / T. Yamashita -- Topological and curvature effects in a multi-fermion interaction model / T. Inagaki and M. Hayashi -- A model of soft mass generation / J. Hosek -- TeV physics and conformality / Thomas Appelquist -- Conformal
Some novel features in 2D non-Abelian theory: BRST approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivas, N.; Kumar, S.; Kureel, B. K.; Malik, R. P.
2017-08-01
Within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we discuss some novel features of a two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (without any interaction with matter fields). Besides the usual off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, we discuss the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations. Particularly, we lay emphasis on the existence of the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities of the 2D non-Abelian theory in view of the presence of (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations where we pin-point some novel features associated with the Curci-Ferrari (CF-)type restrictions. We demonstrate that these CF-type restrictions can be incorporated into the (anti-)co-BRST invariant Lagrangian densities through the fermionic Lagrange multipliers which carry specific ghost numbers. The modified versions of the Lagrangian densities (where we get rid of the new CF-type restrictions) respect some precise symmetries as well as a couple of symmetries with CF-type constraints. These observations are completely novel as far as the BRST formalism, with proper (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, is concerned.
On lattice chiral gauge theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.
1991-01-01
The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.
Gerbes, M5-Brane Anomalies and E8 Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschieri, Paolo; Jurco, Branislav
2004-10-01
Abelian gerbes and twisted bundles describe the topology of the NS 3-form gauge field strength H. We review how they have been usefully applied to study and resolve global anomalies in open string theory. Abelian 2-gerbes and twisted nonabelian gerbes describe the topology of the 4-form field strength G of M-theory. We show that twisted nonabelian gerbes are relevant in the study and resolution of global anomalies of multiple coinciding M5-branes. Global anomalies for one M5-brane have been studied by Witten and by Diaconescu, Freed and Moore. The structure and the differential geometry of twisted nonabelian gerbes (i.e. modules for 2-gerbes) is defined and studied. The nonabelian 2-form gauge potential living on multiple coinciding M5-branes arises as curving (curvature) of twisted nonabelian gerbes. The nonabelian group is in general tilde OmegaE8, the central extension of the E8 loop group. The twist is in general necessary to cancel global anomalies due to the nontriviality of the 11-dimensional 4-form field strength G and due to the possible torsion present in the cycles the M5-branes wrap. Our description of M5-branes global anomalies leads to the D4-branes one upon compactification of M-theory to Type IIA theory.
Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.
1973-07-01
Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.
RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20
VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.
2000-06-01
This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribovmore » copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.« less
Critical non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions and little string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-08-01
As was shown recently, non-Abelian vortex strings supported in four-dimensional N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group and Nf=4 quark multiplets (flavors) become critical superstrings. In addition to the translational moduli, non-Abelian strings under consideration carry six orientational and size moduli. Together, they form a ten-dimensional target space required for a superstring to be critical. The target space of the string sigma model is a product of the flat four-dimensional space and a Calabi-Yau noncompact threefold, namely, the conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions and identify them with hadrons of four-dimensional N =2 QCD. One massless state was found previously; it emerges as a massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. In this paper, we find a number of massive states. To this end, we exploit the approach used in LST little string theory, namely, the equivalence between the critical string on the conifold and noncritical c =1 string with the Liouville field and a compact scalar at the self-dual radius. The states we find carry "baryonic" charge (its definition differs from standard). We interpret them as "monopole necklaces" formed (at strong coupling) by the closed string with confined monopoles attached.
Weak interactions and gauge theories
Gaillard, M.K.
1979-12-01
The status of the electroweak gauge theory, also known as quantum asthenodynamics (QAD), is examined. The major result is that the standard WS-GIM model describes the data well, although one should still look for signs of further complexity and better tests of its gauge theory aspect. A second important result is that the measured values of the three basic coupling constants of present-energy physics, g/sub s/, g, and ..sqrt..(5/3)g' of SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2)/sub 2/ x U(1), are compatible with the idea that these interactions are unified at high energies. Much of the paper deals with open questions, and itmore » takes up the following topics: the status of QAD, the scalar meson spectrum, the fermion spectrum, CP violation, and decay dynamics. 118 references, 20 figures. (RWR)« less
Gauge Gravity and Electroweak Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hestenes, David
2008-09-01
Reformulation of the Dirac equation in terms of the real Spacetime Algebra (STA) reveals hidden geometric structure, including a geometric role for the unit imaginary as generator of rotations in a spacelike plane. The STA and the real Dirac equation play essential roles in a new Gauge Theory Gravity (GTG) version of General Relativity (GR). Besides clarifying the conceptual foundations of GR and facilitating complex computations, GTG opens up new possibilities for a unified gauge theory of gravity and quantum mechanics, including spacetime geometry of electroweak interactions. The Weinberg-Salam model fits perfectly into this geometric framework, and a promising variant that replaces chiral states with Majorana states is formulated to incorporate zitterbewegung in electron states.
Comment on 'Noncommutative gauge theories and Lorentz symmetry'
Iorio, Alfredo
2008-02-15
We show that Lorentz symmetry is generally absent for noncommutative (Abelian) gauge theories and obtain a compact formula for the divergence of the Noether currents that allows a thorough study of this instance of symmetry violation. We use that formula to explain why the results of ''Noncommutative gauge theories and Lorentz symmetry'', Phys. Rev. D 70, 125004 (2004) by R. Banerjee, B. Chakraborty, and K. Kumar, interpreted there as new criteria for Lorentz invariance, are in fact just a particular case of the general expression for Lorentz violation obtained here. Finally, it is suggested that the divergence formula should holdmore » in a vast class of cases, such as, for instance, the standard model extension.« less
The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, François; Reboud, Méril; ...
2016-07-12
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In conclusion, the relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burby, Joshua; Brizard, Alain
2017-10-01
Test-particle gyrocenter equations of motion play an essential role in the diagnosis of turbulent strongly-magnetized plasmas, and are playing an increasingly-important role in the formulation of kinetic-gyrokinetic hybrid models. Previous gyrocenter models required the knowledge of the perturbed electromagnetic potentials, which are not directly observable quantities (since they are gauge-dependent). A new gauge-free formulation of gyrocenter motion is presented, which enables gyrocenter trajectories to be determined using only measured values of the directly-observable electromagnetic field. Our gauge-free gyrokinetic theory is general enough to allow for gyroradius-scale fluctuations in both the electric and magnetic field. In addition, we provide gauge-free expressions for the charge and current densities produced by a distribution of gyrocenters, which explicitly include guiding-center and gyrocenter polarization and magnetization effects. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-SC0014032 (AB) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JB).
Democratic superstring field theory: gauge fixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroyter, Michael
2011-03-01
We show that a partial gauge fixing of the NS sector of the democratic-picture superstring field theory leads to the non-polynomial theory. Moreover, by partially gauge fixing the Ramond sector we obtain a non-polynomial fully RNS theory at pictures 0 and 1/2 . Within the democratic theory and in the partially gauge fixed theory the equations of motion of both sectors are derived from an action. We also discuss a representation of the non-polynomial theory analogous to a manifestly two-dimensional representation of WZW theory and the action of bosonic pure-gauge solutions. We further demonstrate that one can consistently gauge fix the NS sector of the democratic theory at picture number -1. The resulting theory is new. It is a {mathbb{Z}_2} dual of the modified cubic theory. We construct analytical solutions of this theory and show that they possess the desired properties.
Penrose limits of Abelian and non-Abelian T-duals of AdS 5 × S 5 and their field theory duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Nastase, Horatiu; Núñez, Carlos; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Zacarías, Salomón
2018-01-01
We consider the backgrounds obtained by Abelian and non-Abelian T-duality applied on AdS 5 × S 5. We study geodesics, calculate Penrose limits and find the associated plane-wave geometries. We quantise the weakly coupled type-IIA string theory on these backgrounds. We study the BMN sector, finding operators that wrap the original quiver CFT. For the non-Abelian plane wave, we find a `flow' in the frequencies. We report some progress to understand this, in terms of deconstruction of a higher dimensional field theory. We explore a relation with the plane-wave limit of the Janus solution, which we also provide.
Cosmology and unified gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oraifeartaigh, L.
1981-09-01
Theoretical points in common between cosmology and unified gauge theory (UGT) are reviewed, with attention given to areas of one which have proven useful for the other. The underlying principles for both theoretical frameworks are described, noting the differences in scale, i.e., 10 to the 25th cm in cosmology and 10 to the -15th cm for UGT. Cosmology has produced bounds on the number of existing neutrino species, and also on the mass of neutrinos, two factors of interest in particle physics. Electrons, protons, and neutrinos, having been spawned from the same massive leptons, each composed of three quarks, have been predicted to be present in equal numbers in the Universe by UGT, in line with necessities of cosmology. The Grand UGT also suggests specific time scales for proton decay, thus accounting for the observed baryon assymmetry.
Global charges of stationary non-Abelian black holes.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2003-05-02
We consider stationary axially symmetric black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory. We present a mass formula for these stationary non-Abelian black holes, which also holds for Abelian black holes. The presence of the dilaton field allows for rotating black holes, which possess nontrivial electric and magnetic gauge fields, but do not carry a non-Abelian charge. We further present a new uniqueness conjecture.
Conformal field theory construction for non-Abelian hierarchy wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournois, Yoran; Hermanns, Maria
2017-12-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect is the paradigmatic example of topologically ordered phases. One of its most fascinating aspects is the large variety of different topological orders that may be realized, in particular non-Abelian ones. Here we analyze a class of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall model states which are generalizations of the Abelian Haldane-Halperin hierarchy. We derive their topological properties and show that the quasiparticles obey non-Abelian fusion rules of type su (q)k . For a subset of these states we are able to derive the conformal field theory description that makes the topological properties—in particular braiding—of the state manifest. The model states we study provide explicit wave functions for a large variety of interesting topological orders, which may be relevant for certain fractional quantum Hall states observed in the first excited Landau level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurco, B.; Schraml, S.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.
2000-11-01
An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces.
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
Milne boost from Galilean gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip
2018-03-01
Physical origin of Milne boost invariance of the Newton Cartan spacetime is traced to the effect of local Galilean boosts in its metric structure, using Galilean gauge theory. Specifically, we do not require any gauge field to understand Milne boost invariance.
Ultrastrong coupling in supersymmetric gauge theories
Buchel, Alex
1999-10-04
We study 'ultrastrong' coupling points in scale-invariant N=2 gauge theories. These are theories where, naively, the coupling becomes infinite, and is not related by S-duality to a weak coupling point. These theories have been somewhat of a mystery, since in the M-theory description they correspond to points where parallel M 5-branes coincide. Using the low-energy effective field theory arguments we relate these theories to other known N=2 CFT.
Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, J. M.
2010-11-01
These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in \\ {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
Gauge interactions theory and experiment
Zichichi, A.
This volume brings together physicists from around the world to report and discuss the exciting advances made recently in theoretical and experimental aspects of gauge interactions. Following a presentation of the theoretical foundations of and recent developments in gauge fields, the contrib utors fogus on supersymmetry, the derivation of Higgs particles from gauge fields, and heavy leptons. Other chapters discuss the use of quantum chromodynamics in describing basic interactions among quarks and gluons, in predicting the existence of glueballs, and in application to heavy flavor production in strong interactions. The editor, Antonino Zichichi, provides a study of the multiparticle hadronicmore » systems produced in highenergy soft (pp) interactions. Other interesting chapters deal with photon scattering at very high energies and theoretical alternatives to the electroweak model, and the volume concludes with proposals for future experimental facilities for European physics.« less
Semi-abelian Z-theory: NLSM+ ϕ 3 from the open string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver
2017-08-01
We continue our investigation of Z-theory, the second double-copy component of open-string tree-level interactions besides super-Yang-Mills (sYM). We show that the amplitudes of the extended non-linear sigma model (NLSM) recently considered by Cachazo, Cha, and Mizera are reproduced by the leading α '-order of Z-theory amplitudes in the semi-abelian case. The extension refers to a coupling of NLSM pions to bi-adjoint scalars, and the semi-abelian case involves to a partial symmetrization over one of the color orderings that characterize the Z-theory amplitudes. Alternatively, the partial symmetrization corresponds to a mixed interaction among abelian and non-abelian states in the underlying open-superstring amplitude. We simplify these permutation sums via monodromy relations which greatly increase the efficiency in extracting the α '-expansion of these amplitudes. Their α '-corrections encode higher-derivative interactions between NLSM pions and bi-colored scalars all of which obey the duality between color and kinematics. Through double-copy, these results can be used to generate the predictions of supersymmetric Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory coupled with sYM as well as a complete tower of higher-order α '-corrections.
Kaluza-Klein theories as a tool to find new gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolan, L.
Non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theories are studied with respect to using the invariances of multi-dimensional general relativity to investigate hidden symmetry, such as Kac-Mody Lie algebras, of the four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Several properties of the affine transformations on the self-dual set are identified and are used to motivate the Kaluza-Klein analysis. In this context, a system of differential equations is derived for new symmetry transformations which may be extendable to the full gauge theory.
Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities
Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo
2013-08-21
Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit themore » singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.« less
Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo
2013-08-01
Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.
Origin of gauge invariance in string theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.
Gauge Theories and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking.
1980-11-01
This report summarizes attempts to understand in what way spontaneous symmetry breaking arose in the context of guage field theories of elementary...gauge field theories. It was felt that the symmetry breaking used by the physicists (a procedure known as the Higgs mechanism) is not precisely a
Decorated tensor network renormalization for lattice gauge theories and spin foam models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, Bianca; Mizera, Sebastian; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2016-05-01
Tensor network techniques have proved to be powerful tools that can be employed to explore the large scale dynamics of lattice systems. Nonetheless, the redundancy of degrees of freedom in lattice gauge theories (and related models) poses a challenge for standard tensor network algorithms. We accommodate for such systems by introducing an additional structure decorating the tensor network. This allows to explicitly preserve the gauge symmetry of the system under coarse graining and straightforwardly interpret the fixed point tensors. We propose and test (for models with finite Abelian groups) a coarse graining algorithm for lattice gauge theories based on decorated tensor networks. We also point out that decorated tensor networks are applicable to other models as well, where they provide the advantage to give immediate access to certain expectation values and correlation functions.
Perturbative Quantum Gravity from Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, John Joseph
In this dissertation we present the graphical techniques recently developed in the construction of multi-loop scattering amplitudes using the method of generalized unitarity. We construct the three-loop and four-loop four-point amplitudes of N = 8 supergravity using these methods and the Kawaii, Lewellen and Tye tree-level relations which map tree-level gauge theory amplitudes to tree-level gravity theory amplitudes. We conclude by extending a tree-level duality between color and kinematics, generic to gauge theories, to a loop level conjecture, allowing the easy relation between loop-level gauge and gravity kinematics. We provide non-trivial evidence for this conjecture at three-loops in the particular case of maximal supersymmetry.
Wilson loops in supersymmetric gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pestun, Vasily
This thesis is devoted to several exact computations in four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge field theories. In the first part of the thesis we prove conjecture due to Erickson-Semenoff-Zarembo and Drukker-Gross which relates supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operators in the N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a Gaussian matrix model. We also compute the partition function and give a new matrix model formula for the expectation value of a supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operator for the pure N = 2 and the N* = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a four-sphere. Circular supersymmetric Wilson loops in four-dimensional N = 2 superconformal gauge theory are treated similarly. In the second part we consider supersymmetric Wilson loops of arbitrary shape restricted to a two-dimensional sphere in the four-dimensional N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We show that expectation value for these Wilson loops can be exactly computed using a two-dimensional theory closely related to the topological two-dimensional Higgs-Yang-Mills theory, or two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory for the complexified gauge group.
Gauge backgrounds and zero-mode counting in F-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bies, Martin; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo
2017-11-01
Computing the exact spectrum of charged massless matter is a crucial step towards understanding the effective field theory describing F-theory vacua in four dimensions. In this work we further develop a coherent framework to determine the charged massless matter in F-theory compactified on elliptic fourfolds, and demonstrate its application in a concrete example. The gauge background is represented, via duality with M-theory, by algebraic cycles modulo rational equivalence. Intersection theory within the Chow ring allows us to extract coherent sheaves on the base of the elliptic fibration whose cohomology groups encode the charged zero-mode spectrum. The dimensions of these cohomology groups are computed with the help of modern techniques from algebraic geometry, which we implement in the software gap. We exemplify this approach in models with an Abelian and non-Abelian gauge group and observe jumps in the exact massless spectrum as the complex structure moduli are varied. An extended mathematical appendix gives a self-contained introduction to the algebro-geometric concepts underlying our framework.
Planar zeros in gauge theories and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Diego Medrano; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.
2016-09-01
Planar zeros are studied in the context of the five-point scattering amplitude for gauge bosons and gravitons. In the case of gauge theories, it is found that planar zeros are determined by an algebraic curve in the projective plane spanned by the three stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of the outgoing momenta. This curve depends on the values of six independent color structures. Considering the gauge group SU( N) with N = 2 , 3 , 5 and fixed color indices, the class of curves obtained gets broader by increasing the rank of the group. For the five-graviton scattering, on the other hand, we show that the amplitude vanishes whenever the process is planar, without imposing further kinematic conditions. A rationale for this result is provided using color-kinematics duality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, Georg; Piemonte, Stefano
2018-04-01
Non-Abelian gauge theories with fermions transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group (AdjQCD) are a fundamental ingredient of many models that describe the physics beyond the Standard Model. Two relevant examples are N =1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory and minimal walking technicolor, which are gauge theories coupled to one adjoint Majorana and two adjoint Dirac fermions, respectively. While confinement is a property of N =1 SYM, minimal walking technicolor is expected to be infrared conformal. We study the propagators of ghost and gluon fields in the Landau gauge to compute the running coupling in the MiniMom scheme. We analyze several different ensembles of lattice Monte Carlo simulations for the SU(2) adjoint QCD with Nf=1 /2 ,1 ,3 /2 , and 2 Dirac fermions. We show how the running of the coupling changes as the number of interacting fermions is increased towards the conformal window.
Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaich, David
In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses
On Painlevé/gauge theory correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonelli, Giulio; Lisovyy, Oleg; Maruyoshi, Kazunobu; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro
2017-12-01
We elucidate the relation between Painlevé equations and four-dimensional rank one N = 2 theories by identifying the connection associated with Painlevé isomonodromic problems with the oper limit of the flat connection of the Hitchin system associated with gauge theories and by studying the corresponding renormalization group flow. Based on this correspondence, we provide long-distance expansions at various canonical rays for all Painlevé τ -functions in terms of magnetic and dyonic Nekrasov partition functions for N = 2 SQCD and Argyres-Douglas theories at self-dual Omega background ɛ _1 + ɛ _2 = 0 or equivalently in terms of c=1 irregular conformal blocks.
Mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory and link invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Grau, Javier; Leal, Lorenzo
2013-12-01
A mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory is presented. The study relies on the formulation of a theory of differential forms in the lattice, including a consistent definition of the Hodge duality operation. Explicit expressions for the Gauss Linking Number in the lattice, which correspond to their continuum counterparts are given. A discussion of the discretization of metric structures in the space of transverse vector densities is presented. The study of these metrics could serve to obtain explicit formulae for knot an link invariants in the lattice.
Mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory and link invariants
Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Grau, Javier; Leal, Lorenzo
A mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory is presented. The study relies on the formulation of a theory of differential forms in the lattice, including a consistent definition of the Hodge duality operation. Explicit expressions for the Gauss Linking Number in the lattice, which correspond to their continuum counterparts are given. A discussion of the discretization of metric structures in the space of transverse vector densities is presented. The study of these metrics could serve to obtain explicit formulae for knot an link invariants in the lattice.
Covariant open bosonic string field theory on multiple D-branes in the proper-time gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taejin
2017-12-01
We construct a covariant open bosonic string field theory on multiple D-branes, which reduces to a non-Abelian group Yang-Mills gauge theory in the zero-slope limit. Making use of the first quantized open bosonic string in the proper time gauge, we convert the string amplitudes given by the Polyakov path integrals on string world sheets into those of the second quantized theory. The world sheet diagrams generated by the constructed open string field theory are planar in contrast to those of the Witten's cubic string field theory. However, the constructed string field theory is yet equivalent to the Witten's cubic string field theory. Having obtained planar diagrams, we may adopt the light-cone string field theory technique to calculate the multi-string scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external strings. We examine in detail the three-string vertex diagram and the effective four-string vertex diagrams generated perturbatively by the three-string vertex at tree level. In the zero-slope limit, the string scattering amplitudes are identified precisely as those of non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge theory if the external states are chosen to be massless vector particles.
Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Esteban A.; Muschik, Christine A.; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer
2016-06-01
Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman’s idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments—the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.
N=2 gauge theories and degenerate fields of Toda theory
Kanno, Shoichi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Shiba, Shotaro
We discuss the correspondence between degenerate fields of the W{sub N} algebra and punctures of Gaiotto's description of the Seiberg-Witten curve of N=2 superconformal gauge theories. Namely, we find that the type of degenerate fields of the W{sub N} algebra, with null states at level one, is classified by Young diagrams with N boxes, and that the singular behavior of the Seiberg-Witten curve near the puncture agrees with that of W{sub N} generators. We also find how to translate mass parameters of the gauge theory to the momenta of the Toda theory.
Going Beyond QCD in Lattice Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, G. T.
2011-01-01
Strongly coupled gauge theories (SCGT's) have been studied theoretically for many decades using numerous techniques. The obvious motivation for these efforts stemmed from a desire to understand the source of the strong nuclear force: Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD). Guided by experimental results, theorists generally consider QCD to be a well-understood SCGT. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to extend the lessons learned from QCD to other SCGT's. Particularly urgent motivators for new studies of other SCGT's are the ongoing searches for physics beyond the standard model (BSM) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Tevatron. Lattice gauge theory (LGT) is a technique for systematically-improvable calculations in many SCGT's. It has become the standard for non-perturbative calculations in QCD and it is widely believed that it may be useful for study of other SCGT's in the realm of BSM physics. We will discuss the prospects and potential pitfalls for these LGT studies, focusing primarily on the flavor dependence of SU(3) gauge theory.
Local subsystems in gauge theory and gravity
Donnelly, William; Freidel, Laurent
2016-09-16
We consider the problem of defining localized subsystems in gauge theory and gravity. Such systems are associated to spacelike hypersurfaces with boundaries and provide the natural setting for studying entanglement entropy of regions of space. We present a general formalism to associate a gauge-invariant classical phase space to a spatial slice with boundary by introducing new degrees of freedom on the boundary. In Yang-Mills theory the new degrees of freedom are a choice of gauge on the boundary, transformations of which are generated by the normal component of the nonabelian electric field. In general relativity the new degrees of freedommore » are the location of a codimension-2 surface and a choice of conformal normal frame. These degrees of freedom transform under a group of surface symmetries, consisting of diffeomorphisms of the codimension-2 boundary, and position-dependent linear deformations of its normal plane. We find the observables which generate these symmetries, consisting of the conformal normal metric and curvature of the normal connection. We discuss the implications for the problem of defining entanglement entropy in quantum gravity. Finally, our work suggests that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy may arise from the different ways of gluing together two partial Cauchy surfaces at a cross-section of the horizon.« less
Scalar field collapse in gauge theory gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harke, Richard Eugene
A brief introduction to gravitational collapse in General Relativity is given. Then critical phenomena in the collapse of a massless scalar field as discovered by Choptuik are described. My own work in this area is described and some results are presented. Gauge Theory Gravity and its mathematical formalism, geometric algebra are introduced. Because geometric algebra is not widely known, a detailed and rigorous introduction to it is provided. The basic principles of Gauge Theory Gravity (GTG) are described and a derivation of the field equations is presented. An appropriate Lagrangian for the scalar field in GTG is introduced and the energy tensor is derived by the usual variational process. The equations of motion for the scalar field are derived for a spherically symmetric space. Finite difference approximations to these equations are constructed and simulations of gravitational collapse are run on a computer. Graphical results are presented. An unexpected phenomenon is found in which the passage of the scalar field leaves a persistent change in the gravitational gauge field.
Hadron masses in a gauge theory
De Rujula, A.; Georgi, H.; Glashow, S.L.
1975-07-01
We explore the implications for hadron spectroscopy of the ''standard'' gauge model of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions. The model involves four types of fractionally charged quarks, each in three colors, coupling to massless gauge gluons. The quarks are confined within colorless hadrons by a long-range spin-independent force realizing infrared slavery. We use the asymptotic freedom of the model to argue that for the calculation of hadron masses, the short-range quark-quark interaction may be taken to be Coulomb- like. We rederive many successful quark-model mass relations for the low-lying hadrons. Because a specific interaction and symmetry-breaking mechanism are forced onmore » us by the underlying renormalizable gauge field theory, we also obtain new mass relations. They are well satisfied. We develop a qualitative understanding of many features of the hadron mass spectrum, such as the origin and sign of the $Sigma$-$lambda$ mass splitting. Interpreting the newly discovered narrow boson resonances as states of charmonium, we use the model to predict the masses of charmed mesons and baryons.« less
An almost trivial gauge theory in the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaptanoglu, S.
A local SU(2) gauge theory with one multiplet of scalars in the adjoint representation is considered. In the limit of infinite gauge coupling constant Yang-Mills fields become auxiliary and the action possesses a larger invariance than the usual gauge invariance; hence, the system develops a richer structure of constraints. The constraint analysis is carried out.
Gauge-invariant variables and entanglement entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Abhishek; Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V. P.
2017-12-01
The entanglement entropy (EE) of gauge theories in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed using manifestly gauge-invariant variables defined directly in the continuum. Specifically, we focus on the Maxwell, Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS), and non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories. Special attention is paid to the analysis of edge modes and their contribution to EE. The contact term is derived without invoking the replica method and its physical origin is traced to the phase space volume measure for the edge modes. The topological contribution to the EE for the MCS case is calculated. For all the Abelian cases, the EE presented in this paper agrees with known results in the literature. The EE for the non-Abelian theory is computed in a gauge-invariant Gaussian approximation, which incorporates the dynamically generated mass gap. A formulation of the contact term for the non-Abelian case is also presented.
Boundaries, mirror symmetry, and symplectic duality in 3d N = 4 gauge theory
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide; ...
2016-10-20
We introduce several families of N = (2, 2) UV boundary conditions in 3d N=4 gauge theories and study their IR images in sigma-models to the Higgs and Coulomb branches. In the presence of Omega deformations, a UV boundary condition defines a pair of modules for quantized algebras of chiral Higgs- and Coulomb-branch operators, respectively, whose structure we derive. In the case of abelian theories, we use the formalism of hyperplane arrangements to make our constructions very explicit, and construct a half-BPS interface that implements the action of 3d mirror symmetry on gauge theories and boundary conditions. Finally, by studyingmore » two-dimensional compactifications of 3d N = 4 gauge theories and their boundary conditions, we propose a physical origin for symplectic duality $-$ an equivalence of categories of modules associated to families of Higgs and Coulomb branches that has recently appeared in the mathematics literature, and generalizes classic results on Koszul duality in geometric representation theory. We make several predictions about the structure of symplectic duality, and identify Koszul duality as a special case of wall crossing.« less
Black hole attractors and gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Lisa Li Fang
2007-12-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of supersymmetric black holes that arise from string compactifications. We begin by studying the R 2 corrections to the entropy of two solutions of five dimensional supergravity, the supersymmetric black ring and the spinning black hole. Using Wald's formula we compute the R2 corrections to the entropy of the black ring and BMPV black hole. We study N D4-branes wrapping a 4 cycle and M DO-branes on the quintic. For N D4-branes, we resolve the naive mismatch between the moduli space of the Higgs branch of the gauge theory and the moduli of a degree N hypersurface which the D4-brane wraps. The degree N surface must admit a holomorphic divisor and is a determinantal variety. Adding a single DO brane to probe the deformed geometry, we recover the determinant equation from F and D flatness condition which was previously discovered from a classical geometry approach. We next generalize the qunitic story for Calabi-Yau manifolds arising from complete intersections in toric varieties. We recover the moduli space of N D4-branes in terms of the moduli space of a U( N) x U(N) gauge theory with bi-fundamentals com ing from a D6 - D6 system. We also recast the tachyon condensation of the D6 - D6 system in the language of open string gauged linear sigma model. We obtain the determinant equation from F-term constraints arising from a boundary coupling. We set out to understand the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa conjecture directly in the D4-DO black hole attractor geometry. We show that the lift to the euclidean IIA attractor geometry gives a complexified M-theory geometry whose asymptotic boundary is a torus. Employing AdS3/CFT 2 duality, we argue that the string partition function computes the elliptic genus of the Maldacena-Strominger-Witten conformal field theory. We evaluate the IIA partition function using the Green-Schwarz formalism and show that it gives ZtopZ top, coming from instantons and anti-instantons respectively. Finally, we determine
Nonabelian Bundle Gerbes, Their Differential Geometry and Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschieri, Paolo; Cantini, Luigi; Jurčo, Branislav
2005-03-01
Bundle gerbes are a higher version of line bundles, we present nonabelian bundle gerbes as a higher version of principal bundles. Connection, curving, curvature and gauge transformations are studied both in a global coordinate independent formalism and in local coordinates. These are the gauge fields needed for the construction of Yang-Mills theories with 2-form gauge potential.
Gauge Theory on a Space with Linear Lie Type Fuzziness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khorrami, Mohammad; Fatollahi, Amir H.; Shariati, Ahmad
2013-03-01
The U(1) gauge theory on a space with Lie type noncommutativity is constructed. The construction is based on the group of translations in Fourier space, which in contrast to space itself is commutative. In analogy with lattice gauge theory, the object playing the role of flux of field strength per plaquette, as well as the action, is constructed. It is observed that the theory, in comparison with ordinary U(1) gauge theory, has an extra gauge field component. This phenomena is reminiscent of similar ones in formulation of SU(N) gauge theory in space with canonical noncommutativity, and also appearance of gauge field component in discrete direction of Connes' construction of the Standard Model.
Nonquadratic gauge fixing and ghosts for gauge theories on the hypersphere
Brandt, F. T.; McKeon, D. G. C.; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Algoma University, Sault St. Marie, Ontario P6A 2G4
2011-10-15
It has been suggested that using a gauge fixing Lagrangian that is not quadratic in a gauge fixing condition is most appropriate for gauge theories formulated on a hypersphere. We reexamine the appropriate ghost action that is to be associated with gauge fixing, applying a technique that has been used for ensuring that the propagator for a massless spin-two field is transverse and traceless. It is shown that this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian leads to two pair of complex Fermionic ghosts and two Bosonic real ghosts.
Foreign exchange market as a lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, K.
1999-10-01
A simple model of the foreign exchange market is exactly a lattice gauge theory. Exchange rates are the exponentials of gauge potentials defined on spatial links while interest rates are related to gauge potentials on temporal links. Arbitrage opportunities are given by nonzero values of the gauge-invariant field tensor or curvature defined on closed loops. Arbitrage opportunities involving cross-rates at one time are "magnetic fields," while arbitrage opportunities involving future contracts are "electric fields."
Stability of infinite derivative Abelian Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoshal, Anish; Mazumdar, Anupam; Okada, Nobuchika; Villalba, Desmond
2018-04-01
Motivated by the stringy effects by modifying the local kinetic term of an Abelian Higgs field by the Gaussian kinetic term, we show that the Higgs field does not possess any instability; the Yukawa coupling between the scalar and the fermion, the gauge coupling, and the self interaction of the Higgs yields exponentially suppressed running at high energies, showing that such class of theory never suffers from vacuum instability. We briefly discuss its implications for the early Universe cosmology.
Holographic repulsion and confinement in gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, Viqar; Kothawala, Dawood
2013-02-01
We show that for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds with negative energy, such as the AdS soliton and regulated negative-mass AdS-Schwarzshild metrics, the Wilson loop expectation value in the AdS/CFT conjecture exhibits a Coulomb to confinement transition. We also show that the quark-antiquark (q \\bar{q}) potential can be interpreted as affine time along null geodesics on the minimal string worldsheet and that its intrinsic curvature provides a signature of transition to confinement phase. Our results suggest a generic (holographic) relationship between confinement in gauge theory and repulsive gravity, which in turn is connected with singularity avoidance in quantum gravity. Communicated by P R L V Moniz
Nonlattice simulation for supersymmetric gauge theories in one dimension.
Hanada, Masanori; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2007-10-19
Lattice simulation of supersymmetric gauge theories is not straightforward. In some cases the lack of manifest supersymmetry just necessitates cumbersome fine-tuning, but in the worse cases the chiral and/or Majorana nature of fermions makes it difficult to even formulate an appropriate lattice theory. We propose circumventing all these problems inherent in the lattice approach by adopting a nonlattice approach for one-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, which are important in the string or M theory context. In particular, our method can be used to investigate the gauge-gravity duality from first principles, and to simulate M theory based on the matrix theory conjecture.
Gauged supergravities from M-theory reductions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katmadas, Stefanos; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2018-04-01
In supergravity compactifications, there is in general no clear prescription on how to select a finite-dimensional family of metrics on the internal space, and a family of forms on which to expand the various potentials, such that the lower-dimensional effective theory is supersymmetric. We propose a finite-dimensional family of deformations for regular Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds M 7, relevant for M-theory compactifications down to four dimensions. It consists of integrable Cauchy-Riemann structures, corresponding to complex deformations of the Calabi-Yau cone M 8 over M 7. The non-harmonic forms we propose are the ones contained in one of the Kohn-Rossi cohomology groups, which is finite-dimensional and naturally controls the deformations of Cauchy-Riemann structures. The same family of deformations can be also described in terms of twisted cohomology of the base M 6, or in terms of Milnor cycles arising in deformations of M 8. Using existing results on SU(3) structure compactifications, we briefly discuss the reduction of M-theory on our class of deformed Sasaki-Einstein manifolds to four-dimensional gauged supergravity.
Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2012-11-02
We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.
Exact partition functions for gauge theories on Rλ3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallet, Jean-Christophe
2016-11-01
The noncommutative space Rλ3, a deformation of R3, supports a 3-parameter family of gauge theory models with gauge-invariant harmonic term, stable vacuum and which are perturbatively finite to all orders. Properties of this family are discussed. The partition function factorizes as an infinite product of reduced partition functions, each one corresponding to the reduced gauge theory on one of the fuzzy spheres entering the decomposition of Rλ3. For a particular sub-family of gauge theories, each reduced partition function is exactly expressible as a ratio of determinants. A relation with integrable 2-D Toda lattice hierarchy is indicated.
Remarks on a New Possible Discretization Scheme for Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnot, Jean-Pierre
2018-03-01
We propose here a new discretization method for a class of continuum gauge theories which action functionals are polynomials of the curvature. Based on the notion of holonomy, this discretization procedure appears gauge-invariant for discretized analogs of Yang-Mills theories, and hence gauge-fixing is fully rigorous for these discretized action functionals. Heuristic parts are forwarded to the quantization procedure via Feynman integrals and the meaning of the heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue integral is questioned.
Remarks on a New Possible Discretization Scheme for Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magnot, Jean-Pierre
2018-07-01
We propose here a new discretization method for a class of continuum gauge theories which action functionals are polynomials of the curvature. Based on the notion of holonomy, this discretization procedure appears gauge-invariant for discretized analogs of Yang-Mills theories, and hence gauge-fixing is fully rigorous for these discretized action functionals. Heuristic parts are forwarded to the quantization procedure via Feynman integrals and the meaning of the heuristic infinite dimensional Lebesgue integral is questioned.
Doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caspar, S.; Mesterházy, D.; Olesen, T. Z.; Vlasii, N. D.; Wiese, U.-J.
2016-11-01
We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group G in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm phase, which is manifested in the doubled theory in terms of a nontrivial ground-state degeneracy on a single cross. We discuss several examples of these doubled theories with different gauge groups including the cyclic group Z(k) ⊂ U(1) , the symmetric group S3 ⊂ O(2) , the binary dihedral (or quaternion) group D¯2 ⊂ SU(2) , and the finite group Δ(27) ⊂ SU(3) . In each case the spectrum of the single-cross electric Hamiltonian is determined exactly. We examine the nature of the low-lying excited states in the full Hilbert space, and emphasize the role of the center symmetry for the confinement of charges. Whether the investigated doubled models admit a non-Abelian topological state which allows for fault-tolerant quantum computation will be addressed in a future publication.
