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Sample records for abelian higgs vortices

  1. Stability of infinite derivative Abelian Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Anish; Mazumdar, Anupam; Okada, Nobuchika; Villalba, Desmond

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the stringy effects by modifying the local kinetic term of an Abelian Higgs field by the Gaussian kinetic term, we show that the Higgs field does not possess any instability; the Yukawa coupling between the scalar and the fermion, the gauge coupling, and the self interaction of the Higgs yields exponentially suppressed running at high energies, showing that such class of theory never suffers from vacuum instability. We briefly discuss its implications for the early Universe cosmology.

  2. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  3. Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.

  4. Abelian-Higgs phase of SU(2) QCD and glueball energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Duojie

    2008-07-01

    It is shown that SU(2) QCD admits an dual Abelian-Higgs phase, with a Higgs vacuum of a type-II superconductor. This is done by using a connection decomposition for the gluon field and the random-direction approximation. Using a bag picture with soft wall, we presented a calculational procedure for the glueball energy based on the recent proof for wall-vortices [Nucl. Phys. B 741(2006)1]. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10547009) and Research Backbone Fostering Program of Knowledge and S&T Innovation Project of NWNU (KJCXGC 03-41)

  5. Maxwell-Higgs vortices with internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2018-05-01

    Vortices are considered in relativistic Maxwell-Higgs systems in interaction with a neutral scalar field. The gauge field interacts with the neutral field via the presence of generalized permeability, and the charged and neutral scalar fields interact in a way dictated by the presence of first order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. The neutral field may be seen as the source field of the vortex, and we study some possibilities, which modify the standard Maxwell-Higgs solution and include internal structure to the vortex.

  6. Non-Abelian vortices of higher winding numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Konishi, Kenichi; Vinci, Walter

    2006-09-15

    We make a detailed study of the moduli space of winding number two (k=2) axially symmetric vortices (or equivalently, of coaxial composite of two fundamental vortices), occurring in U(2) gauge theory with two flavors in the Higgs phase, recently discussed by Hashimoto and Tong and by Auzzi, Shifman, and Yung. We find that it is a weighted projective space WCP{sub (2,1,1)}{sup 2}{approx_equal}CP{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}. This manifold contains an A{sub 1}-type (Z{sub 2}) orbifold singularity even though the full moduli space including the relative position moduli is smooth. The SU(2) transformation properties of such vortices are studied. Our results are thenmore » generalized to U(N) gauge theory with N flavors, where the internal moduli space of k=2 axially symmetric vortices is found to be a weighted Grassmannian manifold. It contains singularities along a submanifold.« less

  7. Diffusion of massive particles around an Abelian-Higgs string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhisek; Sanyal, Soma

    2018-03-01

    We study the diffusion of massive particles in the space time of an Abelian Higgs string. The particles in the early universe plasma execute Brownian motion. This motion of the particles is modeled as a two dimensional random walk in the plane of the Abelian Higgs string. The particles move randomly in the space time of the string according to their geodesic equations. We observe that for certain values of their energy and angular momentum, an overdensity of particles is observed close to the string. We find that the string parameters determine the distribution of the particles. We make an estimate of the density fluctuation generated around the string as a function of the deficit angle. Though the thickness of the string is small, the length is large and the overdensity close to the string may have cosmological consequences in the early universe.

  8. Minimal non-abelian supersymmetric Twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-10-17

    We propose a minimal supersymmetric Twin Higgs model that can accommodate tuning of the electroweak scale for heavy stops better than 10% with high mediation scales of supersymmetry breaking. A crucial ingredient of this model is a new SU(2) X gauge symmetry which provides a D-term potential that generates a large SU(4) invariant coupling for the Higgs sector and only small set of particles charged under SU(2) X , which allows the model to be perturbative around the Planck scale. The new gauge interaction drives the top yukawa coupling small at higher energy scales, which also reduces the tuning.

  9. The Abelian Higgs model on Optical Lattice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Bazavov, Alexei; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    We study the Lattice Gauge Theory of the U(1)-Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. We discuss the plaquette corrections to the effective theory where link variables are integrated out. We discuss matching with the second-order perturbation theory effective Hamiltonian for various Bose-Hubbard models. This correspondence can be exploited for building a lattice gauge theory simulator on optical lattices. We propose to implement the quantum rotors which appear in the Hamiltonian formulation using Bose mixtures or p-orbitals. Recent progress on magnetic effects in 2+1 dimensions will be discussed. Supported by the Army Research Office of the Department of Defense under Award Number W911NF-13-1-0119.

  10. A non-perturbative argument for the non-abelian Higgs mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    De Palma, G.; INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa; Strocchi, F., E-mail: franco.strocchi@sns.it

    2013-09-15

    The evasion of massless Goldstone bosons by the non-abelian Higgs mechanism is proved by a non-perturbative argument in the local BRST gauge. -- Highlights: •The perturbative explanation of the Higgs mechanism (HM) is not under mathematical control. •We offer a non-perturbative proof of the absence of Goldstone bosons from the non-abelian HM. •Our non-perturbative proof in the BRST gauge avoids a mean field ansatz and expansion.

  11. Abelian Higgs cosmic strings: Small-scale structure and loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Stuckey, Stephanie; Bevis, Neil

    2009-06-15

    Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small-scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski and Rocha 29 for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loopmore » distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. 30. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation 32, coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a strong energy-loss mechanism, which allows the string network to scale without gravitational radiation, but which is not due to the production of string width loops. From evidence of small-scale structure we argue a partial explanation for the scale separation problem of how energy in the very low frequency modes of the string network is transformed into the very high frequency modes of gauge and Higgs radiation. We propose a picture of string network evolution, which reconciles the apparent differences between Nambu-Goto and field theory simulations.« less

  12. Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.K.

    1987-05-15

    Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.

  13. Core structure and dynamics of non-Abelian vortices in a biaxial nematic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgh, Magnus O.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that multiple interaction-dependent defect core structures as well as dynamics of non-Abelian vortices can be realized in the biaxial nematic (BN) phase of a spin-2 atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). An experimentally simple protocol may be used to break degeneracy with the uniaxial nematic phase. We show that a discrete spin-space symmetry in the core may be reflected in a breaking of its spatial symmetry. The discrete symmetry of the BN order parameter leads to non-commuting vortex charges. We numerically simulate reconnection of non-Abelian vortices, demonstrating formation of the obligatory rung vortex. In addition to atomic BECs, non-Abelian vortices are theorized in, e.g., liquid crystals and cosmic strings. Our results suggest the BN spin-2 BEC as a prime candidate for their realization. We acknowledge financial support from the EPSRC.

  14. Symmetric solitonic excitations of the (1 + 1)-dimensional Abelian-Higgs classical vacuum.

    PubMed

    Diakonos, F K; Katsimiga, G C; Maintas, X N; Tsagkarakis, C E

    2015-02-01

    We study the classical dynamics of the Abelian-Higgs model in (1 + 1) space-time dimensions for the case of strongly broken gauge symmetry. In this limit the wells of the potential are almost harmonic and sufficiently deep, presenting a scenario far from the associated critical point. Using a multiscale perturbation expansion, the equations of motion for the fields are reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Exact solutions of the latter are used to obtain approximate analytical solutions for the full dynamics of both the gauge and Higgs field in the form of oscillons and oscillating kinks. Numerical simulations of the exact dynamics verify the validity of these solutions. We explore their persistence for a wide range of the model's single parameter, which is the ratio of the Higgs mass (m(H)) to the gauge-field mass (m(A)). We show that only oscillons oscillating symmetrically with respect to the "classical vacuum," for both the gauge and the Higgs field, are long lived. Furthermore, plane waves and oscillating kinks are shown to decay into oscillon-like patterns, due to the modulation instability mechanism.

  15. The Born–Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We construct self-dual Born–Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism. Two specific models of the theory are of focused interest where the Higgs potential is either of a |ϕ|4- or |ϕ|6-type. For the |ϕ|4-model, we obtain a sharp existence and uniqueness theorem for doubly periodic and planar vortices. For doubly periodic solutions, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence is explicitly derived in terms of the vortex number, the Born–Infeld parameter, and the size of the periodic lattice domain. For the |ϕ|6-model, we show that both topological and non-topological vortices are present. This new phenomenon distinguishes the model from the classical Born–Infeld–Higgs theory studied earlier in the literature. A series of results regarding doubly periodic, topological, and non-topological vortices in the |ϕ|6-model are also established. PMID:27274694

  16. The Born-Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaosen

    2016-04-01

    We construct self-dual Born-Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism. Two specific models of the theory are of focused interest where the Higgs potential is either of a | ϕ | 4 - or | ϕ | 6 -type. For the | ϕ | 4 -model, we obtain a sharp existence and uniqueness theorem for doubly periodic and planar vortices. For doubly periodic solutions, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence is explicitly derived in terms of the vortex number, the Born-Infeld parameter, and the size of the periodic lattice domain. For the | ϕ | 6 -model, we show that both topological and non-topological vortices are present. This new phenomenon distinguishes the model from the classical Born-Infeld-Higgs theory studied earlier in the literature. A series of results regarding doubly periodic, topological, and non-topological vortices in the | ϕ | 6 -model are also established.

  17. The 'sleeping beauty' galaxy NGC 4826: an almost textbook example of the Abelian Higgs vorto-source (-sink)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniga, Metod

    1995-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the kinematic 'peculiarity' of the early Sab galaxy NGC 4826 can easily be understood in terms of the Abelian Higgs (AH) model of spiral galaxies. A cylindrically symmetric AH vorto-source (-sink) with a disk-to-bulge ratio Omega greater than 1 is discussed and the distributions of the diagonal components of the corresponding stress-energy tensor Tmu,nu are presented. It is argued that the sign-changing component Tphiphi could account for the existence of two counter-rotating gas disks while negative values of Trr imply inward gas motions as observed in the outer and transition regions of the galaxy.

  18. CMB power spectrum contribution from cosmic strings using field-evolution simulations of the Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2007-03-01

    We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension μ required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole ℓ=10 is Gμ=[2.04±0.06(stat.)±0.12(sys.)]×10-6, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton’s constant. This is a factor 2 3 higher than values in current circulation.

  19. Inert two-Higgs-doublet model strongly coupled to a non-Abelian vector resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Abatte, Felipe; Mora, Maria Luisa; Urbina, Jose; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2017-11-01

    We study the possibility of a dark matter candidate having its origin in an extended Higgs sector which, at least partially, is related to a new strongly interacting sector. More concretely, we consider an i2HDM (i.e., a Type-I two Higgs doublet model supplemented with a Z2 under which the nonstandard scalar doublet is odd) based on the gauge group S U (2 )1×S U (2 )2×U (1 )Y . We assume that one of the scalar doublets and the standard fermion transform nontrivially under S U (2 )1 while the second doublet transforms under S U (2 )2. Our main hypothesis is that standard sector is weakly coupled while the gauge interactions associated to the second group is characterized by a large coupling constant. We explore the consequences of this construction for the phenomenology of the dark matter candidate and we show that the presence of the new vector resonance reduces the relic density saturation region, compared to the usual i2DHM, in the high dark matter mass range. In the collider side, we argue that the mono-Z production is the channel which offers the best chances to manifest the presence of the new vector field. We study the departures from the usual i2HDM predictions and show that the discovery of the heavy vector at the LHC is challenging even in the mono-Z channel since the typical cross sections are of the order of 10-2 fb .

  20. Non-Abelian vortex lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.

  1. Non-Abelian supertubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Melgarejo, José J.; Park, Minkyu; Shigemori, Masaki

    2017-12-01

    A supertube is a supersymmetric configuration in string theory which occurs when a pair of branes spontaneously polarizes and generates a new dipole charge extended along a closed curve. The dipole charge of a codimension-2 supertube is characterized by the U-duality monodromy as one goes around the supertube. For multiple codimension-2 supertubes, their monodromies do not commute in general. In this paper, we construct a supersymmetric solution of five-dimensional supergravity that describes two supertubes with such non-Abelian monodromies, in a certain perturbative expansion. In supergravity, the monodromies are realized as the multi-valuedness of the scalar fields, while in higher dimensions they correspond to non-geometric duality twists of the internal space. The supertubes in our solution carry NS5 and 5 2 2 dipole charges and exhibit the same monodromy structure as the SU(2) Seiberg-Witten geometry. The perturbative solution has AdS2 × S 2 asymptotics and vanishing four-dimensional angular momentum. We argue that this solution represents a microstate of four-dimensional black holes with a finite horizon and that it provides a clue for the gravity realization of a pure-Higgs branch state in the dual quiver quantum mechanics.

  2. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  3. Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.

  4. Topological vortices in gauge models of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Li, Xueqin; Hao, Jin-Bo

    2018-06-01

    Graphene-like structure possessing the topological vortices and knots, and the magnetic flux of the vortices configuration quantized, are proposed in this paper. The topological charges of the vortices are characterized by Hopf indices and Brower degrees. The Abelian background field action (BF action) is a topological invariant for the knot family, which is just the total sum of all the self-linking numbers and all the linking numbers. Flux quantization opens the possibility of having Aharonov-Bohm-type effects in graphene without external electromagnetic field.