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; Liu, Ke; Slager, Robert-Jan; Nussinov, Zohar; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Zaanen, Jan
2017-04-01
We present a self-contained review of the theory of dislocation-mediated quantum melting at zero temperature in two spatial dimensions. The theory describes the liquid-crystalline phases with spatial symmetries in between a quantum crystalline solid and an isotropic superfluid: quantum nematics and smectics. It is based on an Abelian-Higgs-type duality mapping of phonons onto gauge bosons (;stress photons;), which encode for the capacity of the crystal to propagate stresses. Dislocations and disclinations, the topological defects of the crystal, are sources for the gauge fields and the melting of the crystal can be understood as the proliferation (condensation) of these defects, giving rise to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism on the dual side. For the liquid crystal phases, the shear sector of the gauge bosons becomes massive signaling that shear rigidity is lost. After providing the necessary background knowledge, including the order parameter theory of two-dimensional quantum liquid crystals and the dual theory of stress gauge bosons in bosonic crystals, the theory of melting is developed step-by-step via the disorder theory of dislocation-mediated melting. Resting on symmetry principles, we derive the phenomenological imaginary time actions of quantum nematics and smectics and analyze the full spectrum of collective modes. The quantum nematic is a superfluid having a true rotational Goldstone mode due to rotational symmetry breaking, and the origin of this 'deconfined' mode is traced back to the crystalline phase. The two-dimensional quantum smectic turns out to be a dizzyingly anisotropic phase with the collective modes interpolating between the solid and nematic in a non-trivial way. We also consider electrically charged bosonic crystals and liquid crystals, and carefully analyze the electromagnetic response of the quantum liquid crystal phases. In particular, the quantum nematic is a real superconductor and shows the Meissner effect. Their special properties
Argyres, Philip C.; Uensal, Mithat
2012-08-10
We study the dynamics of four dimensional gauge theories with adjoint fermions for all gauge groups, both in perturbation theory and non-perturbatively, by using circle compactification with periodic boundary conditions for the fermions. There are new gauge phenomena. We show that, to all orders in perturbation theory, many gauge groups are Higgsed by the gauge holonomy around the circle to a product of both abelian and nonabelian gauge group factors. Non-perturbatively there are monopole-instantons with fermion zero modes and two types of monopole-anti-monopole molecules, called bions. One type are magnetic bions which carry net magnetic charge and induce a massmore » gap for gauge fluctuations. Another type are neutral bions which are magnetically neutral, and their understanding requires a generalization of multi-instanton techniques in quantum mechanics — which we refer to as the Bogomolny-Zinn-Justin (BZJ) prescription — to compactified field theory. The BZJ prescription applied to bion-anti-bion topological molecules predicts a singularity on the positive real axis of the Borel plane (i.e., a divergence from summing large orders in peturbation theory) which is of order N times closer to the origin than the leading 4-d BPST instanton-anti-instanton singularity, where N is the rank of the gauge group. The position of the bion-anti-bion singularity is thus qualitatively similar to that of the 4-d IR renormalon singularity, and we conjecture that they are continuously related as the compactification radius is changed. By making use of transseries and Écalle’s resurgence theory we argue that a non-perturbative continuum definition of a class of field theories which admit semi-classical expansions may be possible.« less
On Pauli's Invention of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory in 1953
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straumann, N.
2002-12-01
There are documents which show that Wolfgang Pauli developed in 1953 the first consistent generalization of the five-dimensional theory of Kaluza, Klein, Fock and others to a higher dimensional internal space. Because he saw no way to give masses to the gauge bosons, he refrained from publishing his results formally.
Democratic Superstring Field Theory and Its Gauge Fixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroyter, M.
This work is my contribution to the proceedings of the conference``SFT2010 -- the third international conference on string field theory and related topics'' and it reflects my talk there, which described the democratic string field theory and its gauge fixing. The democratic string field theory is the only fully RNS string field theory to date. It lives in the large Hilbert space and includes all picture numbers. Picture changing amounts in this formalism to a gauge transformation. We describe the theory and its properties and show that when partially gauge fixed it can be reduced to the modified theory and to the non-polynomial theory. In the latter case we can even include the Ramond sector in the picture-fixed action. We also show that another partial gauge-fixing leads to a new consistent string field theory at picture number -1.
Holism and structuralism in U(1) gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyre, Holger
After decades of neglect philosophers of physics have discovered gauge theories-arguably the paradigm of modern field physics-as a genuine topic for foundational and philosophical research. Incidentally, in the last couple of years interest from the philosophy of physics in structural realism-in the eyes of its proponents the best suited realist position towards modern physics-has also raised. This paper tries to connect both topics and aims to show that structural realism gains further credence from an ontological analysis of gauge theories-in particular U (1) gauge theory. In the first part of the paper the framework of fiber bundle gauge theories is briefly presented and the interpretation of local gauge symmetry will be examined. In the second part, an ontological underdetermination of gauge theories is carved out by considering the various kinds of non-locality involved in such typical effects as the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The analysis shows that the peculiar form of non-separability figuring in gauge theories is a variant of spatiotemporal holism and can be distinguished from quantum theoretic holism. In the last part of the paper the arguments for a gauge theoretic support of structural realism are laid out and discussed.
Gauge theory for finite-dimensional dynamical systems
Gurfil, Pini
2007-06-15
Gauge theory is a well-established concept in quantum physics, electrodynamics, and cosmology. This concept has recently proliferated into new areas, such as mechanics and astrodynamics. In this paper, we discuss a few applications of gauge theory in finite-dimensional dynamical systems. We focus on the concept of rescriptive gauge symmetry, which is, in essence, rescaling of an independent variable. We show that a simple gauge transformation of multiple harmonic oscillators driven by chaotic processes can render an apparently ''disordered'' flow into a regular dynamical process, and that there exists a strong connection between gauge transformations and reduction theory of ordinary differentialmore » equations. Throughout the discussion, we demonstrate the main ideas by considering examples from diverse fields, including quantum mechanics, chemistry, rigid-body dynamics, and information theory.« less
Gauge theory for finite-dimensional dynamical systems.
Gurfil, Pini
2007-06-01
Gauge theory is a well-established concept in quantum physics, electrodynamics, and cosmology. This concept has recently proliferated into new areas, such as mechanics and astrodynamics. In this paper, we discuss a few applications of gauge theory in finite-dimensional dynamical systems. We focus on the concept of rescriptive gauge symmetry, which is, in essence, rescaling of an independent variable. We show that a simple gauge transformation of multiple harmonic oscillators driven by chaotic processes can render an apparently "disordered" flow into a regular dynamical process, and that there exists a strong connection between gauge transformations and reduction theory of ordinary differential equations. Throughout the discussion, we demonstrate the main ideas by considering examples from diverse fields, including quantum mechanics, chemistry, rigid-body dynamics, and information theory.
Enhanced gauge symmetry in type II and F-theory compactifications: Dynkin diagrams from polyhedra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perevalov, Eugene; Skarke, Harald
1997-02-01
We explain the observation by Candelas and Font that the Dynkin diagrams of non-abelian gauge groups occurring in type IIA and F-theory can be read off from the polyhedron Δ ∗ that provides the toric description of the Calabi-Yau manifold used for compactification. We show how the intersection pattern of toric divisors corresponding to the degeneration of elliptic fibers follows the ADE classification of singularities and the Kodaira classification of degenerations. We treat in detail the cases of elliptic K3 surfaces and K3 fibered threefolds where the fiber is again elliptic. We also explain how even the occurrence of monodromy and non-simply laced groups in the latter case is visible in the toric picture. These methods also work in the fourfold case.
The chiral magnetic effect and chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) quenched lattice gauge theory
Braguta, V. V., E-mail: braguta@mail.ru; Buividovich, P. V., E-mail: buividovich@itep.ru; Kalaydzhyan, T., E-mail: tigran.kalaydzhyan@desy.de
2012-04-15
We study some properties of the non-Abelian vacuum induced by strong external magnetic field. We perform calculations in the quenched SU(3) lattice gauge theory with tadpole-improved Luescher-Weisz action and chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator. The following results are obtained: The chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced by the magnetic field. The chiral condensate depends on the strength of the applied field as a power function with exponent {nu} = 1.6 {+-} 0.2. There is a paramagnetic polarization of the vacuum. The corresponding susceptibility and other magnetic properties are calculated and compared with the theoretical estimations. There are nonzero local fluctuations ofmore » the chirality and electromagnetic current, which grow with the magnetic field strength. These fluctuations can be a manifestation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect.« less
One-loop renormalization of Lee-Wick gauge theory
Grinstein, Benjamin; O'Connell, Donal
2008-11-15
We examine the renormalization of Lee-Wick gauge theory to one-loop order. We show that only knowledge of the wave function renormalization is necessary to determine the running couplings, anomalous dimensions, and vector boson masses. In particular, the logarithmic running of the Lee-Wick vector boson mass is exactly related to the running of the coupling. In the case of an asymptotically free theory, the vector boson mass runs to infinity in the ultraviolet. Thus, the UV fixed point of the pure gauge theory is an ordinary quantum field theory. We find that the coupling runs more quickly in Lee-Wick gauge theorymore » than in ordinary gauge theory, so the Lee-Wick standard model does not naturally unify at any scale. Finally, we present results on the beta function of more general theories containing dimension six operators which differ from previous results in the literature.« less
Duality in a supersymmetric gauge theory from a perturbative viewpoint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert
2018-03-01
We study duality in N =1 supersymmetric QCD in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase, order-by-order in scheme-independent series expansions. Using exact results, we show how the dimensions of various fundamental and composite chiral superfields, and the quantities a , c , a /c , and b at superconformal fixed points of the renormalization group emerge in scheme-independent series expansions in the electric and magnetic theories. We further demonstrate that truncations of these series expansions to modest order yield very accurate approximations to these quantities and suggest possible implications for nonsupersymmetric theories.
Ward identity and basis tensor gauge theory at one loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Daniel J. H.
2018-06-01
Basis tensor gauge theory (BTGT) is a reformulation of ordinary gauge theory that is an analog of the vierbein formulation of gravity and is related to the Wilson line formulation. To match ordinary gauge theories coupled to matter, the BTGT formalism requires a continuous symmetry that we call the BTGT symmetry in addition to the ordinary gauge symmetry. After classically interpreting the BTGT symmetry, we construct using the BTGT formalism the Ward identities associated with the BTGT symmetry and the ordinary gauge symmetry. For a way of testing the quantum stability and the consistency of the Ward identities with a known regularization method, we explicitly renormalize the scalar QED at one loop using dimensional regularization using the BTGT formalism.
Canonical transformation path to gauge theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Struckmeier, J.; Muench, J.; Vasak, D.; Kirsch, J.; Hanauske, M.; Stoecker, H.
2017-06-01
In this paper, the generic part of the gauge theory of gravity is derived, based merely on the action principle and on the general principle of relativity. We apply the canonical transformation framework to formulate geometrodynamics as a gauge theory. The starting point of our paper is constituted by the general De Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian of a system of scalar and vector fields, which is supposed to be form-invariant under (global) Lorentz transformations. Following the reasoning of gauge theories, the corresponding locally form-invariant system is worked out by means of canonical transformations. The canonical transformation approach ensures by construction that the form of the action functional is maintained. We thus encounter amended Hamiltonian systems which are form-invariant under arbitrary spacetime transformations. This amended system complies with the general principle of relativity and describes both, the dynamics of the given physical system's fields and their coupling to those quantities which describe the dynamics of the spacetime geometry. In this way, it is unambiguously determined how spin-0 and spin-1 fields couple to the dynamics of spacetime. A term that describes the dynamics of the "free" gauge fields must finally be added to the amended Hamiltonian, as common to all gauge theories, to allow for a dynamic spacetime geometry. The choice of this "dynamics" Hamiltonian is outside of the scope of gauge theory as presented in this paper. It accounts for the remaining indefiniteness of any gauge theory of gravity and must be chosen "by hand" on the basis of physical reasoning. The final Hamiltonian of the gauge theory of gravity is shown to be at least quadratic in the conjugate momenta of the gauge fields—this is beyond the Einstein-Hilbert theory of general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1995-04-01
The following topics were dealt with: string theory, gauge theory, quantum gravity, quantum geometry, black hole physics and information loss, second quantisation of the Wilson loop, 2D Yang-Mills theory, topological field theories, equivariant cohomology, superstring theory and fermion masses, supergravity, topological gravity, waves in string cosmology, superstring theories, 4D space-time.
On the generalized geometry origin of noncommutative gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Vysoký, Jan
2013-07-01
We discuss noncommutative gauge theory from the generalized geometry point of view. We argue that the equivalence between the commutative and semiclassically noncommutative DBI actions is naturally encoded in the generalized geometry of D-branes.
On spectroscopy for a whole Abelian model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.
2012-10-01
Postulated on the whole meaning a whole abelian gauge symmetry is being introduced. Various physical areas as complexity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics are partially supporting this approach where the whole is at origin. However, the reductionist crisis given by quark confinement definitely sustains this insight. It says that fundamental parts can not be seen isolatedely. Consequently, there is an experimental situation where the parts should be substituted by something more. This makes us to look for writing the wholeness principle under gauge theory. For this, one reinterprets the gauge parameter where instead of compensating fields it is organizing a systemic gauge symmetry. Now, it introduces a fields set {AμI} rotating under a common gauge symmetry. Thus, given a fields collection {AμI} as origin, the effort at this work is to investigate on its spectroscopy. Analyze for the abelian case the correspondent involved quanta. Understand that for a whole model diversity replaces elementarity. Derive the associated quantum numbers as spin, mass, charge, discrete symmetries in terms of such systemic symmetry. Observe how the particles diversity is manifested in terms of wholeness.
On spectroscopy for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600
Postulated on the whole meaning a whole abelian gauge symmetry is being introduced. Various physical areas as complexity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics are partially supporting this approach where the whole is at origin. However, the reductionist crisis given by quark confinement definitely sustains this insight. It says that fundamental parts can not be seen isolatedely. Consequently, there is an experimental situation where the parts should be substituted by something more. This makes us to look for writing the wholeness principle under gauge theory. For this, one reinterprets the gauge parameter where instead of compensating fields it is organizing a systemicmore » gauge symmetry. Now, it introduces a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} rotating under a common gauge symmetry. Thus, given a fields collection {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} as origin, the effort at this work is to investigate on its spectroscopy. Analyze for the abelian case the correspondent involved quanta. Understand that for a whole model diversity replaces elementarity. Derive the associated quantum numbers as spin, mass, charge, discrete symmetries in terms of such systemic symmetry. Observe how the particles diversity is manifested in terms of wholeness.« less
Phenomenology of strongly coupled chiral gauge theories
Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Osborne, James; ...
2016-11-25
A sector with QCD-like strong dynamics is common in models of non-standard physics. Such a model could be accessible in LHC searches if both confinement and big-quarks charged under the confining group are at the TeV scale. Big-quark masses at this scale can be explained if the new fermions are chiral under a new U(1)' gauge symmetry such that their bare masses are related to the U(1)'-breaking and new confinement scales. Here we present a study of a minimal GUT-motivated and gauge anomaly-free model with implications for the LHC Run 2 searches. We find that the first signatures of suchmore » models could appear as two gauge boson resonances. The chiral nature of the model could be confirmed by observation of a Z'γ resonance, where the Z' naturally has a large leptonic branching ratio because of its kinetic mixing with the hypercharge gauge boson.« less
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories with Decoupled Operators and Chiral Ring Stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benvenuti, Sergio; Giacomelli, Simone
2017-12-01
We propose a general way to complete supersymmetric theories with operators below the unitarity bound, adding gauge-singlet fields that enforce the decoupling of such operators. This makes it possible to perform all usual computations, and to compactify on a circle. We concentrate on a duality between an N =1 SU(2) gauge theory and the N =2 A3 Argyres-Douglas theory, mapping the moduli space and chiral ring of the completed N =1 theory to those of the A3 model. We reduce the completed gauge theory to 3D, finding a 3D duality with N =4 supersymmetric QED (SQED) with two flavors. The naive dimensional reduction is instead N =2 SQED. Crucial is a concept of chiral ring stability, which modifies the superpotential and allows for a 3D emergent global symmetry.
Perturbative quantum gravity as a double copy of gauge theory.
Bern, Zvi; Carrasco, John Joseph M; Johansson, Henrik
2010-08-06
In a previous paper we observed that (classical) tree-level gauge-theory amplitudes can be rearranged to display a duality between color and kinematics. Once this is imposed, gravity amplitudes are obtained using two copies of gauge-theory diagram numerators. Here we conjecture that this duality persists to all quantum loop orders and can thus be used to obtain multiloop gravity amplitudes easily from gauge-theory ones. As a nontrivial test, we show that the three-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be arranged into a form satisfying the duality, and by taking double copies of the diagram numerators we obtain the corresponding amplitude of N=8 supergravity. We also remark on a nonsupersymmetric two-loop test based on pure Yang-Mills theory resulting in gravity coupled to an antisymmetric tensor and dilaton.
U(1) Wilson lattice gauge theories in digital quantum simulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muschik, Christine; Heyl, Markus; Martinez, Esteban; Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp; Vogell, Berit; Dalmonte, Marcello; Hauke, Philipp; Blatt, Rainer; Zoller, Peter
2017-10-01
Lattice gauge theories describe fundamental phenomena in nature, but calculating their real-time dynamics on classical computers is notoriously difficult. In a recent publication (Martinez et al 2016 Nature 534 516), we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a digital quantum simulation of the paradigmatic Schwinger model, a U(1)-Wilson lattice gauge theory describing the interplay between fermionic matter and gauge bosons. Here, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the performance and the potential of this protocol. Our strategy is based on analytically integrating out the gauge bosons, which preserves exact gauge invariance but results in complicated long-range interactions between the matter fields. Trapped-ion platforms are naturally suited to implementing these interactions, allowing for an efficient quantum simulation of the model, with a number of gate operations that scales polynomially with system size. Employing numerical simulations, we illustrate that relevant phenomena can be observed in larger experimental systems, using as an example the production of particle-antiparticle pairs after a quantum quench. We investigate theoretically the robustness of the scheme towards generic error sources, and show that near-future experiments can reach regimes where finite-size effects are insignificant. We also discuss the challenges in quantum simulating the continuum limit of the theory. Using our scheme, fundamental phenomena of lattice gauge theories can be probed using a broad set of experimentally accessible observables, including the entanglement entropy and the vacuum persistence amplitude.
Simple Z2 lattice gauge theories at finite fermion density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosko, Christian; Lee, Shu-Ping; Maciejko, Joseph
2017-11-01
Lattice gauge theories are a powerful language to theoretically describe a variety of strongly correlated systems, including frustrated magnets, high-Tc superconductors, and topological phases. However, in many cases gauge fields couple to gapless matter degrees of freedom, and such theories become notoriously difficult to analyze quantitatively. In this paper we study several examples of Z2 lattice gauge theories with gapless fermions at finite density, in one and two spatial dimensions, that are either exactly soluble or whose solution reduces to that of a known problem. We consider complex fermions (spinless and spinful) as well as Majorana fermions and study both theories where Gauss' law is strictly imposed and those where all background charge sectors are kept in the physical Hilbert space. We use a combination of duality mappings and the Z2 slave-spin representation to map our gauge theories to models of gauge-invariant fermions that are either free, or with on-site interactions of the Hubbard or Falicov-Kimball type that are amenable to further analysis. In 1D, the phase diagrams of these theories include free-fermion metals, insulators, and superconductors, Luttinger liquids, and correlated insulators. In 2D, we find a variety of gapped and gapless phases, the latter including uniform and spatially modulated flux phases featuring emergent Dirac fermions, some violating Luttinger's theorem.
Marginal deformations of gauge theories and their dual description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela
Holography and its realization in string theory as the AdS/CFT correspondence, offers an equivalence between gauge theories and gravity that provides a means to explore the otherwise inaccessible large N and strong coupling region of SU(N) gauge theories. While considerable progress has been made in this area, a concrete method for specifying the gravitational background dual to a given gauge theory is still lacking. This is the question addressed in this thesis in the context of exactly marginal deformations of N = 4 SYM. First, a precise relation between the deformation of the superpotential and transverse space noncommutativity is established. In particular, the appropriate noncommutativity matrix theta is determined, relying solely on data from the gauge theory lagrangian and basic notions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The set ( G , theta) of open string parameters, with G the metric of the transverse space, is then understood as a way to encode information pertaining to the moduli space of the gauge theory. It seems thus natural to expect that it may be possible to obtain the corresponding gravitational solution by mapping the open string fields ( G , theta) to the closed string ones (g, B). This hints at a purely algebraic method for constructing gravity duals to given conformal gauge theories. The idea is tested within the context of the beta-deformed theory where the dual gravity description is known and then used to construct the background for the rho-deformed theory up to third order in the deformation parameter rho. Discrepancy of the higher order in rho terms in the latter case is traced to the nonassociativity of the noncommutative matrix theta.
(3+1)-Dimensional topologically massive 2-form gauge theory: geometrical superfield approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, R.; Mukhopadhyay, Debmalya
2018-06-01
We derive the complete set of off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the combined "scalar" and "vector" gauge symmetry transformations for the (3+1)-dimensional (4D) topologically massive non-Abelian (B \\wedge F) theory with the help of geometrical superfield formalism. For this purpose, we use three horizontality conditions (HCs). The first HC produces the (anti-)BRST transformations for the 1-form gauge field and corresponding (anti-)ghost fields whereas the second HC yields the (anti-)BRST transformations for 2-form field and associated (anti-)ghost fields. The integrability of second HC produces third HC. The latter HC produces the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for the compensating auxiliary vector field and corresponding ghosts. We obtain five (anti-)BRST invariant Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type conditions which emerge very naturally as the off-shoots of superfield formalism. Out of five CF-type conditions, two are fermionic in nature. These CF-type conditions play a decisive role in providing the absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST transformations and also responsible for the derivation of coupled but equivalent (anti-)BRST invariant Lagrangian densities. Furthermore, we capture the (anti-)BRST invariance of the coupled Lagrangian densities in terms of the superfields and translation generators along the Grassmannian directions θ and \\bar{θ }.
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2018-01-01
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D_h-1). The dimension D_h of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond.
The Fock-Schwinger gauge in the BFV formalism
Barcelos-Neto, J.; Galvao, C.A.P.; Gaete, P.
1991-06-07
The authors consider the implementation of a properly modified form of the Fock-Schwinger gauge condition in a general non-Abelian gauge theory in the context of the BFV formalism. In this paper arguments are presented to justify the necessity of modifying the original Fock-Schwinger condition. The free field propagator and the general Ward identity are also calculated.
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in two dimensions
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai
We present a self-contained review of the theory of dislocation-mediated quantum melting at zero temperature in two spatial dimensions. The theory describes the liquid-crystalline phases with spatial symmetries in between a quantum crystalline solid and an isotropic superfluid: quantum nematics and smectics. It is based on an Abelian-Higgs-type duality mapping of phonons onto gauge bosons (“stress photons”), which encode for the capacity of the crystal to propagate stresses. Dislocations and disclinations, the topological defects of the crystal, are sources for the gauge fields and the melting of the crystal can be understood as the proliferation (condensation) of these defects, givingmore » rise to the Anderson–Higgs mechanism on the dual side. For the liquid crystal phases, the shear sector of the gauge bosons becomes massive signaling that shear rigidity is lost. After providing the necessary background knowledge, including the order parameter theory of two-dimensional quantum liquid crystals and the dual theory of stress gauge bosons in bosonic crystals, the theory of melting is developed step-by-step via the disorder theory of dislocation-mediated melting. Resting on symmetry principles, we derive the phenomenological imaginary time actions of quantum nematics and smectics and analyze the full spectrum of collective modes. The quantum nematic is a superfluid having a true rotational Goldstone mode due to rotational symmetry breaking, and the origin of this ‘deconfined’ mode is traced back to the crystalline phase. The two-dimensional quantum smectic turns out to be a dizzyingly anisotropic phase with the collective modes interpolating between the solid and nematic in a non-trivial way. We also consider electrically charged bosonic crystals and liquid crystals, and carefully analyze the electromagnetic response of the quantum liquid crystal phases. In particular, the quantum nematic is a real superconductor and shows the Meissner effect. Furthermore
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in two dimensions
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; ...
2017-04-18
We present a self-contained review of the theory of dislocation-mediated quantum melting at zero temperature in two spatial dimensions. The theory describes the liquid-crystalline phases with spatial symmetries in between a quantum crystalline solid and an isotropic superfluid: quantum nematics and smectics. It is based on an Abelian-Higgs-type duality mapping of phonons onto gauge bosons (“stress photons”), which encode for the capacity of the crystal to propagate stresses. Dislocations and disclinations, the topological defects of the crystal, are sources for the gauge fields and the melting of the crystal can be understood as the proliferation (condensation) of these defects, givingmore » rise to the Anderson–Higgs mechanism on the dual side. For the liquid crystal phases, the shear sector of the gauge bosons becomes massive signaling that shear rigidity is lost. After providing the necessary background knowledge, including the order parameter theory of two-dimensional quantum liquid crystals and the dual theory of stress gauge bosons in bosonic crystals, the theory of melting is developed step-by-step via the disorder theory of dislocation-mediated melting. Resting on symmetry principles, we derive the phenomenological imaginary time actions of quantum nematics and smectics and analyze the full spectrum of collective modes. The quantum nematic is a superfluid having a true rotational Goldstone mode due to rotational symmetry breaking, and the origin of this ‘deconfined’ mode is traced back to the crystalline phase. The two-dimensional quantum smectic turns out to be a dizzyingly anisotropic phase with the collective modes interpolating between the solid and nematic in a non-trivial way. We also consider electrically charged bosonic crystals and liquid crystals, and carefully analyze the electromagnetic response of the quantum liquid crystal phases. In particular, the quantum nematic is a real superconductor and shows the Meissner effect. Furthermore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina
2014-10-01
It is shown that any order isomorphism between the structures of unital associative JB subalgebras of JB algebras is given naturally by a partially linear Jordan isomorphism. The same holds for nonunital subalgebras and order isomorphisms preserving the unital subalgebra. Finally, we recover usual action of time evolution group on a von Neumann factor from group of automorphisms of the structure of Abelian subalgebras.
An /N=2 gauge theory and its supergravity dual
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandhuber, A.; Sfetsos, K.
2000-09-01
We study flows on the scalar manifold of /N=8 gauged supergravity in five dimensions which are dual to certain mass deformations of /N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. In particular, we consider a perturbation of the gauge theory by a mass term for the adjoint hyper-multiplet, giving rise to an /N=2 theory. The exact solution of the 5-dim gauged supergravity equations of motion is found and the metric is uplifted to a ten-dimensional background of type-IIB supergravity. Using these geometric data and the AdS/CFT correspondence we analyze the spectra of certain operators as well as Wilson loops on the dual gauge theory side. The physical flows are parametrized by a single non-positive constant and describe part of the Coulomb branch of the /N=2 theory at strong coupling. We also propose a general criterion to distinguish between `physical' and `unphysical' curvature singularities. Applying it in many backgrounds arising within the AdS/CFT correspondence we find results that are in complete agreement with field theory expectations.
Statistical effects in large N supersymmetric gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czech, Bartlomiej Stanislaw
This thesis discusses statistical simplifications arising in supersymmetric gauge theories in the limit of large rank. Applications involve the physics of black holes and the problem of predicting the low energy effective theory from a landscape of string vacua. The first part of this work uses the AdS/CFT correspondence to explain properties of black holes. We establish that in the large charge sector of toric quiver gauge theories there exists a typical state whose structure is closely mimicked by almost all other states. Then, working in the settings of the half-BPS sector of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, we show that in the dual gravity theory semiclassical observations cannot distinguish a pair of geometries corresponding to two generic heavy states. Finally, we argue on general grounds that these conclusions are exponentially enhanced in quantum cosmological settings. The results establish that one may consistently account for the entropy of a black hole with heavy states in the dual field theory and suggest that the usual properties of black holes arise as artifacts of imposing a semiclassical description on a quantum system. In the second half we develop new tools to determine the infrared behavior of quiver gauge theories in a certain class. We apply the dynamical results to a toy model of the landscape of effective field theories defined at some high energy scale, and derive firm statistical predictions for the low energy effective theory.
Poisson sigma models, reduction and nonlinear gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signori, Daniele
This dissertation comprises two main lines of research. Firstly, we study non-linear gauge theories for principal bundles, where the structure group is replaced by a Lie groupoid. We follow the approach of Moerdijk-Mrcun and establish its relation with the existing physics literature. In particular, we derive a new formula for the gauge transformation which closely resembles and generalizes the classical formulas found in Yang Mills gauge theories. Secondly, we give a field theoretic interpretation of the of the BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) and BFV (Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky) methods for the reduction of coisotropic submanifolds of Poisson manifolds. The generalized Poisson sigma models that we define are related to the quantization deformation problems of coisotropic submanifolds using homotopical algebras.
BRST detour quantization: Generating gauge theories from constraints
Cherney, D.; Waldron, A.; Latini, E.
2010-06-15
We present the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) cohomologies of a class of constraint (super) Lie algebras as detour complexes. By interpreting the components of detour complexes as gauge invariances, Bianchi identities, and equations of motion, we obtain a large class of new gauge theories. The pivotal new machinery is a treatment of the ghost Hilbert space designed to manifest the detour structure. Along with general results, we give details for three of these theories which correspond to gauge invariant spinning particle models of totally symmetric, antisymmetric, and Kaehler antisymmetric forms. In particular, we give details of our recent announcement of a (p,q)-formmore » Kaehler electromagnetism. We also discuss how our results generalize to other special geometries.« less
The dyon spectra of finite gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, Frank
1997-02-01
It is shown that all the ( p, q) dyon bound states exist and are unique in N = 4 and N = 2 with four massless flavor supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills theories, where p and q are any relatively prime integers. The proof can be understood in the context of field theory alone, and does not rely on any duality assumption. We also give a general physical argument showing that these theories should have at least an exact Γ(2) duality symmetry, and then deduce in particular the existence of the (2 p,2 q) vector multiplets in the Nf = 4 theory. The corresponding massive theories are studied in parallel, and it is shown that though in these cases the spectrum is no longer self-dual at a given point on the moduli space, it is still in perfect agreement with an exact S duality. We also discuss the interplay between our results and both the semiclassical quantization and the heterotic-type II string-string duality conjecture.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher
2016-11-01
Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the "abrupt quench" limit.
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory.
Bern, Zvi
2002-01-01
In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on D -dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input the gravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greschner, S.; Piraud, M.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.; Vekua, T.
2016-12-01
We study the quantum phases of bosons with repulsive contact interactions on a two-leg ladder in the presence of a uniform Abelian gauge field. The model realizes many interesting states, including Meissner phases, vortex fluids, vortex lattices, charge density waves, and the biased-ladder phase. Our work focuses on the subset of these states that breaks a discrete symmetry. We use density matrix renormalization group simulations to demonstrate the existence of three vortex-lattice states at different vortex densities and we characterize the phase transitions from these phases into neighboring states. Furthermore, we provide an intuitive explanation of the chiral-current reversal effect that is tied to some of these vortex lattices. We also study a charge-density-wave state that exists at 1/4 particle filling at large interaction strengths and flux values close to half a flux quantum. By changing the system parameters, this state can transition into a completely gapped vortex-lattice Mott-insulating state. We elucidate the stability of these phases against nearest-neighbor interactions on the rungs of the ladder relevant for experimental realizations with a synthetic lattice dimension. A charge-density-wave state at 1/3 particle filling can be stabilized for flux values close to half a flux quantum and for very strong on-site interactions in the presence of strong repulsion on the rungs. Finally, we analytically describe the emergence of these phases in the low-density regime, and, in particular, we obtain the boundaries of the biased-ladder phase, i.e., the phase that features a density imbalance between the legs. We make contact with recent quantum-gas experiments that realized related models and discuss signatures of these quantum states in experimentally accessible observables.
A note on large gauge transformations in double field theory
Naseer, Usman
2015-06-03
Here, we give a detailed proof of the conjecture by Hohm and Zwiebach in double field theory. Our result implies that their proposal for large gauge transformations in terms of the Jacobian matrix for coordinate transformations is, as required, equivalent to the standard exponential map associated with the generalized Lie derivative along a suitable parameter.
Gauge symmetries of the free bosonic string field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neveu, A.; Schwarz, J.; West, P. C.
1985-12-01
The gauge covariant local formulations of free bosonic string theories that contained a finite number of supplementary fields are extended to include an infinite number of supplementary fields. These new formulations allow the generators of the Virasoro algebra to appear on a more equal footing. Permanent address: King's College, Physics Department, London WC2R 2LS, UK.
Holographic complexity and noncommutative gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couch, Josiah; Eccles, Stefan; Fischler, Willy; Xiao, Ming-Lei
2018-03-01
We study the holographic complexity of noncommutative field theories. The four-dimensional N=4 noncommutative super Yang-Mills theory with Moyal algebra along two of the spatial directions has a well known holographic dual as a type IIB supergravity theory with a stack of D3 branes and non-trivial NS-NS B fields. We start from this example and find that the late time holographic complexity growth rate, based on the "complexity equals action" conjecture, experiences an enhancement when the non-commutativity is turned on. This enhancement saturates a new limit which is exactly 1/4 larger than the commutative value. We then attempt to give a quantum mechanics explanation of the enhancement. Finite time behavior of the complexity growth rate is also studied. Inspired by the non-trivial result, we move on to more general setup in string theory where we have a stack of D p branes and also turn on the B field. Multiple noncommutative directions are considered in higher p cases.
Heavy-lifting of gauge theories by cosmic inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Soubhik; Sundrum, Raman
2018-05-01
Future measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity can reveal cosmologically produced particles with masses of order the inflationary Hubble scale and their interactions with the inflaton, giving us crucial insights into the structure of fundamental physics at extremely high energies. We study gauge-Higgs theories that may be accessible in this regime, carefully imposing the constraints of gauge symmetry and its (partial) Higgsing. We distinguish two types of Higgs mechanisms: (i) a standard one in which the Higgs scale is constant before and after inflation, where the particles observable in non-Gaussianities are far heavier than can be accessed by laboratory experiments, perhaps associated with gauge unification, and (ii) a "heavy-lifting" mechanism in which couplings to curvature can result in Higgs scales of order the Hubble scale during inflation while reducing to far lower scales in the current era, where they may now be accessible to collider and other laboratory experiments. In the heavy-lifting option, renormalization-group running of terrestrial measurements yield predictions for cosmological non-Gaussianities. If the heavy-lifted gauge theory suffers a hierarchy problem, such as does the Standard Model, confirming such predictions would demonstrate a striking violation of the Naturalness Principle. While observing gauge-Higgs sectors in non-Gaussianities will be challenging given the constraints of cosmic variance, we show that it may be possible with reasonable precision given favorable couplings to the inflationary dynamics.
On whole Abelian model dynamics
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600
2012-09-24
Physics challenge is to determine the objects dynamics. However, there are two ways for deciphering the part. The first one is to search for the ultimate constituents; the second one is to understand its behaviour in whole terms. Therefore, the parts can be defined either from elementary constituents or as whole functions. Historically, science has been moving through the first aspect, however, quarks confinement and complexity are interrupting this usual approach. These relevant facts are supporting for a systemic vision be introduced. Our effort here is to study on the whole meaning through gauge theory. Consider a systemic dynamics orientedmore » through the U(1) - systemic gauge parameter which function is to collect a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Derive the corresponding whole gauge invariant Lagrangian, equations of motion, Bianchi identities, Noether relationships, charges and Ward-Takahashi equations. Whole Lorentz force and BRST symmetry are also studied. These expressions bring new interpretations further than the usual abelian model. They are generating a systemic system governed by 2N+ 10 classical equations plus Ward-Takahashi identities. A whole dynamics based on the notions of directive and circumstance is producing a set determinism where the parts dynamics are inserted in the whole evolution. A dynamics based on state, collective and individual equations with a systemic interdependence.« less
Three-dimensional gauge theories and gravitational instantons from string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherkis, Sergey Alexander
Various realizations of gauge theories in string theory allow an identification of their spaces of vacua with gravitational instantons. Also, they provide a correspondence of vacua of gauge theories with nonabelian monopole configurations and solutions of a system of integrable equations called Nahm equations. These identifications make it possible to apply powerful techniques of differential and algebraic geometry to solve the gauge theories in question. In other words, it becomes possible to find the exact metrics on their moduli spaces of vacua with all quantum corrections included. As another outcome we obtain for the first time the description of a series of all Dk-type gravitational instantons.
Higgs compositeness in Sp(2N) gauge theories — The pure gauge model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Ed; Ki Hong, Deog; Lee, Jong-Wan; David Lin, C.-J.; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide
2018-03-01
As a first step in the study of Sp(2N) composite Higgs models, we obtained a set of novel numerical results for the pure gauge Sp(4) lattice theory in 3+1 space-time dimensions. Results for the continuum extrapolations of the string tension and the glueball mass spectrum are presented and their values are compared with the same quantities in neighbouring SU(N) models.
Fusion basis for lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delcamp, Clement; Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo
2017-02-01
We introduce a new basis for the gauge-invariant Hilbert space of lattice gauge theory and loop quantum gravity in (2 + 1) dimensions, the fusion basis. In doing so, we shift the focus from the original lattice (or spin-network) structure directly to that of the magnetic (curvature) and electric (torsion) excitations themselves. These excitations are classified by the irreducible representations of the Drinfel'd double of the gauge group, and can be readily "fused" together by studying the tensor product of such representations. We will also describe in detail the ribbon operators that create and measure these excitations and make the quasi-local structure of the observable algebra explicit. Since the fusion basis allows for both magnetic and electric excitations from the onset, it turns out to be a precious tool for studying the large scale structure and coarse-graining flow of lattice gauge theories and loop quantum gravity. This is in neat contrast with the widely used spin-network basis, in which it is much more complicated to account for electric excitations, i.e. for Gauß constraint violations, emerging at larger scales. Moreover, since the fusion basis comes equipped with a hierarchical structure, it readily provides the language to design states with sophisticated multi-scale structures. Another way to employ this hierarchical structure is to encode a notion of subsystems for lattice gauge theories and (2 + 1) gravity coupled to point particles. In a follow-up work, we have exploited this notion to provide a new definition of entanglement entropy for these theories.
Symmetries, supersymmetries and cohomologies in gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bǎbǎlîc, Elena-Mirela
2009-12-01
The main subjects approached in the thesis are the following: a) the derivation of the interactions in two space-time dimensions in a particular class of topological BF models; b) the construction of the couplings in D ≥ 5 dimensions between one massless tensor field with the mixed symmetry (3, 1) and one with the mixed symmetry of the Riemann tensor; c) the evaluation of the existence of interactions in D ≥ 5 dimensions between two different collections of massless tensor fields with the mixed symmetries (3, 1) and (2, 2); d) the analysis of the relation between the BRST charges obtained in the pure-spinor formalism, respectively in the κ-symmetric one for the supermembrane in eleven dimensions. Our procedure for the first three subjects is based on solving the equations that describe the deformation of the solution to the master equation by means of specific cohomological techniques, while for the fourth one we will use techniques specific to the BRST Hamiltonian approach in order to write the BRST charge. The interactions are obtained under the following hypotheses: locality, Lorentz covariance, Poincare invariance, analyticity of the deformations, and preservation of the number of derivatives on each field. The first three assumptions imply that the interacting theory is local in space-time, Lorentz covariant and Poincare invariant. The analyticity of the deformations refers to the fact that the deformed solution to the master equation is analytical in the coupling constant and reduces to the original solution in the free limit. The conservation of the number of derivatives on each field with respect to the free theory means here that the following two requirements are simultaneously satisfied: (i) the derivative order of the equations of motion on each field is the same for the free and respectively for the interacting theory; (ii) the maximum number of derivatives in the interaction vertices is equal to two, i.e. the maximum number of derivatives from
Spontaneous parity violation and SUSY strong gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Ohki, Hiroshi
2012-07-01
We suggest simple models of spontaneous parity violation in supersymmetric strong gauge theory. We focus on left-right symmetric model and investigate vacuum with spontaneous parity violation. Non-perturbative effects are calculable in supersymmetric gauge theory, and we suggest new models. Our models show confinement, so that we try to understand them by using a dual description of the theory. The left-right symmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking are simultaneously occurred with the suitable energy scale hierarchy. This structure has several advantages compared to the MSSM. The scale of the Higgs mass (left-right breaking scale) and that of VEVs are different, so the SUSY little hierarchy problems are absent. The second model also induces spontaneous supersymmetry breaking [1].
Surface operators in 5d gauge theories and duality relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashok, S. K.; Billò, M.; Dell'Aquila, E.; Frau, M.; Gupta, V.; John, R. R.; Lerda, A.
2018-05-01
We study half-BPS surface operators in 5d N = 1 gauge theories compactified on a circle. Using localization methods and the twisted chiral ring relations of coupled 3d/5d quiver gauge theories, we calculate the twisted chiral superpotential that governs the infrared properties of these surface operators. We make a detailed analysis of the localization integrand, and by comparing with the results from the twisted chiral ring equations, we obtain constraints on the 3d and 5d Chern-Simons levels so that the instanton partition function does not depend on the choice of integration contour. For these values of the Chern-Simons couplings, we comment on how the distinct quiver theories that realize the same surface operator are related to each other by Aharony-Seiberg dualities.
Division Algebras, Supersymmetry and Higher Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, John Gmerek
2011-12-01
Starting from the four normed division algebras---the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions, with dimensions k = 1, 2, 4 and 8, respectively---a systematic procedure gives a 3-cocycle on the Poincare Lie superalgebra in dimensions k + 2 = 3, 4, 6 and 10. A related procedure gives a 4-cocycle on the Poincare Lie superalgebra in dimensions k+3 = 4, 5, 7 and 11. The existence of these cocycles follow from certain spinor identities that hold only in these dimensions, and which are closely related to the existence of superstring and super-Yang--Mills theory in dimensions k + 2, and super-2-brane theory in dimensions k + 3. In general, an (n+1)-cocycle on a Lie superalgebra yields a 'Lie n-superalgebra': that is, roughly speaking, an n-term chain complex equipped with a bracket satisfying the axioms of a Lie superalgebra up to chain homotopy. We thus obtain Lie 2-superalgebras extending the Poincare superalgebra in dimensions 3, 4, 6, and 10, and Lie 3-superalgebras extending the Poincare superalgebra in dimensions 4, 5, 7 and 11. As shown in Sati, Schreiber and Stasheff's work on generalized connections valued in Lie n-superalgebras, Lie 2-superalgebra connections describe the parallel transport of strings, while Lie 3-superalgebra connections describe the parallel transport of 2-branes. Moreover, in the octonionic case, these connections concisely summarize the fields appearing in 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity. Generically, integrating a Lie n-superalgebra to a Lie n-supergroup yields a 'Lie n-supergroup' that is hugely infinite-dimensional. However, when the Lie n-superalgebra is obtained from an (n + 1)-cocycle on a nilpotent Lie superalgebra, there is a geometric procedure to integrate the cocycle to one on the corresponding nilpotent Lie supergroup. In general, a smooth (n+1)-cocycle on a supergroup yields a 'Lie n-supergroup': that is, a weak n-group internal to supermanifolds. Using our geometric procedure to integrate the 3-cocycle in
Gauge-flation and cosmic no-hair conjecture
Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Soda, Jiro, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: jabbari@theory.ipm.ac.ir, E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2012-01-01
Gauge-flation, inflation from non-Abelian gauge fields, was introduced in [1, 2]. In this work, we study the cosmic no-hair conjecture in gauge-flation. Starting from Bianchi-type I cosmology and through analytic and numeric studies we demonstrate that the isotropic FLRW inflation is an attractor of the dynamics of the theory and that the anisotropies are damped within a few e-folds, in accord with the cosmic no-hair conjecture.
Six-dimensional regularization of chiral gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukaya, Hidenori; Onogi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shota; Yamamura, Ryo
2017-03-01
We propose a regularization of four-dimensional chiral gauge theories using six-dimensional Dirac fermions. In our formulation, we consider two different mass terms having domain-wall profiles in the fifth and the sixth directions, respectively. A Weyl fermion appears as a localized mode at the junction of two different domain walls. One domain wall naturally exhibits the Stora-Zumino chain of the anomaly descent equations, starting from the axial U(1) anomaly in six dimensions to the gauge anomaly in four dimensions. Another domain wall implies a similar inflow of the global anomalies. The anomaly-free condition is equivalent to requiring that the axial U(1) anomaly and the parity anomaly are canceled among the six-dimensional Dirac fermions. Since our formulation is based on a massive vector-like fermion determinant, a nonperturbative regularization will be possible on a lattice. Putting the gauge field at the four-dimensional junction and extending it to the bulk using the Yang-Mills gradient flow, as recently proposed by Grabowska and Kaplan, we define the four-dimensional path integral of the target chiral gauge theory.
New scheme for color confinement and violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Tsuneo; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Bornyakov, Vitaly
2018-02-01
A new scheme for color confinement in QCD due to violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities is proposed. The violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities (VNABI) Jμ is equal to Abelian-like monopole currents kμ defined by the violation of the Abelian-like Bianchi identities. Although VNABI is an adjoint operator satisfying the covariant conservation law DμJμ=0 , it satisfies, at the same time, the Abelian-like conservation law ∂μJμ=0 . The Abelian-like conservation law ∂μJμ=0 is also gauge-covariant. There are N2-1 conserved magnetic charges in the case of color S U (N ). The charge of each component of VNABI is quantized à la Dirac. The color-invariant eigenvalues λμ of VNABI also satisfy the Abelian conservation law ∂μλμ=0 and the magnetic charges of the eigenvalues are also quantized à la Dirac. If the color invariant eigenvalues condense in the QCD vacuum, each color component of the non-Abelian electric field Ea is squeezed by the corresponding color component of the solenoidal current Jμa. Then only the color singlets alone can survive as a physical state and non-Abelian color confinement is realized. This confinement picture is completely new in comparison with the previously studied monopole confinement scenario based on an Abelian projection after some partial gauge-fixing, where Abelian neutral states can survive as physical. To check if the scenario is realized in nature, numerical studies are done in the framework of lattice field theory by adopting pure S U (2 ) gauge theory for simplicity. Considering Jμ(x )=kμ(x ) in the continuum formulation, we adopt an Abelian-like definition of a monopole following DeGrand-Toussaint as a lattice version of VNABI, since the Dirac quantization condition of the magnetic charge is satisfied on lattice partially. To reduce severe lattice artifacts, we introduce various techniques of smoothing the thermalized vacuum. Smooth gauge fixings such as the maximal center gauge (MCG), block
Gauge theories with time dependent couplings and their cosmological duals
Awad, Adel; Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt, Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43; Das, Sumit R.
2009-02-15
We consider the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in flat 3+1-dimensional space-time with a time dependent coupling constant which vanishes at t=0, like g{sub YM}{sup 2}=t{sup p}. In an analogous quantum mechanics toy model we find that the response is singular. The energy diverges at t=0, for a generic state. In addition, if p>1 the phase of the wave function has a wildly oscillating behavior, which does not allow it to be continued past t=0. A similar effect would make the gauge theory singular as well, though nontrivial effects of renormalization could tame this singularity and allow a smooth continuation beyondmore » t=0. The gravity dual in some cases is known to be a time dependent cosmology which exhibits a spacelike singularity at t=0. Our results, if applicable in the gauge theory for the case of the vanishing coupling, imply that the singularity is a genuine sickness and does not admit a meaningful continuation. When the coupling remains nonzero and becomes small at t=0, the curvature in the bulk becomes of order string scale. The gauge theory now admits a time evolution beyond this point. In this case, a finite amount of energy is produced which possibly thermalizes and leads to a black hole in the bulk.« less
K-decompositions and 3d gauge theories
Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.
2016-11-24
This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli spacemore » $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space X un K(∂M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a “K 2-Lagrangian,” meaning that the K 2-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal triangulation of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston’s gluing equations in 3d hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) is K 2-isotropic as long as ∂M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) is K 2-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K 2-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement. Physically, we translate the K-decomposition of an ideal triangulation of M and its symplectic properties to produce an explicit construction of 3d N = 2 superconformal field theories T K [M] resulting (conjecturally) from the compactification of K M5-branes on M. This extends known constructions for K = 2. Just as for K = 2, the theories T K [M] are described as IR fixed points of abelian Chern-Simons-matter theories. Changes of triangulation (2-3 moves) lead to abelian mirror symmetries that are all generated by the elementary duality
K-decompositions and 3d gauge theories
Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.
This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli spacemore » $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space X un K(∂M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a “K 2-Lagrangian,” meaning that the K 2-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal triangulation of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston’s gluing equations in 3d hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) is K 2-isotropic as long as ∂M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that $$\\mathcal{L}$$ K(M) is K 2-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K 2-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement. Physically, we translate the K-decomposition of an ideal triangulation of M and its symplectic properties to produce an explicit construction of 3d N = 2 superconformal field theories T K [M] resulting (conjecturally) from the compactification of K M5-branes on M. This extends known constructions for K = 2. Just as for K = 2, the theories T K [M] are described as IR fixed points of abelian Chern-Simons-matter theories. Changes of triangulation (2-3 moves) lead to abelian mirror symmetries that are all generated by the elementary duality
Solitons, τ-functions and hamiltonian reduction for non-Abelian conformal affine Toda theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.; Miramontes, J. Luis; Guillén, Joaquín Sánchez
1995-02-01
We consider the Hamiltonian reduction of the "two-loop" Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model (WZNW) based on an untwisted affine Kac-Moody algebra G. The resulting reduced models, called Generalized Non-Abelian Conformal Affine Toda (G-CAT), are conformally invariant and a wide class of them possesses soliton solutions; these models constitute non-Abelian generalizations of the conformal affine Toda models. Their general solution is constructed by the Leznov-Saveliev method. Moreover, the dressing transformations leading to the solutions in the orbit of the vacuum are considered in detail, as well as the τ-functions, which are defined for any integrable highest weight representation of G, irrespectively of its particular realization. When the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken, the G-CAT model becomes a generalized affine Toda model, whose soliton solutions are constructed. Their masses are obtained exploring the spontaneous breakdown of the conformal symmetry, and their relation to the fundamental particle masses is discussed. We also introduce what we call the two-loop Virasoro algebra, describing extended symmetries of the two-loop WZNW models.
Bootstrapping non-commutative gauge theories from L∞ algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Brunner, Ilka; Kupriyanov, Vladislav; Lüst, Dieter
2018-05-01
Non-commutative gauge theories with a non-constant NC-parameter are investigated. As a novel approach, we propose that such theories should admit an underlying L∞ algebra, that governs not only the action of the symmetries but also the dynamics of the theory. Our approach is well motivated from string theory. We recall that such field theories arise in the context of branes in WZW models and briefly comment on its appearance for integrable deformations of AdS5 sigma models. For the SU(2) WZW model, we show that the earlier proposed matrix valued gauge theory on the fuzzy 2-sphere can be bootstrapped via an L∞ algebra. We then apply this approach to the construction of non-commutative Chern-Simons and Yang-Mills theories on flat and curved backgrounds with non-constant NC-structure. More concretely, up to the second order, we demonstrate how derivative and curvature corrections to the equations of motion can be bootstrapped in an algebraic way from the L∞ algebra. The appearance of a non-trivial A∞ algebra is discussed, as well.
Dual representation of lattice QCD with worldlines and worldsheets of Abelian color fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchis, Carlotta; Gattringer, Christof
2018-02-01
We present a new dual representation for lattice QCD in terms of wordlines and worldsheets. The exact reformulation is carried out using the recently developed Abelian color flux method where the action is decomposed into commuting minimal terms that connect different colors on neighboring sites. Expanding the Boltzmann factors for these commuting terms allows one to reorganize the gauge field contributions according to links such that the gauge fields can be integrated out in closed form. The emerging constraints give the dual variables the structure of worldlines for the fermions and worldsheets for the gauge degrees of freedom. The partition sum has the form of a strong coupling expansion, and with the Abelian color flux approach discussed here all coefficients of the expansion are known in closed form. We present the dual form for three cases: pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory, strong coupling QCD and full QCD, and discuss in detail the constraints for the color fluxes and their physical interpretation.
Specific heat in the pure gauge SU(2) theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitrjushkin, V. K.; Zadorozhny, A. M.
1989-12-01
We calculated the specific heat Cv in pure gauge SU(2) theory. Calculations were done on the 3·8 3 lattice in the vicinity of the phase transition temperature. It is shown that the dependence of its electric ( CEv) and magnetic ( CMV) compone nts differ drastically near the phase transition point. Their behaviour is in full agreement with our previous calculations of the electric and magnetic components of the internal energy density and pressure.
The QCD matter; perturbation and lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Abhilasha; Bhardwaj, Sudhir; Keswani, Bright
2018-05-01
In this review we are watching towards the probes of quark gluon plasma which provides the unique option to create such nuclear stuff at controlled laboratory conditions. The observables from hadronic and leptonic residues provide the required information. The other tool is the detailed rapidity and momentum spectra of hadrons. Here the information regarding the de-confined phase transition and chiral symmetry restoration is mentioned; also the perturbation and lattice gauge theory is described in short.
Aldaya, V.; Lopez-Ruiz, F. F.; Sanchez-Sastre, E.
2006-11-03
We reformulate the gauge theory of interactions by introducing the gauge group parameters into the model. The dynamics of the new 'Goldstone-like' bosons is accomplished through a non-linear {sigma}-model Lagrangian. They are minimally coupled according to a proper prescription which provides mass terms to the intermediate vector bosons without spoiling gauge invariance. The present formalism is explicitly applied to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions.
Entanglement entropy for 2D gauge theories with matters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Sinya; Iizuka, Norihiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro; Yokoya, Tsuyoshi
2017-08-01
We investigate the entanglement entropy in 1 +1 -dimensional S U (N ) gauge theories with various matter fields using the lattice regularization. Here we use extended Hilbert space definition for entanglement entropy, which contains three contributions; (1) classical Shannon entropy associated with superselection sector distribution, where sectors are labeled by irreducible representations of boundary penetrating fluxes, (2) logarithm of the dimensions of their representations, which is associated with "color entanglement," and (3) EPR Bell pairs, which give "genuine" entanglement. We explicitly show that entanglement entropies (1) and (2) above indeed appear for various multiple "meson" states in gauge theories with matter fields. Furthermore, we employ transfer matrix formalism for gauge theory with fundamental matter field and analyze its ground state using hopping parameter expansion (HPE), where the hopping parameter K is roughly the inverse square of the mass for the matter. We evaluate the entanglement entropy for the ground state and show that all (1), (2), (3) above appear in the HPE, though the Bell pair part (3) appears in higher order than (1) and (2) do. With these results, we discuss how the ground state entanglement entropy in the continuum limit can be understood from the lattice ground state obtained in the HPE.
Holographic studies of thermal gauge theories with flavour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Rowan F. M.
The AdS/CFT correspondence and its extensions to more general gauge/gravity dualities have provided a powerful framework for the study of strongly coupled gauge theories. This thesis explores properties of a large class of thermal strongly coupled gauge theories using the gravity dual. In order to bring the holographic framework closer to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), we study theories with matter in the fundamental representation. In particular, we focus on the holographic dual of SU ( N c ) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to N f = N c flavours of fundamental matter at finite temperature, which is realised as N f Dq-brane probes in the near horizon (black hole) geometry of N c black Dp-branes. We explore many aspects of these Dp/Dq brane systems, often focussing on the D3/D7 brane system which is dual to a four dimensional gauge theory. We study the thermodynamics of the Dq-brane probes in the black hole geometry. At low temperature, the branes sit outside the black hole and the meson spectrum is discrete and possesses a mass gap. As the temperature increases, the branes approach a critical solution. Eventually, they fall into the horizon and a phase transition occurs. At large N c and large 't Hooft coupling, we show that this phase transition is always first order. We calculate the free energy, entropy and energy densities, as well as the speed of sound in these systems. We compute the meson spectrum for brane embeddings outside the horizon and find that tachyonic modes appear where this phase is expected to be unstable from thermodynamic considerations. We study the system at non-zero baryon density n b and find that there is a line of phase transitions for small n b , terminating at a critical point with finite n b . We demonstrate that, to leading order in N f / N c , the viscosity to entropy density ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound e/ S >= 1/4p. Finally, we compute spectral functions and diffusion constants for
Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Carlos
2016-12-01
A Moyal deformation of a Clifford Cl(3, 1) Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant Θμν parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are no first-order contributions in the Θμν parameters to the Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does not impose constraints on the fields, there are first-order contributions in Θμν to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. Despite that the generators of U(2, 2),SO(4, 2),SO(2, 3) can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does not imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first-order in Θμν. Finally, we provide a mechanism which furnishes a plausible cancellation of the huge vacuum energy density.
Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits
Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2014-01-01
A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability. PMID:25512676
Five-dimensional gauge theory and compactification on a torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghighat, Babak; Vandoren, Stefan
2011-09-01
We study five-dimensional minimally supersymmetric gauge theory compactified on a torus down to three dimensions, and its embedding into string/M-theory using geometric engineering. The moduli space on the Coulomb branch is hyperkähler equipped with a metric with modular transformation properties. We determine the one-loop corrections to the metric and show that they can be interpreted as worldsheet and D1-brane instantons in type IIB string theory. Furthermore, we analyze instanton corrections coming from the solitonic BPS magnetic string wrapped over the torus. In particular, we show how to compute the path-integral for the zero-modes from the partition function of the M5 brane, or, using a 2d/4d correspondence, from the partition function of N=4 SYM theory on a Hirzebruch surface.
Renormalized Polyakov loop in the deconfined phase of SU(N) gauge theory and gauge-string duality.
Andreev, Oleg
2009-05-29
We use gauge-string duality to analytically evaluate the renormalized Polyakov loop in pure Yang-Mills theories. For SU(3), the result is in quite good agreement with lattice simulations for a broad temperature range.
Classical probes of string/gauge theory duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizeki, Riei
The AdS/CFT correspondence has played an important role in the recent development of string theory. The reason is that it proposes a description of certain gauge theories in terms of string theory. It is such that simple string theory computations give information about the strong coupling regime of the gauge theory. Vice versa, gauge theory computations give information about string theory and quantum gravity. Although much is known about AdS/CFT, the precise map between the two sides of the correspondence is not completely understood. In the unraveling of such map classical string solutions play a vital role. In this thesis, several classical string solutions are proposed to help understand the AdS/CFT duality. First, rigidly rotating strings on a two-sphere are studied. Taking special limits of such solutions leads to two cases: the already known giant magnon solution, and a new solution which we call the single spike solution. Next, we compute the scattering phase shift of the single spike solutions and compare the result with the giant magnon solutions. Intriguingly, the results are the same up to non-logarithmic terms, indicating that the single spike solution should have the same rich spin chain structure as the giant magnon solution. Afterward, we consider open string solutions ending on the boundary of AdS5. The lines traced by the ends of such open strings can be viewed as Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM theory. After applying an inversion transformation, the open Wilson loops become closed Wilson loops whose expectation value is consistent with previously conjectured results. Next, several Wilson loops for N = 4 SYM in an AdS5 pp-wave background are considered and translated to the pure AdS 5 background and their interpretation as forward quark-gluon scattering is suggested. In the last part of this thesis, a class of classical solutions for closed strings moving in AdS3 x S 1 ⊂ AdS5 x S5 with energy E and spin S in AdS3 and angular momentum J and winding m
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-05-15
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe. The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva.
Tadpole-improved SU(2) lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakespeare, Norman H.; Trottier, Howard D.
1999-01-01
A comprehensive analysis of tadpole-improved SU(2) lattice gauge theory is made. Simulations are done on isotropic and anisotropic lattices, with and without improvement. Two tadpole renormalization schemes are employed, one using average plaquettes, the other using mean links in the Landau gauge. Simulations are done with spatial lattice spacings as in the range of about 0.1-0.4 fm. Results are presented for the static quark potential, the renormalized lattice anisotropy at/as (where at is the ``temporal'' lattice spacing), and for the scalar and tensor glueball masses. Tadpole improvement significantly reduces discretization errors in the static quark potential and in the scalar glueball mass, and results in very little renormalization of the bare anisotropy that is input to the action. We also find that tadpole improvement using mean links in the Landau gauge results in smaller discretization errors in the scalar glueball mass (as well as in the static quark potential), compared to when average plaquettes are used. The possibility is also raised that further improvement in the scalar glueball mass may result when the coefficients of the operators which correct for discretization errors in the action are computed beyond the tree level.
Strongly coupled gauge theories: What can lattice calculations teach us?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenfratz, A.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.
2017-12-01
The dynamical origin of electroweak symmetry breaking is an open question with many possible theoretical explanations. Strongly coupled systems predicting the Higgs boson as a bound state of a new gauge-fermion interaction form one class of candidate models. Due to increased statistics, LHC run II will further constrain the phenomenologically viable models in the near future. In the meanwhile it is important to understand the general properties and specific features of the different competing models. In this work we discuss many-flavor gauge-fermion systems that contain both massless (light) and massive fermions. The former provide Goldstone bosons and trigger electroweak symmetry breaking, while the latter indirectly influence the infrared dynamics. Numerical results reveal that such systems can exhibit a light 0++ isosinglet scalar, well separated from the rest of the spectrum. Further, when we set the scale via the vev of electroweak symmetry breaking, we predict a 2 TeV vector resonance which could be a generic feature of SU(3) gauge theories.
Yang-Mills gauge conditions from Witten's open string field theory
Feng Haidong; Siegel, Warren
2007-02-15
We construct the Zinn-Justin-Batalin-Vilkovisky action for tachyons and gauge bosons from Witten's 3-string vertex of the bosonic open string without gauge fixing. Through canonical transformations, we find the off-shell, local, gauge-covariant action up to 3-point terms, satisfying the usual field theory gauge transformations. Perturbatively, it can be extended to higher-point terms. It also gives a new gauge condition in field theory which corresponds to the Feynman-Siegel gauge on the world-sheet.
Magnetic expansion of Nekrasov theory: The SU(2) pure gauge theory
He Wei; Miao Yangang
It is recently claimed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili that the N=2 gauge theories in the {Omega} background with {epsilon}{sub 1}=({h_bar}/2{pi}), {epsilon}{sub 2}=0 are related to the quantization of certain algebraic integrable systems. We study the special case of SU(2) pure gauge theory; the corresponding integrable model is the A{sub 1} Toda model, which reduces to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics problem. The quantum effects can be expressed as the WKB series written analytically in terms of hypergeometric functions. We obtain the magnetic and dyonic expansions of the Nekrasov theory by studying the property of hypergeometric functions in the magnetic and dyonicmore » regions on the moduli space. We also discuss the relation between the electric-magnetic duality of gauge theory and the action-action duality of the integrable system.« less
Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2017-01-01
Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.
Spiky strings and single trace operators in gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruczenski, Martin
2005-08-01
We consider single trace operators of the form Script Ol1...ln = Tr D+l1F...D+lnF which are common to all gauge theories. We argue that, when all li are equal and large, they have a dual description as strings with cusps, or spikes, one for each field F. In the case of Script N = 4 SYM, we compute the energy as a function of angular momentum by finding the corresponding solutions in AdS5 and compare with a 1-loop calculation of the anomalous dimension. As in the case of two spikes (twist two operators), there is agreement in the functional form but not in the coupling constant dependence. After that, we analyze the system in more detail and find an effective classical mechanics describing the motion of the spikes. In the appropriate limit, it is the same (up to the coupling constant dependence) as the coherent state description of linear combinations of the operators Script Ol1...ln such that all li are equal on average. This agreement provides a map between the operators in the boundary and the position of the spikes in the bulk. We further suggest that moving the spikes in other directions should describe operators with derivatives other than D+ indicating that these ideas are quite generic and should help in unraveling the string description of the large-N limit of gauge theories.
Fresh look at the Abelian and non-Abelian Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Meerleer, T.; Dudal, D.; Sorella, S. P.; Dall'Olio, P.; Bashir, A.
2018-04-01
The Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations (LKFTs) allow one to interpolate n -point functions between different gauges. We first offer an alternative derivation of these LKFTs for the gauge and fermions field in the Abelian (QED) case when working in the class of linear covariant gauges. Our derivation is based on the introduction of a gauge invariant transversal gauge field, which allows a natural generalization to the non-Abelian (QCD) case of the LKFTs. To our knowledge, within this rigorous formalism, this is the first construction of the LKFTs beyond QED. The renormalizability of our setup is guaranteed to all orders. We also offer a direct path integral derivation in the non-Abelian case, finding full consistency.
Quantization of Spontaneously Broken Gauge Theory Based on the Bft-Bfv Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
We quantize the spontaneously broken Abelian U(1) Higgs model by using the improved BFT and BFV formalisms. We construct the BFT physical fields and obtain the firstclass observables including the Hamiltonian in terms of these fields. We also explicitly show that there are exact form invariances between the second-class and first-class quantities. Then, according to the BFV formalism, we derive the corresponding Lagrangian having U(1) gauge symmetry. We also discuss at the classical level how one easily gets the first-class Lagrangian from the symmetry-broken second-class Lagrangian.
Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx; Manuel-Cabrera, J., E-mail: jmanuel@ifuap.buap.mx
2015-10-15
A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of an Abelian and non-Abelian exotic action for gravity in three dimensions is performed. We obtain for the theories under study the constraints, the gauge transformations, the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and we perform the counting of physical degrees of freedom. In addition, we compare our results with those found in the literature where the canonical analysis is developed, in particular, we show that both the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects. - Highlights: • A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw analysis for exotic action of gravity is performed.more » • We show that Dirac’s brackets and Generalized [FJ] brackets are equivalent. • Without fixing the gauge exotic action is a non-commutative theory. • The fundamental gauge transformations of the theory are found. • Dirac and Faddeev–Jackiw approaches are compared.« less
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
McAllister, Liam
2018-05-24
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe";. The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions".This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde. Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2017-12-09
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-05-22
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons.Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
Sen, Ashoke
2017-12-18
Part 7.The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-06-28
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-05-23
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
McAllister, Liam
2018-05-14
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
Topological string, supersymmetric gauge theory and bps counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Guang
In this thesis we study the Donaldson-Thomas theory on the local curve geometry, which arises in the context of geometric engineering of supersymmetric gauge theory from type IIA string compactification. The topological A-model amplitude gives the F-term interaction of the compactified theory. In particular, it is related to the instanton partition function via Nekrasov conjecture. We will introduce ADHM sheaves on curve, as an alternative description of local Donaldson-Thomas theory. We derive the wallcrossing of ADHM invariants and their refinements. We show that it is equivalent to the semi-primitive wallcrossing from supergravity, and the Kontsevich-Soibelman wallcrossing formula. As an application, we discuss the connection between ADHM moduli space with Hitchin system. In particular we give a recursive formula for the Poincare polynomial of Hitchin system in terms of instanton partition function, from refined wallcrossing. We also introduce higher rank generalization of Donaldson-Thomas invariant in the context of ADHM sheaves. We study their wallcrossing and discuss their physical interpretation via string duality.
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-02-09
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental InteractionS". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2010-01-22
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series ofmore » pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher« less
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
Sen, Ashoke
2018-04-27
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network". The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher.
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2018-05-23
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe";. The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
Solving general gauge theories on inner product spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor; Marnelius, Robert
1995-02-01
By means of a generalized quartet mechanism we show in a model independent way that a BRST quantization on an inner product space leads to physical states of the form ph> = exp [ Q, ψ]ph> 0 where Q is the nilpotent BRST operator, ψ a hermitian fermionic gauge-fixing operator, and ph> o BRST invariant states determined by a hermitian set of BRST doublets in involution. ph> 0 does not belong to an inner product space although ph> does. Since the BRST quartets are split into two sets of hermitian BRST doublets there are two choices for ph> 0 and the corresponding ψ. When applied to general, both irreducible and reducible, gauge theories of arbitrary rank within the BFV formulation we find that ph> 0 are trivial BRST invariant states which only depend on the matter variables for one set of solutions, and for the other set ph> 0 are solutions of a Dirac quantization. This generalizes previous Lie group solutions obtained by means of a bigrading.
Infrared singularities in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory
Alkofer, Reinhard; Huber, Markus Q.; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-05-15
We present a more detailed picture of the infrared regime of Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory. This is done within a novel framework that allows one to take into account the influence of finite scales within an infrared power counting analysis. We find that there are two qualitatively different infrared fixed points of the full system of Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first extends the known scaling solution, where the ghost dynamics is dominant and gluon propagation is strongly suppressed. It features in addition to the strong divergences of gluonic vertex functions in the previously considered uniform scaling limit, when all external momenta tendmore » to zero, also weaker kinematic divergences, when only some of the external momenta vanish. The second solution represents the recently proposed decoupling scenario where the gluons become massive and the ghosts remain bare. In this case we find that none of the vertex functions is enhanced, so that the infrared dynamics is entirely suppressed. Our analysis also provides a strict argument why the Landau-gauge gluon dressing function cannot be infrared divergent.« less
No black holes: A gravitational gauge theory possibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, David B.; Johnson, Harold H.
1980-06-01
The most general lowest order lagrangian that can be formed from gauge-derived vierbein invariants is constrained by the hypothesis that the speed of light as measured by conventional rods and clocks of atomic constitution is independent of direction in a gravitational field. It is shown that the standard weak field observational tests of general relativity serve to eliminate all possible combinations of parameters in this constrained lagrangian except two. One parameter choice gives the isotropic Schwarzchild black hole metric of the general theory of relativity. The other allowable choice leads to an exponential metric of the class proposed by Yilmaz, corresponding in strong fields to large red shifts without black hole formation. Permanent address: Trinity College; Deerfield, Illinois.
Numerical solution of open string field theory in Schnabl gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arroyo, E. Aldo; Fernandes-Silva, A.; Szitas, R.
2018-01-01
Using traditional Virasoro L 0 level-truncation computations, we evaluate the open bosonic string field theory action up to level (10 , 30). Extremizing this level-truncated potential, we construct a numerical solution for tachyon condensation in Schnabl gauge. We find that the energy associated to the numerical solution overshoots the expected value -1 at level L = 6. Extrapolating the level-truncation data for L ≤ 10 to estimate the vacuum energies for L > 10, we predict that the energy reaches a minimum value at L ˜ 12, and then turns back to approach -1 asymptotically as L → ∞. Furthermore, we analyze the tachyon vacuum expectation value (vev), for which by extrapolating its corresponding level-truncation data, we predict that the tachyon vev reaches a minimum value at L ˜ 26, and then turns back to approach the expected analytical result as L → ∞.
Lattice Gauge Theories Within and Beyond the Standard Model
Gelzer, Zechariah John
The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing fundamental interactions up to the highest energies currently probed in particle accelerator experiments. However, the Standard Model is incomplete and currently exhibits tension with experimental data for interactions involvingmore » $B$~mesons. Consequently, $B$-meson physics is of great interest to both experimentalists and theorists. Experimentalists worldwide are studying the decay and mixing processes of $B$~mesons in particle accelerators. Theorists are working to understand the data by employing lattice gauge theories within and beyond the Standard Model. This work addresses the theoretical effort and is divided into two main parts. In the first part, I present a lattice-QCD calculation of form factors for exclusive semileptonic decays of $B$~mesons that are mediated by both charged currents ($$B \\to \\pi \\ell \
Causal hydrodynamics of gauge theory plasmas from AdS/CFT duality
Natsuume, Makoto; Okamura, Takashi; Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo, 669-1337
2008-03-15
We study causal hydrodynamics (Israel-Stewart theory) of gauge theory plasmas from the AdS/CFT duality. Causal hydrodynamics requires new transport coefficients (relaxation times) and we compute them for a number of supersymmetric gauge theories including the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. However, the relaxation times obtained from the 'shear mode' do not agree with the ones from the 'sound mode', which implies that the Israel-Stewart theory is not a sufficient framework to describe the gauge theory plasmas.
Solitons and black holes in non-Abelian Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadichev, V. V.; Gal'tsov, D. V.
2000-08-01
Recently it was shown that the Born-Infeld modification of the quadratic Yang-Mills action gives rise to classical particle-like solutions in the flat space which have a striking similarity with the Bartnik-McKinnon solutions obtained within the gravity coupled Yang-Mills theory. We show that both families of solutions are continuously related within the framework of the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory via interpolating sequences of parameters. We also investigate an internal structure of the associated black holes and find that the Born-Infeld non-linearity changes drastically the black hole interior typical for the usual quadratic Yang-Mills theory. In the latter case a generic solution exhibits violent metric oscillations near the singularity. In the Born-Infeld case the generic interior solution is smooth, the metric tends to the standard Schwarzschild type singularity, and we did not observe internal horizons. Smoothing of the `violent' EYM singularity may be interpreted as a result of non-gravitational quantum effects.