  5. Flavored gauge mediation with discrete non-Abelian symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Lisa L.; Garon, Todd S.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the model building and phenomenology of flavored gauge-mediation models of supersymmetry breaking in which the electroweak Higgs doublets and the S U (2 ) messenger doublets are connected by a discrete non-Abelian symmetry. The embedding of the Higgs and messenger fields into representations of this non-Abelian Higgs-messenger symmetry results in specific relations between the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and the messenger-matter Yukawa interactions. Taking the concrete example of an S3 Higgs-messenger symmetry, we demonstrate that, while the minimal implementation of this scenario suffers from a severe μ /Bμ problem that is well known from ordinary gauge mediation, expanding the Higgs-messenger field content allows for the possibility that μ and Bμ can be separately tuned, allowing for the possibility of phenomenologically viable models of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. We construct toy examples of this type that are consistent with the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass.

  6. Transmogrifying fuzzy vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Jeff; Millner, Antony

    2004-04-01

    We show that the construction of vortex solitons of the noncommutative abelian-Higgs model can be extended to a critically coupled gauged linear sigma model with Fayet-Illiopolous D-terms. Like its commutative counterpart, this fuzzy linear sigma model has a rich spectrum of BPS solutions. We offer an explicit construction of the degree-k static semilocal vortex and study in some detail the infinite coupling limit in which it descends to a degree-k Bbb CBbb PkN instanton. This relation between the fuzzy vortex and noncommutative lump is used to suggest an interpretation of the noncommutative sigma model soliton as tilted D-strings stretched between an NS5-brane and a stack of D3-branes in type-IIB superstring theory.

  7. Global U(1 ) Y⊗BRST symmetry and the LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T -matrix elements, and the effective potential in the scalar sector of the spontaneously broken extended Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Bryan W.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    The weak-scale U (1 )Y Abelian Higgs model (AHM) is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) gauge theory: a scalar ϕ =1/√{2 }(H +i π )≡1/√{2 }H ˜ei π ˜/⟨H ⟩ and a vector Aμ. The extended AHM (E-AHM) adds certain heavy (MΦ2,Mψ2˜MHeavy2≫⟨H ⟩2˜mWeak2 ) spin S =0 scalars Φ and S =1/2 fermions ψ . In Lorenz gauge, ∂μAμ=0 , the SSB AHM (and E-AHM) has a global U (1 )Y conserved physical current, but no conserved charge. As shown by T. W. B. Kibble, the Goldstone theorem applies, so π ˜ is a massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB). Proof of all-loop-orders renormalizability and unitarity for the SSB case is tricky because the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST)-invariant Lagrangian is not U (1 )Y symmetric. Nevertheless, Slavnov-Taylor identities guarantee that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states Aμ,ϕ , Φ , ψ (but not ghosts ω , η ¯ ) are independent of anomaly-free local U (1 )Y gauge transformations. We observe here that they are therefore also independent of the usual anomaly-free U (1 )Y global/rigid transformations. It follows that the associated global current, which is classically conserved only up to gauge-fixing terms, is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states in the AHM and E-AHM. We identify corresponding "undeformed" [i.e. with full global U (1 )Y symmetry] Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI). The proof of renormalizability and unitarity, which relies on BRST invariance, is undisturbed. In Lorenz gauge, two towers of "1-soft-pion" SSB global WTI govern the ϕ -sector, and represent a new global U (1 )Y⊗BRST symmetry not of the Lagrangian but of the physics. The first gives relations among off-shell Green's functions, yielding powerful constraints on the all-loop-orders ϕ -sector SSB E-AHM low-energy effective Lagrangian and an additional global shift symmetry for the NGB: π ˜→π ˜+⟨H ⟩θ . A second tower, governing on-shell T-matrix elements, replaces the old Adler

  8. Cloud vortices

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-02

    Cloud vortices off Heard Island, south Indian Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of sea ice off Heard Island on Nov 2, 2015 at 5:02 AM EST (09:20 UTC). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  9. Gravitational waves from non-Abelian gauge fields at a tachyonic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranberg, Anders; Tähtinen, Sara; Weir, David J.

    2018-04-01

    We compute the gravitational wave spectrum from a tachyonic preheating transition of a Standard Model-like SU(2)-Higgs system. Tachyonic preheating involves exponentially growing IR modes, at scales as large as the horizon. Such a transition at the electroweak scale could be detectable by LISA, if these non-perturbatively large modes translate into non-linear dynamics sourcing gravitational waves. Through large-scale numerical simulations, we find that the spectrum of gravitational waves does not exhibit such IR features. Instead, we find two peaks corresponding to the Higgs and gauge field mass, respectively. We find that the gravitational wave production is reduced when adding non-Abelian gauge fields to a scalar-only theory, but increases when adding Abelian gauge fields. In particular, gauge fields suppress the gravitational wave spectrum in the IR. A tachyonic transition in the early Universe will therefore not be detectable by LISA, even if it involves non-Abelian gauge fields.

  10. Upper bound on the Abelian gauge coupling from asymptotic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Versteegen, Fleur

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of asymptotically safe quantum gravity on the Abelian gauge coupling in a model including a charged scalar, confirming indications that asymptotically safe quantum fluctuations of gravity could trigger a power-law running towards a free fixed point for the gauge coupling above the Planck scale. Simultaneously, quantum gravity fluctuations balance against matter fluctuations to generate an interacting fixed point, which acts as a boundary of the basin of attraction of the free fixed point. This enforces an upper bound on the infrared value of the Abelian gauge coupling. In the regime of gravity couplings which in our approximation also allows for a prediction of the top quark and Higgs mass close to the experimental value [1], we obtain an upper bound approximately 35% above the infrared value of the hypercharge coupling in the Standard Model.

  11. Non-Abelian gauge preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adshead, Peter; Giblin, John T.; Weiner, Zachary J.

    2017-12-01

    We study preheating in models where a scalar inflaton is directly coupled to a non-Abelian S U (2 ) gauge field. In particular, we examine m2ϕ2 inflation with a conformal, dilatonlike coupling to the non-Abelian sector. We describe a numerical scheme that combines lattice gauge theory with standard finite difference methods applied to the scalar field. We show that a significant tachyonic instability allows for efficient preheating, which is parametrically suppressed by increasing the non-Abelian self-coupling. Additionally, we comment on the technical implementation of the evolution scheme and setting initial conditions.

  12. Cloud vortices

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Cloud vortices off Heard Island, south Indian Ocean. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of sea ice off Heard Island on Nov 2, 2015 at 5:02 AM EST (09:20 UTC). Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Feynman rules for a whole Abelian model

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.

    2012-09-24

    Feynman rules for an abelian extension of gauge theories are discussed and explicitly derived. Vertices with three and four abelian gauge bosons are obtained. A discussion on an eventual structure for the photon is presented.

  14. Towards a realization of the condensed-matter-gravity correspondence in string theory via consistent Abelian truncation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2012-11-02

    We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.

  15. Introducing Abelian Groups Using Bullseyes and Jenga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a new approach for introducing students to the definition and standard examples of Abelian groups. The definition of an Abelian group is revised to include six axioms. A bullseye provides a way to visualize elementary examples and non-examples of Abelian groups. An activity based on the game of Jenga is used…

  16. Existence of topological multi-string solutions in Abelian gauge field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jongmin; Sohn, Juhee

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a general form of self-dual equations arising from Abelian gauge field theories coupled with the Einstein equations. By applying the super/subsolution method, we prove that topological multi-string solutions exist for any coupling constant, which improves previously known results. We provide two examples for application: the self-dual Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs model and the gravitational Maxwell gauged O(3) sigma model.

  17. Higgs CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarino, Giampiero

    2014-05-01

    Higgs Computed Axial Tomography, an excerpt. The Higgs boson lineshape ( and the devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape, Hamlet, Act II, scene 2) is analyzed for the process, with special emphasis on the off-shell tail which shows up for large values of the Higgs virtuality. The effect of including background and interference is also discussed. The main focus of this work is on residual theoretical uncertainties, discussing how much-improved constraint on the Higgs intrinsic width can be revealed by an improved approach to analysis.

  18. Universal Topological Quantum Computation from a Superconductor-Abelian Quantum Hall Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, Roger S. K.; Clarke, David J.; Alicea, Jason; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fendley, Paul; Nayak, Chetan; Oreg, Yuval; Stern, Ady; Berg, Erez; Shtengel, Kirill; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Abelian anyons promise to reveal spectacular features of quantum mechanics that could ultimately provide the foundation for a decoherence-free quantum computer. A key breakthrough in the pursuit of these exotic particles originated from Read and Green's observation that the Moore-Read quantum Hall state and a (relatively simple) two-dimensional p+ip superconductor both support so-called Ising non-Abelian anyons. Here, we establish a similar correspondence between the Z3 Read-Rezayi quantum Hall state and a novel two-dimensional superconductor in which charge-2e Cooper pairs are built from fractionalized quasiparticles. In particular, both phases harbor Fibonacci anyons that—unlike Ising anyons—allow for universal topological quantum computation solely through braiding. Using a variant of Teo and Kane's construction of non-Abelian phases from weakly coupled chains, we provide a blueprint for such a superconductor using Abelian quantum Hall states interlaced with an array of superconducting islands. Fibonacci anyons appear as neutral deconfined particles that lead to a twofold ground-state degeneracy on a torus. In contrast to a p+ip superconductor, vortices do not yield additional particle types, yet depending on nonuniversal energetics can serve as a trap for Fibonacci anyons. These results imply that one can, in principle, combine well-understood and widely available phases of matter to realize non-Abelian anyons with universal braid statistics. Numerous future directions are discussed, including speculations on alternative realizations with fewer experimental requirements.

  19. Localization in abelian Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, B. D. K.

    2013-02-01

    Chern-Simons theory on a closed contact three-manifold is studied when the Lie group for gauge transformations is compact, connected, and abelian. The abelian Chern-Simons partition function is derived using the Faddeev-Popov gauge fixing method. The partition function is then formally computed using the technique of non-abelian localization. This study leads to a natural identification of the abelian Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections for the class of Sasakian three-manifolds. The torsion part of the abelian Chern-Simons partition function is computed explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given Sasakian three-manifold.

  20. Critical string from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions

    DOE PAGES

    Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2015-09-25

    In a class of non-Abelian solitonic vortex strings supported in certain N = 2 super-Yang–Mills theories we search for the vortex which can behave as a critical fundamental string. We use the Polchinski–Strominger criterion of the ultraviolet completeness. We identify an appropriate four-dimensional bulk theory: it has the U(2) gauge group, the Fayet–Iliopoulos term and four flavor hypermultiplets. It supports semilocal vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational (size) moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. The latter is superconformal. Its target space is six-dimensional. The overall Virasoro central charge is critical. Lastly, we show that the world-sheet theory onmore » the vortex supported in this bulk model is the bona fide critical string.« less

  1. Low-energy effective worldsheet theory of a non-Abelian vortex in high-density QCD revisited: A regular gauge construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto

    2017-04-01

    Color symmetry is spontaneously broken in quark matter at high density as a consequence of di-quark condensations with exhibiting color superconductivity. Non-Abelian vortices or color magnetic flux tubes stably exist in the color-flavor locked phase at asymptotically high density. The effective worldsheet theory of a single non-Abelian vortex was previously calculated in the singular gauge to obtain the C P2 model [1,2]. Here, we reconstruct the effective theory in a regular gauge without taking a singular gauge, confirming the previous results in the singular gauge. As a byproduct of our analysis, we find that non-Abelian vortices in high-density QCD do not suffer from any obstruction for the global definition of a symmetry breaking.

  2. Non-Abelian gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies, which has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem to be very close at hand. However, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e. quantum simulators , are currently developed in many leading laboratories. Many schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots, photonic networks, or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in the presence of gauge fields. In the quantum simulation framework, the generated (synthetic) gauge fields may be Abelian, in which case they are the direct analogues of the vector potentials commonly associated with magnetic fields. In condensed matter physics, strong magnetic fields lead to a plethora of fascinating phenomena, among which the most paradigmatic is perhaps the quantum Hall effect. The standard Hall effect consists in the appearance of a transverse current, when a longitudinal voltage difference is applied to a conducting sample. For quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors at low temperatures placed in very strong magnetic fields, the transverse conductivity, the ratio between the transverse current and the applied voltage, exhibits perfect and robust quantization, independent for instance of the material or of its geometry. Such an integer quantum Hall effect, is now understood as a deep consequence of underlying topological order. Although such a system is an insulator in the bulk, it supports topologically robust edge excitations which carry the Hall current. The robustness of these chiral excitations against backscattering explains the universality of the quantum Hall effect. Another

  3. Von Karman Vortices

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    July 4th, 2002: Description: As air flows over and around objects in its path, spiraling eddies, known as Von Karman vortices, may form. The vortices in this image were created when prevailing winds sweeping east across the northern Pacific Ocean encountered Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Source: Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  4. Observation of the Meissner effect in a lattice Higgs model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damgaard, Poul H.; Heller, Urs M.

    1988-01-01

    The lattice-regularized U(1) Higgs model in an external electromagnetic field is studied by Monte Carlo techniques. In the Coulomb phase, magnetic flux can flow through uniformly. The Higgs phase splits into a region where magnetic flux can penetrate only in the form of vortices and a region where the magnetic flux is completely expelled, the relativistic analog of the Meissner effect in superconductivity. Evidence is presented for symmetry restoration in strong external fields.

  5. Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models

    DOE PAGES

    Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; ...