5-brane webs for 5d N = 1 G 2 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Hirotaka; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Kimyeong; Yagi, Futoshi
2018-03-01
We propose 5-brane webs for 5d N = 1 G 2 gauge theories. From a Higgsing of the SO(7) gauge theory with a hypermultiplet in the spinor representation, we construct two types of 5-brane web configurations for the pure G 2 gauge theory using an O5-plane or an \\tilde{O5} -plane. Adding flavors to the 5-brane web for the pure G 2 gauge theory is also discussed. Based on the obtained 5-brane webs, we compute the partition functions for the 5d G 2 gauge theories using the recently suggested topological vertex formulation with an O5-plane, and we find agreement with known results.
Abelian F-theory models with charge-3 and charge-4 matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghuram, Nikhil
2018-05-01
This paper analyzes U(1) F-theory models admitting matter with charges q = 3 and 4. First, we systematically derive a q = 3 construction that generalizes the previous q = 3 examples. We argue that U(1) symmetries can be tuned through a procedure reminiscent of the SU( N ) and Sp( N ) tuning process. For models with q = 3 matter, the components of the generating section vanish to orders higher than 1 at the charge-3 matter loci. As a result, the Weierstrass models can contain non-UFD structure and thereby deviate from the standard Morrison-Park form. Techniques used to tune SU( N ) models on singular divisors allow us to determine the non-UFD structures and derive the q = 3 tuning from scratch. We also obtain a class of a q=4 models by deforming a prior U(1) × U(1) construction. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published F-theory example with charge-4 matter. Finally, we discuss some conjectures regarding models with charges larger than 4.
On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600
Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws drivenmore » for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2015-12-01
We give a gauge-independent definition of magnetic monopoles in the S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory through the Wilson loop operator. For this purpose, we give an explicit proof of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of the S U (N ) gauge group to derive a new form for the non-Abelian Stokes theorem. The new form is used to extract the magnetic-monopole contribution to the Wilson loop operator in a gauge-invariant way, which enables us to discuss confinement of quarks in any representation from the viewpoint of the dual superconductor vacuum.
A BRST gauge-fixing procedure for Yang Mills theory on sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Deguchi, Shinichi
2006-01-01
A gauge-fixing procedure for the Yang-Mills theory on an n-dimensional sphere (or a hypersphere) is discussed in a systematic manner. We claim that Adler's gauge-fixing condition used in massless Euclidean QED on a hypersphere is not conventional because of the presence of an extra free index, and hence is unfavorable for the gauge-fixing procedure based on the BRST invariance principle (or simply BRST gauge-fixing procedure). Choosing a suitable gauge condition, which is proved to be equivalent to a generalization of Adler's condition, we apply the BRST gauge-fixing procedure to the Yang-Mills theory on a hypersphere to obtain consistent results. Field equations for the Yang-Mills field and associated fields are derived in manifestly O (n + 1) covariant or invariant forms. In the large radius limit, these equations reproduce the corresponding field equations defined on the n-dimensional flat space.
Topics in Nonsupersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge and Gravity Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nohle, Joshua David
In Chapters 1 and 2, we introduce and review the duality between color and kinematics in Yang-Mills theory uncovered by Bern, Carrasco and Johansson (BCJ). In Chapter 3, we provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions. In Chapter 4, we extend the four-point one-loop nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills discussion of Chapter 3 to include fermions and scalars circulating in the loop with all external gluons. This gives another nontrivial loop-level example showing that the duality between color and kinematics holds in nonsupersymmetric gauge theory. The construction is valid in any spacetime dimension and written in terms of formal polarization vectors. We also convert these expressions into a four-dimensional form with explicit external helicity states. Using this, we compare our results to one-loop duality-satisfying amplitudes that are already present in literature. In Chapter 5, we switch from the topic of color-kinematics duality to discuss the recently renewed interest in the soft behavior of gravitons and gluons. Specifically, we discuss the subleading low-energy behavior. Cachazo and Strominger recently proposed an extension of the soft-graviton theorem found by Weinberg. In addition, they proved the validity of their extension at
Infinite Set of Soft Theorems in Gauge-Gravity Theories as Ward-Takahashi Identities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Shiu, Gary
2018-05-01
We show that the soft photon, gluon, and graviton theorems can be understood as the Ward-Takahashi identities of large gauge transformation, i.e., diffeomorphism that does not fall off at spatial infinity. We found infinitely many new identities which constrain the higher order soft behavior of the gauge bosons and gravitons in scattering amplitudes of gauge and gravity theories. Diagrammatic representations of these soft theorems are presented.
Infrared fixed point of SU(2) gauge theory with six flavors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leino, Viljami; Rummukainen, Kari; Suorsa, Joni; Tuominen, Kimmo; Tähtinen, Sara
2018-06-01
We compute the running of the coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with six fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We find strong evidence that this theory has an infrared stable fixed point at strong coupling and measure also the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator at the fixed point. This theory therefore likely lies close to the boundary of the conformal window and will display novel infrared dynamics if coupled with the electroweak sector of the Standard Model.
Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology
Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@physik.hu-berlin.de; Sars, Matthias; Suijlekom, Walter D. van
2013-09-15
We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology.more » -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.« less
Universal attractor in a highly occupied non-Abelian plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.; Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.
2014-06-01
We study the thermalization process in highly occupied non-Abelian plasmas at weak coupling. The nonequilibrium dynamics of such systems is classical in nature and can be simulated with real-time lattice gauge theory techniques. We provide a detailed discussion of this framework and elaborate on the results reported in J. Berges, K. Boguslavski, S. Schlichting, and R. Venugopalan, Phys. Rev. D 89, 074011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.074011 along with novel findings. We demonstrate the emergence of universal attractor solutions, which govern the nonequilibrium evolution on large time scales both for nonexpanding and expanding non-Abelian plasmas. The turbulent attractor for a nonexpanding plasma drives the system close to thermal equilibrium on a time scale t ˜Q-1αs-7/4. The attractor solution for an expanding non-Abelian plasma leads to a strongly interacting albeit highly anisotropic system at the transition to the low-occupancy or quantum regime. This evolution in the classical regime is, within the uncertainties of our simulations, consistent with the "bottom up" thermalization scenario [R. Baier, A. H. Mueller, D. Schiff, and D. T. Son, Phys. Lett. B 502, 51 (2001), 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00191-5]. While the focus of this paper is to understand the nonequilibrium dynamics in weak coupling asymptotics, we also discuss the relevance of our results for larger couplings in the early time dynamics of heavy ion collision experiments.
Ambitwistor formulations of R 2 gravity and ( DF)2 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azevedo, Thales; Engelund, Oluf Tang
2017-11-01
We consider D-dimensional amplitudes in R 2 gravities (conformal gravity in D = 4) and in the recently introduced ( DF)2 gauge theory, from the perspective of the CHY formulae and ambitwistor string theory. These theories are related through the BCJ double-copy construction, and the ( DF)2 gauge theory obeys color-kinematics duality. We work out the worldsheet details of these theories and show that they admit a formulation as integrals on the support of the scattering equations, or alternatively, as ambitwistor string theories. For gravity, this generalizes the work done by Berkovits and Witten on conformal gravity to D dimensions. The ambitwistor is also interpreted as a D-dimensional generalization of Witten's twistor string (SYM + conformal supergravity). As part of our ambitwistor investigation, we discover another ( DF)2 gauge theory containing a photon that couples to Einstein gravity. This theory can provide an alternative KLT description of Einstein gravity compared to the usual Yang-Mills squared.
Critical string from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2015-09-25
In a class of non-Abelian solitonic vortex strings supported in certain N = 2 super-Yang–Mills theories we search for the vortex which can behave as a critical fundamental string. We use the Polchinski–Strominger criterion of the ultraviolet completeness. We identify an appropriate four-dimensional bulk theory: it has the U(2) gauge group, the Fayet–Iliopoulos term and four flavor hypermultiplets. It supports semilocal vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational (size) moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. The latter is superconformal. Its target space is six-dimensional. The overall Virasoro central charge is critical. Lastly, we show that the world-sheet theory onmore » the vortex supported in this bulk model is the bona fide critical string.« less
Abelianization and sequential confinement in 2 + 1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benvenuti, Sergio; Giacomelli, Simone
2017-10-01
We consider the lagrangian description of Argyres-Douglas theories of type A 2 N -1, which is a SU( N) gauge theory with an adjoint and one fundamental flavor. An appropriate reformulation allows us to map the moduli space of vacua across the duality, and to dimensionally reduce. Going down to three dimensions, we find that the adjoint SQCD "abelianizes": in the infrared it is equivalent to a N=4 linear quiver theory. Moreover, we study the mirror dual: using a monopole duality to "sequentially confine" quivers tails with balanced nodes, we show that the mirror RG flow lands on N=4 SQED with N flavors. These results make the supersymmetry enhancement explicit and provide a physical derivation of previous proposals for the three dimensional mirror of AD theories.
Higgs mechanism in higher-rank symmetric U(1) gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulmash, Daniel; Barkeshli, Maissam
2018-06-01
We use the Higgs mechanism to investigate connections between higher-rank symmetric U(1 ) gauge theories and gapped fracton phases. We define two classes of rank-2 symmetric U(1 ) gauge theories: the (m ,n ) scalar and vector charge theories, for integer m and n , which respect the symmetry of the square (cubic) lattice in two (three) spatial dimensions. We further provide local lattice rotor models whose low-energy dynamics are described by these theories. We then describe in detail the Higgs phases obtained when the U(1 ) gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken to a discrete subgroup. A subset of the scalar charge theories indeed have X-cube fracton order as their Higgs phase, although we find that this can only occur if the continuum higher-rank gauge theory breaks continuous spatial rotational symmetry. However, not all higher-rank gauge theories have fractonic Higgs phases; other Higgs phases possess conventional topological order. Nevertheless, they yield interesting novel exactly solvable models of conventional topological order, somewhat reminiscent of the color code models in both two and three spatial dimensions. We also investigate phase transitions in these models and find a possible direct phase transition between four copies of Z2 gauge theory in three spatial dimensions and X-cube fracton order.
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan
2017-10-01
The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emerge whenever translational symmetry is restored. We also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.
Gauge interaction as periodicity modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolce, Donatello
2012-06-01
The paper is devoted to a geometrical interpretation of gauge invariance in terms of the formalism of field theory in compact space-time dimensions (Dolce, 2011) [8]. In this formalism, the kinematic information of an interacting elementary particle is encoded on the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary of the theory through local transformations of the underlying space-time coordinates. Therefore gauge interactions are described as invariance of the theory under local deformations of the boundary. The resulting local variations of the field solution are interpreted as internal transformations. The internal symmetries of the gauge theory turn out to be related to corresponding space-time local symmetries. In the approximation of local infinitesimal isometric transformations, Maxwell's kinematics and gauge invariance are inferred directly from the variational principle. Furthermore we explicitly impose periodic conditions at the boundary of the theory as semi-classical quantization condition in order to investigate the quantum behavior of gauge interaction. In the abelian case the result is a remarkable formal correspondence with scalar QED.
Canonical field anticommutators in the extended gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.; Henneaux, Marc; Pais, Pablo
2017-10-01
We reexamine canonical quantization of the gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory using the extended theory, incorporating a dimension 1/2 auxiliary spin-1/2 field Λ , in which there is an exact off-shell gauge invariance. In Λ =0 gauge, which reduces to the original unextended theory, our results agree with those found by Johnson and Sudarshan, and later verified by Velo and Zwanziger, which give a canonical Rarita-Schwinger field Dirac bracket that is singular for small gauge fields. In gauge covariant radiation gauge, the Dirac bracket of the Rarita-Schwinger fields is nonsingular, but does not correspond to a positive semidefinite anticommutator, and the Dirac bracket of the auxiliary fields has a singularity of the same form as found in the unextended theory. These results indicate that gauged Rarita-Schwinger theory is somewhat pathological, and cannot be canonically quantized within a conventional positive semidefinite metric Hilbert space. We leave open the questions of whether consistent quantizations can be achieved by using an indefinite metric Hilbert space, by path integral methods, or by appropriate couplings to conventional dimension 3/2 spin-1/2 fields.
3 d printing of 2 d N=(0,2) gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Sebastián; Hasan, Azeem
2018-05-01
We introduce 3 d printing, a new algorithm for generating 2 d N=(0,2) gauge theories on D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds using 4 d N=1 gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds as starting points. Equivalently, this method produces brane brick models starting from brane tilings. 3 d printing represents a significant improvement with respect to previously available tools, allowing a straightforward determination of gauge theories for geometries that until now could only be tackled using partial resolution. We investigate the interplay between triality, an IR equivalence between different 2 d N=(0,2) gauge theories, and the freedom in 3 d printing given an underlying Calabi-Yau 4-fold. Finally, we present the first discussion of the consistency and reduction of brane brick models.
Connection dynamics of a gauge theory of gravity coupled with matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jian; Banerjee, Kinjal; Ma, Yongge
2013-10-01
We study the coupling of the gravitational action, which is a linear combination of the Hilbert-Palatini term and the quadratic torsion term, to the action of Dirac fermions. The system possesses local Poincare invariance and hence belongs to Poincare gauge theory (PGT) with matter. The complete Hamiltonian analysis of the theory is carried out without gauge fixing but under certain ansatz on the coupling parameters, which leads to a consistent connection dynamics with second-class constraints and torsion. After performing a partial gauge fixing, all second-class constraints can be solved, and a SU(2)-connection dynamical formalism of the theory can be obtained. Hence, the techniques of loop quantum gravity (LQG) can be employed to quantize this PGT with non-zero torsion. Moreover, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter in LQG acquires its physical meaning as the coupling parameter between the Hilbert-Palatini term and the quadratic torsion term in this gauge theory of gravity.
Masslessness of ghosts in equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories
Golterman, Maarten; Zimmerman, Leah
2005-06-01
We show that the one-loop ghost self-energy in an equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory vanishes at zero momentum. A ghost mass is forbidden by equivariant BRST symmetry, and our calculation confirms this explicitly. The four-ghost self interaction which appears in the equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory is needed in order to obtain this result.
Magnetic monopole versus vortex as gauge-invariant topological objects for quark confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Sasago, Takaaki; Shinohara, Toru; Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou
2017-12-01
First, we give a gauge-independent definition of chromomagnetic monopoles in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which is derived through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator. Then we discuss how such magnetic monopoles can give a nontrivial contribution to the Wilson loop operator for understanding the area law of the Wilson loop average. Next, we discuss how the magnetic monopole condensation picture are compatible with the vortex condensation picture as another promising scenario for quark confinement. We analyze the profile function of the magnetic flux tube as the non-Abelian vortex solution of U(N) gauge-Higgs model, which is to be compared with numerical simulations of the SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a lattice. This analysis gives an estimate of the string tension based on the vortex condensation picture, and possible interactions between two non-Abelian vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2018-03-01
Non-Abelian strings are considered in non-supersymmetric theories with fermions in various appropriate representations of the gauge group U(N). We derive the electric charge quantization conditions and the index theorems counting fermion zero modes in the string background both for the left-handed and right-handed fermions. In both cases we observe a non-trivial N dependence.
Non-Abelian black string solutions of N = (2,0) , d = 6 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cano, Pablo A.; Ortín, Tomás; Santoli, Camilla
2016-12-01
We show that, when compactified on a circle, N = (2, 0), d = 6 supergravity coupled to 1 tensor multiplet and n V vector multiplets is dual to N = (2 , 0) , d = 6 supergravity coupled to just n T = n V + 1 tensor multiplets and no vector multiplets. Both theories reduce to the same models of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity coupled to n V 5 = n V + 2 vector fields. We derive Buscher rules that relate solutions of these theories (and of the theory that one obtains by dualizing the 3-form field strength) admitting an isometry. Since the relations between the fields of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity and those of the 6-dimensional theories are the same with or without gaugings, we construct supersymmetric non-Abelian solutions of the 6-dimensional gauged theories by uplifting the recently found 5-dimensional supersymmetric non-Abelian black-hole solutions. The solutions describe the usual superpositions of strings and waves supplemented by a BPST instanton in the transverse directions, similar to the gauge dyonic string of Duff, Lü and Pope. One of the solutions obtained interpolates smoothly between two AdS3× S3 geometries with different radii.
Cosmological bounds on non-Abelian dark forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris
2018-04-01
Non-Abelian dark gauge forces that do not couple directly to ordinary matter may be realized in nature. The minimal form of such a dark force is a pure Yang-Mills theory. If the dark sector is reheated in the early Universe, it will be realized as a set of dark gluons at high temperatures and as a collection of dark glueballs at lower temperatures, with a cosmological phase transition from one form to the other. Despite being dark, the gauge fields of the new force can connect indirectly to the standard model through nonrenormalizable operators. These operators will transfer energy between the dark and visible sectors, and they allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. In this work we investigate the cosmological evolution and decays of dark glueballs in the presence of connector operators to the standard model. Dark glueball decays can modify cosmological and astrophysical observables, and we use these considerations to put very strong limits on the existence of pure non-Abelian dark forces. On the other hand, if one or more of the dark glueballs are stable, we find that they can potentially make up the dark matter of the Universe.
Gauge coupling unification and light exotica in string theory.
Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin
2007-08-03
In this Letter we consider the consequences for the CERN Large Hadron Collider of light vectorlike exotica with fractional electric charge. It is shown that such states are found in orbifold constructions of the heterotic string. Moreover, these exotica are consistent with gauge coupling unification at one loop, even though they do not come in complete multiplets of SU(5).
Gauge symmetries of the free supersymmetric string field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neveu, A.; West, P. C.
1985-12-01
The gauge covariant local formulations of the free supersymmetric strings that contained a finite number of supplementary fields are extended so as to place all the generators of the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz algebra on a more equal footing. Permanent address: King's College, Mathematics Department, London WC2R 2LS, UK.
Spinning particle and gauge theories as integrability conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisenberg, Yeshayahu
1992-02-01
Starting from a new four dimensional spinning point particle we obtain new representations of the standard four dimensional gauge field equations in terms of a generalized space (Minkowski + light cone). In terms of this new formulation we define linear systems whose integrability conditions imply the massive Dirac-Maxwell and the Yang-Mills equations. Research supported by the Rothschild Fellowship.
Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah
2018-02-01
There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponent ν ≈2.3 and that ν is observed to be superuniversal, i.e., the same in the vicinity of distinct critical points [Sondhi et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 315 (1997), 10.1103/RevModPhys.69.315]. Duality motivates effective descriptions for a fractional quantum Hall plateau transition involving a Chern-Simons field with U (Nc) gauge group coupled to Nf=1 fermion. We study one class of theories in a controlled limit where Nf≫Nc and calculate ν to leading nontrivial order in the absence of disorder. Although these theories do not yield an anomalously large exponent ν within the large Nf≫Nc expansion, they do offer a new parameter space of theories that is apparently different from prior works involving Abelian Chern-Simons gauge fields [Wen and Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1501 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.1501; Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 48, 13749 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.13749].
Instanton operators and symmetry enhancement in 5d supersymmetric quiver gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonekura, Kazuya
2015-07-01
We consider general 5d SU( N ) quiver gauge theories whose nodes form an ADE Dynkin diagram of type G. Each node has SU( N i ) gauge group of general rank, Chern-Simons level κ i and additional w i fundamentals. When the total flavor number at each node is less than or equal to 2 N i - 2| κ i |, we give general rules under which the symmetries associated to instanton currents are enhanced to G × G or a subgroup of it in the UV 5d superconformal theory. When the total flavor number violates that condition at some of the nodes, further enhancement of flavor symmetries occurs. In particular we find a large class of gauge theories interpreted as S 1 compactification of 6d superconformal theories which are waiting for string/F-theory realization. We also consider hypermultiplets in (anti-)symmetric representation.
Remarks on worldsheet theories dual to free large N gauge theories
Aharony, Ofer; SITP, Department of Physics and SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; David, Justin R.
2007-05-15
We continue to investigate properties of the worldsheet conformal field theories (CFTs) which are conjectured to be dual to free large N gauge theories, using the mapping of Feynman diagrams to the worldsheet suggested in [R. Gopakumar, Phys. Rev. D 70, 025009 (2004); ibid.70, 025010 (2004); C. R. Physique 5, 1111 (2004); Phys. Rev. D 72, 066008 (2005)]. The modular invariance of these CFTs is shown to be built into the formalism. We show that correlation functions in these CFTs which are localized on subspaces of the moduli space may be interpreted as delta-function distributions, and that this can bemore » consistent with a local worldsheet description given some constraints on the operator product expansion coefficients. We illustrate these features by a detailed analysis of a specific four-point function diagram. To reliably compute this correlator, we use a novel perturbation scheme which involves an expansion in the large dimension of some operators.« less
Emergent gauge theories and supersymmetry: A QED primer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chkareuli, J. L.
2013-04-01
We argue that a generic trigger for photon and other gauge fields to emerge as massless Nambu-Goldstone modes could be spontaneously broken supersymmetry rather than physically manifested Lorentz violation. We consider supersymmetric QED model extended by an arbitrary polynomial potential of vector superfield that induces the spontaneous SUSY violation in the visible sector. As a consequence, massless photon appears as a companion of massless photino being Goldstone fermion state in tree approximation. Remarkably, the photon masslessness appearing at tree level is further protected against radiative corrections due to the simultaneously generated special gauge invariance in the broken SUSY phase. Meanwhile, photino being mixed with another goldstino appearing from a spontaneous SUSY violation in the hidden sector largely turns into light pseudo-goldstino whose physics seems to be of special interest.
Cascading gauge theory on dS4 and String Theory landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchel, Alex; Galante, Damián A.
2014-06-01
Placing anti-D3 branes at the tip of the conifold in Klebanov-Strassler geometry provides a generic way of constructing meta-stable de Sitter (dS) vacua in String Theory. A local geometry of such vacua exhibit gravitational solutions with a D3 charge measured at the tip opposite to the asymptotic charge. We discuss a restrictive set of such geometries, where anti-D3 branes are smeared at the tip. Such geometries represent holographic dual of cascading gauge theory in dS4 with or without chiral symmetry breaking. We find that in the phase with unbroken chiral symmetry the D3 charge at the tip is always positive. Furthermore, this charge is zero in the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. We show that the effective potential of the chirally symmetric phase is lower than that in the symmetry broken phase, i.e., there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for cascading gauge theory in dS4. The positivity of the D3 brane charge in smooth de-Sitter deformed conifold geometries with fluxes presents difficulties in uplifting AdS vacua to dS ones in String Theory via smeared anti-D3 branes. First, turning on fluxes on Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory produces highly warped geometry with stabilized complex structure (but not Kähler) moduli of the compactification [3]; Next, including non-perturbative effects (which are under control given the unbroken supersymmetry), one obtains anti-de Sitter (AdS4) vacua with all moduli fixed; Finally, one uses anti-D3 branes of type IIB string theory to uplift AdS4 to de Sitter (dS4) vacua. As the last step of the construction completely breaks supersymmetry, it is much less controlled. In fact, in [4-7] it was argued that putting anti-D3 branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) [8] geometry (as done in KKLT construction) leads to a naked singularity. Whether or not the resulting singularity is physical is subject to debates. When M4=dS4 and the chiral symmetry is unbroken, the D3 brane
Gravitational Scattering Amplitudes and Closed String Field Theory in the Proper-Time Gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taejin
2018-01-01
We construct a covariant closed string field theory by extending recent works on the covariant open string field theory in the proper-time gauge. Rewriting the string scattering amplitudes generated by the closed string field theory in terms of the Polyakov string path integrals, we identify the Fock space representations of the closed string vertices. We show that the Fock space representations of the closed string field theory may be completely factorized into those of the open string field theory. It implies that the well known Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations of the first quantized string theory may be promoted to the second quantized closed string theory. We explicitly calculate the scattering amplitudes of three gravitons by using the closed string field theory in the proper-time gauge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi
1981-11-01
"Thermo field dynamics," allowing the Feynman diagram method to be applied to real-time causal Green's functions at finite temperatures ( not temperature Green's functions with imaginary times) expressed in the form of "vacuum" expectation values, is reconsidered in light of its connection with the algebraic formulation of statical machanics based upon the KMS condition. On the basis of so-obtained general basic formulae, the formalism is extended to the case of gauge theories, where the subsidiary condition specifying physical states, the notion of observables, and the structure of the physical subspace at finite temperatures are clarified.
Heavy quark free energy in QCD and in gauge theories with gravity duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noronha, Jorge
2010-09-01
Recent lattice results in pure glue SU(3) theory at high temperatures have shown that the expectation value of the renormalized Polyakov loop approaches its asymptotic limit at high temperatures from above. We show that this implies that the “heavy quark free energy” obtained from the renormalized loop computed on the lattice does not behave like a true thermodynamic free energy. While this should be expected to occur in asymptotically free gauge theories such as QCD, we use the gauge/string duality to show that in a large class of strongly coupled gauge theories with nontrivial UV fixed points the Polyakov loop reaches its asymptotic value from above only if the dimension of the relevant operator used to deform the conformal field theory is greater than or equal to 3.
Local existence of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in four Dimensions
Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Zen, Freddy P.
2015-04-16
In this paper, we shall prove the local existence of N=1 supersymmetry gauge theory in 4 dimension. We start from the Lagrangian for coupling chiral and vector multiplets with constant gauge kinetic function and only considering a bosonic part by setting all fermionic field to be zero at level equation of motion. We consider a U(n) model as isometry for scalar field internal geometry. And we use a nonlinear semigroup method to prove the local existence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupoyet, B.; Fiebig, H. R.; Musgrove, D. P.
2010-01-01
We report on initial studies of a quantum field theory defined on a lattice with multi-ladder geometry and the dilation group as a local gauge symmetry. The model is relevant in the cross-disciplinary area of econophysics. A corresponding proposal by Ilinski aimed at gauge modeling in non-equilibrium pricing is implemented in a numerical simulation. We arrive at a probability distribution of relative gains which matches the high frequency historical data of the NASDAQ stock exchange index.
Remarks on the BRST quantized gauged WZNW models and the Toda field theories
Hayashi, N.
In this paper it is shown that the quantum Hamiltonian reduction proposed by Bershadsky and Ooguri enables us to connect the gauged WZNW models with fractional levels to the quantum Toda field theories, and the coupling constants of the Toda field theories with the fractional levels. The BRST framework is applied to the SL ({ital n},R)-WZNW models.
Optimization of pressure gauge locations for water distribution systems using entropy theory.
Yoo, Do Guen; Chang, Dong Eil; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Joong Hoon
2012-12-01
It is essential to select the optimal pressure gauge location for effective management and maintenance of water distribution systems. This study proposes an objective and quantified standard for selecting the optimal pressure gauge location by defining the pressure change at other nodes as a result of demand change at a specific node using entropy theory. Two cases are considered in terms of demand change: that in which demand at all nodes shows peak load by using a peak factor and that comprising the demand change of the normal distribution whose average is the base demand. The actual pressure change pattern is determined by using the emitter function of EPANET to reflect the pressure that changes practically at each node. The optimal pressure gauge location is determined by prioritizing the node that processes the largest amount of information it gives to (giving entropy) and receives from (receiving entropy) the whole system according to the entropy standard. The suggested model is applied to one virtual and one real pipe network, and the optimal pressure gauge location combination is calculated by implementing the sensitivity analysis based on the study results. These analysis results support the following two conclusions. Firstly, the installation priority of the pressure gauge in water distribution networks can be determined with a more objective standard through the entropy theory. Secondly, the model can be used as an efficient decision-making guide for gauge installation in water distribution systems.
2d affine XY-spin model/4d gauge theory duality and deconfinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Ünsal, Mithat
2012-04-01
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2)/ {{Z}_2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle {{R}^{{^{{{1},{2}}}}}} × {{S}^{{^{{1}}}}} , and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on {{R}^{{^{{2}}}}} × {{T}^{{^{{2}}}}} . Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of "affine" XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU( N c ) gauge theories with n f ≥1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
One-loop β-function for an infinite-parameter family of gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Kirill
2015-03-01
We continue to study an infinite-parametric family of gauge theories with an arbitrary function of the self-dual part of the field strength as the Lagrangian. The arising one-loop divergences are computed using the background field method. We show that they can all be absorbed by a local redefinition of the gauge field, as well as multiplicative renormalisations of the couplings. Thus, this family of theories is one-loop renormalisable. The infinite set of β-functions for the couplings is compactly stored in a renormalisation group flow for a single function of the curvature. The flow is obtained explicitly.
Cluster-enriched Yang-Baxter equation from SUSY gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Masahito
2018-04-01
We propose a new generalization of the Yang-Baxter equation, where the R-matrix depends on cluster y-variables in addition to the spectral parameters. We point out that we can construct solutions to this new equation from the recently found correspondence between Yang-Baxter equations and supersymmetric gauge theories. The S^2 partition function of a certain 2d N=(2,2) quiver gauge theory gives an R-matrix, whereas its FI parameters can be identified with the cluster y-variables.
Exact relativistic Toda chain eigenfunctions from Separation of Variables and gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciarappa, Antonio
2017-10-01
We provide a proposal, motivated by Separation of Variables and gauge theory arguments, for constructing exact solutions to the quantum Baxter equation associated to the N-particle relativistic Toda chain and test our proposal against numerical results. Quantum Mechanical non-perturbative corrections, essential in order to obtain a sensible solution, are taken into account in our gauge theory approach by considering codimension two defects on curved backgrounds (squashed S 5 and degenerate limits) rather than flat space; this setting also naturally incorporates exact quantization conditions and energy spectrum of the relativistic Toda chain as well as its modular dual structure.
Structure of UV divergences in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, D. I.; Borlakov, A. T.; Tolkachev, D. M.; Vlasenko, D. E.
2018-06-01
We consider the UV divergences up to sub-subleading order for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D =8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the planar limit. We trace how the leading, subleading, etc divergences appear in all orders of perturbation theory. The structure of these divergences is typical for any local quantum field theory independently on renormalizability. We show how the generalized renormalization group equations allow one to evaluate the leading, subleading, etc. contributions in all orders of perturbation theory starting from one-, two-, etc. loop diagrams respectively. We focus then on subtraction scheme dependence of the results and show that in full analogy with renormalizable theories the scheme dependence can be absorbed into the redefinition of the couplings. The only difference is that the role of the couplings play dimensionless combinations like g2s2 or g2t2, where s and t are the Mandelstam variables.
Monopole operators and Hilbert series of Coulomb branches of 3 d = 4 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-01-01
This paper addresses a long standing problem - to identify the chiral ring and moduli space (i.e. as an algebraic variety) on the Coulomb branch of an = 4 superconformal field theory in 2+1 dimensions. Previous techniques involved a computation of the metric on the moduli space and/or mirror symmetry. These methods are limited to sufficiently small moduli spaces, with enough symmetry, or to Higgs branches of sufficiently small gauge theories. We introduce a simple formula for the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch, which applies to any good or ugly three-dimensional = 4 gauge theory. The formula counts monopole operators which are dressed by classical operators, the Casimir invariants of the residual gauge group that is left unbroken by the magnetic flux. We apply our formula to several classes of gauge theories. Along the way we make various tests of mirror symmetry, successfully comparing the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch with the Hilbert series of the Higgs branch of the mirror theory.
Chern-Simons gauge theory on orbifolds: Open strings from three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hořava, Petr
1996-12-01
Chern-Simons gauge theory is formulated on three-dimensional Z2 orbifolds. The locus of singular points on a given orbifold is equivalent to a link of Wilson lines. This allows one to reduce any correlation function on orbifolds to a sum of more complicated correlation functions in the simpler theory on manifolds. Chern-Simons theory on manifolds is known to be related to two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT) on closed-string surfaces; here it is shown that the theory on orbifolds is related to 2D CFT of unoriented closed- and open-string models, i.e. to worldsheet orbifold models. In particular, the boundary components of the worldsheet correspond to the components of the singular locus in the 3D orbifold. This correspondence leads to a simple identification of the open-string spectra, including their Chan-Paton degeneration, in terms of fusing Wilson lines in the corresponding Chern-Simons theory. The correspondence is studied in detail, and some exactly solvable examples are presented. Some of these examples indicate that it is natural to think of the orbifold group Z2 as a part of the gauge group of the Chern-Simons theory, thus generalizing the standard definition of gauge theories.
SU (2) lattice gauge theory simulations on Fermi GPUs
Cardoso, Nuno, E-mail: nunocardoso@cftp.ist.utl.p; Bicudo, Pedro, E-mail: bicudo@ist.utl.p
2011-05-10
In this work we explore the performance of CUDA in quenched lattice SU (2) simulations. CUDA, NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture, is a hardware and software architecture developed by NVIDIA for computing on the GPU. We present an analysis and performance comparison between the GPU and CPU in single and double precision. Analyses with multiple GPUs and two different architectures (G200 and Fermi architectures) are also presented. In order to obtain a high performance, the code must be optimized for the GPU architecture, i.e., an implementation that exploits the memory hierarchy of the CUDA programming model. We produce codes formore » the Monte Carlo generation of SU (2) lattice gauge configurations, for the mean plaquette, for the Polyakov Loop at finite T and for the Wilson loop. We also present results for the potential using many configurations (50,000) without smearing and almost 2000 configurations with APE smearing. With two Fermi GPUs we have achieved an excellent performance of 200x the speed over one CPU, in single precision, around 110 Gflops/s. We also find that, using the Fermi architecture, double precision computations for the static quark-antiquark potential are not much slower (less than 2x slower) than single precision computations.« less
SU (2) lattice gauge theory simulations on Fermi GPUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro
2011-05-01
In this work we explore the performance of CUDA in quenched lattice SU (2) simulations. CUDA, NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture, is a hardware and software architecture developed by NVIDIA for computing on the GPU. We present an analysis and performance comparison between the GPU and CPU in single and double precision. Analyses with multiple GPUs and two different architectures (G200 and Fermi architectures) are also presented. In order to obtain a high performance, the code must be optimized for the GPU architecture, i.e., an implementation that exploits the memory hierarchy of the CUDA programming model. We produce codes for the Monte Carlo generation of SU (2) lattice gauge configurations, for the mean plaquette, for the Polyakov Loop at finite T and for the Wilson loop. We also present results for the potential using many configurations (50,000) without smearing and almost 2000 configurations with APE smearing. With two Fermi GPUs we have achieved an excellent performance of 200× the speed over one CPU, in single precision, around 110 Gflops/s. We also find that, using the Fermi architecture, double precision computations for the static quark-antiquark potential are not much slower (less than 2× slower) than single precision computations.
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; ...
2017-10-09
The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emergemore » whenever translational symmetry is restored. Lastly, we also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.« less
Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions
Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai
The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emergemore » whenever translational symmetry is restored. Lastly, we also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.« less
Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug
This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.
One-loop tests of supersymmetric gauge theories on spheres
Minahan, Joseph A.; Naseer, Usman
2017-07-14
Here, we show that a recently conjectured form for perturbative supersymmetric partition functions on spheres of general dimension d is consistent with the at space limit of 6-dimensional N = 1 super Yang-Mills. We also show that the partition functions for N = 1 8- and 9-dimensional theories are consistent with their known at space limits.
Supersymmetric gauge theory with space-time-dependent couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jaewang; Fernández-Melgarejo, José J.; Sugimoto, Shigeki
2018-01-01
We study deformations of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with couplings and masses depending on space-time. The conditions to preserve part of the supersymmetry are derived and a lot of solutions of these conditions are found. The main example is the case with ISO(1,1)× SO(3)× SO(3) symmetry, in which couplings, as well as masses and the theta parameter, can depend on two spatial coordinates. In the case in which ISO(1,1) is enhanced to ISO(1,2), it reproduces the supersymmetric Janus configuration found by Gaiotto and Witten [J. High Energy Phys. 06, 097 (2010)]. When SO(3)× SO(3) is enhanced to SO(6), it agrees with the world-volume theory of D3-branes embedded in F-theory (a background with 7-branes in type IIB string theory). We have also found the general solution of the supersymmetry conditions for the cases with ISO(1,1)× SO(2)× SO(4) symmetry. Cases with time-dependent couplings and/or masses are also considered.
Digital Quantum Simulation of Z2 Lattice Gauge Theories with Dynamical Fermionic Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with (2 +1 ) and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a Z2 model in (2 +1 ) dimensions.
Symplectic Quantization of a Vector-Tensor Gauge Theory with Topological Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barcelos-Neto, J.; Silva, M. B. D.