    2014-07-28

    The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore » point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less

  6. Route to non-Abelian quantum turbulence in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawson, Thomas; Ruben, Gary; Simula, Tapio

    2015-06-01

    We have studied computationally the collision dynamics of spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates initially confined in a triple-well trap. Depending on the phase structure of the initial-state spinor wave function, the collision of the three condensate fragments produces one of many possible vortex-antivortex lattices, after which the system transitions to quantum turbulence. We find that the emerging vortex lattice structures can be described in terms of multiwave interference. We show that the three-fragment collisions can be used to systematically produce staggered vortex-antivortex honeycomb lattices of fractional-charge vortices, whose collision dynamics are known to be non-Abelian. Such condensate collider experiments could potentially be used as a controllable pathway to generating non-Abelian superfluid turbulence with networks of vortex rungs.

  7. Crossflow vorticity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A crossflow vorticity sensor for the detection of crossflow vorticity characteristics is described. The sensor is comprised of crossflow sensors which are noninvasively adhered to a swept wing laminar surface either singularly, in multi-element strips, in polar patterns, or in orthogonal patterns. These crossflow sensors are comprised of hot-film sensor elements which operate as a constant temperature anemometer circuit to detect heat transfer rate changes. Accordingly, crossflow vorticity characteristics are determined via cross-correlation. In addition, the crossflow sensors have a thickness which does not exceed a maximum value h in order to avoid contamination of downstream crossflow sensors.

  8. Higgs cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  9. Higgs cosmology

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Higgs cosmology’. PMID:29358352

  10. Higgs cosmology.

    PubMed

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Capacity and Wake Vortices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-09-08

    Aircraft wake vortices can pose a threat, especially in the terminal environment where aircraft operate in close proximity. Vortex separation standards preclude hazardous encounters, but are oftentimes very conservative. A key to increasing airport c...

  12. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  13. Optical vortices with starlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolin, G.; Tamburini, F.; Bianchini, A.; Umbriaco, G.; Barbieri, C.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: In this paper we present our first observations at the Asiago 122 cm telescope of ℓ = 1 optical vortices generated with starlight beams. Methods: We used a fork-hologram blazed at the first diffraction order as a phase modifying device. The multiple system Rasalgethi (α Herculis) in white light and the single star Arcturus (α Bootis) through a 300 Å bandpass were observed using a fast CCD camera. In the first case we could adopt the Lucky Imaging approach to partially correct for seeing effects. Results: For both stars, the optical vortices could be clearly detected above the smearing caused by the mediocre seeing conditions. The profiles of the optical vortices produced by the beams of the two main components of the α Her system are consistent with numerically simulated on-axis and off-axis optical vortices. The optical vortices produced by α Boo can also be reproduced by numerical simulations. Our experiments confirm that the ratio between the intensity peaks of an optical vortex can be extremely sensitive to off-axis displacements of the beam. Conclusions: Our results give insights for future astronomical applications of optical vortices both for space telescopes and ground-based telescopes with good seeing conditions and adaptive optics devices. The properties of optical vortices can be used to perform high precision astrometry and tip/tilt correction of the isoplanatic field. We are now designing a ℓ = 2 optical vortex coronagraph around a continuous spiral phase plate. We also point out that optical vortices could find extremely interesting applications also in the infrared and radio wavelengths.

  14. Center vortices in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Viorel-Andrei

    2001-11-01

    The confinement property of quarks is still one of the puzzles of today's physics. Although QCD is believed to accurately describe the interaction between quarks, due to the peculiar nature of the theory we are still unable to prove that it confines the quarks. Most analytical efforts in QCD are based on perturbative techniques which are useless in studying confinement. Lattice gauge theory enables us to get non-perturbative results. We use lattice techniques to investigate one of the proposed mechanisms of quark confinement, namely the center vortex idea. We first present a cursory introduction to lattice theory and the methods used to detect confinement on the lattices. We then show how the center vortices are suppose to produce confinement using center vortices to study Z2 lattice gauge theory. A review of the current studies regarding the idea of center vortices follows. The last chapter is dedicated to studying a particular definition of center vortices due to Tomboulis. We show how to implement this definition of vortices in numerical simulations and use numerical simulations to check the assumptions underlying the formalism. We also compare Tomboulis definition with other methods used to identify vortices on lattice.

  15. The Higgs Boson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltman, Martinus J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Reports recent findings related to the particle Higgs boson and examines its possible contribution to the standard mode of elementary processes. Critically explores the strengths and uncertainties of the Higgs boson and proposed Higgs field. (ML)

  16. Studying critical string emerging from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions

    DOE PAGES

    Koroteev, P.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2016-05-26

    Recently a special vortex string was found in a class of soliton vortices supported in four-dimensional Yang–Mills theories that under certain conditions can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional string. The appropriate bulk Yang–Mills theory has the U(2) gauge group and the Fayet–Iliopoulos term. It supports semilocal non-Abelian vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational and size moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. Here, the full target space ismore » $$\\mathbb R$$ 4 x Y 6 where is a non-compact Calabi–Yau space.« less

  17. On whole Abelian model dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600

    2012-09-24

    Physics challenge is to determine the objects dynamics. However, there are two ways for deciphering the part. The first one is to search for the ultimate constituents; the second one is to understand its behaviour in whole terms. Therefore, the parts can be defined either from elementary constituents or as whole functions. Historically, science has been moving through the first aspect, however, quarks confinement and complexity are interrupting this usual approach. These relevant facts are supporting for a systemic vision be introduced. Our effort here is to study on the whole meaning through gauge theory. Consider a systemic dynamics orientedmore » through the U(1) - systemic gauge parameter which function is to collect a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Derive the corresponding whole gauge invariant Lagrangian, equations of motion, Bianchi identities, Noether relationships, charges and Ward-Takahashi equations. Whole Lorentz force and BRST symmetry are also studied. These expressions bring new interpretations further than the usual abelian model. They are generating a systemic system governed by 2N+ 10 classical equations plus Ward-Takahashi identities. A whole dynamics based on the notions of directive and circumstance is producing a set determinism where the parts dynamics are inserted in the whole evolution. A dynamics based on state, collective and individual equations with a systemic interdependence.« less

  18. Finiteness of corner vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Jiten C.; Biswas, Sougata; Panda, Swapnendu

    2018-04-01

    Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of steady internal viscous incompressible flows was thought to be infinite. However, the already existing and most recent geometric theories on incompressible viscous flows that express vortical structures in terms of critical points in bounded domains indicate a strong opposition to this notion of infiniteness. In this study, we endeavor to bridge the gap between the two opposing stream of thoughts by diagnosing the assumptions of the existing theorems on such vortices. We provide our own set of proofs for establishing the finiteness of the sequence of corner vortices by making use of the continuum hypothesis and Kolmogorov scale, which guarantee a nonzero scale for the smallest vortex structure possible in incompressible viscous flows. We point out that the notion of infiniteness resulting from discrete self-similarity of the vortex structures is not physically feasible. Making use of some elementary concepts of mathematical analysis and our own construction of diametric disks, we conclude that the sequence of corner vortices is finite.

  19. Alternatives to an elementary Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Grojean, Christophe; Terning, John

    2016-10-01

    Strongly coupled and extra-dimensional models of electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. Models examined include warped extra dimensions, bulk Higgs, "little" Higgs, dilaton Higgs, composite Higgs, twin Higgs, quantum critical Higgs, and "fat" SUSY Higgs. Also discussed are current bounds and future LHC searches for this class of models.

  20. Vortices at Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Enrico; Pompeo, Nicola; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.

    2017-11-01

    The behavior of vortices at microwave frequencies is an extremely useful source of information on the microscopic parameters that enter the description of the vortex dynamics. This feature has acquired particular relevance since the discovery of unusual superconductors, such as cuprates. Microwave investigation then extended its field of application to many families of superconductors, including the artificially nanostructured materials. It is then important to understand the basics of the physics of vortices moving at high frequency, as well as to understand what information the experiments can yield (and what they can not). The aim of this brief review is to introduce the readers to some basic aspects of the physics of vortices under a microwave electromagnetic field, and to guide them to an understanding of the experiment, also by means of the illustration of some relevant results.

  1. S-duality in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroers, B. J.; Bais, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    It is observed that the magnetic charges of classical monopole solutions in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with non-abelian unbroken gauge group H are in one-to-one correspondence with coherent states of a dual or magnetic group H˜. In the spirit of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive conjecture this observation is interpreted as evidence for a hidden magnetic symmetry of Yang-Mills theory. SU(3) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with unbroken gauge group U(2) is studied in detail. The action of the magnetic group on semi-classical states is given explicitly. Investigations of dyonic excitations show that electric and magnetic symmetry are never manifest at the same time: Non-abelian magnetic charge obstructs the realisation of electric symmetry and vice-versa. On the basis of this fact the charge sectors in the theory are classified and their fusion rules are discussed. Non-abelian electric-magnetic duality is formulated as a map between charge sectors. Coherent states obey particularly simple fusion rules, and in the set of coherent states S-duality can be formulated as an SL(2, Z) mapping between sectors which leaves the fusion rules invariant.

  2. Surface optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.; Andrews, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how the total internal reflection of orbital-angular-momentum-endowed light can lead to the generation of evanescent light possessing rotational properties in which the intensity distribution is firmly localized in the vicinity of the surface. The characteristics of these surface optical vortices depend on the form of the incident light and on the dielectric mismatch of the two media. The interference of surface optical vortices is shown to give rise to interesting phenomena, including pattern rotation akin to a surface optical Ferris wheel. Applications are envisaged to be in atom lithography, optical surface tweezers, and spanners.

  3. Gauge-independent Abelian mechanism of color confinement in gluodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Sekido, Toru

    Abelian mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is observed in a gauge-independent way by high precision lattice Monte Carlo simulations in gluodynamics. An Abelian gauge field is extracted with no gauge fixing. Then we decompose the Abelian field into regular photon and singular monopole parts using the Hodge decomposition. We find that only the monopole part is responsible for the string tension. The investigation of the flux-tube profile then shows that an Abelian electric field defined in an arbitrary color direction is squeezed by the monopole supercurrent with the same color direction, and the quantitative features of flux squeezing are consistentmore » with those observed previously after Abelian projections with gauge fixing. Non-Abelian color confinement is explained in the framework of the gauge-independent Abelian dual Meissner effect.« less

  4. Worldlines and worldsheets for non-abelian lattice field theories: Abelian color fluxes and Abelian color cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattringer, Christof; Göschl, Daniel; Marchis, Carlotta

    2018-03-01

    We discuss recent developments for exact reformulations of lattice field theories in terms of worldlines and worldsheets. In particular we focus on a strategy which is applicable also to non-abelian theories: traces and matrix/vector products are written as explicit sums over color indices and a dual variable is introduced for each individual term. These dual variables correspond to fluxes in both, space-time and color for matter fields (Abelian color fluxes), or to fluxes in color space around space-time plaquettes for gauge fields (Abelian color cycles). Subsequently all original degrees of freedom, i.e., matter fields and gauge links, can be integrated out. Integrating over complex phases of matter fields gives rise to constraints that enforce conservation of matter flux on all sites. Integrating out phases of gauge fields enforces vanishing combined flux of matter-and gauge degrees of freedom. The constraints give rise to a system of worldlines and worldsheets. Integrating over the factors that are not phases (e.g., radial degrees of freedom or contributions from the Haar measure) generates additional weight factors that together with the constraints implement the full symmetry of the conventional formulation, now in the language of worldlines and worldsheets. We discuss the Abelian color flux and Abelian color cycle strategies for three examples: the SU(2) principal chiral model with chemical potential coupled to two of the Noether charges, SU(2) lattice gauge theory coupled to staggered fermions, as well as full lattice QCD with staggered fermions. For the principal chiral model we present some simulation results that illustrate properties of the worldline dynamics at finite chemical potentials.

  5. Toward modeling wingtip vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, O.

    1993-01-01

    Wingtip vortices are generated by lifting airfoils; their salient features are compactness and relatively slow rate of decay. The principal motivation for studying the far field evolution of wingtip vortices is the need to understand and predict the extent of the vortex influence during aircraft take-off or landing. On submarines a wingtip vortex ingested into a propeller can be a source of undesirable noise. The main objectives of this research are (1) to establish theoretical understanding of the principal mechanisms that govern the later (diffusive) stages of a turbulent vortex, (2) to develop a turbulence closure model representing the basic physical mechanisms that control the vortex diffusive stage, and further (3) to investigate coupling between the near and far field evolutions; in other words, to study the effect of initial conditions on the vortex lifetime and the ultimate state.

  6. Axisymmetric Vortices with Swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, A.

    2007-11-01

    This talk is concerned with finding solutions of the Euler equations by solving elliptic boundary value problems for the Bragg-Hawthorne equation L u= -urr -(1/r)ur - = r^2f (u) + h(u). Theoretical results have been given for previously (Elcrat and Miller, Differential and Integral Equations 16(4) 2003, 949-968) for problems with swirl and general classes of profile functions f, h by iterating Lu(n+1)= rf(u)n)) + h(u(n)), and showing u(n) converges montonically to a solution. The solutions obtained depend on the initial guess, which can be thought of as prescribing level sets of the vortex. When a computational program was attempted these monotone iterations turned out to be numerically unstable, and a stable computation was acheived by fixing the moment of the cross section of a vortex in the merideanal plane. (This generalizes previous computational results in Elcrat, Fornberg and Miller, JFM 433 2001, (315-328) We obtain famillies of vortices related to vortex rings with swirl, Moffatt's generalization of Hill's vortex and tubes of vorticity with swirl wrapped around the symmetry axis. The vortices are embedded in either an irrotational flow or a flow with shear, and we deal with the transition form no swirl in the vortex to flow with only swirl, a Beltrami flow.