We use the symplectic formalism to quantize a gauge theory where vectors and tensors fields are coupled in a topological way. This is an example of reducible theory and a procedure like of ghosts-of-ghosts of the BFV method is applied but in terms of Lagrange multipliers. Our final results are in agreement with the ones found in the literature by using the Dirac method.
Spontaneously broken topological SL(5,R) gauge theory with standard gravity emerging
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2011-02-15
A completely metric-free sl(5,R) gauge framework is developed in four dimensions. After spontaneous symmetry breaking of the corresponding topological BF scheme, Einstein spaces with a tiny cosmological constant emerge, similarly as in (anti-)de Sitter gauge theories of gravity. The induced {Lambda} is related to the scale of the symmetry breaking. A ''background'' metric surfaces from a Higgs-like mechanism. The finiteness of such a topological scheme converts into asymptotic safeness after quantization of the spontaneously broken model.
Singular gauge transformation and the Erler-Maccaferri solution in bosonic open string field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, Akitsugu; Sugita, Kazuhiro
2017-09-01
We study candidate multiple-brane solutions of bosonic open string field theory. They are constructed by performing a singular gauge transformation n times for the Erler-Maccaferri solution. We check the equation of motion in the strong sense, and find that it is satisfied only when we perform the gauge transformation once. We calculate the energy for that case and obtain a support that the solution is a multiple-brane solution. We also check the tachyon profile for a specific solution that we interpret as describing a D24-brane placed on a D25-brane.
Multiloop amplitudes of light-cone gauge superstring field theory: odd spin structure contributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Koichi
2018-03-01
We study the odd spin structure contributions to the multiloop amplitudes of light-cone gauge superstring field theory. We show that they coincide with the amplitudes in the conformal gauge with two of the vertex operators chosen to be in the pictures different from the standard choice, namely (-1, -1) picture in the type II case and -1 picture in the heterotic case. We also show that the contact term divergences can be regularized in the same way as in the amplitudes for the even structures and we get the amplitudes which coincide with those obtained from the first-quantized approach.
4d N = 1 quiver gauge theories and the An Bailey lemma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brünner, Frederic; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav P.
2018-03-01
We study the integral Bailey lemma associated with the An-root system and identities for elliptic hypergeometric integrals generated thereby. Interpreting integrals as superconformal indices of four-dimensional N = 1 quiver gauge theories with the gauge groups being products of SU(n + 1), we provide evidence for various new dualities. Further confirmation is achieved by explicitly checking that the `t Hooft anomaly matching conditions holds. We discuss a flavour symmetry breaking phenomenon for supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SQCD), and by making use of the Bailey lemma we indicate its manifestation in a web of linear quivers dual to SQCD that exhibits full s-confinement.
An A{sub r} threesome: Matrix models, 2d conformal field theories, and 4dN=2 gauge theories
Schiappa, Ricardo; Wyllard, Niclas
We explore the connections between three classes of theories: A{sub r} quiver matrix models, d=2 conformal A{sub r} Toda field theories, and d=4N=2 supersymmetric conformal A{sub r} quiver gauge theories. In particular, we analyze the quiver matrix models recently introduced by Dijkgraaf and Vafa (unpublished) and make detailed comparisons with the corresponding quantities in the Toda field theories and the N=2 quiver gauge theories. We also make a speculative proposal for how the matrix models should be modified in order for them to reproduce the instanton partition functions in quiver gauge theories in five dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Melgarejo, José J.; Park, Minkyu; Shigemori, Masaki
2017-12-01
A supertube is a supersymmetric configuration in string theory which occurs when a pair of branes spontaneously polarizes and generates a new dipole charge extended along a closed curve. The dipole charge of a codimension-2 supertube is characterized by the U-duality monodromy as one goes around the supertube. For multiple codimension-2 supertubes, their monodromies do not commute in general. In this paper, we construct a supersymmetric solution of five-dimensional supergravity that describes two supertubes with such non-Abelian monodromies, in a certain perturbative expansion. In supergravity, the monodromies are realized as the multi-valuedness of the scalar fields, while in higher dimensions they correspond to non-geometric duality twists of the internal space. The supertubes in our solution carry NS5 and 5 2 2 dipole charges and exhibit the same monodromy structure as the SU(2) Seiberg-Witten geometry. The perturbative solution has AdS2 × S 2 asymptotics and vanishing four-dimensional angular momentum. We argue that this solution represents a microstate of four-dimensional black holes with a finite horizon and that it provides a clue for the gravity realization of a pure-Higgs branch state in the dual quiver quantum mechanics.
Symplectic Quantization of a Reducible Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barcelos-Neto, J.; Silva, M. B. D.
We use the symplectic formalism to quantize the Abelian antisymmetric tensor gauge field. It is related to a reducible theory in the sense that all of its constraints are not independent. A procedure like ghost-of-ghost of the BFV method has to be used, but in terms of Lagrange multipliers.
Radiation-like scalar field and gauge fields in cosmology for a theory with dynamical time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benisty, David; Guendelman, E. I.
2016-09-01
Cosmological solutions with a scalar field behaving as radiation are obtained, in the context of gravitational theory with dynamical time. The solution requires the spacial curvature of the universe k, to be zero, unlike the standard radiation solutions, which do not impose any constraint on the spatial curvature of the universe. This is because only such k = 0 radiation solutions pose a homothetic Killing vector. This kind of theory can be used to generalize electromagnetism and other gauge theories, in curved spacetime, and there are no deviations from standard gauge field equation (like Maxwell equations) in the case there exist a conformal Killing vector. But there could be departures from Maxwell and Yang-Mills equations, for more general spacetimes.
M2-brane surface operators and gauge theory dualities in Toda
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomis, Jaume; Le Floch, Bruno
2016-04-01
We give a microscopic two dimensional {N} = (2, 2) gauge theory description of arbitrary M2-branes ending on N f M5-branes wrapping a punctured Riemann surface. These realize surface operators in four dimensional {N} = 2 field theories. We show that the expectation value of these surface operators on the sphere is captured by a Toda CFT correlation function in the presence of an additional degenerate vertex operator labelled by a representation {R} of SU( N f ), which also labels M2-branes ending on M5-branes. We prove that symmetries of Toda CFT correlators provide a geometric realization of dualities between two dimensional gauge theories, including {N} = (2, 2) analogues of Seiberg and Kutasov-Schwimmer dualities. As a bonus, we find new explicit conformal blocks, braiding matrices, and fusion rules in Toda CFT.
Exact Solution of a Strongly Coupled Gauge Theory in 0 +1 Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan; Kumar, K. V. Pavan
2018-05-01
Gauged tensor models are a class of strongly coupled quantum mechanical theories. We present the exact analytic solution of a specific example of such a theory: namely, the smallest colored tensor model due to Gurau and Witten that exhibits nonlinearities. We find explicit analytic expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates, and the former agree precisely with previous numerical results on (a subset of) eigenvalues of the ungauged theory. The physics of the spectrum, despite the smallness of N , exhibits rudimentary signatures of chaos. This Letter is a summary of our main results: the technical details will appear in companion paper [C. Krishnan and K. V. Pavan Kumar, Complete solution of a gauged tensor model, arXiv:1804.10103].
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan
2016-04-01
We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul
2016-04-06
In this study, we present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of themore » system.« less
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: Challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; ...
2014-10-21
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to stongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many researchmore » streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.« less
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives.
Brambilla, N; Eidelman, S; Foka, P; Gardner, S; Kronfeld, A S; Alford, M G; Alkofer, R; Butenschoen, M; Cohen, T D; Erdmenger, J; Fabbietti, L; Faber, M; Goity, J L; Ketzer, B; Lin, H W; Llanes-Estrada, F J; Meyer, H B; Pakhlov, P; Pallante, E; Polikarpov, M I; Sazdjian, H; Schmitt, A; Snow, W M; Vairo, A; Vogt, R; Vuorinen, A; Wittig, H; Arnold, P; Christakoglou, P; Di Nezza, P; Fodor, Z; Garcia I Tormo, X; Höllwieser, R; Janik, M A; Kalweit, A; Keane, D; Kiritsis, E; Mischke, A; Mizuk, R; Odyniec, G; Papadodimas, K; Pich, A; Pittau, R; Qiu, J-W; Ricciardi, G; Salgado, C A; Schwenzer, K; Stefanis, N G; von Hippel, G M; Zakharov, V I
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.
Bose-Einstein condensation, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and gauge theories
Kapusta, J.I.
1981-07-15
Bosonic chemical potentials for a variety of relativistic field theories are introduced via the methods of functional integrals with the aim of studying the relationship between Bose-Einstein condensation and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The models studied include the noninteracting and the self-interacting charged scalar field, scalar electrodynamics and the Higgs model, and the Weinberg-Salam model. In general the chemical potential acts as an effective symmetry-breaking parameter although the phase diagrams for the two cases (m/sup 2/<0 and m/sup 2/>0) look very different. It is found that the symmetry-restoring temperature in the Weinberg-Salam model increases with increasing electric charge density. Finally, themore » analysis of Jakobsen, Kon, and Segal of a conserved isotropic total angular momentum for the cosmic background radiation is shown to be erroneous.« less
Surface operators, chiral rings and localization in N =2 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashok, S. K.; Billò, M.; Dell'Aquila, E.; Frau, M.; Gupta, V.; John, R. R.; Lerda, A.
2017-11-01
We study half-BPS surface operators in supersymmetric gauge theories in four and five dimensions following two different approaches. In the first approach we analyze the chiral ring equations for certain quiver theories in two and three dimensions, coupled respectively to four- and five-dimensional gauge theories. The chiral ring equations, which arise from extremizing a twisted chiral superpotential, are solved as power series in the infrared scales of the quiver theories. In the second approach we use equivariant localization and obtain the twisted chiral superpotential as a function of the Coulomb moduli of the four- and five-dimensional gauge theories, and find a perfect match with the results obtained from the chiral ring equations. In the five-dimensional case this match is achieved after solving a number of subtleties in the localization formulas which amounts to choosing a particular residue prescription in the integrals that yield the Nekrasov-like partition functions for ramified instantons. We also comment on the necessity of including Chern-Simons terms in order to match the superpotentials obtained from dual quiver descriptions of a given surface operator.
Medium generated gap in gravity and a 3D gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabadadze, Gregory; Older, Daniel
2018-05-01
It is well known that a physical medium that sets a Lorentz frame generates a Lorentz-breaking gap for a graviton. We examine such generated "mass" terms in the presence of a fluid medium whose ground state spontaneously breaks spatial translation invariance in d =D +1 spacetime dimensions, and for a solid in D =2 spatial dimensions. By requiring energy positivity and subluminal propagation, certain constraints are placed on the equation of state of the medium. In the case of D =2 spatial dimensions, classical gravity can be recast as a Chern-Simons gauge theory, and motivated by this we recast the massive theory of gravity in AdS3 as a massive Chern-Simons gauge theory with an unusual mass term. We find that in the flat space limit the Chern-Simons theory has a novel gauge invariance that mixes the kinetic and mass terms, and enables the massive theory with a noncompact internal group to be free of ghosts and tachyons.
Pair production processes and flavor in gauge-invariant perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, Larissa; Maas, Axel; Sondenheimer, René
2017-12-01
Gauge-invariant perturbation theory is an extension of ordinary perturbation theory which describes strictly gauge-invariant states in theories with a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect. Such gauge-invariant states are composite operators which have necessarily only global quantum numbers. As a consequence, flavor is exchanged for custodial quantum numbers in the Standard Model, recreating the fermion spectrum in the process. Here, we study the implications of such a description, possibly also for the generation structure of the Standard Model. In particular, this implies that scattering processes are essentially bound-state-bound-state interactions, and require a suitable description. We analyze the implications for the pair-production process e+e-→f¯f at a linear collider to leading order. We show how ordinary perturbation theory is recovered as the leading contribution. Using a PDF-type language, we also assess the impact of sub-leading contributions. To lowest order, we find that the result is mainly influenced by how large the contribution of the Higgs at large x is. This gives an interesting, possibly experimentally testable, scenario for the formal field theory underlying the electroweak sector of the Standard Model.
A study of how the particle spectra of SU(N) gauge theories with a fundamental Higgs emerge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Törek, Pascal; Maas, Axel; Sondenheimer, René
2018-03-01
In gauge theories, the physical, experimentally observable spectrum consists only of gauge-invariant states. In the standard model the Fröhlich-Morchio-Strocchi mechanism shows that these states can be adequately mapped to the gauge-dependent elementary W, Z, Higgs, and fermions. In theories with a more general gauge group and Higgs sector, appearing in various extensions of the standard model, this has not to be the case. In this work we determine analytically the physical spectrum of SU(N > 2) gauge theories with a Higgs field in the fundamental representation. We show that discrepancies between the spectrum predicted by perturbation theory and the observable physical spectrum arise. We confirm these analytic findings with lattice simulations for N = 3.
Cvetic, Mirjam; Klevers, Denis; Piragua, Hernan; ...
2015-11-30
We construct the general form of an F-theory compactification with two U(1) factors based on a general elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold with Mordell-Weil group of rank two. This construction produces broad classes of models with diverse matter spectra, including many that are not realized in earlier F-theory constructions with U(1)×U(1) gauge symmetry. Generic U(1)×U(1) models can be related to a Higgsed non-Abelian model with gauge group SU(2)×SU(2)×SU(3), SU(2) 3×SU(3), or a subgroup thereof. The nonlocal horizontal divisors of the Mordell-Weil group are replaced with local vertical divisors associated with the Cartan generators of non-Abelian gauge groups from Kodaira singularities. Wemore » give a global resolution of codimension two singularities of the Abelian model; we identify the full anomaly free matter content, and match it to the unHiggsed non-Abelian model. The non-Abelian Weierstrass model exhibits a new algebraic description of the singularities in the fibration that results in the first explicit construction of matter in the symmetric representation of SU(3). This matter is realized on double point singularities of the discriminant locus. In conclusion, the construction suggests a generalization to U(1) k factors with k > 2, which can be studied by Higgsing theories with larger non-Abelian gauge groups.« less
Localization of Gauge Theory on a Four-Sphere and Supersymmetric Wilson Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pestun, Vasily
2012-07-01
We prove conjecture due to Erickson-Semenoff-Zarembo and Drukker-Gross which relates supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operators in the {N=4} supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a Gaussian matrix model. We also compute the partition function and give a new matrix model formula for the expectation value of a supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operator for the pure {N=2} and the {N=2^*} supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a four-sphere. A four-dimensional {N=2} superconformal gauge theory is treated similarly.
A non-perturbative argument for the non-abelian Higgs mechanism
De Palma, G.; INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa; Strocchi, F., E-mail: franco.strocchi@sns.it
2013-09-15
The evasion of massless Goldstone bosons by the non-abelian Higgs mechanism is proved by a non-perturbative argument in the local BRST gauge. -- Highlights: •The perturbative explanation of the Higgs mechanism (HM) is not under mathematical control. •We offer a non-perturbative proof of the absence of Goldstone bosons from the non-abelian HM. •Our non-perturbative proof in the BRST gauge avoids a mean field ansatz and expansion.
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac systems from the discretized Kaluza-Klein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wali, Kameshwar; Viet, Nguyen Ali
2017-01-01
A unified theory of the non-Abelian gauge interactions with gravity in the framework of a discretized Kaluza-Klein theory is constructed with a modified Dirac operator and wedge product. All the couplings of chiral spinors to the non-Abelian gauge fields emerge naturally as components of the coupling of the chiral spinors in the generalized gravity together with some new interactions. In particular, the currently prevailing gravity-QCD quark and gravity-electroweak-quark and lepton models are shown to follow as special cases of the general framework.
Finite-temperature phase transitions of third and higher order in gauge theories at large N
Nishimura, Hiromichi; Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
We study phase transitions in SU(∞) gauge theories at nonzero temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the various parameters, related to terms linear, quadratic, and quartic in the Polyakov loop, the phase diagram exhibits a universal structure. In a large region of this parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition whose order is larger than second. This is a generalization of the phase transition of Gross, Witten, and Wadia (GWW). Depending upon the detailed form of the matrix model,more » the eigenvalue density and the behavior of the specific heat near the transition differ drastically. Here, we speculate that in the pure gauge theory, that although the deconfining transition is thermodynamically of first order, it can be nevertheless conformally symmetric at infnite N.« less
Finite-temperature phase transitions of third and higher order in gauge theories at large N
Nishimura, Hiromichi; Pisarski, Robert D.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2018-02-15
We study phase transitions in SU(∞) gauge theories at nonzero temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the various parameters, related to terms linear, quadratic, and quartic in the Polyakov loop, the phase diagram exhibits a universal structure. In a large region of this parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition whose order is larger than second. This is a generalization of the phase transition of Gross, Witten, and Wadia (GWW). Depending upon the detailed form of the matrix model,more » the eigenvalue density and the behavior of the specific heat near the transition differ drastically. Here, we speculate that in the pure gauge theory, that although the deconfining transition is thermodynamically of first order, it can be nevertheless conformally symmetric at infnite N.« less
The ϱ-ππ coupling constant in lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottlieb, Steven; MacKenzie, Paul B.; Thacker, H. B.; Weingarten, Don
1984-01-01
We present a method for studying hadronic transitions in lattice gauge theory which requires computer time comparable to that required by recent hadron spectrum calculations. This method is applied to a calculation of the decay ϱ-->ππ. On leave from the Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Address after September 1, 1983: IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltran, J.; Maia, N. T.; Pimentel, B. M.
2018-04-01
Scalar Quantum Electrodynamics is investigated in the Heisenberg picture via the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau gauge theory. On this framework, a perturbative method is used to compute the vacuum polarization tensor and its corresponding induced current for the case of a charged scalar field in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Charge renormalization is brought into discussion for the interpretation of the results for the vacuum polarization.
Discrete symmetry breaking and baryon currents in U(N) and SU(N) gauge theories
Lucini, B.; Patella, A.
2009-06-15
In SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in the fundamental or in a two-index (either symmetric or antisymmetric) representation formulated on a manifold with at least one compact dimension with nontrivial holonomy the discrete symmetries C, P, and T are broken at small enough size of the compact direction(s) for certain values of N. We show that for those N in the broken phase a nonzero baryon current wrapping in the compact direction exists, which provides a measurable observable for the breaking of C, P, and T. We prove that in all cases where the current is absent there is nomore » breaking of those discrete symmetries. This includes the limit N{yields}{infinity} of the SU(N) gauge theory with symmetric or antisymmetric fermions and U(N) gauge theory at any value of N. We then argue that the component of the baryon current in the compact direction is the physical order parameter for C, P, and T breaking due to the breaking of Lorentz invariance.« less
Supersymmetric solutions of the cosmological, gauged, ℂ magic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chimento, Samuele; Ortín, Tomás; Ruipérez, Alejandro
2018-05-01
We construct supersymmetric solutions of theories of gauged N = 1 , d = 5 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets with a U(1)R Abelian (Fayet-Iliopoulos) gauging and an independent SU(2) gauging associated to an SU(2) isometry group of the Real Special scalar manifold. These theories provide minimal supersymmetrizations of 5-dimensional SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theories with negative cosmological constant. We consider a minimal model with these gauge groups and the "magic model" based on the Jordan algebra J 3 ℂ with gauge group SU(3) × U(1)R, which is a consistent truncation of maximal SO(6)-gauged supergravity in d = 5 and whose solutions can be embedded in Type IIB Superstring Theory. We find several solutions containing selfdual SU(2) instantons, some of which asymptote to AdS5 and some of which are very small, supersymmetric, deformations of AdS5. We also show how some of those solutions can be embedded in Romans' SU(2) × U(1)-gauged half-maximal supergravity, which was obtained by Lu, Pope and Tran by compactification of the Type IIB Superstring effective action. This provides another way of uplifting those solutions to 10 dimensions.
Can a Linear Sigma Model Describe Walking Gauge Theories at Low Energies?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasbarro, Andrew
2018-03-01
In recent years, many investigations of confining Yang Mills gauge theories near the edge of the conformal window have been carried out using lattice techniques. These studies have revealed that the spectrum of hadrons in nearly conformal ("walking") gauge theories differs significantly from the QCD spectrum. In particular, a light singlet scalar appears in the spectrum which is nearly degenerate with the PNGBs at the lightest currently accessible quark masses. This state is a viable candidate for a composite Higgs boson. Presently, an acceptable effective field theory (EFT) description of the light states in walking theories has not been established. Such an EFT would be useful for performing chiral extrapolations of lattice data and for serving as a bridge between lattice calculations and phenomenology. It has been shown that the chiral Lagrangian fails to describe the IR dynamics of a theory near the edge of the conformal window. Here we assess a linear sigma model as an alternate EFT description by performing explicit chiral fits to lattice data. In a combined fit to the Goldstone (pion) mass and decay constant, a tree level linear sigma model has a Χ2/d.o.f. = 0.5 compared to Χ2/d.o.f. = 29.6 from fitting nextto-leading order chiral perturbation theory. When the 0++ (σ) mass is included in the fit, Χ2/d.o.f. = 4.9. We remark on future directions for providing better fits to the σ mass.
Non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue of classical electromagnetic duality
Chan, Hong-Mo; Faridani, J.; Tsun, T.S.
The classic question of non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue to electromagnetic duality is examined here in a minimalist fashion at the strictly four-dimensional, classical field, and point charge level. A generalization of the Abelian Hodge star duality is found which, though not yet known to give dual symmetry, reproduces analogues to many dual properties of the Abelian theory. For example, there is a dual potential, but it is a two-indexed tensor {ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}} of the Freedman-Townsend-type. Though not itself functioning as such, {ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}} gives rise to a dual parallel transport {ital {tilde A}}{sub {mu}} for the phase of themore » wave function of the color magnetic charge, this last being a monopole of the Yang-Mills field but a source of the dual field. The standard color (electric) charge itself is found to be a monpole of {ital {tilde A}}{sub {mu}}. At the same time, the gauge symmetry is found doubled from say SU({ital N}) to SU({ital N}){times}SU({ital N}). A novel feature is that all equations of motion, including the standard Yang-Mills and Wong equations, are here derived from a ``universal`` principle, namely, the Wu-Yang criterion for monpoles, where interactions arise purely as a consequence of the topological definition of the monopole charge. The technique used is the loop space formulation of Polyakov.« less
Spinor matter fields in SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonowicz, Marek; Szczyrba, Wiktor
1985-06-01
We consider the SL(2,C)-covariant Lagrangian formulation of gravitational theories with the presence of spinor matter fields. The invariance properties of such theories give rise to the conservation laws (the contracted Bianchi identities) having in the presence of matter fields a more complicated form than those known in the literature previously. A general SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravity is cast into an SL(2,C)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation. Breaking the SL(2,C) symmetry of the system to the SU(2) symmetry, by introducing a spacelike slicing of spacetime, we get an SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian picture. The qualitative analysis of SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity in the SU(2)-covariant formulation enables us to define the dynamical symplectic variables and the gauge variables of the theory under consideration as well as to divide the set of field equations into the dynamical equations and the constraints. In the SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation the primary constraints, which are generic for first-order matter Lagrangians (Dirac, Weyl, Fierz-Pauli), can be reduced. The effective matter symplectic variables are given by SU(2)-spinor-valued half-forms on three-dimensional slices of spacetime. The coupled Einstein-Cartan-Dirac (Weyl, Fierz-Pauli) system is analyzed from the (3+1) point of view. This analysis is complete; the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory split into 18 gravitational dynamical equations, 8 dynamical Dirac equations, and 7 first-class constraints. The system has 4+8=12 independent degrees of freedom in the phase space.
Update on SU(2) gauge theory with NF = 2 fundamental flavours.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drach, Vincent; Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio
2018-03-01
We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. This theory provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics, such as a minimal realization of composite Higgs models. We present an update on the status of the meson spectrum and decay constants based on increased statistics on our existing ensembles and the inclusion of new ensembles with lighter pion masses, resulting in a more reliable chiral extrapolation. Preprint: CP3-Origins-2017-048 DNRF90
Hairy black hole solutions in U(1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2018-05-01
In U (1) gauge-invariant scalar-vector-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion, we study the properties of black holes (BH) on a static and spherically symmetric background. In shift-symmetric theories invariant under the shift of scalar ϕ → ϕ + c, we show the existence of new hairy BH solutions where a cubic-order scalar-vector interaction gives rise to a scalar hair manifesting itself around the event horizon. In the presence of a quartic-order interaction besides the cubic coupling, there are also regular BH solutions endowed with scalar and vector hairs.
Digital Quantum Simulation of Z_{2} Lattice Gauge Theories with Dynamical Fermionic Matter.
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio
2017-02-17
We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with (2+1) and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a Z_{2} model in (2+1) dimensions.
Electroweak Sudakov logarithms and real gauge-boson radiation in the TeV region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, G.; Kühn, J. H.; Rittinger, J.
2010-12-01
Electroweak radiative corrections give rise to large negative, double-logarithmically enhanced corrections in the TeV region. These are partly compensated by real radiation and, moreover, affected by selecting isospin-non-invariant external states. We investigate the impact of real gauge boson radiation more quantitatively by considering different restricted final state configurations. We consider successively a massive abelian gauge theory, a spontaneously broken SU(2) theory and the electroweak Standard Model. We find that details of the choice of the phase space cuts, in particular whether a fraction of collinear and soft radiation is included, have a strong impact on the relative amount of real and virtual corrections.
From 6D superconformal field theories to dynamic gauged linear sigma models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apruzzi, Fabio; Hassler, Falk; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.
2017-09-01
Compactifications of six-dimensional (6D) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) on four- manifolds generate a large class of novel two-dimensional (2D) quantum field theories. We consider in detail the case of the rank-one simple non-Higgsable cluster 6D SCFTs. On the tensor branch of these theories, the gauge group is simple and there are no matter fields. For compactifications on suitably chosen Kähler surfaces, we present evidence that this provides a method to realize 2D SCFTs with N =(0 ,2 ) supersymmetry. In particular, we find that reduction on the tensor branch of the 6D SCFT yields a description of the same 2D fixed point that is described in the UV by a gauged linear sigma model (GLSM) in which the parameters are promoted to dynamical fields, that is, a "dynamic GLSM" (DGLSM). Consistency of the model requires the DGLSM to be coupled to additional non-Lagrangian sectors obtained from reduction of the antichiral two-form of the 6D theory. These extra sectors include both chiral and antichiral currents, as well as spacetime filling noncritical strings of the 6D theory. For each candidate 2D SCFT, we also extract the left- and right-moving central charges in terms of data of the 6D SCFT and the compactification manifold.
Classification of compactified su( N c ) gauge theories with fermions in all representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Vincent-Genod, Loïc
2017-12-01
We classify su( N c ) gauge theories on R^3× S^1 with massless fermions in higher representations obeying periodic boundary conditions along S^1 . In particular, we single out the class of theories that is asymptotically free and weakly coupled in the infrared, and therefore, is amenable to semi-classical treatment. Our study is conducted by carefully identifying the vacua inside the affine Weyl chamber using Verma bases and Frobenius formula techniques. Theories with fermions in pure representations are generally strongly coupled. The only exceptions are the four-index symmetric representation of su(2) and adjoint representation of su( N c ). However, we find a plethora of admissible theories with fermions in mixed representations. A sub-class of these theories have degenerate perturbative vacua separated by domain walls. In particular, su( N c ) theories with fermions in the mixed representations adjoint⊕fundamental and adjoint⊕two-index symmetric admit degenerate vacua that spontaneously break the parity P , charge conjugation C , and time reversal T symmetries. These are the first examples of strictly weakly coupled gauge theories on R^3× S^1 with spontaneously broken C , P , and T symmetries. We also compute the fermion zero modes in the background of monopole-instantons. The monopoles and their composites (topological molecules) proliferate in the vacuum leading to the confinement of electric charges. Interestingly enough, some theories have also accidental degenerate vacua, which are not related by any symmetry. These vacua admit different numbers of fermionic zero modes, and hence, different kinds of topological molecules. The lack of symmetry, however, indicates that such degeneracy might be lifted by higher order corrections. Finally, we study the general phase structure of adjoint⊕fundamental theories in the small circle and decompactification limits.
4d $$ \\mathcal{N} $$=2 theories with disconnected gauge groups
Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario
2017-03-28
In this paper we present a beautifully consistent web of evidence for the existence of interacting 4d rank-1more » $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 2 SCFTs obtained from gauging discrete subgroups of global symmetries of other existing 4d rank-1 $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 2 SCFTs. The global symmetries that can be gauged involve a non-trivial combination of discrete subgroups of the U(1) R, low-energy EM duality group SL(2,Z), and the outer automorphism group of the flavor symmetry algebra, Out(F ). The theories that we construct are remarkable in many ways: (i) two of them have exceptional F 4 and G 2 flavor groups; (ii) they substantially complete the picture of the landscape of rank-1 $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 2 SCFTs as they realize all but one of the remaining consistent rank-1 Seiberg-Witten geometries that we previously constructed but were not associated to known SCFTs; and (iii) some of them have enlarged $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 3 SUSY, and have not been previously constructed. They are also examples of SCFTs which violate the ShapereTachikawa relation between the conformal central charges and the scaling dimension of the Coulomb branch vev. Here, we propose a modification of the formulas computing these central charges from the topologically twisted Coulomb branch partition function which correctly compute them for discretely gauged theories.« less
A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory
Giedt, Joel
2011-01-01
I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less
Exact results in 3d N = 2 Spin(7) gauge theories with vector and spinor matters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nii, Keita
2018-05-01
We study three-dimensional N = 2 Spin(7) gauge theories with N S spinorial matters and with N f vectorial matters. The quantum Coulomb branch on the moduli space of vacua is one- or two-dimensional depending on the matter contents. For particular values of ( N f , N S ), we find s-confinement phases and derive exact superpotentials. The 3d dynamics of Spin(7) is connected to the 4d dynamics via KK-monopoles. Along the Higgs branch of the Spin(7) theories, we obtain 3d N = 2 G 2 or SU(4) theories and some of them lead to new s-confinement phases. As a check of our analysis we compute superconformal indices for these theories.
Adiabatic regularization for gauge fields and the conformal anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Chong-Sun; Koyama, Yoji
2017-03-01
Adiabatic regularization for quantum field theory in conformally flat spacetime is known for scalar and Dirac fermion fields. In this paper, we complete the construction by establishing the adiabatic regularization scheme for the gauge field. We show that the adiabatic expansion for the mode functions and the adiabatic vacuum can be defined in a similar way using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-type (WKB-type) solutions as the scalar fields. As an application of the adiabatic method, we compute the trace of the energy momentum tensor and reproduce the known result for the conformal anomaly obtained by the other regularization methods. The availability of the adiabatic expansion scheme for the gauge field allows one to study various renormalized physical quantities of theories coupled to (non-Abelian) gauge fields in conformally flat spacetime, such as conformal supersymmetric Yang Mills, inflation, and cosmology.
Equivalence between the Lovelock-Cartan action and a constrained gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junqueira, O. C.; Pereira, A. D.; Sadovski, G.; Santos, T. R. S.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.
2017-04-01
We show that the four-dimensional Lovelock-Cartan action can be derived from a massless gauge theory for the SO(1, 3) group with an additional BRST trivial part. The model is originally composed of a topological sector and a BRST exact piece and has no explicit dependence on the metric, the vierbein or a mass parameter. The vierbein is introduced together with a mass parameter through some BRST trivial constraints. The effect of the constraints is to identify the vierbein with some of the additional fields, transforming the original action into the Lovelock-Cartan one. In this scenario, the mass parameter is identified with Newton's constant, while the gauge field is identified with the spin connection. The symmetries of the model are also explored. Moreover, the extension of the model to a quantum version is qualitatively discussed.
Entanglement on linked boundaries in Chern-Simons theory with generic gauge groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, Siddharth; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Dhara, Saswati; Ramadevi, P.; Zhou, Yang; Joshi, Lata Kh
2018-02-01
We study the entanglement for a state on linked torus boundaries in 3 d Chern-Simons theory with a generic gauge group and present the asymptotic bounds of Rényi entropy at two different limits: (i) large Chern-Simons coupling k, and (ii) large rank r of the gauge group. These results show that the Rényi entropies cannot diverge faster than ln k and ln r, respectively. We focus on torus links T (2 , 2 n) with topological linking number n. The Rényi entropy for these links shows a periodic structure in n and vanishes whenever n = 0 (mod p), where the integer p is a function of coupling k and rank r. We highlight that the refined Chern-Simons link invariants can remove such a periodic structure in n.
Effective field theory analysis on μ problem in low-scale gauge mediation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Sibo
2012-02-01
Supersymmetric models based on the scenario of gauge mediation often suffer from the well-known μ problem. In this paper, we reconsider this problem in low-scale gauge mediation in terms of effective field theory analysis. In this paradigm, all high energy input soft mass can be expressed via loop expansions. If the corrections coming from messenger thresholds are small, as we assume in this letter, then all RG evaluations can be taken as linearly approximation for low-scale supersymmetric breaking. Due to these observations, the parameter space can be systematically classified and studied after constraints coming from electro-weak symmetry breaking are imposed. We find that some old proposals in the literature are reproduced, and two new classes are uncovered. We refer to a microscopic model, where the specific relations among coefficients in one of the new classes are well motivated. Also, we discuss some primary phenomenologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam
2018-04-01
We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2016-01-01
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N- 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1)N-1, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou
2016-01-22
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulationsmore » can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N− 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1){sup N−1}, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.« less
Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids
Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-04-26
Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2) n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2) n gapless edge excitations.
Studying critical string emerging from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions
Koroteev, P.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2016-05-26
Recently a special vortex string was found in a class of soliton vortices supported in four-dimensional Yang–Mills theories that under certain conditions can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional string. The appropriate bulk Yang–Mills theory has the U(2) gauge group and the Fayet–Iliopoulos term. It supports semilocal non-Abelian vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational and size moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. Here, the full target space ismore » $$\\mathbb R$$ 4 x Y 6 where is a non-compact Calabi–Yau space.« less
An exact elliptic superpotential for N=1 ∗ deformations of finite N=2 gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kumar, S. Prem
2002-03-01
We study relevant deformations of the N=2 superconformal theory on the world-volume of N D3-branes at an Ak-1 singularity. In particular, we determine the vacuum structure of the mass-deformed theory with N=1 supersymmetry and show how the different vacua are permuted by an extended duality symmetry. We then obtain exact, modular covariant formulae (for all k, N and arbitrary gauge couplings) for the holomorphic observables in the massive vacua in two different ways: by lifting to M-theory, and by compactification to three dimensions and subsequent use of mirror symmetry. In the latter case, we find an exact superpotential for the model which coincides with a certain combination of the quadratic Hamiltonians of the spin generalization of the elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable system.
A note on the sphere free energy of p-form gauge theory and Hodge duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raj, Himanshu
2017-12-01
We consider a free p-form gauge theory on a d-dimensional sphere of radius R and calculate its free energy. We perform the calculation for generic values of p and obtain the free energy as a function of d, p and R. The result contains a \\renewcommand{\\r}ρ \\renewcommand{\\l}λ log R term with a coefficient proportional to \\renewcommand{\\r}ρ \\renewcommand{\\l}λ (2p+2-d) , which is consistent with lack of conformal invariance for p form theories in dimensions other than 2p+2 . We also compare the result for p-form and (d-p-2) -form theory which are classically Hodge dual to each other in d dimensions and find that they agree for odd values of d. Also, for even d, we find that the results disagree by an amount that is consistent with the reported values in the literature.
Three dimensional finite temperature SU(3) gauge theory near the phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, P.; Daniel, L.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.
2013-06-01
We have measured the correlation function of Polyakov loops on the lattice in three dimensional SU(3) gauge theory near its finite temperature phase transition. Using a new and powerful application of finite size scaling, we furthermore extend the measurements of the critical couplings to considerably larger values of the lattice sizes, both in the temperature and space directions, than was investigated earlier in this theory. With the help of these measurements we perform a detailed finite size scaling analysis, showing that for the critical exponents of the two dimensional three state Potts model the mass and the susceptibility fall on unique scaling curves. This strongly supports the expectation that the gauge theory is in the same universality class. The Nambu-Goto string model on the other hand predicts that the exponent ν has the mean field value, which is quite different from the value in the abovementioned Potts model. Using our values of the critical couplings we also determine the continuum limit of the value of the critical temperature in terms of the square root of the zero temperature string tension. This value is very near to the prediction of the Nambu-Goto string model in spite of the different critical behaviour.