  7. Zero modes of the non-relativistic self-dual Chern-Simons vortices on the Toda backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Yongsung

    The two-dimensional self-dual equations are the governing equations of the static zero-energy vortex solutions for the non-relativistic, non-Abelian Chern-Simons models. The zero modes of the non-relativistic vortices are examined by index calculation for the self-dual equations. The index for the self-dual equations is zero for non-Abelian groups, but a non-zero index is obtained by the Toda Ansatz which reduces the self-dual equations to the Toda equations. The number of zero modes for the non-relativistic Toda vortices is 2 {Sigma}{sub {alpha},{beta}}{sup r}K{sub {alpha}{beta}}Q{sup {beta}} which is twice the total number of isolated zeros of the vortex functions. For the affine Todamore » system, there are additional adjoint zero modes which give a zero index for the SU(N) group.« less

  8. Vortical flow management techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Campbell, James F.

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance and controllability of advanced, highly maneuverable supersonic aircraft can be enhanced by means of 'vortex management', which refers to the purposeful manipulation and reordering of stable and concentrated vortical structures due to flow separations from highly swept leading edges and slender forebodies at moderate-to-high angles-of-attack. Attention is presently given to a variety of results obtained in the course of experiments on generic research models at NASA Langley, clarifying their underlying aerodynamics and evaluating their performance-improvement potential. The vortex-management concepts discussed encompass aerodynamic compartmentation of highly swept leading edges, vortex lift augmentation and modulation, and forebody vortex manipulation.

  9. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.

  10. Non-Abelian states of matter.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ady

    2010-03-11

    Quantum mechanics classifies all elementary particles as either fermions or bosons, and this classification is crucial to the understanding of a variety of physical systems, such as lasers, metals and superconductors. In certain two-dimensional systems, interactions between electrons or atoms lead to the formation of quasiparticles that break the fermion-boson dichotomy. A particularly interesting alternative is offered by 'non-Abelian' states of matter, in which the presence of quasiparticles makes the ground state degenerate, and interchanges of identical quasiparticles shift the system between different ground states. Present experimental studies attempt to identify non-Abelian states in systems that manifest the fractional quantum Hall effect. If such states can be identified, they may become useful for quantum computation.

  11. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  12. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    PubMed

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  13. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  14. Vortices revealed: Swimming faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.

  15. Fresh look at the Abelian and non-Abelian Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Meerleer, T.; Dudal, D.; Sorella, S. P.; Dall'Olio, P.; Bashir, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations (LKFTs) allow one to interpolate n -point functions between different gauges. We first offer an alternative derivation of these LKFTs for the gauge and fermions field in the Abelian (QED) case when working in the class of linear covariant gauges. Our derivation is based on the introduction of a gauge invariant transversal gauge field, which allows a natural generalization to the non-Abelian (QCD) case of the LKFTs. To our knowledge, within this rigorous formalism, this is the first construction of the LKFTs beyond QED. The renormalizability of our setup is guaranteed to all orders. We also offer a direct path integral derivation in the non-Abelian case, finding full consistency.

  16. Global charges of stationary non-Abelian black holes.

    PubMed

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2003-05-02

    We consider stationary axially symmetric black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory. We present a mass formula for these stationary non-Abelian black holes, which also holds for Abelian black holes. The presence of the dilaton field allows for rotating black holes, which possess nontrivial electric and magnetic gauge fields, but do not carry a non-Abelian charge. We further present a new uniqueness conjecture.

  17. Non-Abelian Gauge Theory in the Lorentz Violating Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganai, Prince A.; Shah, Mushtaq B.; Syed, Masood; Ahmad, Owais

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we will discuss a simple non-Abelian gauge theory in the broken Lorentz spacetime background. We will study the partial breaking of Lorentz symmetry down to its sub-group. We will use the formalism of very special relativity for analysing this non-Abelian gauge theory. Moreover, we will discuss the quantisation of this theory using the BRST symmetry. Also, we will analyse this theory in the maximal Abelian gauge.

  18. Stability of streamwise vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, M. K.; Grosch, C. E.; Ash, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of some theoretical and computational studies of the stability of streamwise vortices is given. The local induction model and classical hydrodynamic vortex stability theories are discussed in some detail. The importance of the three-dimensionality of the mean velocity profile to the results of stability calculations is discussed briefly. The mean velocity profile is provided by employing the similarity solution of Donaldson and Sullivan. The global method of Bridges and Morris was chosen for the spatial stability calculations for the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. In order to test the numerical method, a second order accurate central difference scheme was used to obtain the coefficient matrices. It was shown that a second order finite difference method lacks the required accuracy for global eigenvalue calculations. Finally the problem was formulated using spectral methods and a truncated Chebyshev series.

  19. Spin waves, vortices, fermions, and duality in the Ising and Baxter models

    SciTech Connect

    Ogilvie, M.C.

    1981-10-15

    Field-theoretic methods are applied to a number of two-dimensional lattice models with Abelian symmetry groups. It is shown, using a vortex+spin-wave decomposition, that the Z/sub p/-Villain models are related to a class of continuum field theories with analogous duality properties. Fermion operators for these field theories are discussed. In the case of the Ising model, the vortices and spin-waves conspire to produce a free, massive Majorana field theory in the continuum limit. The continuum limit of the Baxter model is also studied, and the recent results of Kadanoff and Brown are rederived and extended.

  20. Fluid transport by dipolar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I, Eames; J.-B, Flór

    1998-08-01

    The transport properties of dipolar vortices propagating on an f-plane are studied experimentally by examining the distortion of a series of material surfaces. The observations are compared with a model based on characterising the flow around the dipole as irrotational flow past a rigid cylinder of volume V. Measurements made of the volume of fluid permanently displaced forward by the vortices, agree to within 20% of that predicted by the proposition of Darwin [Darwin, C., 1953. A note on hydrodynamics. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc., 49, 342-354], namely that the vortex will displace a volume CMV forward, where CM=1 for a Lamb's dipole. The results are applied to examine fluid transport by dipolar vortices propagating on the β-plane, where the ambient potential vorticity field causes easterly propagating dipolar vortices to meander sinusoidally between the North and South. We demonstrate that as the vortex moves between the North and South, it exchanges a volume CMV sin α by the drift effect (where α is the angle between the velocity of the dipole and the material surface), which is generally larger than that attributed to other mechanisms such as lobe shedding. The results are applied to give new insight to the effect of vortices in enhancing diffusion, and the secondary flow generated by the transport of ambient potential vorticity.

  1. The Higgs boson can delay reheating after inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.; Stengel, Patrick; Visinelli, Luca

    2018-05-01

    The Standard Model Higgs boson, which has previously been shown to develop an effective vacuum expectation value during inflation, can give rise to large particle masses during inflation and reheating, leading to temporary blocking of the reheating process and a lower reheat temperature after inflation. We study the effects on the multiple stages of reheating: resonant particle production (preheating) as well as perturbative decays from coherent oscillations of the inflaton field. Specifically, we study both the cases of the inflaton coupling to Standard Model fermions through Yukawa interactions as well as to Abelian gauge fields through a Chern-Simons term. We find that, in the case of perturbative inflaton decay to SM fermions, reheating can be delayed due to Higgs blocking and the reheat temperature can decrease by up to an order of magnitude. In the case of gauge-reheating, Higgs-generated masses of the gauge fields can suppress preheating even for large inflaton-gauge couplings. In extreme cases, preheating can be shut down completely and must be substituted by perturbative decay as the dominant reheating channel. Finally, we discuss the distribution of reheat temperatures in different Hubble patches, arising from the stochastic nature of the Higgs VEV during inflation and its implications for the generation of both adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations.

  2. Condensation of an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein

    2011-09-01

    We consider the thermodynamic geometry of an ideal non-Abelian gas. We show that, for a certain value of the fractional parameter and at the relevant maximum value of fugacity, the thermodynamic curvature has a singular point. This indicates a condensation such as Bose-Einstein condensation for non-Abelian statistics and we work out the phase transition temperature in various dimensions.

  3. Higgs Boson 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    The Higgs boson burst into the public arena on July 4, 2012, when scientists working at the CERN laboratory announced the particle’s discovery. However the initial discovery was a bit tentative, with the need to verify that the discovered particle was, indeed, the Higgs boson. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln looks at the data from the perspective of 2016 and shows that more recent analyses further supports the idea that the Higgs boson is what was discovered.

  4. The Hyperbolic Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the Hyperbolic Higgs, a novel solution to the little hierarchy problem that features Standard Model neutral scalar top partners. At one-loop order, the protection from ultraviolet sensitivity is due to an accidental non-compact symmetry of the Higgs potential that emerges in the infrared. Once the general features of the effective description are detailed, a completion that relies on a five dimensional supersymmetric framework is provided. Novel phenomenology is compared and contrasted with the Twin Higgs scenario.

  5. Consequences of an Abelian family symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1996-01-01

    The addition of an Abelian family symmetry to the Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model reproduces the observed hierarchies of quark and lepton masses and quark mixing angles, only if it is anomalous. Green-Schwarz compensation of its anomalies requires the electroweak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub {omega}} = 3/8 at the string scale, without any assumed GUT structure, suggesting a superstring origin for the standard model. The analysis is extended to neutrino masses and the lepton mixing matrix.

  6. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  7. Numerical studies of interacting vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Hsu, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    To get a basic understanding of the physics of flowfields modeled by vortex filaments with finite vortical cores, systematic numerical studies of the interactions of two dimensional vortices and pairs of coaxial axisymmetric circular vortex rings were made. Finite difference solutions of the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were carried out using vorticity and stream function as primary variables. Special emphasis was placed on the formulation of appropriate boundary conditions necessary for the calculations in a finite computational domain. Numerical results illustrate the interaction of vortex filaments, demonstrate when and how they merge with each other, and establish the region of validity for an asymptotic analysis.

  8. Vorticity Transfer in Shock Wave Interactions with Turbulence and Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agui, J. H.; Andreopoulos, J.

    1998-11-01

    Time-dependent, three-dimensional vorticity measurements of shock waves interacting with grid generated turbulence and concentrated tip vortices were conducted in a large diameter shock tube facility. Two different mesh size grids and a NACA-0012 semi-span wing acting as a tip vortex generator were used to carry out different relative Mach number interactions. The turbulence interactions produced a clear amplification of the lateral and spanwise vorticity rms, while the longitudinal component remained mostly unaffected. By comparison, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions produced a two fold increase in the rms of longitudinal vorticity. Considerable attention was given to the vorticity source terms. The mean and rms of the vorticity stretching terms dominated by 5 to 7 orders of magnitude over the dilitational compression terms in all the interactions. All three signals of the stretching terms manifested very intermittent, large amplitude peak events which indicated the bursting character of the stretching process. Distributions of these signals were characterized by extremely large levels of flatness with varying degrees of skewness. These distribution patterns were found to change only slightly through the turbulence interactions. However, the tip vortex/shock wave interactions brought about significant changes in these distributions which were associated with the abrupt structural changes of the vortex after the interaction.

  9. Equivariant Verlinde Formula from Fivebranes and Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Pei, Du

    2017-10-01

    We study complex Chern-Simons theory on a Seifert manifold M 3 by embedding it into string theory. We show that complex Chern-Simons theory on M 3 is equivalent to a topologically twisted supersymmetric theory and its partition function can be naturally regularized by turning on a mass parameter. We find that the dimensional reduction of this theory to 2d gives the low energy dynamics of vortices in four-dimensional gauge theory, the fact apparently overlooked in the vortex literature. We also generalize the relations between (1) the Verlinde algebra, (2) quantum cohomology of the Grassmannian, (3) Chern-Simons theory on {Σ× S^1} and (4) index of a spin c Dirac operator on the moduli space of flat connections to a new set of relations between (1) the "equivariant Verlinde algebra" for a complex group, (2) the equivariant quantum K-theory of the vortex moduli space, (3) complex Chern-Simons theory on {Σ × S^1} and (4) the equivariant index of a spin c Dirac operator on the moduli space of Higgs bundles.

  10. Spatiotemporal optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajj, Nihal; Larkin, Ilia; Rosenthal, Eric; Zahedpour, Sina; Wahlstrand, Jared; Milchberg, Howard

    2017-04-01

    We present the first experimental evidence, supported by theory and simulation, of spatiotemporal optical vortices (STOVs). A STOV is an optical vortex with phase and energy circulation in a spatiotemporal plane. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are shown to be a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media. STOVs conserve topological charge, constraining their birth, evolution, and annihilation. We measure a self-generated STOV consisting of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus that is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Grant No. W911NF1410372), Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA95501310044), National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY1301948), and Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF1410372).

  11. Jovian vortices by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Flierl, G. R.; Swaminathan, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    We explore the conditions required for isolated vortices to exist in sheared zonal flows and the stability of the underlying zonal winds. This is done using the standard 2-layer quasigeostrophic model with the lower layer depth becoming infinite; however, this model differs from the usual layer model because the lower layer is not assumed to be motionless but has a steady configuration of alternating zonal flows. Steady state vortices are obtained by a simulated annealing computational method introduced in, generalized and applied in in fluid flow, and used in the context of magnetohydrodynamics in. Various cases of vortices with a constant potential vorticity anomaly atop zonal winds and the stability of the underlying winds are considered using a mix of computational and analytical techniques. U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088.

  12. On spectroscopy for a whole Abelian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.

    2012-10-01

    Postulated on the whole meaning a whole abelian gauge symmetry is being introduced. Various physical areas as complexity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics are partially supporting this approach where the whole is at origin. However, the reductionist crisis given by quark confinement definitely sustains this insight. It says that fundamental parts can not be seen isolatedely. Consequently, there is an experimental situation where the parts should be substituted by something more. This makes us to look for writing the wholeness principle under gauge theory. For this, one reinterprets the gauge parameter where instead of compensating fields it is organizing a systemic gauge symmetry. Now, it introduces a fields set {AμI} rotating under a common gauge symmetry. Thus, given a fields collection {AμI} as origin, the effort at this work is to investigate on its spectroscopy. Analyze for the abelian case the correspondent involved quanta. Understand that for a whole model diversity replaces elementarity. Derive the associated quantum numbers as spin, mass, charge, discrete symmetries in terms of such systemic symmetry. Observe how the particles diversity is manifested in terms of wholeness.

  13. On spectroscopy for a whole Abelian model

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600

    Postulated on the whole meaning a whole abelian gauge symmetry is being introduced. Various physical areas as complexity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics are partially supporting this approach where the whole is at origin. However, the reductionist crisis given by quark confinement definitely sustains this insight. It says that fundamental parts can not be seen isolatedely. Consequently, there is an experimental situation where the parts should be substituted by something more. This makes us to look for writing the wholeness principle under gauge theory. For this, one reinterprets the gauge parameter where instead of compensating fields it is organizing a systemicmore » gauge symmetry. Now, it introduces a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} rotating under a common gauge symmetry. Thus, given a fields collection {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} as origin, the effort at this work is to investigate on its spectroscopy. Analyze for the abelian case the correspondent involved quanta. Understand that for a whole model diversity replaces elementarity. Derive the associated quantum numbers as spin, mass, charge, discrete symmetries in terms of such systemic symmetry. Observe how the particles diversity is manifested in terms of wholeness.« less

  14. Theory of free electron vortices

    PubMed Central

    Schattschneider, P.; Verbeeck, J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent creation of electron vortex beams and their first practical application motivates a better understanding of their properties. Here, we develop the theory of free electron vortices with quantized angular momentum, based on solutions of the Schrödinger equation for cylindrical boundary conditions. The principle of transformation of a plane wave into vortices with quantized angular momentum, their paraxial propagation through round magnetic lenses, and the effect of partial coherence are discussed. PMID:21930017

  15. Flavor violating Higgs decays

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kopp, Joachim; Zupan, Jure

    2013-03-01

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τemore » branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.« less

  16. Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, the Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.

  17. Non-Abelian semilocal strings in N=2 supersymmetric QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Shifman, M.; Yung, A.; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300

    2006-06-15

    We consider a benchmark bulk theory in four dimensions: N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the gauge group U(N) and N{sub f} flavors of fundamental matter hypermultiplets (quarks). The nature of the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) strings in this benchmark theory crucially depends on N{sub f}. If N{sub f}{>=}N and all quark masses are equal, it supports non-Abelian BPS strings which have internal (orientational) moduli. If N{sub f}>N these strings become semilocal, developing additional moduli {rho} related to (unlimited) variations of their transverse size. Using the U(2) gauge group with N{sub f}=3, 4 as an example, we derive an effective low-energy theory on themore » (two-dimensional) string world sheet. Our derivation is field theoretic, direct and explicit: we first analyze the Bogomol'nyi equations for string-geometry solitons, suggest an ansatz, and solve it at large {rho}. Then we use this solution to obtain the world-sheet theory. In the semiclassical limit our result confirms the Hanany-Tong conjecture, which rests on brane-based arguments, that the world-sheet theory is an N=2 supersymmetric U(1) gauge theory with N positively and N{sub e}=N{sub f}-N negatively charged matter multiplets and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term determined by the four-dimensional coupling constant. We conclude that the Higgs branch of this model is not lifted by quantum effects. As a result, such strings cannot confine. Our analysis of infrared effects, not seen in the Hanany-Tong consideration, shows that, in fact, the derivative expansion can make sense only provided that the theory under consideration is regularized in the infrared, e.g. by the quark mass differences. The world-sheet action discussed in this paper becomes a bona fide low-energy effective action only if {delta}m{sub AB}{ne}0.« less

  18. Topological invariants measured for Abelian and non-Abelian monopole fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Seiji; Salces Carcoba, Francisco; Perry, Abigail; Yue, Yuchen; Putra, Andika; Spielman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the topological nature of physical systems is an important topic in contemporary physics, ranging from condensed matter to high energy. In this talk, I will present experiments measuring the 1st and 2nd Chern number in a four-level quantum system both with degenerate and non-degenerate energies. We engineered the system's Hamiltonian by coupling hyperfine ground states of rubidium-87 Bose-Einstein condensates with rf and microwave fields. We non-adiabatically drove the system and measured the linear response to obtain the local (non-Abelian) Berry curvatures. Then, the Chern numbers were evaluated on (hyper-)spherical manifolds in parameter space. We obtain Chern numbers close to unity for both the 1st and the 2nd Chern numbers. The non-zero Chern number can be interpreted as monopole residing inside the manifold. For our system, the monopoles correspond to a Dirac monopole for non-degenerate spectra and a Yang monopole for our degenerate case. We also show how the dynamical evolution under non-Abelian gauge field emerged in degenerate quantum system is different from non-degenerate case by showing path-dependent acquisition of non-Abelian geometric phase and Wilson loops.

  19. Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-04-26

    Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2) n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2) n gapless edge excitations.

  20. Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.

    Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation there is a fields family {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is themore » effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.« less

  1. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and other vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Philip S.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) as the self-organization of vorticity in turbulence is presented. A number of properties of the GRS and other Jovian vortices that are unambiguous from the data are listed. The simplest possible model that explains these properties one at a time rather than in a difficult all-encompassing planetary global circulation model is presented. It is shown that Jovian vortices reflect the behavior of quasi-geostrophic (QG) vortices embedded in an east-west wind with bands of uniform potential vorticity. It is argued that most of the properties of the Jovian vortices can be easily explained and understood with QG theory. Many of the signatures of QG vortices are apparent on Voyager images. In numerical and laboratory experiments, QG vortices relax to approximately steady states like the Jovian vortices, rather than oscillating or rotating Kida ellipses.

  2. Higgs Boson 2016

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-06-12

    The Higgs boson burst into the public arena on July 4, 2012, when scientists working at the CERN laboratory announced the particle’s discovery. However the initial discovery was a bit tentative, with the need to verify that the discovered particle was, indeed, the Higgs boson. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln looks at the data from the perspective of 2016 and shows that more recent analyses further supports the idea that the Higgs boson is what was discovered.

  3. Higgs Searches at DØ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark

    2009-09-01

    The Higgs boson is essential to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model. Results on searches for the Higgs boson using data collected in pbar p collisions at √ s = 1.96 {TeV} with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Teva-tron collider are presented. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities between 1 fb-1 and 2 fb-1 show no excess above the expected backgrounds and as such upper limits on the production cross section of Higgs bosons are set at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Electromagnetohydrodynamic vortices and corn circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, H.

    A novel type of large-scale vortex formation has theoretically been found in helical turbulence in terms of hydrodynamic, electric, magnetic, and space charge fields in an external electric (and magnetic) field. It is called 'electro-MHD (EMHD) vortices' and is generated as a result of self-organization processes in nonequilibrium media by the transfer of energy from small- to large-scale sizes. Explanations for 'corn circles', circular symmetric ground patterns found in a corn field in southern England, are provided on the basis of a new theory of the EMHD vortices under consideration.

  5. Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando

    Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM’s as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they dependmore » in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.« less

  6. Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models

    DOE PAGES

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; ...

    2018-04-01

    Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM’s as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they dependmore » in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.« less

  7. Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM's as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they depend in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.

  8. Interaction of non-Abelian tensor gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvidy, George

    2018-01-01

    The non-Abelian tensor gauge fields take value in extended Poincaré algebra. In order to define the invariant Lagrangian we introduce a vector variable in two alternative ways: through the transversal representation of the extended Poincaré algebra and through the path integral over the auxiliary vector field with the U(1) Abelian action. We demonstrate that this allows to fix the unitary gauge and derive scattering amplitudes in spinor representation.

  9. Scattering of massless scalar waves by magnetically charged black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gußmann, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    The existence of the classical black hole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with non-Abelian Yang-Mills-Higgs hair implies that not all classical stationary magnetically charged black holes can be uniquely described by their asymptotic characteristics. In fact, in a certain domain of parameters, there exist different spherically-symmetric, non-rotating and asymptotically-flat classical black hole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations which have the same ADM mass and the same magnetic charge but significantly different geometries in the near-horizon regions. (These are black hole solutions which are described by a Reissner-Nordström metric on the one hand and the black hole solutions with non-Abelian Yang-Mills-Higgs hair which are described by a metric which is not of Reissner-Nordström form on the other hand). One can experimentally distinguish such black holes with the same asymptotic characteristics but different near-horizon geometries classically by probing the near-horizon regions of the black holes. We argue that one way to probe the near-horizon region of a black hole which allows one to distinguish magnetically charged black holes with the same asymptotic characteristics but different near-horizon geometries is by classical scattering of waves. Using the example of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by magnetically charged black holes which can be obtained as solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with a Higgs triplet and gauge group SU(2) in the limit of an infinite Higgs self-coupling constant we show how, in this case, the scattering cross sections differ for the magnetically charged black holes with different near-horizon geometries but the same asymptotic characteristics. We find in particular that the characteristic glory peaks in the cross sections are located at different scattering angles.

  10. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.; Harrington, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.

  11. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.

  12. Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, John M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)

  13. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Treesearch

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  14. Multipoint correlators in the Abelian sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncelet, Adrien; Ruelle, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We revisit the calculation of height correlations in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model by taking advantage of a technique developed recently by Kenyon and Wilson. The formalism requires to equip the usual graph Laplacian, ubiquitous in the context of cycle-rooted spanning forests, with a complex connection. In the case at hand, the connection is constant and localized along a semi-infinite defect line (zipper). In the appropriate limit of a trivial connection, it allows one to count spanning forests whose components contain prescribed sites, which are of direct relevance for height correlations in the sandpile model. Using this technique, we first rederive known 1- and 2-site lattice correlators on the plane and upper half-plane, more efficiently than what has been done so far. We also compute explicitly the (new) next-to-leading order in the distances (r-4 for 1-site on the upper half-plane, r-6 for 2-site on the plane). We extend these results by computing new correlators involving one arbitrary height and a few heights 1 on the plane and upper half-plane, for the open and closed boundary conditions. We examine our lattice results from the conformal point of view, and confirm the full consistency with the specific features currently conjectured to be present in the associated logarithmic conformal field theory.

  15. Origins of inert Higgs doublets

    DOE PAGES

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Yuan, Tzu -Chiang

    2016-03-24

    Here, we consider beyond the standard model embedding of inert Higgs doublet fields. We argue that inert Higgs doublets can arise naturally in grand unified theories where the necessary associated Z 2 symmetry can occur automatically. Several examples are discussed.

  16. Working Group Report: Higgs Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Sally; Gritsan, Andrei; Logan, Heather

    2013-10-30

    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities frommore » detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).« less

  17. Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio

    In this article, we present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, themore » Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.« less

  18. Model of chiral spin liquids with Abelian and non-Abelian topological phases

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jyong-Hao; Mudry, Christopher; Chamon, Claudio; ...

    2017-12-15

    In this article, we present a two-dimensional lattice model for quantum spin-1/2 for which the low-energy limit is governed by four flavors of strongly interacting Majorana fermions. We study this low-energy effective theory using two alternative approaches. The first consists of a mean-field approximation. The second consists of a random phase approximation (RPA) for the single-particle Green's functions of the Majorana fermions built from their exact forms in a certain one-dimensional limit. The resulting phase diagram consists of two competing chiral phases, one with Abelian and the other with non-Abelian topological order, separated by a continuous phase transition. Remarkably, themore » Majorana fermions propagate in the two-dimensional bulk, as in the Kitaev model for a spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice. We identify the vison fields, which are mobile (they are static in the Kitaev model) domain walls propagating along only one of the two space directions.« less

  19. Abelian non-global logarithms from soft gluon clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Randall; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba

    2012-09-01

    Most recombination-style jet algorithms cluster soft gluons in a complex way. This leads to previously identified correlations in the soft gluon phase space and introduces logarithmic corrections to jet cross sections, which are known as clustering logarithms. The leading Abelian clustering logarithms occur at least at next-to leading logarithm (NLL) in the exponent of the distribution. Using the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), we show that new clustering effects contributing at NLL arise at each order. While numerical resummation of clustering logs is possible, it is unlikely that they can be analytically resummed to NLL. Clustering logarithms make the anti-kT algorithm theoretically preferred, for which they are power suppressed. They can arise in Abelian and non-Abelian terms, and we calculate the Abelian clustering logarithms at O ( {α_s^2} ) for the jet mass distribution using the Cambridge/Aachen and kT algorithms, including jet radius dependence, which extends previous results. We find that clustering logarithms can be naturally thought of as a class of non-global logarithms, which have traditionally been tied to non-Abelian correlations in soft gluon emission.