Feynman rules for the Standard Model Effective Field Theory in R ξ -gauges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dedes, A.; Materkowska, W.; Paraskevas, M.; Rosiek, J.; Suxho, K.
2017-06-01
We assume that New Physics effects are parametrized within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) written in a complete basis of gauge invariant operators up to dimension 6, commonly referred to as "Warsaw basis". We discuss all steps necessary to obtain a consistent transition to the spontaneously broken theory and several other important aspects, including the BRST-invariance of the SMEFT action for linear R ξ -gauges. The final theory is expressed in a basis characterized by SM-like propagators for all physical and unphysical fields. The effect of the non-renormalizable operators appears explicitly in triple or higher multiplicity vertices. In this mass basis we derive the complete set of Feynman rules, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions such as baryon-, lepton-number or CP conservation. As it turns out, for most SMEFT vertices the expressions are reasonably short, with a noticeable exception of those involving 4, 5 and 6 gluons. We have also supplemented our set of Feynman rules, given in an appendix here, with a publicly available Mathematica code working with the FeynRules package and producing output which can be integrated with other symbolic algebra or numerical codes for automatic SMEFT amplitude calculations.
Topological charge and cooling scales in pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Bernd A.; Clarke, David A.
2018-03-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations with overrelaxation, we have equilibrated lattices up to β =2.928 , size 6 04, for pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action. We calculate topological charges with the standard cooling method and find that they become more reliable with increasing β values and lattice sizes. Continuum limit estimates of the topological susceptibility χ are obtained of which we favor χ1 /4/Tc=0.643 (12 ) , where Tc is the SU(2) deconfinement temperature. Differences between cooling length scales in different topological sectors turn out to be too small to be detectable within our statistical errors.
A highly optimized vectorized code for Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3) lattice gauge theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barkai, D.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rebbi, C.
1984-01-01
New methods are introduced for improving the performance of the vectorized Monte Carlo SU(3) lattice gauge theory algorithm using the CDC CYBER 205. Structure, algorithm and programming considerations are discussed. The performance achieved for a 16(4) lattice on a 2-pipe system may be phrased in terms of the link update time or overall MFLOPS rates. For 32-bit arithmetic, it is 36.3 microsecond/link for 8 hits per iteration (40.9 microsecond for 10 hits) or 101.5 MFLOPS.
Numerical algebraic geometry: a new perspective on gauge and string theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Dhagash; He, Yang-Hui; Hauensteine, Jonathan D.
2012-07-01
There is a rich interplay between algebraic geometry and string and gauge theories which has been recently aided immensely by advances in computational algebra. However, symbolic (Gröbner) methods are severely limited by algorithmic issues such as exponential space complexity and being highly sequential. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm of numerical algebraic geometry which in a plethora of situations overcomes these shortcomings. The so-called `embarrassing parallelizability' allows us to solve many problems and extract physical information which elude symbolic methods. We describe the method and then use it to solve various problems arising from physics which could not be otherwise solved.
Global Constraints on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in the Effective Field Theory Approach.
Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David
2016-01-08
We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 WW production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ. The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ(-2) in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Diego M.; Capossoli, Eduardo Folco; Boschi-Filho, Henrique
2018-06-01
We study the deconfinement phase transition in (2 +1 )-dimensional holographic S U (N ) gauge theories in the presence of an external magnetic field from the holographic hard and soft wall models. We obtain exact solutions for the critical temperature of the deconfinement transition for any range of magnetic field. As a consequence, we find a critical magnetic field (Bc), in which the critical temperature (Tc) vanishes; for B
Topics in Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity and Chern-Simons Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemba, Guillermo Raul
A series of studies in two and three dimensional theories is presented. The two dimensional problems are considered in the framework of String Theory. The first one determines the region of integration in the space of inequivalent tori of a tadpole diagram in Closed String Field Theory, using the naive Witten three-string vertex. It is shown that every surface is counted an infinite number of times and the source of this behavior is identified. The second study analyzes the behavior of the discrete matrix model of two dimensional gravity without matter using a mathematically well-defined construction, confirming several conjectures and partial results from the literature. The studies in three dimensions are based on Chern Simons pure gauge theory. The first one deals with the projection of the theory onto a two-dimensional surface of constant time, whereas the second analyzes the large N behavior of the SU(N) theory and makes evident a duality symmetry between the only two parameters of the theory. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).
Nonperturbative β function of eight-flavor SU(3) gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenfratz, Anna; Schaich, David; Veernala, Aarti
2015-06-01
We present a new lattice study of the discrete β function for SU(3) gauge theory with N f = 8 massless flavors of fermions in the fundamental representation. Using the gradient flow running coupling, and comparing two different nHYP-smeared staggered lattice actions, we calculate the 8-flavor step-scaling function at significantly stronger couplings than were previously accessible. Our continuum-extrapolated results for the discrete β function show no sign of an IR fixed point up to couplings of g 2 ≈ 14. At the same time, we find that the gradient flow coupling runs much more slowly than predicted by two-loop perturbation theory, reinforcing previous indications that the 8-flavor system possesses nontrivial strongly coupled IR dynamics with relevance to BSM phenomenology.
Non-Abelian semilocal strings in N=2 supersymmetric QCD
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300
2006-06-15
We consider a benchmark bulk theory in four dimensions: N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the gauge group U(N) and N{sub f} flavors of fundamental matter hypermultiplets (quarks). The nature of the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) strings in this benchmark theory crucially depends on N{sub f}. If N{sub f}{>=}N and all quark masses are equal, it supports non-Abelian BPS strings which have internal (orientational) moduli. If N{sub f}>N these strings become semilocal, developing additional moduli {rho} related to (unlimited) variations of their transverse size. Using the U(2) gauge group with N{sub f}=3, 4 as an example, we derive an effective low-energy theory on themore » (two-dimensional) string world sheet. Our derivation is field theoretic, direct and explicit: we first analyze the Bogomol'nyi equations for string-geometry solitons, suggest an ansatz, and solve it at large {rho}. Then we use this solution to obtain the world-sheet theory. In the semiclassical limit our result confirms the Hanany-Tong conjecture, which rests on brane-based arguments, that the world-sheet theory is an N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge theory with N positively and N{sub e}=N{sub f}-N negatively charged matter multiplets and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term determined by the four-dimensional coupling constant. We conclude that the Higgs branch of this model is not lifted by quantum effects. As a result, such strings cannot confine. Our analysis of infrared effects, not seen in the Hanany-Tong consideration, shows that, in fact, the derivative expansion can make sense only provided that the theory under consideration is regularized in the infrared, e.g. by the quark mass differences. The world-sheet action discussed in this paper becomes a bona fide low-energy effective action only if {delta}m{sub AB}{ne}0.« less
Probing the holographic principle using dynamical gauge effects from open spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianshi; Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan
2016-05-01
Dynamical gauge fields result from locally defined symmetries and an effective over-labeling of quantum states. Coupling atoms weakly to a reservoir of laser modes can create an effective dynamical gauge field purely due to the disregard of information in the optical states. Here we report measurements revealing effects of open spin-orbit coupling in a system where an effective model can be formed from a non-abelian SU(2) × U(1) field theory following the Yang-Mills construct. Forming a close analogy to dynamical gauge effects in quantum chromodynamics, we extract a measure of atomic motion which reveals the analog of a closing mass gap for the relevant gauge boson, shedding insight on long standing open problems in gauge-fixing scale anomalies. Using arguments following the holographic principle, we measure scaling relations which can be understood by quantifying information present in the local potential. New prospects using these techniques for developing fractionalization of multi-particle and macroscopic systems using dissipative and non-abelian gauge fields will also be discussed. We acknowledge support from NSF Award No. 1068570, and the Charles E. Kaufman Foundation.
An infinite swampland of U(1) charge spectra in 6D supergravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Washington; Turner, Andrew P.
2018-06-01
We analyze the anomaly constraints on 6D supergravity theories with a single abelian U(1) gauge factor. For theories with charges restricted to q = ±1 , ±2 and no tensor multiplets, anomaly-free models match those models that can be realized from F-theory compactifications almost perfectly. For theories with tensor multiplets or with larger charges, the F-theory constraints are less well understood. We show, however, that there is an infinite class of distinct massless charge spectra in the "swampland" of theories that satisfy all known quantum consistency conditions but do not admit a realization through F-theory or any other known approach to string compactification. We also compare the spectra of charged matter in abelian theories with those that can be realized from breaking nonabelian SU(2) and higher rank gauge symmetries.
Abelian Higgs cosmic strings: Small-scale structure and loops
Hindmarsh, Mark; Stuckey, Stephanie; Bevis, Neil
2009-06-15
Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small-scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski and Rocha 29 for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loopmore » distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. 30. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation 32, coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a strong energy-loss mechanism, which allows the string network to scale without gravitational radiation, but which is not due to the production of string width loops. From evidence of small-scale structure we argue a partial explanation for the scale separation problem of how energy in the very low frequency modes of the string network is transformed into the very high frequency modes of gauge and Higgs radiation. We propose a picture of string network evolution, which reconciles the apparent differences between Nambu-Goto and field theory simulations.« less
The edge of supersymmetry: Stability walls in heterotic theory
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Lukas, Andre; ...
2009-05-15
We explicitly describe, in the language of four-dimensional N = 1 supersymmetric field theory, what happens when the moduli of a heterotic Calabi-Yau compactification change so as to make the internal non-Abelian gauge fields non-supersymmetric. At the edge of the region in Kähler moduli space where supersymmetry can be preserved, an additional anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry appears in the four-dimensional theory. The D-term contribution to the scalar potential associated to this U(1) attempts to force the system back into a supersymmetric configuration and provides a consistent low-energy description of gauge bundle stability.
Augmented superfield approach to gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.
2017-06-01
We discuss the complete sets of the off-shell nilpotent (i.e. s^2_{(a)b} = 0) and absolutely anticommuting (i.e. s_b s_{ab} + s_{ab} s_b = 0) Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) (s_b) and anti-BRST (s_{ab}) symmetries for the (3+1)-dimensional (4D) gauge-invariant massive 2-form theory within the framework of an augmented superfield approach to the BRST formalism. In this formalism, we obtain the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities which respect both BRST and anti-BRST symmetries on the constrained hypersurface defined by the Curci-Ferrari type conditions. The absolute anticommutativity property of the (anti-) BRST transformations (and corresponding generators) is ensured by the existence of the Curci-Ferrari type conditions which emerge very naturally in this formalism. Furthermore, the gauge-invariant restriction plays a decisive role in deriving the proper (anti-) BRST transformations for the Stückelberg-like vector field.
Entanglement entropy in (3 + 1)-d free U(1) gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soni, Ronak M.; Trivedi, Sandip P.
2017-02-01
We consider the entanglement entropy for a free U(1) theory in 3+1 dimensions in the extended Hilbert space definition. By taking the continuum limit carefully we obtain a replica trick path integral which calculates this entanglement entropy. The path integral is gauge invariant, with a gauge fixing delta function accompanied by a Faddeev -Popov determinant. For a spherical region it follows that the result for the logarithmic term in the entanglement, which is universal, is given by the a anomaly coefficient. We also consider the extractable part of the entanglement, which corresponds to the number of Bell pairs which can be obtained from entanglement distillation or dilution. For a spherical region we show that the coefficient of the logarithmic term for the extractable part is different from the extended Hilbert space result. We argue that the two results will differ in general, and this difference is accounted for by a massless scalar living on the boundary of the region of interest.
Cosmological attractor inflation from the RG-improved Higgs sector of finite gauge theory
Elizalde, Emilio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.
2016-02-01
The possibility to construct an inflationary scenario for renormalization-group improved potentials corresponding to the Higgs sector of finite gauge models is investigated. Taking into account quantum corrections to the renormalization-group potential which sums all leading logs of perturbation theory is essential for a successful realization of the inflationary scenario, with very reasonable parameter values. The inflationary models thus obtained are seen to be in good agreement with the most recent and accurate observational data. More specifically, the values of the relevant inflationary parameters, n{sub s} and r, are close to the corresponding ones in the R{sup 2} and Higgs-driven inflationmore » scenarios. It is shown that the model here constructed and Higgs-driven inflation belong to the same class of cosmological attractors.« less
Possible higher order phase transition in large-N gauge theory at finite temperature
Nishimura, Hiromichi
2017-08-07
We analyze the phase structure of SU(¥) gauge theory at finite temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double-trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the temperature, a background field for the Polyakov loop, and a quartic coupling, it exhibits a universal structure: in the large portion of the parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition analogous to the third-order phase transition of Gross,Witten and Wadia, but the order of phase transition can be higher than third. We show that different confining potentials give rise to drastically differentmore » behavior of the eigenvalue density and the free energy. Therefore lattice simulations at large N could probe the order of phase transition and test our results. Critical« less
New BCJ representations for one-loop amplitudes in gauge theories and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Song; Schlotterer, Oliver; Zhang, Yong
2018-05-01
We explain a procedure to manifest the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kinematics in n-point one-loop amplitudes of a variety of supersymmetric gauge theories. Explicit amplitude representations are constructed through a systematic reorganization of the integrands in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism. Our construction holds for any nonzero number of supersymmetries and does not depend on the number of spacetime dimensions. The cancellations from supersymmetry multiplets in the loop as well as the resulting power counting of loop momenta is manifested along the lines of the corresponding superstring computations. The setup is used to derive the one-loop version of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye formula for the loop integrands of gravitational amplitudes.
Topological invariants measured for Abelian and non-Abelian monopole fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugawa, Seiji; Salces Carcoba, Francisco; Perry, Abigail; Yue, Yuchen; Putra, Andika; Spielman, Ian
2016-05-01
Understanding the topological nature of physical systems is an important topic in contemporary physics, ranging from condensed matter to high energy. In this talk, I will present experiments measuring the 1st and 2nd Chern number in a four-level quantum system both with degenerate and non-degenerate energies. We engineered the system's Hamiltonian by coupling hyperfine ground states of rubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensates with rf and microwave fields. We non-adiabatically drove the system and measured the linear response to obtain the local (non-Abelian) Berry curvatures. Then, the Chern numbers were evaluated on (hyper-)spherical manifolds in parameter space. We obtain Chern numbers close to unity for both the 1st and the 2nd Chern numbers. The non-zero Chern number can be interpreted as monopole residing inside the manifold. For our system, the monopoles correspond to a Dirac monopole for non-degenerate spectra and a Yang monopole for our degenerate case. We also show how the dynamical evolution under non-Abelian gauge field emerged in degenerate quantum system is different from non-degenerate case by showing path-dependent acquisition of non-Abelian geometric phase and Wilson loops.
The problems in quantum foundations in the light of gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ne'Eman, Yuval
1986-04-01
We review the issues of nonseparability and seemingly acausal propagation of information in EPR, as displayed by experiments and the failure of Bell's inequalities. We show that global effects are in the very nature of the geometric structure of modern physical theories, occurring even at the classical level. The Aharonov-Bohm effect, magnetic monopoles, instantons, etc. result from the topology and homotopy features of the fiber bundle manifolds of gauge theories. The conservation of probabilities, a supposedly highly quantum effect, is also achieved through global geometry equations. The EPR observables all fit in such geometries, and space-time is a truncated representation and is not the correct arena for their understanding. Relativistic quantum field theory represents the global action of the measurement operators as the zero-momentum (and therefore spatially infinitely spread) limit of their wave functions (form factors). We also analyze the collapse of the state vector as a case of spontaneous symmetry breakdown in the apparatus-observed state interaction.
Non-Abelian clouds around Reissner-Nordström black holes: The existence line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.; Yang, Yisong
2016-06-01
A known feature of electrically charged Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter planar black holes is that they can become unstable when considered as solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. The mechanism for this is that the linearized Yang-Mills equations in the background of the Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes possess a normalizable zero mode, resulting in non-Abelian (nA) magnetic clouds near the horizon. In this work we show that the same pattern may occur also for asymptotically flat RN black holes. Different from the anti-de Sitter case, in the Minkowskian background the prerequisites for the existence of the nA clouds are (i) a large enough gauge group, and (ii) the presence of some extra interaction terms in the matter Lagrangian. To illustrate this mechanism we present two specific examples, one in four- and the other in five-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetime. In the first case, we augment the usual S U (3 ) Yang-Mills Lagrangian with a higher-order (quartic) curvature term, while for the second one we add the Chern-Simons density to the S O (6 ) Yang-Mills system. In both cases, an Abelian gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken near a RN black hole horizon with the appearance of a condensate of nA gauge fields. In addition to these two examples, we review the corresponding picture for anti-de Sitter black holes. All these solutions are studied both analytically and numerically, existence proofs being provided for nA clouds in the background of RN black holes. The proofs use shooting techniques which are suggested by and in turn offer insights for our numerical methods. They indicate that, for a black hole of given mass, appropriate electric charge values are required to ensure the existence of solutions interpolating desired boundary behavior at the horizons and spatial infinity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Kühn, Stefan
2017-10-01
We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a (1 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.
On the gauge chosen by the bosonic open string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesando, Igor
2017-05-01
String theory gives S matrix elements from which is not possible to read any gauge information. Using factorization we go off shell in the simplest and most naive way and we read which are the vertices suggested by string. To compare with the associated Effective Field Theory it is natural to use color ordered vertices. The α‧ = 0 color ordered vertices suggested by string theory are more efficient than the usual ones since the three gluon color ordered vertex has three terms instead of six and the four gluon one has one term instead of three. They are written in the so called Gervais-Neveu gauge. The full Effective Field Theory is in a generalization of the Gervais-Neveu gauge with α‧ corrections. Moreover a field redefinition is required to be mapped to the field used by string theory. We also give an intuitive way of understanding why string choose this gauge in terms of the minimal number of couplings necessary to reproduce the non-abelian amplitudes starting from color ordered ones.
Wang, Juven C; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2015-01-23
The challenge of identifying symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) is due to their lack of symmetry-breaking order parameters and intrinsic topological orders. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate SPTs under Ginzburg-Landau theory or probe SPTs via fractionalized bulk excitations and topology-dependent ground state degeneracy. However, the partition functions from path integrals with various symmetry twists are universal SPT invariants, fully characterizing SPTs. In this work, we use gauge fields to represent those symmetry twists in closed spacetimes of any dimensionality and arbitrary topology. This allows us to express the SPT invariants in terms of continuum field theory. We show that SPT invariants of pure gauge actions describe the SPTs predicted by group cohomology, while the mixed gauge-gravity actions describe the beyond-group-cohomology SPTs. We find new examples of mixed gauge-gravity actions for U(1) SPTs in (4+1)D via the gravitational Chern-Simons term. Field theory representations of SPT invariants not only serve as tools for classifying SPTs, but also guide us in designing physical probes for them. In addition, our field theory representations are independently powerful for studying group cohomology within the mathematical context.
The massive fermion phase for the U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in D=3 at large N
Bardeen, William A.
2014-10-07
We explore the phase structure of fermions in the U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge theory in three dimensions using the large N limit where N is the number of colors and the fermions are taken to be in the fundamental representation of the U(N) gauge group. In the large N limit, the theory retains its classical conformal behavior and considerable attention has been paid to possible AdS/CFT dualities of the theory in the conformal phase. In this paper we present a solution for the massive phase of the fermion theory that is exact to the leading order of ‘t Hooft’s large Nmore » expansion. We present evidence for the spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry and analyze the properties of the dilaton that appears as the Goldstone boson of scale symmetry breaking.« less
On an example of a system of differential equations that are integrated in Abelian functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malykh, M. D.; Sevastianov, L. A.
2017-12-01
The short review of the theory of Abelian functions and its applications in mechanics and analytical theory of differential equations is given. We think that Abelian functions are the natural generalization of commonly used functions because if the general solution of the 2nd order differential equation depends algebraically on the constants of integration, then integrating this equation does not lead out of the realm of commonly used functions complemented by the Abelian functions (Painlevé theorem). We present a relatively simple example of a dynamical system that is integrated in Abelian integrals by “pairing” two copies of a hyperelliptic curve. Unfortunately, initially simple formulas unfold into very long ones. Apparently the theory of Abelian functions hasn’t been finished in the last century because without computer algebra systems it was impossible to complete the calculations to the end. All calculations presented in our report are performed in Sage.
PyR@TE. Renormalization group equations for general gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.; Staub, F.; Wingerter, A.
2014-03-01
Although the two-loop renormalization group equations for a general gauge field theory have been known for quite some time, deriving them for specific models has often been difficult in practice. This is mainly due to the fact that, albeit straightforward, the involved calculations are quite long, tedious and prone to error. The present work is an attempt to facilitate the practical use of the renormalization group equations in model building. To that end, we have developed two completely independent sets of programs written in Python and Mathematica, respectively. The Mathematica scripts will be part of an upcoming release of SARAH 4. The present article describes the collection of Python routines that we dubbed PyR@TE which is an acronym for “Python Renormalization group equations At Two-loop for Everyone”. In PyR@TE, once the user specifies the gauge group and the particle content of the model, the routines automatically generate the full two-loop renormalization group equations for all (dimensionless and dimensionful) parameters. The results can optionally be exported to LaTeX and Mathematica, or stored in a Python data structure for further processing by other programs. For ease of use, we have implemented an interactive mode for PyR@TE in form of an IPython Notebook. As a first application, we have generated with PyR@TE the renormalization group equations for several non-supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and found some discrepancies with the existing literature. Catalogue identifier: AERV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 924959 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 495197 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer
Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D N = 1 conformal supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Shuntaro; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Yokokura, Ryo
2016-09-01
We consider Abelian tensor hierarchy in four-dimensional N = 1 supergravity in the conformal superspace formalism, where the so-called covariant approach is used to antisymmetric tensor fields. We introduce p-form gauge superfields as superforms in the conformal superspace. We solve the Bianchi identities under the constraints for the super-forms. As a result, each of form fields is expressed by a single gauge invariant superfield. We also show the relation between the superspace formalism and the superconformal tensor calculus.
Sirlin, A.
1978-07-01
A current algebra formulation of the radiative corrections in gauge theories, with special applications to the analysis of the universality of the weak interactions, is developed in the framework of quantum chromodynamics. For definiteness, we work in the SU(2) x U(1) model with four quark flavors, but the methods are quite general and can be applied to other theories. The explicit cancellation of ultraviolet divergences for arbitrary semileptonic processes is achieved relying solely on the Ward identities and general considerations, both in the W and Higgs sectors. The finite parts of order G/sub F/..cap alpha.. are then evaluated in themore » case of the superallowed Fermi transitions, including small effects proportional to g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/), which are induced by the strong interactions in the asymptotic domain. We consider here both the simplest version of the Weinberg--Salam model in which the Higgs scalars transform as a single isospinsor, as well as the case of general symmetry breaking. Except for the small effects proportional to g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/), the results are identical to the answers previously found on the basis of heuristic arguments. The phenomenological verification of Cabibbo universality on the basis of these corrections and the superallowed Fermi transitions has been discussed before and found to be in very good agreement with present experimental evidence. The analogous calculation for the transition rate of pion ..beta.. decay is given. Theoretical alternatives to quantum chromdynamics as a framework for the evaluate ion of the radiative corrections are briefly discussed. The appendixes contain a generalization of an important result in the theory of radiative corrections, an analysis of the hadronic contributions to the W and phi propagators, mathematical methods for evaluating the g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/) corrections, and discussions of quark mass renormalization and the absence of operator ''seagulls'' in
Dynamical gauge effects in an open quantum network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianshi; Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan
2016-05-01
We describe new experimental techniques for simulation of high-energy field theories based on an analogy between open thermodynamic systems and effective dynamical gauge-fields following SU(2) × U(1) Yang-Mills models. By coupling near-resonant laser-modes to atoms moving in a disordered optical environment, we create an open system which exhibits a non-equilibrium phase transition between two steady-state behaviors, exhibiting scale-invariant behavior near the transition. By measuring transport of atoms through the disordered network, we observe two distinct scaling behaviors, corresponding to the classical and quantum limits for the dynamical gauge field. This behavior is loosely analogous to dynamical gauge effects in quantum chromodynamics, and can mapped onto generalized open problems in theoretical understanding of quantized non-Abelian gauge theories. Additional, the scaling behavior can be understood from the geometric structure of the gauge potential and linked to the measure of information in the local disordered potential, reflecting an underlying holographic principle. We acknowledge support from NSF Award No.1068570, and the Charles E. Kaufman Foundation.
Program package for multicanonical simulations of U(1) lattice gauge theory-Second version
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazavov, Alexei; Berg, Bernd A.
2013-03-01
A new version STMCMUCA_V1_1 of our program package is available. It eliminates compatibility problems of our Fortran 77 code, originally developed for the g77 compiler, with Fortran 90 and 95 compilers. New version program summaryProgram title: STMC_U1MUCA_v1_1 Catalogue identifier: AEET_v1_1 Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with Fortran 90 and 95 Computers: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran code Operating systems: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran code RAM: 10 MB and up depending on lattice size used No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15059 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 215733 Keywords: Markov chain Monte Carlo, multicanonical, Wang-Landau recursion, Fortran, lattice gauge theory, U(1) gauge group, phase transitions of continuous systems Classification: 11.5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEET_v1_0 Journal Reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 180 (2009) 2339-2347 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation of U(1) lattice gauge theory (or other continuous systems) close to its phase transition. Measurements and analysis of the action per plaquette, the specific heat, Polyakov loops and their structure factors. Solution method: Multicanonical simulations with an initial Wang-Landau recursion to determine suitable weight factors. Reweighting to physical values using logarithmic coding and calculating jackknife error bars. Reasons for the new version: The previous version was developed for the g77 compiler Fortran 77 version. Compiler errors were encountered with Fortran 90 and Fortran 95 compilers (specified below). Summary of revisions: epsilon=one/10**10 is replaced by epsilon/10.0D10 in the parameter statements of the subroutines u1_bmha.f, u1_mucabmha.f, u1wl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Peng; Hughes, Taylor L.; Maciejko, Joseph; Fradkin, Eduardo
2016-09-01
Topological phases of matter are usually realized in deconfined phases of gauge theories. In this context, confined phases with strongly fluctuating gauge fields seem to be irrelevant to the physics of topological phases. For example, the low-energy theory of the two-dimensional (2D) toric code model (i.e., the deconfined phase of Z2 gauge theory) is a U(1 )×U(1 ) Chern-Simons theory in which gauge charges (i.e., e and m particles) are deconfined and the gauge fields are gapped, while the confined phase is topologically trivial. In this paper, we point out a route to constructing exotic three-dimensional (3D) gapped fermionic phases in a confining phase of a gauge theory. Starting from a parton construction with strongly fluctuating compact U(1 )×U(1 ) gauge fields, we construct gapped phases of interacting fermions by condensing two linearly independent bosonic composite particles consisting of partons and U(1 )×U(1 ) magnetic monopoles. This can be regarded as a 3D generalization of the 2D Bais-Slingerland condensation mechanism. Charge fractionalization results from a Debye-Hückel-type screening cloud formed by the condensed composite particles. Within our general framework, we explore two aspects of symmetry-enriched 3D Abelian topological phases. First, we construct a new fermionic state of matter with time-reversal symmetry and Θ ≠π , the fractional topological insulator. Second, we generalize the notion of anyonic symmetry of 2D Abelian topological phases to the charge-loop excitation symmetry (Charles ) of 3D Abelian topological phases. We show that line twist defects, which realize Charles transformations, exhibit non-Abelian fusion properties.
Exact partition functions for the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido
2016-07-01
We study the low energy effective action of the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory. It depends on the deformation parameters ɛ 1, ɛ 2, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet mass m. We explore the plane (m/ɛ_1,ɛ_2/ɛ_1) looking for special features in the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential, motivated by what happens in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ɛ 2 → 0. We propose a simple condition on the structure of poles of the k-instanton prepotential and show that it is admissible at a finite set of points in the above plane. At these special points, the prepotential has poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. Besides and remarkably, both the instanton partition function and the full prepotential, including the perturbative contribution, may be given in closed form as functions of the scalar expectation value a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Dedekind η function. As a byproduct, the modular anomaly equation can be tested at all orders at these points. We discuss these special features from the point of view of the AGT correspondence and provide explicit toroidal 1-blocks in non-trivial closed form. The full list of solutions with 1, 2, 3, and 4 poles is determined and described in details.
Anomalous triple gauge couplings in the effective field theory approach at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David; Son, Minho
2017-02-01
We discuss how to perform consistent extractions of anomalous triple gauge couplings (aTGC) from electroweak boson pair production at the LHC in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). After recasting recent ATLAS and CMS searches in pp → W Z( W W ) → ℓ'νℓ+ℓ-(νℓ) channels, we find that: (a) working consistently at order Λ-2 in the SMEFT expansion the existing aTGC bounds from Higgs and LEP-2 data are not improved, (b) the strong limits quoted by the experimental collaborations are due to the partial Λ-4 corrections (dimension-6 squared contributions). Using helicity selection rule arguments we are able to explain the suppression in some of the interference terms, and discuss conditions on New Physics (NP) models that can benefit from such LHC analyses. Furthermore, standard analyses assume implicitly a quite large NP scale, an assumption that can be relaxed by imposing cuts on the underlying scale of the process ( √{widehat{s}} ). In practice, we find almost no correlation between √{widehat{s}} and the experimentally accessible quantities, which complicates the SMEFT interpretation. Nevertheless, we provide a method to set (conservative) aTGC bounds in this situation, and recast the present searches accordingly. Finally, we introduce a simple NP model for aTGC to compare the bounds obtained directly in the model with those from the SMEFT analysis.
Research in Lattice Gauge Theory and in the Phenomenology of Neutrinos and Dark Matter
Meurice, Yannick L; Reno, Mary Hall
Research in theoretical elementary particle physics was performed by the PI Yannick Meurice and co-PI Mary Hall Reno. New techniques designed for precision calculations of strong interaction physics were developed using the tensor renormalization group method. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations with dynamical quarks were performed for candidate models for Higgs compositeness. Ab-initio lattice gauge theory calculations of semileptonic decays of B-mesons observed in collider experiments and relevant to test the validity of the standard model were performed with the Fermilab/MILC collaboration. The phenomenology of strong interaction physics was applied to new predictions for physics processes in accelerator physics experiments andmore » to cosmic ray production and interactions. A research focus has been on heavy quark production and their decays to neutrinos. The heavy quark contributions to atmospheric neutrino and muon fluxes have been evaluated, as have the neutrino fluxes from accelerator beams incident on heavy targets. Results are applicable to current and future particle physics experiments and to astrophysical neutrino detectors such as the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.« less
The Green-Schwarz mechanism and geometric anomaly relations in 2d (0,2) F-theory vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigand, Timo; Xu, Fengjun
2018-04-01
We study the structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies in 2d N = (0 , 2) theories obtained by compactification of F-theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-folds. Abelian gauge anomalies, induced at 1-loop in perturbation theory, are cancelled by a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism operating at the level of chiral scalar fields in the 2d supergravity theory. We derive closed expressions for the gravitational and the non-abelian and abelian gauge anomalies including the Green-Schwarz counterterms. These expressions involve topological invariants of the underlying elliptic fibration and the gauge background thereon. Cancellation of anomalies in the effective theory predicts intricate topological identities which must hold on every elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-fold. We verify these relations in a non-trivial example, but their proof from a purely mathematical perspective remains as an interesting open problem. Some of the identities we find on elliptic 5-folds are related in an intriguing way to previously studied topological identities governing the structure of anomalies in 6d N = (1 , 0) and 4d N = 1 theories obtained from F-theory.
Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio; Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-12-01
We present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, the Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.
Abelian non-global logarithms from soft gluon clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Randall; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba
2012-09-01
Most recombination-style jet algorithms cluster soft gluons in a complex way. This leads to previously identified correlations in the soft gluon phase space and introduces logarithmic corrections to jet cross sections, which are known as clustering logarithms. The leading Abelian clustering logarithms occur at least at next-to leading logarithm (NLL) in the exponent of the distribution. Using the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), we show that new clustering effects contributing at NLL arise at each order. While numerical resummation of clustering logs is possible, it is unlikely that they can be analytically resummed to NLL. Clustering logarithms make the anti-kT algorithm theoretically preferred, for which they are power suppressed. They can arise in Abelian and non-Abelian terms, and we calculate the Abelian clustering logarithms at O ( {α_s^2} ) for the jet mass distribution using the Cambridge/Aachen and kT algorithms, including jet radius dependence, which extends previous results. We find that clustering logarithms can be naturally thought of as a class of non-global logarithms, which have traditionally been tied to non-Abelian correlations in soft gluon emission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benioff, Paul
2015-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to put the description of number scaling and its effects on physics and geometry on a firmer foundation, and to make it more understandable. A main point is that two different concepts, number and number value are combined in the usual representations of number structures. This is valid as long as just one structure of each number type is being considered. It is not valid when different structures of each number type are being considered. Elements of base sets of number structures, considered by themselves, have no meaning. They acquire meaning or value as elements of a number structure. Fiber bundles over a space or space time manifold, M, are described. The fiber consists of a collection of many real or complex number structures and vector space structures. The structures are parameterized by a real or complex scaling factor, s. A vector space at a fiber level, s, has, as scalars, real or complex number structures at the same level. Connections are described that relate scalar and vector space structures at both neighbor M locations and at neighbor scaling levels. Scalar and vector structure valued fields are described and covariant derivatives of these fields are obtained. Two complex vector fields, each with one real and one imaginary field, appear, with one complex field associated with positions in M and the other with position dependent scaling factors. A derivation of the covariant derivative for scalar and vector valued fields gives the same vector fields. The derivation shows that the complex vector field associated with scaling fiber levels is the gradient of a complex scalar field. Use of these results in gauge theory shows that the imaginary part of the vector field associated with M positions acts like the electromagnetic field. The physical relevance of the other three fields, if any, is not known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei
2010-01-01
We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) and the selenocentric (SRF) frames, have the origin at the center of mass of the Earth and Moon respectively. They are both introduced in order to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, observer on the Earth, and a retro-reflector on the Moon to the observable quantities which are the proper time and the laser-ranging distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom of the solutions of the field equations. We discuss the gravitomagnetic effects in the barycentric equations of the motion of the Moon and argue that they are beyond the current accuracy of lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations.
Gauge engineering and propagators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, Axel
2017-03-01
Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.
Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions
Bardeen, William A.
2015-09-24
I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 0t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.
Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions
Bardeen, William
2014-10-24
I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 1t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.
Introducing Abelian Groups Using Bullseyes and Jenga
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Michael D.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this article is to share a new approach for introducing students to the definition and standard examples of Abelian groups. The definition of an Abelian group is revised to include six axioms. A bullseye provides a way to visualize elementary examples and non-examples of Abelian groups. An activity based on the game of Jenga is used…
Aspects Topologiques de la Theorie des Champs et leurs Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caenepeel, Didier
This thesis is dedicated to the study of various topological aspects of field theory, and is divided in three parts. In two space dimensions the possibility of fractional statistics can be implemented by adding an appropriate "fictitious" electric charge and magnetic flux to each particle (after which they are known as anyons). Since the statistical interaction is rather difficult to handle, a mean-field approximation is used in order to describe a gas of anyons. We derive a criterion for the validity of this approximation using the inherent feature of parity violation in the scattering of anyons. We use this new method in various examples of anyons and show both analytically and numerically that the approximation is justified if the statistical interaction is weak, and that it must be more weak for boson-based than for fermion-based anyons. Chern-Simons theories give an elegant implementation of anyonic properties in field theories, which permits the emergence of new mechanisms for anyon superconductivity. Since it is reasonable to think that superconductivity is a low energy phenomenon, we have been interested in non-relativistic C-S systems. We present the scalar field effective potential for non-relativistic matter coupled to both Abelian and non-Abelian C-S gauge fields. We perform the calculations using functional methods in background fields. Finally, we compute the scalar effective potential in various gauges and treat divergences with various regularization schemes. In three space dimensions, a generalization of Chern-Simons theory may be achieved by introducing an antisymmetric tensor gauge field. We use these theories, called B wedge F theories, to present an alternative to the Higgs mechanism to generate masses for non-Abelian gauge fields. The initial Lagrangian is composed of a fermion with current-current and dipole-dipole type self -interactions minimally coupled to non-Abelian gauge fields. The mass generation occurs upon the fermionic functional
Five-dimensional fermionic Chern-Simons theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas
2018-02-01
We study 5d fermionic CS theory with a fermionic 2-form gauge potential. This theory can be obtained from 5d maximally supersymmetric YM theory by performing the maximal topological twist. We put the theory on a five-manifold and compute the partition function. We find that it is a topological quantity, which involves the Ray-Singer torsion of the five-manifold. For abelian gauge group we consider the uplift to the 6d theory and find a mismatch between the 5d partition function and the 6d index, due to the nontrivial dimensional reduction of a selfdual two-form gauge field on a circle. We also discuss an application of the 5d theory to generalized knots made of 2d sheets embedded in 5d.
Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge
Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J.
Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear whenmore » gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.« less
Non-integrable dynamics of matter-wave solitons in a density-dependent gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dingwall, R. J.; Edmonds, M. J.; Helm, J. L.; Malomed, B. A.; Öhberg, P.
2018-04-01
We study interactions between bright matter-wave solitons which acquire chiral transport dynamics due to an optically-induced density-dependent gauge potential. Through numerical simulations, we find that the collision dynamics feature several non-integrable phenomena, from inelastic collisions including population transfer and radiation losses to the formation of short-lived bound states and soliton fission. An effective quasi-particle model for the interaction between the solitons is derived by means of a variational approximation, which demonstrates that the inelastic nature of the collision arises from a coupling of the gauge field to velocities of the solitons. In addition, we derive a set of interaction potentials which show that the influence of the gauge field appears as a short-range potential, that can give rise to both attractive and repulsive interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dayi, Ömer F.
The recently proposed generalized field method for solving the master equation of Batalin and Vilkovisky is applied to a gauge theory of quadratic Lie algebras in two dimensions. The charge corresponding to BRST symmetry derived from this solution in terms of the phase space variables by using the Noether procedure, and the one found due to the BFV-method are compared and found to coincide. W3-algebra, formulated in terms of a continuous variable is exploit in the mentioned gauge theory to construct a W3 topological gravity. Moreover, its gauge fixing is briefly discussed.
Fortran code for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with and without MPI checkerboard parallelization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Bernd A.; Wu, Hao
2012-10-01
We document plain Fortran and Fortran MPI checkerboard code for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action in D dimensions. The Fortran code uses periodic boundary conditions and is suitable for pedagogical purposes and small scale simulations. For the Fortran MPI code two geometries are covered: the usual torus with periodic boundary conditions and the double-layered torus as defined in the paper. Parallel computing is performed on checkerboards of sublattices, which partition the full lattice in one, two, and so on, up to D directions (depending on the parameters set). For updating, the Cabibbo-Marinari heatbath algorithm is used. We present validations and test runs of the code. Performance is reported for a number of currently used Fortran compilers and, when applicable, MPI versions. For the parallelized code, performance is studied as a function of the number of processors. Program summary Program title: STMC2LSU3MPI Catalogue identifier: AEMJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26666 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 233126 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with the use of Fortran 90/95 compilers, in part with MPI extensions. Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95, when needed with MPI extensions. Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6.1 with OpenMPI + pgf77 11.8-0, Centos 5.3 with OpenMPI + gfortran 4.1.2, Cray XT4 with MPICH2 + pgf90 11.2-0. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI extensions. Number of processors used: 2 to 11664 RAM: 200 Mega bytes per process. Classification: 11
The SU(3)/Z3 QCD(adj) deconfinement transition via the gauge theory/"affine" XY-model duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Collier, Scott; Poppitz, Erich
2013-01-01
Earlier, two of us and M. Ünsal [1] showed that a class of 4d gauge theories, when compactified on a small spatial circle of size L and considered at temperatures β-1 near the deconfinement transition, are dual to 2d "affine" XY-spin models. We exploit this duality to study the deconfinement phase transition in SU(3)/{{{Z}}_3} gauge theories with n f > 1 massless adjoint Weyl fermions, QCD(adj) on {{{R}}^2}× {S}_{β}^1× {S}_L^1 . The dual "affine" XY-model describes two "spins" — compact scalars taking values in the SU(3) root lattice. The spins couple via nearest-neighbor interactions and are subject to an "external field" perturbation preserving the topological {Z}_3^t and a discrete {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} subgroup of the anomaly-free chiral symmetry of the 4d gauge theory. The equivalent Coulomb gas representation of the theory exhibits electric-magnetic duality, which is also a high-/low-temperature duality. A renormalization group analysis suggests — but is not convincing, due to the onset of strong coupling — that the self-dual point is a fixed point, implying a continuous deconfinement transition. Here, we study the nature of the transition via Monte Carlo simulations. The {Z}_3^t× {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} order parameter, its susceptibility, the vortex density, the energy per spin, and the specific heat are measured over a range of volumes, temperatures, and "external field" strengths (in the gauge theory, these correspond to magnetic bion fugacities). The finite-size scaling of the susceptibility and specific heat we find is characteristic of a first-order transition. Furthermore, for sufficiently large but still smaller than unity bion fugacity (as can be achieved upon an increase of the {S}_L^1 size), at the critical temperature we find two distinct peaks of the energy probability distribution, indicative of a first-order transition, as has been seen in earlier simulations of the full 4d QCD(adj) theory. We end with discussions of the global
Electroweak theory based on S U (4 )L⊗U (1 )X gauge group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, H. N.; Hue, L. T.; Loi, D. V.
2016-07-01
This paper includes two main parts. In the first part, we present generalized gauge models based on the S U (3 )C⊗S U (4 )L⊗U (1 )X (3-4-1) gauge group with arbitrary electric charges of exotic leptons. The mixing matrix of neutral gauge bosons is analyzed, and the eigenmasses and eigenstates are obtained. The anomaly-free as well as matching conditions are discussed precisely. In the second part, we present a new development of the original 3-4-1 model [R. Foot, H. N. Long, and T. A. Tran, Phys. Rev. D 50, R34 (1994), F. Pisano and V. Pleitez, Phys. Rev. D 51, 3865 (1995).]. Different from previous works, in this paper the neutrinos, with the help of the scalar decuplet H , get the Dirac masses at the tree level. The vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs boson field in the decuplet H acquiring the VEV responsible for neutrino Dirac mass leads to mixing in separated pairs of singly charged gauge bosons, namely the Standard Model (SM) W boson and K , the new gauge boson acting in the right-handed lepton sector, as well as the singly charged bileptons X and Y . Due to the mixing, there occurs a right-handed current carried by the W boson. From the expression of the electromagnetic coupling constant, ones get the limit of the sine-squared of the Weinberg angle, sin2θW<0.25 , and a constraint on electric charges of extra leptons. In the limit of lepton number conservation, the Higgs sector contains all massless Goldstone bosons for massive gauge bosons and the SM-like Higgs boson. Some phenomenology is discussed.
Lagrangians for generalized Argyres-Douglas theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benvenuti, Sergio; Giacomelli, Simone
2017-10-01
We continue the study of Lagrangian descriptions of N=2 Argyres-Douglas theories. We use our recent interpretation in terms of sequential confinement to guess the Lagrangians of all the Argyres-Douglas models with Abelian three dimensional mirror. We find classes of four dimensional N=1 quivers that flow in the infrared to generalized Argyres-Douglas theories, such as the ( A k , A kN + N -1) models. We study in detail how the N=1 chiral rings map to the Coulomb and Higgs Branches of the N=2 CFT's. The three dimensional mirror RG flows are shown to land on the N=4 complete graph quivers. We also compactify to three dimensions the gauge theory dual to ( A 1, D 4), and find the expected Abelianization duality with N=4 SQED with 3 flavors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kohl, Timothy
2012-01-01
A pair of elementary exercises, one from topology, the other from group theory are such that if one replaces three words in the topology problem, you get the group theory problem and vice-versa. This suggests connections between the two that are explored here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uranga, A. M.
2009-11-01
This special section is devoted to the proceedings of the conference `Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland 9-13 February 2009. This event is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents a well established tradition. Previous events have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006, January 2007 and January 2008, and were funded by the European Mobility Research and Training Network `Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. The next event will take place again at CERN, in January 2010. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in this special section, and six working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was well attended by over 200 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. One of the most active areas in string theory in recent years has been the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, which proposes the complete equivalence of string theory on (asymptotically) anti de Sitter spacetimes with certain quantum (gauge) field theories. The duality has recently been applied to understanding the hydrodynamical properties of a hot plasma in gauge theories (like the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC experiment at Brookhaven, and soon at the LHC at CERN) in terms of a dual gravitational AdS theory in the presence of a black hole. These developments were reviewed in the lecture notes by M Rangamani. In addition, the AdS/CFT duality has been proposed as a tool to study interesting physical properties in other
Unified gauge theories with right-handed currents and heavy fermions
Mohapatra, R.N.
Gauge models with heavy fermions and right-handed currents are discussed based on the gauge groups SU(2)/subA/ x U(1) x SU(4) ', SU(2)/subA/ x SU(2)/subB/ x SU(4) ', and SU(4) x SU(4) ' and are constructed so as to lead to the $delta$I = 1/2 rule. SU(4) x SU(4) ' is advocated as the ultimate unifying gauge group of nature, and it is shown how at various stages of spontaneous breakdown both the SU(2)/subA/ x SU(2)/subB/ x SU(4) ' and SU(2)/subA/ x U(1) x SU(4) ' groups manifest themselves. It is also shown that CP violation takes an interesting complexion inmore » these models and leads to exactly the relations eta/sub +//sub -/ approx. = eta$sub 00$ in K/subL/ $Yields$ 2$pi$ decays. Furthermore, it is shown that the magnitude of CP violation is related to gauge interactions that violate the heavy quark degeneracy. (AIP)« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Tsuneo
2018-02-01
Blockspin transformation of topological defects is applied to the violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identity (VNABI) on lattice defined as Abelian monopoles. To get rid of lattice artifacts, we introduce (1) smooth gauge fixings such as the maximal center gauge (MCG), (2) blockspin transformations and (3) the tadpole-improved gauge action. The effective action can be determined by adopting the inverse Monte Carlo method. The coupling constants F (i ) of the effective action depend on the coupling of the lattice action β and the number of the blocking step n . But it is found that F (i ) satisfies a beautiful scaling; that is, they are a function of the product b =n a (β ) alone for lattice coupling constants 3.0 ≤β ≤3.9 and the steps of blocking 1 ≤n ≤12 . The effective action showing the scaling behavior can be regarded as an almost perfect action corresponding to the continuum limit, since a →0 as n →∞ for fixed b . The infrared effective monopole action keeps the global color invariance when smooth gauges such as MCG keeping the invariance are adopted. The almost perfect action showing the scaling is found to be independent of the smooth gauges adopted here as naturally expected from the gauge invariance of the continuum theory. Then we compare the results with those obtained by the analytic blocking method of topological defects from the continuum, assuming local two-point interactions are dominant as the infrared effective action. The action is formulated in the continuum limit while the couplings of these actions can be derived from simple observables calculated numerically on lattices with a finite lattice spacing. When use is made of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transformation, the infrared monopole action can be transformed into that of the string model. Since large b =n a (β ) corresponds to the strong-coupling region in the string model, the physical string tension and the lowest glueball mass can be evaluated analytically
Appearance of gauge structure in simple dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.
1984-01-01
By generalizing a construction of Berry and Simon, it is shown that non-Abelian gauge fields arise in the adiabatic development of simple quantum mechanical systems. Characteristics of the gauge fields are related to energy splittings, which may be observable in real systems. Similar phenomena are found for suitable classical systems.
Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-12-01
We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.
Non-Abelian dark forces and the relic densities of dark glueballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris
2017-01-01
Our understanding of the Universe is known to be incomplete, and new gauge forces beyond those of the Standard Model might be crucial to describing its observed properties. A minimal and well-motivated possibility is a pure Yang-Mills non-Abelian dark gauge force with no direct connection to the Standard Model. We determine here the relic abundances of the glueball bound states that arise in such theories and investigate their cosmological effects. Glueballs are first formed in a confining phase transition, and their relic densities are set by a network of annihilation and transfer reactions. The lightest glueball has no lighter states to annihilate into, and its yield is set mainly by 3 →2 number-changing processes which persistently release energy into the glueball gas during freeze-out. The abundances of the heavier glueballs are dominated by 2 →2 transfer reactions and tend to be much smaller than the lightest state. We also investigate potential connectors between the dark force and the Standard Model that allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. If the connection is weak, the lightest glueball can be very long-lived or stable and is a viable dark matter candidate. For stronger connections, the lightest glueball will decay quickly, but other heavier glueball states can remain stable and contribute to the dark matter density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derendinger, J.-P.; Orlando, D.; Uranga, A.
2008-11-01
This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, on the 21 25 January 2008. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous ones have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next one will again take place at CERN, in February 2009. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in the present proceedings, and five working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. One of the most active areas in string theory in recent years is the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, which proposes the complete equivalence of string theory on (asymptotically) anti-de Sitter spacetimes with gauge theories. The duality relates the weak coupling regime of one system to the strongly coupled regime of the other, and is therefore very non-trivial to test beyond the supersymmetry-protected BPS sector. One of the key ideas to quantitatively match several quantities on both sides is the use of integrability, both in the gauge theory and the string side. The lecture notes by Nick Dorey provide a pedagogical introduction to the fascinating topic of integrability in AdS/CFT. On the string theory side, progress has
Non-Abelian Berry phase, instantons, and N=(0,4) supersymmetry
Laia, Joao N.
2010-12-15
In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, the non-Abelian Berry phase is known to obey certain differential equations. Here we study N=(0,4) systems and show that the non-Abelian Berry connection over R{sup 4n} satisfies a generalization of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Upon dimensional reduction, these become the tt* equations. We further study the Berry connection in N=(4,4) theories and show that the curvature is covariantly constant.
Search at the Mainz Microtron for Light Massive Gauge Bosons Relevant for the Muon g-2 Anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Beranek, T.; Beričič, J.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Debenjak, L.; Denig, A.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Middleton, D. G.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rohrbeck, M.; Ron, G.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Thiel, M.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration
2014-06-01
A massive, but light, Abelian U(1) gauge boson is a well-motivated possible signature of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. In this Letter, the search for the signal of such a U(1) gauge boson in electron-positron pair production at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron is described. Exclusion limits in the mass range of 40 MeV/c2 to 300 MeV/c2, with a sensitivity in the squared mixing parameter of as little as ɛ2=8×10-7 are presented. A large fraction of the parameter space has been excluded where the discrepancy of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with theory might be explained by an additional U(1) gauge boson.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarino, Adolfo
2018-03-01
Supersymmetric {AdS}4, {AdS}2 × Σ 2 and asymptotically AdS4 black hole solutions are studied in the context of non-minimal N=2 supergravity models involving three vector multiplets (STU-model) and Abelian gaugings of the universal hypermultiplet moduli space. Such models correspond to consistent subsectors of the {SO}(p,q) and {ISO}(p,q) gauged maximal supergravities that arise from the reduction of 11D and massive IIA supergravity on {H}^{(p,q)} spaces down to four dimensions. A unified description of all the models is provided in terms of a square-root prepotential and the gauging of a duality-hidden symmetry pair of the universal hypermultiplet. Some aspects of M-theory and massive IIA holography are mentioned in passing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Ed; Ki Hong, Deog; Lee, Jong-Wan; David Lin, C.-J.; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide
2018-03-01
As a first step towards a quantitative understanding of the SU(4)/Sp(4) composite Higgs model through lattice calculations, we discuss the low energy effective field theory resulting from the SU(4) → Sp(4) global symmetry breaking pattern. We then consider an Sp(4) gauge theory with two Dirac fermion flavours in the fundamental representation on a lattice, which provides a concrete example of the microscopic realisation of the SU(4)/Sp(4) composite Higgs model. For this system, we outline a programme of numerical simulations aiming at the determination of the low-energy constants of the effective field theory and we test the method on the quenched theory. We also report early results from dynamical simulations, focussing on the phase structure of the lattice theory and a calculation of the lowest-lying meson spectrum at coarse lattice spacing. Combined contributions of B. Lucini (e-mail: b.lucini@swansea.ac.uk) and J.-W. Lee (e-mail: wlee823@pusan.ac.kr).
Tensor non-Gaussianity from axion-gauge-fields dynamics: parameter search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Aniket; Fujita, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Eiichiro
2018-06-01
We calculate the bispectrum of scale-invariant tensor modes sourced by spectator SU(2) gauge fields during inflation in a model containing a scalar inflaton, a pseudoscalar axion and SU(2) gauge fields. A large bispectrum is generated in this model at tree-level as the gauge fields contain a tensor degree of freedom, and its production is dominated by self-coupling of the gauge fields. This is a unique feature of non-Abelian gauge theory. The shape of the tensor bispectrum is approximately an equilateral shape for 3lesssim mQlesssim 4, where mQ is an effective dimensionless mass of the SU(2) field normalised by the Hubble expansion rate during inflation. The amplitude of non-Gaussianity of the tensor modes, characterised by the ratio Bh/P2h, is inversely proportional to the energy density fraction of the gauge field. This ratio can be much greater than unity, whereas the ratio from the vacuum fluctuation of the metric is of order unity. The bispectrum is effective at constraining large mQ regions of the parameter space, whereas the power spectrum constrains small mQ regions.
The Abelian Higgs model on Optical Lattice?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Bazavov, Alexei; Zhang, Jin
2015-03-01
We study the Lattice Gauge Theory of the U(1)-Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. We discuss the plaquette corrections to the effective theory where link variables are integrated out. We discuss matching with the second-order perturbation theory effective Hamiltonian for various Bose-Hubbard models. This correspondence can be exploited for building a lattice gauge theory simulator on optical lattices. We propose to implement the quantum rotors which appear in the Hamiltonian formulation using Bose mixtures or p-orbitals. Recent progress on magnetic effects in 2+1 dimensions will be discussed. Supported by the Army Research Office of the Department of Defense under Award Number W911NF-13-1-0119.
On the stability of dyons and dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, Brien C.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-02-01
We investigate the stability of four-dimensional dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of {su}(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space. We prove that, in a neighbourhood of the embedded trivial (Schwarzschild-)anti-de Sitter solution, there exist non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the field equations which are stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of the metric and non-Abelian gauge field.
Non-Abelian S =1 chiral spin liquid on the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zheng-Xin; Tu, Hong-Hao; Wu, Ying-Hai; He, Rong-Qiang; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai
2018-05-01
We study S =1 spin liquid states on the kagome lattice constructed by Gutzwiller-projected px+i py superconductors. We show that the obtained spin liquids are either non-Abelian or Abelian topological phases, depending on the topology of the fermionic mean-field state. By calculating the modular matrices S and T , we confirm that projected topological superconductors are non-Abelian chiral spin liquid (NACSL). The chiral central charge and the spin Hall conductance we obtained agree very well with the S O (3) 1 (or, equivalently, S U (2) 2 ) field-theory predictions. We propose a local Hamiltonian which may stabilize the NACSL. From a variational study, we observe a topological phase transition from the NACSL to the Z2 Abelian spin liquid.
Higher-Loop Amplitude Monodromy Relations in String and Gauge Theory.
Tourkine, Piotr; Vanhove, Pierre
2016-11-18
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the deepest properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalization of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this Letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument of the open string diagram integrands, leads to new identities that relate planar and nonplanar topologies in string theory. We write one and two-loop monodromy formulas explicitly at any multiplicity. In the field theory limit, at one-loop we obtain identities that reproduce known results. At two loops, we check our formulas by unitarity in the case of the four-point N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude.
Experimental realization of non-Abelian non-adiabatic geometric gates.
Abdumalikov, A A; Fink, J M; Juliusson, K; Pechal, M; Berger, S; Wallraff, A; Filipp, S
2013-04-25
The geometric aspects of quantum mechanics are emphasized most prominently by the concept of geometric phases, which are acquired whenever a quantum system evolves along a path in Hilbert space, that is, the space of quantum states of the system. The geometric phase is determined only by the shape of this path and is, in its simplest form, a real number. However, if the system has degenerate energy levels, then matrix-valued geometric state transformations, known as non-Abelian holonomies--the effect of which depends on the order of two consecutive paths--can be obtained. They are important, for example, for the creation of synthetic gauge fields in cold atomic gases or the description of non-Abelian anyon statistics. Moreover, there are proposals to exploit non-Abelian holonomic gates for the purposes of noise-resilient quantum computation. In contrast to Abelian geometric operations, non-Abelian ones have been observed only in nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments with a large number of spins, and without full characterization of the geometric process and its non-commutative nature. Here we realize non-Abelian non-adiabatic holonomic quantum operations on a single, superconducting, artificial three-level atom by applying a well-controlled, two-tone microwave drive. Using quantum process tomography, we determine fidelities of the resulting non-commuting gates that exceed 95 per cent. We show that two different quantum gates, originating from two distinct paths in Hilbert space, yield non-equivalent transformations when applied in different orders. This provides evidence for the non-Abelian character of the implemented holonomic quantum operations. In combination with a non-trivial two-quantum-bit gate, our method suggests a way to universal holonomic quantum computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Somdeb; Roy, Shibaji
2012-02-01
A particular decoupling limit of the nonextremal (D1, D3) brane bound state system of type IIB string theory is known to give the gravity dual of space-space noncommutative Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature. We use a string probe in this background to compute the jet quenching parameter in a strongly coupled plasma of hot noncommutative Yang-Mills theory in (3+1) dimensions from gauge/gravity duality. We give expressions for the jet quenching parameter for both small and large noncommutativity. For small noncommutativity, we find that the value of the jet quenching parameter gets reduced from its commutative value. The reduction is enhanced with temperature as T7 for fixed noncommutativity and fixed ’t Hooft coupling. We also give an estimate of the correction due to noncommutativity at the present collider energies like in RHIC or in LHC and find it too small to be detected. We further generalize the results for noncommutative Yang-Mills theories in diverse dimensions.
Plasmon mass scale in two-dimensional classical nonequilibrium gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappi, T.; Peuron, J.
2018-02-01
We study the plasmon mass scale in classical gluodynamics in a two-dimensional configuration that mimics the boost-invariant initial color fields in a heavy-ion collision. We numerically measure the plasmon mass scale using three different methods: a hard thermal loop (HTL) expression involving the quasiparticle spectrum constructed from Coulomb gauge field correlators, an effective dispersion relation, and the measurement of oscillations between electric and magnetic energies after introducing a spatially uniform perturbation to the electric field. We find that the HTL expression and the uniform electric field measurement are in rough agreement. The effective dispersion relation agrees with other methods within a factor of 2. We also study the dependence on time and occupation number, observing similar trends as in three spatial dimensions, where a power-law dependence sets in after an occupation-number-dependent transient time. We observe a decrease of the plasmon mass squared as t-1 / 3 at late times.
Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases
Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio
In this article, we present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, themore » Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.« less
Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases
Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio; ...
2017-12-15
In this article, we present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, themore » Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wrochna, Michał; Zahn, Jochen
We investigate linearized gauge theories on globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the BRST formalism. A consistent definition of the classical phase space and of its Cauchy surface analogue is proposed. We prove that it is isomorphic to the phase space in the ‘subsidiary condition’ approach of Hack and Schenkel in the case of Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Rarita-Schwinger fields. Defining Hadamard states in the BRST formalism in a standard way, their existence in the Maxwell and Yang-Mills case is concluded from known results in the subsidiary condition (or Gupta-Bleuler) formalism. Within our framework, we also formulate criteria for non-degeneracy of the phase space in terms of BRST cohomology and discuss special cases. These include an example in the Yang-Mills case, where degeneracy is not related to a non-trivial topology of the Cauchy surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra
2015-04-01
Arthur Cayley at least investigate by creating the theory of permutation group[F:∖∖Group_theory.htm] where in cell elements addressing of the lattice Qmf used a Cayley tree, the self-afine object Qmf is described by the combination of the finite groups of rotation & inversion and the infinite groups of translation & dilation[G Corso & LS Lacena: ``Multifractal lattice and group theory'', Physica A: Statistical Mechanics &Its Applications, 2005, v 357, issue I, h 64-70; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articel/pii/S0378437105005005 ] hence multifractal can be related to group theory. Many grateful Thanks to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Ir. SARWONO KUSUMAATMADJA.
Global symmetries and renormalizability of Lee-Wick theories
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Farzinnia, Arsham; Foadi, Roshan
2010-08-01
In this paper we discuss the global symmetries and the renormalizability of Lee-Wick (LW) scalar QED. In particular, in the ''auxiliary-field'' formalism we identify softly broken SO(1,1) global symmetries of the theory. We introduce SO(1,1) invariant gauge-fixing conditions that allow us to show in the auxiliary-field formalism directly that the number of superficially divergent amplitudes in a LW Abelian gauge theory is finite. To illustrate the renormalizability of the theory, we explicitly carry out the one-loop renormalization program in LW scalar QED and demonstrate how the counterterms required are constrained by the joint conditions of gauge and SO(1,1) invariance. Wemore » also compute the one-loop beta functions in LW scalar QED and contrast them with those of ordinary scalar QED.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hati, Chandan; Patra, Sudhanwa; Reig, Mario; Valle, José W. F.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.
2017-07-01
We consider the possibility of gauge coupling unification within the simplest realizations of the SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X gauge theory. We present a first exploration of the renormalization group equations governing the "bottom-up" evolution of the gauge couplings in a generic model with free normalization for the generators. Interestingly, we find that for a SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X symmetry breaking scale MX as low as a few TeV one can achieve unification in the presence of leptonic octets. We briefly comment on possible grand unified theory frameworks which can embed the SU (3 )c×SU (3 )L×SU (3 )R×U (1 )X model as well as possible implications, such as lepton flavor violating physics at the LHC.
Nuclear shielding constants by density functional theory with gauge including atomic orbitals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helgaker, Trygve; Wilson, Philip J.; Amos, Roger D.; Handy, Nicholas C.
2000-08-01
Recently, we introduced a new density-functional theory (DFT) approach for the calculation of NMR shielding constants. First, a hybrid DFT calculation (using 5% exact exchange) is performed on the molecule to determine Kohn-Sham orbitals and their energies; second, the constants are determined as in nonhybrid DFT theory, that is, the paramagnetic contribution to the constants is calculated from a noniterative, uncoupled sum-over-states expression. The initial results suggested that this semiempirical DFT approach gives shielding constants in good agreement with the best ab initio and experimental data; in this paper, we further validate this procedure, using London orbitals in the theory, having implemented DFT into the ab initio code DALTON. Calculations on a number of small and medium-sized molecules confirm that our approach produces shieldings in excellent agreement with experiment and the best ab initio results available, demonstrating its potential for the study of shielding constants of large systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A. M.
2006-11-01
This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 16 to the 20 of January 2006. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools which have become a traditional rendezvous for young researchers of the community. The previous one was held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005, and the next one will take place again at CERN, in January 2007. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of five general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in the present proceedings, and five working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximately 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress and to the open problems in string theory. String theory is expected to provide insights into the description of systems where the role of gravity is crucial. One prominent example of such systems are time-dependent backgrounds with big bang singularities, whose status in string theory is reviewed in the lecture notes by Ben Craps. In another main problem in quantum gravity, string theory gives a fascinating microscopic description of black holes and their properties. The lectures by Shiraz Minwalla review the thermal properties of black holes from their microscopic description in terms of a holographically dual large N field theory. Progress in the description of black hole microstates, and its interplay with the macroscopic description in terms of supergravity solutions via the
Moduli space potentials for heterotic non-Abelian flux tubes: Weak deformation
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300
2010-09-15
We consider N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(N) gauge group (with no Fayet-Iliopoulos term) and N{sub f} flavors of massive quarks deformed by the mass term {mu} for the adjoint matter, W={mu}A{sup 2}, assuming that N{<=}N{sub f}<2N. This deformation breaks N=2 supersymmetry down to N=1. This theory supports non-Abelian flux tubes (strings) which are stabilized by W. They are referred to as F-term stabilized strings. We focus on the studies of such strings in the vacuum in which N squarks condense, at small {mu}, so that the Z{sub N} strings preserve, in a sense, their Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield nature. The (s)quark massesmore » are assumed to be nondegenerate. We calculate string tensions both in the classical and quantum regimes. Then we translate our results for the tensions in terms of the effective low-energy weighted CP(N{sub f}-1) model on the string world sheet. The bulk {mu} deformation makes this theory N=(0,2) supersymmetric heterotic weighted CP(N{sub f}-1) model in two dimensions. We find the deformation potential on the world sheet. This significantly expands the class of the heterotically deformed CP models emerging on the string world sheet compared to that suggested by Edalati and Tong. Among other things, we show that nonperturbative quantum effects in the bulk theory are exactly reproduced by the quantum effects in the world-sheet theory.« less
Quantum properties of supersymmetric theories regularized by higher covariant derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanyantz, Konstantin
2018-02-01
We investigate quantum corrections in \\mathscr{N} = 1 non-Abelian supersymmetric gauge theories, regularized by higher covariant derivatives. In particular, by the help of the Slavnov-Taylor identities we prove that the vertices with two ghost legs and one leg of the quantum gauge superfield are finite in all orders. This non-renormalization theorem is confirmed by an explicit one-loop calculation. By the help of this theorem we rewrite the exact NSVZ β-function in the form of the relation between the β-function and the anomalous dimensions of the matter superfields, of the quantum gauge superfield, and of the Faddeev-Popov ghosts. Such a relation has simple qualitative interpretation and allows suggesting a prescription producing the NSVZ scheme in all loops for the theories regularized by higher derivatives. This prescription is verified by the explicit three-loop calculation for the terms quartic in the Yukawa couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, J. Erik
2018-05-01
Here we study the global existence of "hairy" dyonic black hole and dyon solutions to four-dimensional, anti-de Sitter Einstein-Yang-Mills theories for a general simply connected and semisimple gauge group G, for the so-called topologically symmetric systems, concentrating here on the regular case. We generalise here cases in the literature which considered purely magnetic spherically symmetric solutions for a general gauge group and topological dyonic solutions for s u (N ) . We are able to establish the global existence of non-trivial solutions to all such systems, both near existing embedded solutions and as |Λ| → ∞. In particular, we can identify non-trivial solutions where the gauge field functions have no zeroes, which in the s u (N ) case proved important to stability. We believe that these are the most general analytically proven solutions in 4D anti-de Sitter Einstein-Yang-Mills systems to date.
Algebraic cycles and local anomalies in F-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bies, Martin; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo
2017-11-01
We introduce a set of identities in the cohomology ring of elliptic fibrations which are equivalent to the cancellation of gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in F-theory compactifications to four and six dimensions. The identities consist in (co)homological relations between complex codimension-two cycles. The same set of relations, once evaluated on elliptic Calabi-Yau three-folds and four-folds, is shown to universally govern the structure of anomalies and their Green-Schwarz cancellation in six- and four-dimensional F-theory vacua, respectively. We furthermore conjecture that these relations hold not only within the cohomology ring, but even at the level of the Chow ring, i.e. as relations among codimension-two cycles modulo rational equivalence. We verify this conjecture in non-trivial examples with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups factors. Apart from governing the structure of local anomalies, the identities in the Chow ring relate different types of gauge backgrounds on elliptically fibred Calabi-Yau four-folds.
Gauge Theories on Noncommutative Spacetime Treated by the Seiberg-Witten Method*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wess, J.
The idea of noncommutative coordinates (NCC) is almost as old as quantum field theory (QFT) itself. It was W.Heisenberg who proposed NCC in 1930 in a letter to Peierls [1]. He expressed the hope that uncertainty relations of the coordinates, derived from NCC, might provide a natural cut-off for divergent integrals in QFT. This idea propagated via W.Pauli, R.Oppenheimer and Oppenheimer's student H.S.Snyder [2]. He then published the first analysis of a quantum thoery on NCC. Paul [3] called this work mathematically ingenious but rejected it for reasons of physics, arguing that an effective cut-off would act like a universal length and thus lead to strange consequences for large momenta of order h/l0.
Notes on wall crossing and instanton in compactified gauge theory with matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Heng-Yu; Petunin, Kirill
2010-10-01
We study the quantum effects on the Coulomb branch of mathcal{N} = 2 SU(2) super-symmetric Yang-Mills with fundamental matters compactified on {mathbb{R}^3} × {S^1} , and extract the explicit perturbative and leading non-perturbative corrections to the moduli space metric predicted from the recent work of Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke on wall-crossing [1]. We verify the predicted metric by computing the leading weak coupling instanton contribution to the four fermion correlation using standard field theory techniques, and demonstrate perfect agreement. We also demonstrate how previously known three dimensional quantities can be recovered in appropriate small radius limit, and provide a simple geometric picture from brane construction.
Multipoint correlators in the Abelian sandpile model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poncelet, Adrien; Ruelle, Philippe
2017-12-01
We revisit the calculation of height correlations in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model by taking advantage of a technique developed recently by Kenyon and Wilson. The formalism requires to equip the usual graph Laplacian, ubiquitous in the context of cycle-rooted spanning forests, with a complex connection. In the case at hand, the connection is constant and localized along a semi-infinite defect line (zipper). In the appropriate limit of a trivial connection, it allows one to count spanning forests whose components contain prescribed sites, which are of direct relevance for height correlations in the sandpile model. Using this technique, we first rederive known 1- and 2-site lattice correlators on the plane and upper half-plane, more efficiently than what has been done so far. We also compute explicitly the (new) next-to-leading order in the distances (r-4 for 1-site on the upper half-plane, r-6 for 2-site on the plane). We extend these results by computing new correlators involving one arbitrary height and a few heights 1 on the plane and upper half-plane, for the open and closed boundary conditions. We examine our lattice results from the conformal point of view, and confirm the full consistency with the specific features currently conjectured to be present in the associated logarithmic conformal field theory.
Width and string tension of the flux tube in SU(2) lattice gauge theory at high temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chagdaa, S.; Galsandorj, E.; Laermann, E.; Purev, B.
2018-02-01
We study the profiles of the flux tube between a static quark and an antiquark in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory at temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. The physical width of the flux tube and the string tension have been determined from the transverse profiles and the q\\bar{q} potential, respectively. Exploiting the computational power of a GPU accelerator in our flux tube investigation, we achieve much higher statistics through which we can increase the signal to noise ratio of our observables in the simulation. This has allowed the investigation of larger lattices as well as larger separations between the quarks than in our previous work. The improved accuracy gives us better results for the width and the string tension. The physical width of the flux tube increases with the temperature up to around T c while keeping its increasing dependence on the q\\bar{q} separation. The string tension results are compared for two different sizes of the lattice. As the lattice becomes larger and finer together with the improved precision, the temperature dependent string tension tends to have a smaller value than the previous one.
Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji
We continue our investigation of large field inflation models obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories, initiated in our previous study http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/02/031. We focus on Dante’s Inferno model which was the most preferred model in our previous analysis. We point out the relevance of the IR obstruction to UV completion, which constrains the form of the potential of the massive vector field, under the current observational upper bound on the tensor to scalar ratio. We also show that in simple examples of the potential arising from DBI action of a D5-brane and that of an NS5-brane that the inflation takes place inmore » the field range which is within the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This is in contrast to the well known examples of axion monodromy inflation where inflaton takes place outside the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This difference arises from the very essence of Dante’s Inferno model that the effective inflaton potential is stretched in the inflaton field direction compared with the potential for the original field.« less
Pilch, Krzysztof; Tyukov, Alexander; Warner, Nicholas P.
2016-05-02
In this study, we investigate a family of SU(3)×U(1)×U(1)-invariant holographic flows and Janus solutions obtained from gaugedmore » $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 8 supergravity in four dimensions. We give complete details of how to use the uplift formulae to obtain the corresponding solutions in M theory. While the flow solutions appear to be singular from the four-dimensional perspective, we find that the eleven-dimensional solutions are much better behaved and give rise to interesting new classes of compactification geometries that are smooth, up to orbifolds, in the infra-red limit. Our solutions involve new phases in which M2 branes polarize partially or even completely into M5 branes. We derive the eleven-dimensional supersymmetries and show that the eleven-dimensional equations of motion and BPS equations are indeed satisfied as a consequence of their four-dimensional counterparts. Apart from elucidating a whole new class of eleven-dimensional Janus and flow solutions, our work provides extensive and highly non-trivial tests of the recently-derived uplift formulae.« less
Yangians in Integrable Field Theories, Spin Chains and Gauge-String Dualities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spill, Fabian
In the following paper, which is based on the author's PhD thesis submitted to Imperial College London, we explore the applicability of Yangian symmetry to various integrable models, in particular, in relation with S-matrices. One of the main themes in this work is that, after a careful study of the mathematics of the symmetry algebras one finds that in an integrable model, one can directly reconstruct S-matrices just from the algebra. It has been known for a long time that S-matrices in integrable models are fixed by symmetry. However, Lie algebra symmetry, the Yang-Baxter equation, crossing and unitarity, which constrain the S-matrix in integrable models, are often taken to be separate, independent properties of the S-matrix. Here, we construct scattering matrices purely from the Yangian, showing that the Yangian is the right algebraic object to unify all required symmetries of many integrable models. In particular, we reconstruct the S-matrix of the principal chiral field, and, up to a CDD factor, of other integrable field theories with 𝔰𝔲(n) symmetry. Furthermore, we study the AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also believed to be integrable in the planar limit. We reconstruct the S-matrices at weak and at strong coupling from the Yangian or its classical limit. We give a pedagogical introduction into the subject, presenting a unified perspective of Yangians and their applications in physics. This paper should hence be accessible to mathematicians who would like to explore the application of algebraic objects to physics as well as to physicists interested in a deeper understanding of the mathematical origin of physical quantities.