  20. Marine Vortices and Their Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    have received attention, the HSVA [23] and the KRISO KVLCC2 tankers. Strong bilge vortices have a distinctive hook pattern in the axial velocity...contours at the propeller plane, as shown in Fig. 2 for the KRISO KVLCC2 from the experimental data of Van et al [24]. The HSVA tanker was the focus of a...quite well with nonisotropic Reynolds stress turbulence models. This was reiterated for the KRISO KVLCC2 Tanker which was a validation test case for the

  1. Internal structure of vortices in a dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgh, Magnus O.; Lovegrove, Justin; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate how dipolar interactions (DI) can have pronounced effects on the structure of vortices in atomic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and illustrate generic physical principles that apply across dipolar spinor systems. We then find and analyze the cores of singular non-Abelian vortices in a spin-3 52Cr condensate. Using a simpler spin-1 model system, we analyze the underlying dipolar physics and show how a dipolar healing length interacts with the hierarchy of healing lengths of the contact interaction and leads to simple criteria for the core structure: vortex core size is restricted to the shorter spin-dependent healing length when the interactions both favor the ground-state spin condition, but can conversely be enlarged by DI when interactions compete. We further demonstrate manifestations of spin-ordering induced by the DI anisotropy, including DI-dependent angular momentum of nonsingular vortices, as a result of competition with adaptation to rotation, and potentially observable internal vortex-core spin textures. We acknowledge financial support from the EPSRC.

  2. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  3. Dynamics of vortices in polariton quantum fluids : From full vortices, to half vortices and vortex pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit

    2012-02-01

    Polariton quantum fluids may be created both spontaneously through a standard phase transition towards a Bose Einstein condensate, or may be resonantly driven with a well-defined speed. Thanks to the photonic component of polaritons, the properties of the quantum fluid may be accessed rather directly with in particular the possibility of detained interferometric studies. Here, I will detail the dynamics of vortices, obtained with a picosecond time resolution, in different configurations, with in particular their phase dynamics. I will show in particular the dynamics the dynamics of spontaneous creation of a vortex, the dissociation of a full vortex into two half vortices as well as the dynamics of the dissociation of a dark soliton line into a street of pairs of vortices. Work done at EPFL by a dream team of Postdocs PhD students and collaborators: K. Lagoudakis, G. Nardin, T. Paraiso, G. Grosso, F. Manni, Y L'eger, M. Portella Oberli, F. Morier-Genoud and the help of our friend theorists V, Savona, M. Vouters and T. Liew.

  4. Conserved quantities in non-Abelian monopole fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváthy, P. A.; Ngome, J.-P.

    2009-06-01

    Van Holten’s covariant Hamiltonian framework is used to find conserved quantities for an isospin-carrying particle in a non-Abelian monopolelike field. For a Wu-Yang monopole we find the most general scalar potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz vector. In the effective non-Abelian field for nuclear motion in a diatomic molecule due to Moody, Shapere, and Wilczek, a conserved angular momentum is constructed, despite the nonconservation of the electric charge. No Runge-Lenz vector has been found.

  5. On Non-Abelian Extensions of 3-Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-Na; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Tang, Rong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study non-abelian extensions of 3-Lie algebras through Maurer-Cartan elements. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between isomorphism classes of non-abelian extensions of 3-Lie algebras and equivalence classes of Maurer-Cartan elements in a DGLA. The structure of the Leibniz algebra on the space of fundamental objects is also analyzed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11471139 and National Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province under Grant No. 20170101050JC

  6. Condition for confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichian, Masud; Frasca, Marco

    2018-06-01

    We show that a criterion for confinement, based on the BRST invariance, holds in four dimensions, by solving a non-Abelian gauge theory with a set of exact solutions. The confinement condition we consider was obtained by Kugo and Ojima some decades ago. The current understanding of gauge theories permits us to apply the techniques straightforwardly for checking the validity of this criterion. In this way, we are able to show that the non-Abelian gauge theory is confining and that confinement is rooted in the BRST invariance and asymptotic freedom.

  7. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  8. Quantum Critical Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, Brando; Csáki, Csaba; Hubisz, Jay; Lee, Seung J.; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

    2016-10-01

    The appearance of the light Higgs boson at the LHC is difficult to explain, particularly in light of naturalness arguments in quantum field theory. However, light scalars can appear in condensed matter systems when parameters (like the amount of doping) are tuned to a critical point. At zero temperature these quantum critical points are directly analogous to the finely tuned standard model. In this paper, we explore a class of models with a Higgs near a quantum critical point that exhibits non-mean-field behavior. We discuss the parametrization of the effects of a Higgs emerging from such a critical point in terms of form factors, and present two simple realistic scenarios based on either generalized free fields or a 5D dual in anti-de Sitter space. For both of these models, we consider the processes g g →Z Z and g g →h h , which can be used to gain information about the Higgs scaling dimension and IR transition scale from the experimental data.

  9. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z 2 parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z 2 breaking, can generate the Z 2 breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals i n Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection andmore » Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z 2 breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B-L breaking fields are also discussed.« less

  10. Two applications of potential vorticity thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Barranco, J. A.; Marcus, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The fluid dynamics within a protoplanetary disk has been attracting the attention of many researchers for a few decades. Previous works include, to list only a few among many others, the well-known prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev, the convective and instability study of Stone & Balbus and Hawley et al., the Rossby wave approach of Lovelace et al., as well as a recent work by Klahr & Bodenheimer, which attempted to identify turbulent flow within the disk. The disk is commonly understood to be a thin gas disk rotating around a central star with differential rotation (the Keplerian velocity), and the central quest remains as how the flow behavior deviates (albeit by a small amount) from a strong balance established between gravitational and centrifugal forces, transfers mass and momentum inward, and eventually forms planetesimals and planets. In earlier works we have briefly described the possible physical processes involved in the disk; we have proposed the existence of long-lasting, coherent vortices as an efficient agent for mass and momentum transport. In particular, Barranco et al. provided a general mathematical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk; Barranco & Marcus (2000) addressed a proposed vortex-dust interaction mechanism which might lead to planetesimal formation; and Lin et al. (2002), as inspired by general geophysical vortex dynamics, proposed basic mechanisms by which vortices can transport mass and angular momentum. The current work follows up on our previous effort. We shall focus on the detailed numerical implementation of our problem. We have developed a parallel, pseudo-spectral code to simulate the full three-dimensional vortex dynamics in a stably-stratified, differentially rotating frame, which represents the environment of the disk. Our simulation is validated with full diagnostics and comparisons, and we present our results on a family of three-dimensional, coherent equilibrium vortices.

  12. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  13. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-08-01

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  14. An Integrated Higgs Force Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    An Integrated Higgs force theory (IHFT) was based on 2 key requirement amplifications: a matter particle/Higgs force was one and inseparable; a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed/evaporated from/to super force. These were basis of 5 theories: particle creation, baryogenesis, superpartner/quark decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black holes. Our universe's 129 matter/force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; 9 transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to 8 permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons; and sum of 8 Higgs force energies of 8 permanent matter particles was dark energy. An IHFT's essence is the intimate physical relationships between 8 theories. These theories are independent because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the other seven. An IHFT's premise is without sacrificing their integrities, 8 independent existing theories are replaced by 8 interrelated amplified theories. Requirement amplifications provide interfaces between the 8 theories. Intimate relationships between 8 theories including the above 5 and string, Higgs forces, and Super Universe are described. The sorting category selected was F. PARTICLES AND FIELDS (e.g., F1 Higgs Physics, F10 Alternative Beyond the Standard Model Physics, F11 Dark Sector Theories and Searches, and F12 Particle Cosmology).

  15. Electroweak Higgs production with HiggsPO at NLO QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greljo, Admir; Isidori, Gino; Lindert, Jonas M.; Marzocca, David; Zhang, Hantian

    2017-12-01

    We present the HiggsPO UFO model for Monte Carlo event generation of electroweak VH and VBF Higgs production processes at NLO in QCD in the formalism of Higgs pseudo-observables (PO). We illustrate the use of this tool by studying the QCD corrections, matched to a parton shower, for several benchmark points in the Higgs PO parameter space. We find that, while being sizable and thus important to be considered in realistic experimental analyses, the QCD higher-order corrections largely factorize. As an additional finding, based on the NLO results, we advocate to consider 2D distributions of the two-jet azimuthal-angle difference and the leading jet p_T for new physics searches in VBF Higgs production. The HiggsPO UFO model is publicly available.

  16. Quantization of higher abelian gauge theory in generalized differential cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, R.

    We review and elaborate on some aspects of the quantization of certain classes of higher abelian gauge theories using techniques of generalized differential cohomology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examples of generalized Maxwell theory and Cheeger-Simons cohomology, and of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II superstring theory and differential K-theory.

  17. Interacting Non-Abelian Anti-Symmetric Tensor Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekambaram, K.; Vytheeswaran, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Non-Abelian Anti-symmetric Tensor fields interacting with vector fields have a complicated constraint structure. We enlarge the gauge invariance in this system. Relevant gauge invariant quantities including the Hamiltonian are obtained. We also make introductory remarks on a different but more complicated gauge theory.

  18. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balbuena, Sherwin E.

    2015-01-01

    In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete…

  19. Abelian gauge symmetries in F-theory and dual theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng

    In this dissertation, we focus on important physical and mathematical aspects, especially abelian gauge symmetries, of F-theory compactifications and its dual formulations within type IIB and heterotic string theory. F-theory is a non-perturbative formulation of type IIB string theory which enjoys important dualities with other string theories such as M-theory and E8 x E8 heterotic string theory. One of the main strengths of F-theory is its geometrization of many physical problems in the dual string theories. In particular, its study requires a lot of mathematical tools such as advanced techniques in algebraic geometry. Thus, it has also received a lot of interests among mathematicians, and is a vivid area of research within both the physics and the mathematics community. Although F-theory has been a long-standing theory, abelian gauge symmetry in Ftheory has been rarely studied, until recently. Within the mathematics community, in 2009, Grassi and Perduca first discovered the possibility of constructing elliptically fibered varieties with non-trivial toric Mordell-Weil group. In the physics community, in 2012, Morrison and Park first made a major advancement by constructing general F-theory compactifications with U(1) abelian gauge symmetry. They found that in such cases, the elliptically-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold that F-theory needs to be compactified on has its fiber being a generic elliptic curve in the blow-up of the weighted projective space P(1;1;2) at one point. Subsequent developments have been made by Cvetic, Klevers and Piragua extended the works of Morrison and Park and constructed general F-theory compactifications with U(1) x U(1) abelian gauge symmetry. They found that in the U(1) x U(1) abelian gauge symmetry case, the elliptically-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold that F-theory needs to be compactified on has its fiber being a generic elliptic curve in the del Pezzo surface dP2. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, I bring this a step further by

  20. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  1. The static quark potential from the gauge independent Abelian decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cundy, Nigel; Cho, Y. M.; Lee, Weonjong; Leem, Jaehoon

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field n; the principle novelty of our study is that we have used a unique definition of this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This allows us to establish an equivalence between the path-ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields and an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without requiring an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field n winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to an area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. Unlike most studies of confinement using the Abelian decomposition, we do not rely on a dual-Meissner effect to create the inter-quark potential. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks of a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects, or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for

  2. Heavy Higgs searches: flavour matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Stefania; Grojean, Christophe; Juste, Aurelio; Paul, Ayan

    2018-01-01

    We point out that the stringent lower bounds on the masses of additional electrically neutral and charged Higgs bosons crucially depend on the flavour structure of their Yukawa interactions. We show that these bounds can easily be evaded by the introduction of flavour-changing neutral currents in the Higgs sector. As an illustration, we study the phenomenology of a two Higgs doublet model with a Yukawa texture singling out the third family of quarks and leptons. We combine constraints from low-energy flavour physics measurements, LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson rates, and LHC searches for new heavy Higgs bosons. We propose novel LHC searches that could be performed in the coming years to unravel the existence of these new Higgs bosons.

  3. Ultraviolet properties of the Higgs sector in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-04-01

    The Lee-Wick (LW) standard model (SM) offers a new solution to the hierarchy problem. We discuss, using effective potential techniques, its peculiar UV behavior. We show how quadratic divergences in the Higgs mass M{sub h} cancel as a result of the unusual dependence of LW fields on the Higgs background (in a manner reminiscent of little Higgses). We then extract from the effective potential the renormalization group evolution of the Higgs quartic coupling {lambda} above the LW scale. After clarifying an apparent discrepancy with previous results for the LW Abelian Higgs model, we focus on the LWSM. In contrast withmore » the SM case, for any M{sub h}, {lambda} grows monotonically and hits a Landau pole at a fixed trans-Planckian scale (never turning negative in the UV). Then, the perturbativity and stability bounds on M{sub h} disappear. We identify a cutoff {approx}10{sup 16} GeV for the LWSM due to the hypercharge gauge coupling hitting a Landau pole. Finally, we also discuss briefly the possible impact of the UV properties of the LW models on their behavior at finite temperature, in particular, regarding symmetry nonrestoration.« less

  4. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    PubMed

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  5. Dynamics of Three Vortices on a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Kilin, Alexander A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamics of vortices on a sphere. It is shown that, as a result of reduction, the problem reduces to investigating a system with a nonlinear Poisson bracket. The topology of a symplectic leaf in the case of three vortices is studied.

  6. A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, Nilton O.

    2008-08-01

    Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.

  7. Tunneling decay of false vortices with gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, Manu B.; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of vortices on the tunneling decay of a symmetry-breaking false vacuum in three spacetime dimensions with gravity. The scenario considered is one in which the initial state, rather than being the homogeneous false vacuum, contains false vortices. The question addressed is whether, and, if so, under which circumstances, the presence of vortices has a significant catalyzing effect on vacuum decay. After studying the existence and properties of vortices, we study their decay rate through quantum tunneling using a variety of techniques. In particular, for so-called thin-wall vortices we devise a one-parameter family of configurations allowing a quantum-mechanical calculation of tunneling. Also for thin-wall vortices, we employ the Israel junction conditions between the interior and exterior spacetimes. Matching these two spacetimes reveals a decay channel which results in an unstable, expanding vortex. We find that the tunneling exponent for vortices, which is the dominant factor in the decay rate, is half that for Coleman-de Luccia bubbles. This implies that vortices are short-lived, making them cosmologically significant even for low vortex densities. In the limit of the vanishing gravitational constant we smoothly recover our earlier results for the decay of the false vortex in a model without gravity.

  8. Gravitational corrections to Higgs potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounakis, Marios; Moss, Ian G.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the Higgs potential at large field values corresponding to scales in the range above 1010GeV is important for questions of vacuum stability, particularly in the early universe where survival of the Higgs vacuum can be an issue. In this paper we show that the Higgs potential can be derived in away which is independent of the choice of conformal frame for the spacetime metric. Questions about vacuum stability can therefore be answered unambiguously. We show that frame independence leads to new relations between the beta functions of the theory and we give improved limits on the allowed values of the Higgs curvature coupling for stability.

  9. Cyclonic Vortices in Polar Airmasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven

    Cyclonic vortices in polar airmasses are investigated to determine their storm-scale and mesoscale structures and the nature of the environments conducive to their formation. Case studies of polar low outbreaks show that the environments conducive to the development of strong polar lows include deep outflow of arctic air over open water and a broad closed-low aloft. Once favorable environmental conditions for the formation of polar lows have developed, several storms may form in close proximity to each other during a relatively short time interval. Furthermore, these conditions may persist for several days. To develope a climatology of the synoptic environments conducive to the formation of polar lows, NMC gridded data were composited. The results reveal the presence of significant negative anomalies in the temperature and height fields at the 500 mb level on the days when mature polar lows were present, indicating the presence of strong positive vorticity and low static stability over the area. Aircraft observations made during the 1984 FOX field study indicate that convection in an incipient comma cloud was organized into distinct rainbands ((TURN)50 km wavelength), with tops extending to the tropopause. Equivalent -potential vorticity, computed from cross sections of the dropwindsonde data, showed that the region in which the convective activity was embedded was unstable to moist -symmetric overturnings. As the comma cloud approached a pre-existing polar front, a wave cyclone rapidly developed on the front. Surface data showed unexpectedly strong winds and heavy rain squalls when the comma cloud passed Juneau. Comprehensive data sets were collected in two comma cloud systems during CYCLES. Rainbands, with a wavelength of (TURN)50 km, were present in both comma-cloud systems. Precipitation cores, produced by embedded convection within the rainbands contained updraft speeds of (TURN)1-2 m s('-1) and relatively high liquid water counts; they retained their

  10. Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.

    Here, we image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy stripes. By altering the magnetization orientation in the stripes using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the stripe edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the stripe edges, and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magneticmore » stripes coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic stripe array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.« less

  11. What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.

  12. Magnetic gates and guides for superconducting vortices

    DOE PAGES

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Colauto, F.; Buzdin, A. I.; ...

    2017-04-04

    Here, we image the motion of superconducting vortices in niobium film covered with a regular array of thin permalloy stripes. By altering the magnetization orientation in the stripes using a small in-plane magnetic field, we can tune the strength of interactions between vortices and the stripe edges, enabling acceleration or retardation of the superconducting vortices in the sample and consequently introducing strong tunable anisotropy into the vortex dynamics. We discuss our observations in terms of the attraction/repulsion between point magnetic charges carried by vortices and lines of magnetic charges at the stripe edges, and derive analytical formulas for the vortex-magneticmore » stripes coupling. Our approach demonstrates the analogy between the vortex motion regulated by the magnetic stripe array and electric carrier flow in gated semiconducting devices. Scaling down the geometrical features of the proposed design may enable controlled manipulation of single vortices, paving the way for Abrikosov vortex microcircuits and memories.« less

  13. Higgs Physics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad

  14. Learning from Higgs physics at future Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Honglei; Liu, Zhen; Su, Shufang; Su, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Future Higgs factories can reach impressive precision on Higgs property measurements. In this paper, instead of conventional focus of Higgs precision in certain interaction bases, we explore its sensitivity to new physics models at the electron-positron colliders. In particular, we study two categories of new physics models, Standard Model (SM) with a real scalar singlet extension, and Two Higgs Double Model (2HDM) as examples of weakly-interacting models, Minimal Composite Higgs Model (MCHM) and three typical patterns of the more general operator counting for strong interacting models as examples of strong dynamics. We perform a global fit to various Higgs search channels to obtain the 95% C.L. constraints on the model parameter space. In the SM with a singlet extension, we obtain the limits on the singlet-doublet mixing angle sin θ, as well as the more general Wilson coefficients of the induced higher dimensional operators. In the 2HDM, we analyze tree level effects in tan β vs. cos( β - α) plane, as well as the one-loop contributions from the heavy Higgs bosons in the alignment limit to obtain the constraints on heavy Higgs masses for different types of 2HDM. In strong dynamics models, we obtain lower limits on the strong dynamics scale. In addition, once deviations of Higgs couplings are observed, they can be used to distinguish different models. We also compare the sensitivity of various future Higgs factories, namely Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), Future Circular Collider (FCC)-ee and International Linear Collider (ILC).

  15. Learning from Higgs physics at future Higgs factories

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Honglei; Liu, Zhen; ...

    2017-12-29

    Future Higgs factories can reach impressive precision on Higgs property measurements. In this paper, instead of conventional focus of Higgs precision in certain interaction bases, we explored its sensitivity to new physics models at the electron-positron colliders. In particular, we studied two categories of new physics models, Standard Model (SM) with a real scalar singlet extension, and Two Higgs Double Model (2HDM) as examples of weakly-interacting models, Minimal Composite Higgs Model (MCHM) and three typical patterns of the more general operator counting for strong interacting models as examples of strong dynamics. We performed a global fit to various Higgs searchmore » channels to obtain the 95% C.L. constraints on the model parameter space. In the SM with a singlet extension, we obtained the limits on the singlet-doublet mixing angle sin(theta), as well as the more general Wilson coefficients of the induced higher dimensional operators. In the 2HDM, we analyzed tree level effects in tan(beta) vs. cos(beta-alpha) plane, as well as the one-loop contributions from the heavy Higgs bosons in the alignment limit to obtain the constraints on heavy Higgs masses for different types of 2HDM. In strong dynamics models, we obtained lower limits on the strong dynamics scale. In addition, once deviations of Higgs couplings are observed, they can be used to distinguish different models. Here, we also compared the sensitivity of various future Higgs factories, namely Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), Future Circular Collider (FCC)-ee and International Linear Collider (ILC).« less

  16. Learning from Higgs physics at future Higgs factories

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Honglei; Liu, Zhen

    Future Higgs factories can reach impressive precision on Higgs property measurements. In this paper, instead of conventional focus of Higgs precision in certain interaction bases, we explored its sensitivity to new physics models at the electron-positron colliders. In particular, we studied two categories of new physics models, Standard Model (SM) with a real scalar singlet extension, and Two Higgs Double Model (2HDM) as examples of weakly-interacting models, Minimal Composite Higgs Model (MCHM) and three typical patterns of the more general operator counting for strong interacting models as examples of strong dynamics. We performed a global fit to various Higgs searchmore » channels to obtain the 95% C.L. constraints on the model parameter space. In the SM with a singlet extension, we obtained the limits on the singlet-doublet mixing angle sin(theta), as well as the more general Wilson coefficients of the induced higher dimensional operators. In the 2HDM, we analyzed tree level effects in tan(beta) vs. cos(beta-alpha) plane, as well as the one-loop contributions from the heavy Higgs bosons in the alignment limit to obtain the constraints on heavy Higgs masses for different types of 2HDM. In strong dynamics models, we obtained lower limits on the strong dynamics scale. In addition, once deviations of Higgs couplings are observed, they can be used to distinguish different models. Here, we also compared the sensitivity of various future Higgs factories, namely Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), Future Circular Collider (FCC)-ee and International Linear Collider (ILC).« less

  17. A vorticity budget for the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, Isabela; Toole, John

    2017-04-01

    We develop a depth-averaged vorticity budget framework to diagnose the dynamical balance of the Gulf Stream, and apply this framework to observations and the ECCO state estimate (Wunsch and Heimbach 2013) above the thermocline in the subtropical North Atlantic. Using the hydrographic and ADCP data along the WOCE/CLIVAR section A22 and a variety of wind stress data products, we find that the advective vorticity flux out of the western region is on the same order as the wind stress forcing over the eastern portion of the gyre. This is consistent with a large-scale balance between a negative source of vorticity from wind stress forcing and a positive source of vorticity in the western region. Additionally, the form of the vorticity flux indicates that the Gulf Stream has a significant inertial component. In the ECCO state estimate, we diagnose a seasonal cycle in advective vorticity flux across a meridional section associated with seasonal fluctuations in Gulf Stream transport. This vorticity flux is forced by wind stress over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic and balanced by lateral friction with the western boundary. The lateral friction in ECCO is a necessary parameterization of smaller scale processes that occur in the real ocean, and quantifying these remains an open and interesting question. This simplified framework provides a means to interpret large scale ocean dynamics. In our application, it points to wind stress forcing over the subtropical North Altantic as an important regulator of the Gulf Stream and hence the climate system.

  18. Time evolution of complexity in Abelian gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro; Sugishita, Sotaro

    2017-12-01

    Quantum complexity is conjectured to probe inside of black hole horizons (or wormholes) via gauge gravity correspondence. In order to have a better understanding of this correspondence, we study time evolutions of complexities for Abelian pure gauge theories. For this purpose, we discretize the U (1 ) gauge group as ZN and also the continuum spacetime as lattice spacetime, and this enables us to define a universal gate set for these gauge theories and to evaluate time evolutions of the complexities explicitly. We find that to achieve a large complexity ˜exp (entropy), which is one of the conjectured criteria necessary to have a dual black hole, the Abelian gauge theory needs to be maximally nonlocal.

  19. Construction of non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, B.; Möller, L.; Schraml, S.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.

    We present a formalism to explicitly construct non-Abelian gauge theories on noncommutative spaces (induced via a star product with a constant Poisson tensor) from a consistency relation. This results in an expansion of the gauge parameter, the noncommutative gauge potential and fields in the fundamental representation, in powers of a parameter of the noncommutativity. This allows the explicit construction of actions for these gauge theories.

  20. Continuous Abelian Sandpile Model in Two Dimensional Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Lotfi, E.; Moghimi-Araghi, S.

    We investigate a new version of sandpile model which is very similar to Abelian Sandpile Model (ASM), but the height variables are continuous ones. With the toppling rule we define in our model, we show that the model can be mapped to ASM, so the general properties of the two models are identical. Yet the new model allows us to investigate some problems such as the effect of very small mass on the height probabilities, different boundary conditions, etc.

  1. Higgs production through sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate “lepton-number-like” symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos’ masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  2. Higgs Production Through Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate "lepton-numberlike" symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos' masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  3. Characteristics of mesoscale vortices over China in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yu; Sun, Jisong; Pan, Yinong

    2017-12-01

    Mesoscale vortices, which appear at middle and lower levels of rainstorms, are cyclonic circulations with a size ranging from tens of kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Mesoscale vortices often have close relationships with convective activities. The ERA-Interim dataset and an automatic vortex-searching method were used to identify the mesoscale vortices occurring over China in 2015 and their basic characteristics were analyzed. The mesoscale vortices are divided into three categories: mesoscale convective vortices, mesoscale stratiform vortices, and mesoscale dry vortices. The mesoscale convective vortices have the largest intensity, size, and duration, whereas the mesoscale dry vortices have the smallest. Mesoscale convective vortices are able to form in any direction of the parent mesoscale convective system, although the secondary convection tends to appear to the southeast of the parent vortices. The mesoscale vortices tend to generate in the transition area between high and low altitudes. The leeward side of the Tibetan Plateau is the main source region of mesoscale vortices in China. Most of vortices are generated at midday and midnight. The activities of mesoscale convective vortices and mesoscale stratiform vortices peak in summer, whereas those of the mesoscale dry vortices peak in winter.

  4. Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880

  5. Einstein–Bose condensation of Onsager vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valani, Rahil N.; Groszek, Andrew J.; Simula, Tapio P.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied statistical mechanics of a gas of vortices in two dimensions. We introduce a new observable—a condensate fraction of Onsager vortices—to quantify the emergence of the vortex condensate. The condensation of Onsager vortices is most transparently observed in a single vortex species system and occurs due to a competition between solid body rotation (see vortex lattice) and potential flow (see multiple quantum vortex state). We propose an experiment to observe the condensation transition of the vortices in such a single vortex species system.

  6. Universal attractor in a highly occupied non-Abelian plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.; Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.

    2014-06-01

    We study the thermalization process in highly occupied non-Abelian plasmas at weak coupling. The nonequilibrium dynamics of such systems is classical in nature and can be simulated with real-time lattice gauge theory techniques. We provide a detailed discussion of this framework and elaborate on the results reported in J. Berges, K. Boguslavski, S. Schlichting, and R. Venugopalan, Phys. Rev. D 89, 074011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.074011 along with novel findings. We demonstrate the emergence of universal attractor solutions, which govern the nonequilibrium evolution on large time scales both for nonexpanding and expanding non-Abelian plasmas. The turbulent attractor for a nonexpanding plasma drives the system close to thermal equilibrium on a time scale t ˜Q-1αs-7/4. The attractor solution for an expanding non-Abelian plasma leads to a strongly interacting albeit highly anisotropic system at the transition to the low-occupancy or quantum regime. This evolution in the classical regime is, within the uncertainties of our simulations, consistent with the "bottom up" thermalization scenario [R. Baier, A. H. Mueller, D. Schiff, and D. T. Son, Phys. Lett. B 502, 51 (2001), 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00191-5]. While the focus of this paper is to understand the nonequilibrium dynamics in weak coupling asymptotics, we also discuss the relevance of our results for larger couplings in the early time dynamics of heavy ion collision experiments.