The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide
2017-09-01
We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.
Koopman-von Neumann formulation of classical Yang-Mills theories: I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carta, P.; Gozzi, E.; Mauro, D.
2006-03-01
In this paper we present the Koopman-von Neumann (KvN) formulation of classical non-Abelian gauge field theories. In particular we shall explore the functional (or classical path integral) counterpart of the KvN method. In the quantum path integral quantization of Yang-Mills theories concepts like gauge-fixing and Faddeev-Popov determinant appear in a quite natural way. We will prove that these same objects are needed also in this classical path integral formulation for Yang-Mills theories. We shall also explore the classical path integral counterpart of the BFV formalism and build all the associated universal and gauge charges. These last are quite different from the analog quantum ones and we shall show the relation between the two. This paper lays the foundation of this formalism which, due to the many auxiliary fields present, is rather heavy. Applications to specific topics outlined in the paper will appear in later publications.
Constructive tensorial group field theory II: the {U(1)-T^4_4} model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahoche, Vincent
2018-05-01
In this paper, we continue our program of non-pertubative constructions of tensorial group field theories (TGFT). We prove analyticity and Borel summability in a suitable domain of the coupling constant of the simplest super-renormalizable TGFT which contains some ultraviolet divergencies, namely the color-symmetric quartic melonic rank-four model with Abelian gauge invariance, nicknamed . We use a multiscale loop vertex expansion. It is an extension of the loop vertex expansion (the basic constructive technique for non-local theories) which is required for theories that involve non-trivial renormalization.
BRST Formalism in Self-Dual Chern-Simons Theory with Matter Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Jialiang; Fan, Engui
2018-04-01
We apply BRST method to the self-dual Chern-Simons gauge theory with matter fields and the generators of symmetries of the system from an elegant Lie algebra structure under the operation of Poisson bracket. We discuss four different cases: abelian, nonabelian, relativistic, and nonrelativistic situations and extend the system to the whole phase space including ghost fields. In addition, we obtain the BRST charge of the field system and check its nilpotence of the BRST transformation which plays an important role such as in topological quantum field theory and string theory.
Fault-tolerant Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on non-Abelian anyons.
Deng, Dong-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Oh, C H
2010-08-06
We propose a scheme to test the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on braidings of non-Abelian anyons, which are exotic quasiparticle excitations of topological states of matter. Because topological ordered states are robust against local perturbations, this scheme is in some sense "fault-tolerant" and might close the detection inefficiency loophole problem in previous experimental tests of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox. In turn, the construction of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox reveals the nonlocal property of non-Abelian anyons. Our results indicate that the non-Abelian fractional statistics is a pure quantum effect and cannot be described by local realistic theories. Finally, we present a possible experimental implementation of the scheme based on the anyonic interferometry technologies.
Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian
We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compacti cations with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compacti cations on genus-one bered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z n. Such models are obtained by studying rst a speci c toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/Ftheory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compacti cations to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirrorpairsmore » for symmetric examples with Z 2 and Z 3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in eld theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stuckelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of brations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.« less
Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian
2017-06-30
We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compacti cations with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compacti cations on genus-one bered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z n. Such models are obtained by studying rst a speci c toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/Ftheory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compacti cations to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirrorpairsmore » for symmetric examples with Z 2 and Z 3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in eld theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stuckelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of brations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.« less
On the tensionless limit of gauged WZW models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakas, I.; Sourdis, C.
2004-06-01
The tensionless limit of gauged WZW models arises when the level of the underlying Kac-Moody algebra assumes its critical value, equal to the dual Coxeter number, in which case the central charge of the Virasoro algebra becomes infinite. We examine this limit from the world-sheet and target space viewpoint and show that gravity decouples naturally from the spectrum. Using the two-dimensional black-hole coset SL(2,Bbb R)k/U(1) as illustrative example, we find for k = 2 that the world-sheet symmetry is described by a truncated version of Winfty generated by chiral fields with integer spin s geq 3, whereas the Virasoro algebra becomes abelian and it can be consistently factored out. The geometry of target space looks like an infinitely curved hyperboloid, which invalidates the effective field theory description and conformal invariance can no longer be used to yield reliable space-time interpretation. We also compare our results with the null gauging of WZW models, which correspond to infinite boost in target space and they describe the Liouville mode that decouples in the tensionless limit. A formal BRST analysis of the world-sheet symmetry suggests that the central charge of all higher spin generators should be fixed to a critical value, which is not seen by the contracted Virasoro symmetry. Generalizations to higher dimensional coset models are also briefly discussed in the tensionless limit, where similar observations are made.
Dualities and Topological Field Theories from Twisted Geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markov, Ruza
I will present three studies of string theory on twisted geometries. In the first calculation included in this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to study the Coulomb branch of an unusual type of nonlocal field theory, called Puff Field Theory. On the gravity side, this theory is given in terms of D3-branes in type IIB string theory with a geometric twist. While the field theory description, available in the IR limit, is a deformation of Yang-Mills gauge theory by an order seven operator which we here compute. In the rest of this dissertation we explore N = 4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory compactied on a circle with S-duality and R-symmetry twists that preserve N = 6 supersymmetry in 2 + 1D. It was shown that abelian theory on a flat manifold gives Chern-Simons theory in the low-energy limit and here we are interested in the non-abelian counterpart. To that end, we introduce external static supersymmetric quark and anti-quark sources into the theory and calculate the Witten Index of the resulting Hilbert space of ground states on a two-torus. Using these results we compute the action of simple Wilson loops on the Hilbert space of ground states without sources. In some cases we find disagreement between our results for the Wilson loop eigenvalues and previous conjectures about a connection with Chern-Simons theory. The last result discussed in this dissertation demonstrates a connection between gravitational Chern-Simons theory and N = 4 four-dimensional SYM theory compactified on a circle twisted by S-duality where the remaining three-manifold is not flat starting with the explicit geometric realization of S-duality in terms of (2, 0) theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, J. Erik
2016-10-01
We investigate the existence of black hole and soliton solutions to four dimensional, anti-de Sitter (adS), Einstein-Yang-Mills theories with general semisimple connected and simply connected gauge groups, concentrating on the so-called regular case. We here generalise results for the asymptotically flat case, and compare our system with similar results from the well-researched adS {mathfrak {su}}(N) system. We find the analysis differs from the asymptotically flat case in some important ways: the biggest difference is that for Λ <0, solutions are much less constrained as r→ infty , making it possible to prove the existence of global solutions to the field equations in some neighbourhood of existing trivial solutions, and in the limit of |Λ |→ infty . In particular, we can identify non-trivial solutions where the gauge field functions have no zeroes, which in the {mathfrak {su}}(N) case proved important to stability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takuya; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.
2018-02-01
We compute individual distributions of low-lying eigenvalues of a chiral random matrix ensemble interpolating symplectic and unitary symmetry classes by the Nyström-type method of evaluating the Fredholm Pfaffian and resolvents of the quaternion kernel. The one-parameter family of these distributions is shown to fit excellently the Dirac spectra of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a constant U(1) background or dynamically fluctuating U(1) gauge field, which weakly breaks the pseudoreality of the unperturbed SU(2) Dirac operator. The observed linear dependence of the crossover parameter with the strength of the U(1) perturbations leads to precise determination of the pseudo-scalar decay constant, as well as the chiral condensate in the effective chiral Lagrangian of the AI class.
Gauged twistor spinors and symmetry operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ertem, Ümit
2017-03-01
We consider gauged twistor spinors which are supersymmetry generators of supersymmetric and superconformal field theories in curved backgrounds. We show that the spinor bilinears of gauged twistor spinors satisfy the gauged conformal Killing-Yano equation. We prove that the symmetry operators of the gauged twistor spinor equation can be constructed from ordinary conformal Killing-Yano forms in constant curvature backgrounds. This provides a way to obtain gauged twistor spinors from ordinary twistor spinors.
Anisotropic Bispectrum of Curvature Perturbations from Primordial Non-Abelian Vector Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartolo, Nicola; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio
2009-10-01
We consider a primordial SU(2) vector multiplet during inflation in models where quantum fluctuations of vector fields are involved in producing the curvature perturbation. Recently, a lot of attention has been paid to models populated by vector fields, given the interesting possibility of generating some level of statistical anisotropy in the cosmological perturbations. The scenario we propose is strongly motivated by the fact that, for non-Abelian gauge fields, self-interactions are responsible for generating extra terms in the cosmological correlation functions, which are naturally absent in the Abelian case. We compute these extra contributions to the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation, using the δN formula and the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. The primordial violation of rotational invariance (due to the introduction of the SU(2) gauge multiplet) leaves its imprint on the correlation functions introducing, as expected, some degree of statistical anisotropy in our results. We calculate the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL, proving that the new contributions derived from gauge bosons self-interactions can be important, and in some cases the dominat ones. We study the shape of the bispectrum and we find that it turns out to peak in the local configuration, with an amplitude that is modulated by the preferred directions that break statistical isotropy.
Symplectic analysis of three-dimensional Abelian topological gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R.; Escalante, Alberto; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo
2017-02-01
A detailed Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of an Abelian topological gravity is performed; we show that this formalism is equivalent and more economical than Dirac's method. In particular, we identify the complete set of constraints of the theory, from which the number of physical degrees of freedom is explicitly computed. We prove that the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets and the Dirac ones coincide with each other. Moreover, we perform the Faddeev-Jackiw analysis of the theory at the chiral point, and the full set of constraints and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets are constructed. Finally we compare our results with those found in the literature and we discuss some remarks and prospects.
Quantum theory of charged isolated horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, Konstantin; Sahlmann, Hanno
2018-04-01
We describe the quantum theory of isolated horizons with electromagnetic or non-Abelian gauge charges in a setting in which both the gauge and gravitational field are quantized. We consider the distorted case, and its spherically symmetric limit. We show that the gravitational horizon d.o.f. give rise to the Bekenstein-Hawking relation, with lower-order terms giving some corrections for small black holes. We also demonstrate that one can include matter d.o.f. in the state counting. We show that one can expect (potentially divergent) contributions proportional to the area, as well as logarithmic corrections proportional to the horizon charge. This is qualitatively similar to results on matter contributions obtained with other methods in the literature.
The Coulomb Branch of 3d $${\\mathcal{N}= 4}$$ N = 4 Theories
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide
2017-06-03
We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on themore » Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterich, C.
2018-06-01
We propose a closed gauge-invariant functional flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations. Deriving this equation from a functional integral we employ the freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field and the effective average action in order to realize a closed and simple form of the flow equation.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
Westman, Hans F., E-mail: hwestman74@gmail.com; Zlosnik, Tom G., E-mail: t.zlosnik@imperial.ac.uk
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the Yang–Mills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a ‘contact vector’ V{sup A} which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being ‘rolled’ on top ofmore » it, and (2) a gauge connection A{sub μ}{sup AB}, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartan’s geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energy–momentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energy–momentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of Yang–Mills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Stein-Schabes, Jaime A.; Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.
1988-01-01
Classical non-topological soliton configurations are considered within the theory of a complex scalar field with a gauged U symmetry. Their existence and stability against dispersion are demonstrated and some of their properties are investigated analytically and numerically. The soliton configuration is such that inside the soliton the local U symmetry is broken, the gauge field becomes massive and for a range of values of the coupling constants the soliton becomes a superconductor pushing the charge to the surface. Furthermore, because of the repulsive Coulomb force, there is a maximum size for these objects, making impossible the existence of Q-matter in bulk form. Also briefly discussed are solitons with fermions in a U gauge theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash
2017-08-01
We argue that in the tensionless phase of string theory where the stringy gauge symmetries are unbroken, (at least some) cosmological singularities can be understood as gauge artefacts. We present two conceptually related, but distinct, pieces of evidence: one relying on spacetime and the other on worldsheet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristjansen, C.; Staudacher, M.; Tseytlin, A.
2009-06-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence, proposed a little more than a decade ago, has become a major subject of contemporary theoretical physics. One reason is that it suggests the exact identity of a certain ten-dimensional superstring theory, and a specific supersymmetric four-dimensional gauge field theory. This indicates that string theory, often thought of as a generalization of quantum field theory, can also lead to an alternative and computationally advantageous reformulation of gauge theory. This establishes the direct, down-to-earth relevance of string theory beyond loftier ideas of finding a theory of everything. Put differently, strings definitely lead to a theory of something highly relevant: a non-abelian gauge theory in a physical number of dimensions! A second reason for recent excitement around AdS/CFT is that it uncovers surprising novel connections between otherwise increasingly separate subdisciplines of theoretical physics, such as high energy physics and condensed matter theory. This collection of review articles concerns precisely such a link. About six years ago evidence was discovered showing that the AdS/CFT string/gauge system might actually be an exactly integrable model, at least in the so-called planar limit. Its spectrum appears to be described by (a generalization of) a Bethe ansatz, first proposed as an exact solution for certain one-dimensional magnetic spin chains in the early days of quantum mechanics. The field has been developing very rapidly, and a collection of fine review articles is needed. This special issue is striving to provide precisely that. The first article of the present collection, by Nick Dorey, is a pedagogical introduction to the subject. The second article, by Adam Rej, based on the translation of the author's PhD thesis, describes important techniques for analysing and interpreting the integrable structure of AdS/CFT, mostly from the point of view of the gauge theory. The third contribution, by Gleb Arutyunov and Sergey
Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan
There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.
Stern, Ady
2010-03-11
Quantum mechanics classifies all elementary particles as either fermions or bosons, and this classification is crucial to the understanding of a variety of physical systems, such as lasers, metals and superconductors. In certain two-dimensional systems, interactions between electrons or atoms lead to the formation of quasiparticles that break the fermion-boson dichotomy. A particularly interesting alternative is offered by 'non-Abelian' states of matter, in which the presence of quasiparticles makes the ground state degenerate, and interchanges of identical quasiparticles shift the system between different ground states. Present experimental studies attempt to identify non-Abelian states in systems that manifest the fractional quantum Hall effect. If such states can be identified, they may become useful for quantum computation.
Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.
Chaudhuri, S
2001-03-05
We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)
Quark soup al dente: applied superstring theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, R. C.; Vázquez, S. E.
2008-06-01
In recent years, experiments have discovered an exotic new state of matter known as the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP). At present, it seems that standard theoretical tools, such as perturbation theory and lattice gauge theory, are poorly suited to understand this new phase. However, recent progress in superstring theory has provided us with a theoretical laboratory for studying very similar systems of strongly interacting hot non-Abelian plasmas. This surprising new perspective extracts the fluid properties of the sQGP from physical processes in a black hole spacetime. Hence we may find the answers to difficult particle physics questions about the sQGP from straightforward calculations in classical general relativity.
DIS off glueballs from string theory: the role of the chiral anomaly and the Chern-Simons term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovensky, Nicolas; Michalski, Gustavo; Schvellinger, Martin
2018-04-01
We calculate the structure function F 3( x, q 2) of the hadronic tensor of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons from glueballs of N=4 SYM theory at strong coupling and at small values of the Bjorken parameter in the gauge/string theory duality framework. This is done in terms of type IIB superstring theory scattering amplitudes. From the AdS5 perspective, the relevant part of the scattering amplitude comes from the five-dimensional non-Abelian Chern-Simons terms in the SU(4) gauged supergravity obtained from dimensional reduction on S 5. From type IIB superstring theory we derive an effective Lagrangian describing the four-point interaction in the local approximation. The exponentially small regime of the Bjorken parameter is investigated using Pomeron techniques.
Compact, singular G 2-holonomy manifolds and M/heterotic/F-theory duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura
2018-04-01
We study the duality between M-theory on compact holonomy G 2-manifolds and the heterotic string on Calabi-Yau three-folds. The duality is studied for K3-fibered G 2-manifolds, called twisted connected sums, which lend themselves to an application of fiber-wise M-theory/Heterotic Duality. For a large class of such G 2-manifolds we are able to identify the dual heterotic as well as F-theory realizations. First we establish this chain of dualities for smooth G 2-manifolds. This has a natural generalization to situations with non-abelian gauge groups, which correspond to singular G 2-manifolds, where each of the K3-fibers degenerates. We argue for their existence through the chain of dualities, supported by non-trivial checks of the spectra. The corresponding 4d gauge groups can be both Higgsable and non-Higgsable, and we provide several explicit examples of the general construction.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-04-04
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.
1989-01-01
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnumohan
2002-01-01
This Thesis explores aspects of superstring theory on orbifold spaces and applies some of the intuition gleaned from the study of the non-commutative geometry of space-time to understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect. The moduli space of vacua of marginal and relevant deformations of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills gauge theory in four dimensions is interpreted in terms of non-commutative geometry. A formalism for thinking about the algebraic geometry of the moduli space is developed. Within this framework, the representation theory of the algebras studied provides a natural exposition of D-brane fractionation. The non-commutative moduli space of deformations preserving N = 1 supersymmetry is examined in detail through various examples. In string theory, by the AdS/CFT correspondence, deformations of the N = 4 field theory are dual to the near-horizon geometries of D-branes on orbifolds of AdS5 x S 5. The physics of D-branes on the dual AdS backgrounds is explored. Quivers encapsulate the matter content of supersymmetric field theories on the worldvolumes of D-branes at orbifold singularities. New techniques for constructing quivers are presented here. When N is a normal subgroup of a finite group G, the quiver corresponding to fixed points of the orbifold M/G is computed from a G/N action on the quiver corresponding to M/G . These techniques prove useful for constructing non-Abelian quivers and for examining discrete torsion orbifolds. Quivers obtained through our constructions contain interesting low-energy phenomenology. The matter content on a brane at an isolated singularity of the Delta27 orbifold embeds the Standard Model. The symmetries of the quiver require exactly three generations of fields in the particle spectrum. Lepton masses are suppressed relative to quark masses because lepton Yukawa couplings do not appear in the superpotential. Lepton masses are generated through the Kahler potential and are related to the supersymmetry breaking scale. The model
Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio
2017-09-01
We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.
Huang, Yu-tin; Johansson, Henrik
2013-04-26
We show that three-dimensional supergravity amplitudes can be obtained as double copies of either three-algebra super-Chern-Simons matter theory or two-algebra super-Yang-Mills theory when either theory is organized to display the color-kinematics duality. We prove that only helicity-conserving four-dimensional gravity amplitudes have nonvanishing descendants when reduced to three dimensions, implying the vanishing of odd-multiplicity S-matrix elements, in agreement with Chern-Simons matter theory. We explicitly verify the double-copy correspondence at four and six points for N = 12,10,8 supergravity theories and discuss its validity for all multiplicity.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westman, Hans F.; Zlosnik, Tom G.
2013-07-01
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the Yang-Mills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a 'contact vector' VA which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being 'rolled' on top of it, and (2) a gauge connection AμAB, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartan's geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energy-momentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energy-momentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of Yang-Mills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are left as open questions.
Gauge-flation confronted with Planck
Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco, E-mail: namba@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu
2013-11-01
Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity γ ≡ g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For γ < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strongmore » tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small γ, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large γ. No value of γ leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with γ was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.« less
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-08
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a “hairline” solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877
The toric SO(10) F-theory landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchmüller, W.; Dierigl, M.; Oehlmann, P.-K.; Rühle, F.
2017-12-01
Supergravity theories in more than four dimensions with grand unified gauge symmetries are an important intermediate step towards the ultraviolet completion of the Standard Model in string theory. Using toric geometry, we classify and analyze six-dimensional F-theory vacua with gauge group SO(10) taking into account Mordell-Weil U(1) and discrete gauge factors. We determine the full matter spectrum of these models, including charged and neutral SO(10) singlets. Based solely on the geometry, we compute all matter multiplicities and confirm the cancellation of gauge and gravitational anomalies independent of the base space. Particular emphasis is put on symmetry enhancements at the loci of matter fields and to the frequent appearance of superconformal points. They are linked to non-toric Kähler deformations which contribute to the counting of degrees of freedom. We compute the anomaly coefficients for these theories as well by using a base-independent blow-up procedure and superconformal matter transitions. Finally, we identify six-dimensional supergravity models which can yield the Standard Model with high-scale supersymmetry by further compactification to four dimensions in an Abelian flux background.
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jorge V.
2017-03-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson’s RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal’s RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN’s results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT’s sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jorge V.
2013-06-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson's RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal's RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN's results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT's sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2000-08-01
I discuss the properties of the central charges c and a for higher-derivative and higher-spin theories (spin 2 included). Ordinary gravity does not admit a straightforward identification of c and a in the trace anomaly, because it is not conformal. On the other hand, higher-derivative theories can be conformal, but have negative c and a. A third possibility is to consider higher-spin conformal field theories. They are not unitary, but have a variety of interesting properties. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. There exists a conserved spin-2 current (not the canonical stress tensor) defining positive central charges c and a. I calculate the values of c and a and study the operator-product structure. Higher-spin conformal spinors have no gauge invariance, admit a standard definition of c and a and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a conformal window and non-trivial interacting fixed points. There are composite operators of high spin and low dimension, which violate the Ferrara-Gatto-Grillo theorem. Finally, other theories, such as conformal antisymmetric tensors, exhibit more severe internal problems. This research is motivated by the idea that fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points, and quantum irreversibility should be a general principle of nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
2018-02-01
We give a detailed analysis of an Abelianized gauge field model in which a Rarita-Schwinger spin-3/2 field is directly coupled to a spin-1/2 field. The model permits a perturbative expansion in powers of the gauge field coupling, and from the Feynman rules for the model we calculate the chiral anomaly.
Physical Projections in BRST Treatments of Reparametrization Invariant Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marnelius, Robert; Sandström, Niclas
Any regular quantum mechanical system may be cast into an Abelian gauge theory by simply reformulating it as a reparametrization invariant theory. We present a detailed study of the BRST quantization of such reparametrization invariant theories within a precise operator version of BRST which is related to the conventional BFV path integral formulation. Our treatments lead us to propose general rules for how physical wave functions and physical propagators are to be projected from the BRST singlets and propagators in the ghost extended BRST theory. These projections are performed by boundary conditions which are specified by the ingredients of BRST charge and precisely determined by the operator BRST. We demonstrate explicitly the validity of these rules for the considered class of models.
Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.
Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto
2013-05-01
We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jun-Jin
2017-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the conserved charges of generally diffeomorphism invariant gravity theories with a wide variety of matter fields, particularly of the theories with multiple scalar fields and p -form potentials, in the context of the off-shell generalized Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism. We first construct a new off-shell ADT current that consists of the terms for the variation of a Killing vector and expressions of the field equations as well as the Lie derivative of a surface term with respect to the Killing vector within the framework of generally diffeomorphism invariant gravity theories involving various matter fields. After deriving the off-shell ADT potential corresponding to this current, we propose a formula of conserved charges for these theories. Next, we derive the off-shell ADT potential associated with the generic Lagrangian that describes a large range of gravity theories with a number of scalar fields and p -form potentials. Finally, the properties of the off-shell generalized ADT charges for the theory of Einstein gravity and the gravity theories with a single p -form potential are investigated by performing Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction along a compactified direction. The results indicate that the charge contributed by all the fields in the lower-dimensional theory is equal to that of the higher-dimensional one at mathematical level with the hypothesis that the higher-dimensional spacetime allows for the existence of the compactified dimension. In order to illustrate our calculations, the mass and angular momentum for the five-dimensional rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes are explicitly evaluated as an example.
Condensation of an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics.
Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein
2011-09-01
We consider the thermodynamic geometry of an ideal non-Abelian gas. We show that, for a certain value of the fractional parameter and at the relevant maximum value of fugacity, the thermodynamic curvature has a singular point. This indicates a condensation such as Bose-Einstein condensation for non-Abelian statistics and we work out the phase transition temperature in various dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldacena, Juan; Milekhin, Alexey
2018-04-01
The D0 brane, or BFSS, matrix model is a quantum mechanical theory with an interesting gravity dual. We consider a variant of this model where we treat the SU( N) symmetry as a global symmetry, rather than as a gauge symmetry. This variant contains new non-singlet states. We consider the impact of these new states on its gravity dual. We argue that the gravity dual is essentially the same as the one for the original matrix model. The non-singlet states have higher energy at strong coupling and are therefore dynamically suppressed.
Consequences of an Abelian family symmetry
Ramond, P.
1996-01-01
The addition of an Abelian family symmetry to the Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model reproduces the observed hierarchies of quark and lepton masses and quark mixing angles, only if it is anomalous. Green-Schwarz compensation of its anomalies requires the electroweak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub {omega}} = 3/8 at the string scale, without any assumed GUT structure, suggesting a superstring origin for the standard model. The analysis is extended to neutrino masses and the lepton mixing matrix.
Instantons, quivers and noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirafici, Michele; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Szabo, Richard J.
2011-12-01
We construct noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants associated with abelian orbifold singularities by analyzing the instanton contributions to a six-dimensional topological gauge theory. The noncommutative deformation of this gauge theory localizes on noncommutative instantons which can be classified in terms of three-dimensional Young diagrams with a colouring of boxes according to the orbifold group. We construct a moduli space for these gauge field configurations which allows us to compute its virtual numbers via the counting of representations of a quiver with relations. The quiver encodes the instanton dynamics of the noncommutative gauge theory, and is associated to the geometry of the singularity via the generalized McKay correspondence. The index of BPS states which compute the noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants is realized via topological quantum mechanics based on the quiver data. We illustrate these constructions with several explicit examples, involving also higher rank Coulomb branch invariants and geometries with compact divisors, and connect our approach with other ones in the literature.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; ...
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore » point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less
Haag duality for Kitaev’s quantum double model for abelian groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiedler, Leander; Naaijkens, Pieter
2015-11-01
We prove Haag duality for cone-like regions in the ground state representation corresponding to the translational invariant ground state of Kitaev’s quantum double model for finite abelian groups. This property says that if an observable commutes with all observables localized outside the cone region, it actually is an element of the von Neumann algebra generated by the local observables inside the cone. This strengthens locality, which says that observables localized in disjoint regions commute. As an application, we consider the superselection structure of the quantum double model for abelian groups on an infinite lattice in the spirit of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts program in algebraic quantum field theory. We find that, as is the case for the toric code model on an infinite lattice, the superselection structure is given by the category of irreducible representations of the quantum double.
Symmetric solitonic excitations of the (1 + 1)-dimensional Abelian-Higgs classical vacuum.
Diakonos, F K; Katsimiga, G C; Maintas, X N; Tsagkarakis, C E
2015-02-01
We study the classical dynamics of the Abelian-Higgs model in (1 + 1) space-time dimensions for the case of strongly broken gauge symmetry. In this limit the wells of the potential are almost harmonic and sufficiently deep, presenting a scenario far from the associated critical point. Using a multiscale perturbation expansion, the equations of motion for the fields are reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Exact solutions of the latter are used to obtain approximate analytical solutions for the full dynamics of both the gauge and Higgs field in the form of oscillons and oscillating kinks. Numerical simulations of the exact dynamics verify the validity of these solutions. We explore their persistence for a wide range of the model's single parameter, which is the ratio of the Higgs mass (m(H)) to the gauge-field mass (m(A)). We show that only oscillons oscillating symmetrically with respect to the "classical vacuum," for both the gauge and the Higgs field, are long lived. Furthermore, plane waves and oscillating kinks are shown to decay into oscillon-like patterns, due to the modulation instability mechanism.
Adding gauge fields to Kaplan's fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, T.; Kärkkäinen, Leo
1994-04-01
We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U (1) gauge theory we use an inhomogenous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Pavel
In this thesis we study the properties of strongly-coupled large-N conformal field theories (CFT's) using AdS/CFT correspondence. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction. In Chapter 2 we study the shear viscosity of strongly-coupled large-N conformal field theories. We find that it is affected by R2 corrections to the AdS action and present an example of 4D theory in which the the conjectured universal lower bound on viscosity-to-entropy ratio η/s > 1/4π is violated by 1/N corrections. This fact proves that there is no universal lower bound of 1/4π on viscosity-to-entropy ratio and may be relevant for the studies of QCD quark-gluon plasma for which this ratio is experimentally found to be close to 1/4π. In Chapter 3 we study the formation of the electron star in 4D AdS space. We show that in a gravity theory with charged fermions a layer of charged fermion fluid may form at a finite distance from the charged black hole. We show that these “electron stars” are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting fermion systems at finite density and finite temperature. Entropy density for such systems scales as s ˜ T2/z at low temperatures as expected from IR criticality of electron stars solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Simone, Andrea; Franceschini, Roberto; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Rattazzi, Riccardo
2011-05-01
It has been recently pointed out that the unavoidable tuning among supersymmetric parameters required to raise the Higgs boson mass beyond its experimental limit opens up new avenues for dealing with the so called μ- B μ problem of gauge mediation. In fact, it allows for accommodating, with no further parameter tuning, large values of B μ and of the other Higgs-sector soft masses, as predicted in models where both μ and B μ are generated at one-loop order. This class of models, called Lopsided Gauge Mediation, offers an interesting alternative to conventional gauge mediation and is characterized by a strikingly different phenomenology, with light higgsinos, very large Higgs pseudoscalar mass, and moderately light sleptons. We discuss general parametric relations involving the fine-tuning of the model and various observables such as the chargino mass and the value of tan β. We build an explicit model and we study the constraints coming from LEP and Tevatron. We show that in spite of new interactions between the Higgs and the messenger superfields, the theory can remain perturbative up to very large scales, thus retaining gauge coupling unification.
Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions
Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah
There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall inter-plateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponentmore » $$\
Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions
Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah
2018-02-08
There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall inter-plateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponentmore » $$\
A Monte Carlo exploration of threefold base geometries for 4d F-theory vacua
Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi-Nan
2016-01-22
Here, we use Monte Carlo methods to explore the set of toric threefold bases that support elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds for F-theory compactifications to four dimensions, and study the distribution of geometrically non-Higgsable gauge groups, matter, and quiver structure. We estimate the number of distinct threefold bases in the connected set studied to be ~ 10 48. Moreover, the distribution of bases peaks around h 1,1 ~ 82. All bases encountered after "thermalization" have some geometric non-Higgsable structure. We also find that the number of non-Higgsable gauge group factors grows roughly linearly in h 1,1 of the threefold base. Typical basesmore » have ~ 6 isolated gauge factors as well as several larger connected clusters of gauge factors with jointly charged matter. Approximately 76% of the bases sampled contain connected two-factor gauge group products of the form SU(3) x SU(2), which may act as the non-Abelian part of the standard model gauge group. SU(3) x SU(2) is the third most common connected two-factor product group, following SU(2) x SU(2) and G2 x SU(2), which arise more frequently.« less
A Monte Carlo exploration of threefold base geometries for 4d F-theory vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi-Nan
2016-01-01
We use Monte Carlo methods to explore the set of toric threefold bases that support elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds for F-theory compactifications to four dimensions, and study the distribution of geometrically non-Higgsable gauge groups, matter, and quiver structure. We estimate the number of distinct threefold bases in the connected set studied to be ˜ 1048. The distribution of bases peaks around h 1,1 ˜ 82. All bases encountered after "thermalization" have some geometric non-Higgsable structure. We find that the number of non-Higgsable gauge group factors grows roughly linearly in h 1,1 of the threefold base. Typical bases have ˜ 6 isolated gauge factors as well as several larger connected clusters of gauge factors with jointly charged matter. Approximately 76% of the bases sampled contain connected two-factor gauge group products of the form SU(3) × SU(2), which may act as the non-Abelian part of the standard model gauge group. SU(3) × SU(2) is the third most common connected two-factor product group, following SU(2) × SU(2) and G 2 × SU(2), which arise more frequently.
Second-order Boltzmann equation: gauge dependence and gauge invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naruko, Atsushi; Pitrou, Cyril; Koyama, Kazuya; Sasaki, Misao
2013-08-01
In the context of cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the second-order Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of radiation without a specific gauge choice. The essential steps in deriving the Boltzmann equation are revisited and extended given this more general framework: (i) the polarization of light is incorporated in this formalism by using a tensor-valued distribution function; (ii) the importance of a choice of the tetrad field to define the local inertial frame in the description of the distribution function is emphasized; (iii) we perform a separation between temperature and spectral distortion, both for the intensity and polarization for the first time; (iv) the gauge dependence of all perturbed quantities that enter the Boltzmann equation is derived, and this enables us to check the correctness of the perturbed Boltzmann equation by explicitly showing its gauge-invariance for both intensity and polarization. We finally discuss several implications of the gauge dependence for the observed temperature.
On gauge independence for gauge models with soft breaking of BRST symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reshetnyak, Alexander
2014-12-01
A consistent quantum treatment of general gauge theories with an arbitrary gauge-fixing in the presence of soft breaking of the BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is developed. It is based on a gauged (involving a field-dependent parameter) version of finite BRST transformations. The prescription allows one to restore the gauge-independence of the effective action at its extremals and therefore also that of the conventional S-matrix for a theory with BRST-breaking terms being additively introduced into a BRST-invariant action in order to achieve a consistency of the functional integral. We demonstrate the applicability of this prescription within the approach of functional renormalization group to the Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The Gribov-Zwanziger action and the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for a many-parameter family of gauges, including the Coulomb, axial and covariant gauges, are derived perturbatively on the basis of finite gauged BRST transformations starting from Landau gauge. It is proved that gauge theories with soft breaking of BRST symmetry can be made consistent if the transformed BRST-breaking terms satisfy the same soft BRST symmetry breaking condition in the resulting gauge as the untransformed ones in the initial gauge, and also without this requirement.
Sequestered gravity in gauge mediation.
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Benakli, Karim; Quiros, Mariano
2016-01-01
We present a novel mechanism of supersymmetry breaking embeddable in string theory and simultaneously sharing the main advantages of (sequestered) gravity and gauge mediation. It is driven by a Scherk-Schwarz deformation along a compact extra dimension, transverse to a brane stack supporting the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This fixes the magnitude of the gravitino mass, together with that of the gauginos of a bulk gauge group, at a scale as high as [Formula: see text] GeV. Supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the observable sector dominantly by gauge interactions using massive messengers transforming non-trivially under the bulk and Standard Model gauge groups and leading to a neutralino LSP as dark matter candidate. The Higgsino mass [Formula: see text] and soft Higgs-bilinear [Formula: see text] term could be generated at the same order of magnitude as the other soft terms by effective supergravity couplings as in the Giudice-Masiero mechanism.
Characteristic classes of gauge systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.
2004-12-01
We define and study invariants which can be uniformly constructed for any gauge system. By a gauge system we understand an (anti-)Poisson supermanifold provided with an odd Hamiltonian self-commuting vector field called a homological vector field. This definition encompasses all the cases usually included into the notion of a gauge theory in physics as well as some other similar (but different) structures like Lie or Courant algebroids. For Lagrangian gauge theories or Hamiltonian first class constrained systems, the homological vector field is identified with the classical BRST transformation operator. We define characteristic classes of a gauge system as universal cohomology classes of the homological vector field, which are uniformly constructed in terms of this vector field itself. Not striving to exhaustively classify all the characteristic classes in this work, we compute those invariants which are built up in terms of the first derivatives of the homological vector field. We also consider the cohomological operations in the space of all the characteristic classes. In particular, we show that the (anti-)Poisson bracket becomes trivial when applied to the space of all the characteristic classes, instead the latter space can be endowed with another Lie bracket operation. Making use of this Lie bracket one can generate new characteristic classes involving higher derivatives of the homological vector field. The simplest characteristic classes are illustrated by the examples relating them to anomalies in the traditional BV or BFV-BRST theory and to characteristic classes of (singular) foliations.