  7. Quantum coherence generating power, maximally abelian subalgebras, and Grassmannian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We establish a direct connection between the power of a unitary map in d-dimensions (d < ∞) to generate quantum coherence and the geometry of the set Md of maximally abelian subalgebras (of the quantum system full operator algebra). This set can be seen as a topologically non-trivial subset of the Grassmannian over linear operators. The natural distance over the Grassmannian induces a metric structure on Md, which quantifies the lack of commutativity between the pairs of subalgebras. Given a maximally abelian subalgebra, one can define, on physical grounds, an associated measure of quantum coherence. We show that the average quantum coherence generated by a unitary map acting on a uniform ensemble of quantum states in the algebra (the so-called coherence generating power of the map) is proportional to the distance between a pair of maximally abelian subalgebras in Md connected by the unitary transformation itself. By embedding the Grassmannian into a projective space, one can pull-back the standard Fubini-Study metric on Md and define in this way novel geometrical measures of quantum coherence generating power. We also briefly discuss the associated differential metric structures.

  8. Mapping the Braiding Properties of Non-Abelian FQHE Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Emil; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2007-03-01

    Non-Abelian FQHE (NAFQHE) states have elementary excitations that cannot be individually locally-created. When widely separated, they give rise to topological (quasi-)degeneracy of the quantum states; braiding of such non-Abelian quasiparticles (NAQP's) implements unitary transformations among the degenerate states that may be useful for ``topological quantum computing'' (TQC). We have developed a new technique for explicit computation of NAQP braiding in models exhibiting ideal NAFQHE behavior (where the topological degeneracy is exact), in particular the Moore-Read ν = 5/2 state. For systems of small numbers of NAQP's on a sphere, we have computed the non-Abelian Berry curvature and Hilbert space metric, as one NAQP is moved relative to a fixed configuration of the others, showing how the topological properties develop as the system size (NAQP separation) increases. We also studied the effect of perturbations (Coulomb interaction and substrate potentials) that lift the exact degeneracy, and become the dominant corrections when NAQP's are brought together so that quantum measurements can be made; these effects are likely to be crucial in determining whether TQC is viable in NAFQHE systems.

  9. Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.

  10. Scattering on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolny, E.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of two Aharonov-Bohm (AB) vortices for the Helmholtz equation is examined in detail. It is demonstrated that the method proposed by Myers (1963 J. Math. Phys. 6 1839) for slit diffraction can be generalised to obtain an explicit solution for AB vortices. Due to the singular nature of AB interaction the Green function and scattering amplitude for two AB vortices obey a series of partial differential equations. Coefficients entering these equations, fulfil ordinary non-linear differential equations whose solutions can be obtained by solving the Painlevé III equation. The asymptotics of necessary functions for very large and very small vortex separations are calculated explicitly. Taken together, this means that the problem of two AB vortices is exactly solvable.

  11. Vorticity Distributions in Unsteady Flow Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-08

    a significant result, which was presented at the Unsteady Separated Flow Workshop at the Air Force Academy last July, and which is ready for...i~~A’I C amsi4 61102F 2307 A2 11 Ti-,LE (Incluce Security Claw fication) Vorticity Distributions in Unsteady Flow Separation 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...LSIIAINO HSPG / UNCLASSIFIED Report MEUA-IT-88-2 VORTICITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN UNSTEADY FLOW SEPARATION Frederick S. Sherman Department of Mechanical

  12. On the motion of multiple helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Boersma, J.

    2001-11-01

    The analysis of the self-induced velocity of a single helical vortex (Boersma & Wood 1999) is extended to include equally spaced multiple vortices. This arrangement approximates the tip vortices in the far wake of multi-bladed wind turbines, propellers, or rotors in ascending, descending, or hovering flight. The problem is reduced to finding, from the Biot Savart law, the additional velocity of a helix due to an identical helix displaced azimuthally. The resulting Biot Savart integral is further reduced to a Mellin Barnes integral representation which allows the asymptotic expansions to be determined for small and for large pitch. The Biot Savart integral is also evaluated numerically for a total of two, three and four vortices over a range of pitch values. The previous finding that the self-induced velocity at small pitch is dominated by a term inversely proportional to the pitch carries over to multiple vortices. It is shown that a far wake dominated by helical tip vortices is consistent with the one-dimensional representation that leads to the Betz limit on the power output of wind turbines. The small-pitch approximation then allows the determination of the blade&s bound vorticity for optimum power extraction. The present analysis is shown to give reasonable estimates for the vortex circulation in experiments using a single hovering rotor and a four-bladed propeller.

  13. The unnatural composite Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Barnard, James; Gherghetta, Tony; Ray, Tirtha Sankar; ...

    2015-01-14

    Composite Higgs models can trivially satisfy precision-electroweak and flavour constraints by simply having a large spontaneous symmetry breaking scale, f ≳ 10 TeV. This produces a ‘split’ spectrum, where the strong sector resonances have masses greater than 10 TeV and are separated from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, which remain near the electroweak scale. Even though a tuning of order 10 –4 is required to obtain the observed Higgs boson mass, the big hierarchy problem remains mostly solved. Intriguingly, models with a fully-composite right-handed top quark also exhibit improved gauge coupling unification. By restricting ourselves to models which preserve these featuresmore » we find that the symmetry breaking scale cannot be arbitrarily raised, leading to an upper bound f ≲ 100-1000 TeV. This implies that the resonances may be accessible at future colliders, or indirectly via rare-decay experiments. Dark matter is identified with a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, and we show that the smallest coset space containing a stable, scalar singlet and an unbroken SU(5) symmetry is SU(7)/SU(6) × U(1). The colour-triplet pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson also contained in this coset space is metastable due to a residual symmetry. Furthermore, it can decay via a displaced vertex when produced at colliders, leading to a distinctive signal of unnaturalness.« less

  14. The Higgs Portal and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Assamagan, Ketevi; Chien-Yi Chen; Chou, John Paul

    Higgs portal interactions provide a simple mechanism for addressing two open problems in cosmology: dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. In the latter instance, Higgs portal interactions may contain the ingredients for a strong first-order electroweak phase transition as well as new CP-violating interactions as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. These interactions may also allow for a viable dark matter candidate. We survey the opportunities for probing the Higgs portal as it relates to these questions in cosmology at the LHC and possible future colliders.

  15. Penrose limits of Abelian and non-Abelian T-duals of AdS 5 × S 5 and their field theory duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itsios, Georgios; Nastase, Horatiu; Núñez, Carlos; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Zacarías, Salomón

    2018-01-01

    We consider the backgrounds obtained by Abelian and non-Abelian T-duality applied on AdS 5 × S 5. We study geodesics, calculate Penrose limits and find the associated plane-wave geometries. We quantise the weakly coupled type-IIA string theory on these backgrounds. We study the BMN sector, finding operators that wrap the original quiver CFT. For the non-Abelian plane wave, we find a `flow' in the frequencies. We report some progress to understand this, in terms of deconstruction of a higher dimensional field theory. We explore a relation with the plane-wave limit of the Janus solution, which we also provide.

  16. Searching for additional Higgs bosons via Higgs cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Christina; Luty, Markus A.; Mulhearn, Michael; Neill, Nicolás A.; Wang, Zhangqier

    2018-04-01

    The discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider strongly motivates direct searches for additional Higgs bosons. In a type I two Higgs doublet model there is a large region of parameter space at tan β ≳5 that is currently unconstrained experimentally. We show that the process g g →H →A Z →Z Z h can probe this region, and can be the discovery mode for an extended Higgs sector at the LHC. We analyze 9 promising decay modes for the Z Z h state, and we find that the most sensitive final states are ℓℓℓℓb b , ℓℓj j b b , ℓℓν ν γ γ and ℓℓℓℓ+ missing energy.

  17. An asymptotic safety scenario for gauged chiral Higgs-Yukawa models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Rechenberger, Stefan; Scherer, Michael M.; Zambelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    We investigate chiral Higgs-Yukawa models with a non-abelian gauged left-handed sector reminiscent to a sub-sector of the standard model. We discover a new weak-coupling fixed-point behavior that allows for ultraviolet complete RG trajectories which can be connected with a conventional long-range infrared behavior in the Higgs phase. This non-trivial ultraviolet behavior is characterized by asymptotic freedom in all interaction couplings, but a quasi conformal behavior in all mass-like parameters. The stable microscopic scalar potential asymptotically approaches flatness in the ultraviolet, however, with a non-vanishing minimum increasing inversely proportional to the asymptotically free gauge coupling. This gives rise to non-perturbative—though weak-coupling—threshold effects which induce ultraviolet stability along a line of fixed points. Despite the weak-coupling properties, the system exhibits non-Gaußian features which are distinctly different from its standard perturbative counterpart: e.g., on a branch of the line of fixed points, we find linear instead of quadratically running renormalization constants. Whereas the Fermi constant and the top mass are naturally of the same order of magnitude, our model generically allows for light Higgs boson masses. Realistic mass ratios are related to particular RG trajectories with a "walking" mid-momentum regime.

  18. Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

  19. What is a Higgs Boson?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-05-18

    Fermilab scientist Don Lincoln describes the nature of the Higgs boson. Several large experimental groups are hot on the trail of this elusive subatomic particle which is thought to explain the origins of particle mass.

  20. Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values

  1. Cosmological stochastic Higgs field stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kitajima, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    We show that the stochastic evolution of an interacting system of the Higgs field and a spectator scalar field naturally gives rise to an enhanced probability of settling down at the electroweak vacuum at the end of inflation. Subsequent destabilization due to parametric resonance between the Higgs field and the spectator field can be avoided in a wide parameter range. We further argue that the spectator field can play the role of dark matter.

  2. Non-Abelian holonomies, charge pumping, and quantum computation with Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Faoro, Lara; Siewert, Jens; Fazio, Rosario

    2003-01-17

    Non-Abelian holonomies can be generated and detected in certain superconducting nanocircuits. Here we consider an example where the non-Abelian operations are related to the adiabatic charge dynamics of the Josephson network. We demonstrate that such a device can be applied both for adiabatic charge pumping and as an implementation of a quantum computer.

  3. Dirichlet to Neumann operator for Abelian Yang-Mills gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Marín, Homero G.

    We consider the Dirichlet to Neumann operator for Abelian Yang-Mills boundary conditions. The aim is constructing a complex structure for the symplectic space of boundary conditions of Euler-Lagrange solutions modulo gauge for space-time manifolds with smooth boundary. Thus we prepare a suitable scenario for geometric quantization within the reduced symplectic space of boundary conditions of Abelian gauge fields.

  4. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D N = 1 conformal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shuntaro; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Yokokura, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    We consider Abelian tensor hierarchy in four-dimensional N = 1 supergravity in the conformal superspace formalism, where the so-called covariant approach is used to antisymmetric tensor fields. We introduce p-form gauge superfields as superforms in the conformal superspace. We solve the Bianchi identities under the constraints for the super-forms. As a result, each of form fields is expressed by a single gauge invariant superfield. We also show the relation between the superspace formalism and the superconformal tensor calculus.

  5. The Higgs portal above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Craig, Nathaniel; Lou, Hou Keong; McCullough, Matthew; ...

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of the Higgs boson opens the door to new physics interacting via the Higgs Portal, including motivated scenarios relating to baryogenesis, dark matter, and electroweak naturalness. In this study, we systematically explore the collider signatures of singlet scalars produced via the Higgs Portal at the 14TeV LHC and a prospective 100TeV hadron collider. We focus on the challenging regime where the scalars are too heavy to be produced in the decays of an on-shell Higgs boson, and instead are produced primarily via an o ff-shell Higgs. Assuming these scalars escape the detector, promising channels include missing energy inmore » association with vector boson fusion, monojets, and top pairs. In addition, we forecast the sensitivity of searches in these channels at √s = 14 & 100 TeV and compare collider reach to the motivated parameter space of singlet-assisted electroweak baryogenesis, Higgs Portal dark matter, and neutral naturalness.« less

  6. Interaction of vortices with flexible piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goushcha, Oleg; Akaydin, Huseyin Dogus; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2012-11-01

    A cantilever piezoelectric beam immersed in a flow is used to harvest fluidic energy. Pressure distribution induced by naturally present vortices in a turbulent fluid flow can force the beam to oscillate producing electrical output. Maximizing the power output of such an electromechanical fluidic system is a challenge. In order to understand the behavior of the beam in a fluid flow where vortices of different scales are present, an experimental facility was set up to study the interaction of individual vortices with the beam. In our set up, vortex rings produced by an audio speaker travel at specific distances from the beam or impinge on it, with a frequency varied up to the natural frequency of the beam. Depending on this frequency both constructive and destructive interactions between the vortices and the beam are observed. Vortices traveling over the beam with a frequency multiple of the natural frequency of the beam cause the beam to resonate and larger deflection amplitudes are observed compared to excitation from a single vortex. PIV is used to compute the flow field and circulation of each vortex and estimate the effect of pressure distribution on the beam deflection. Sponsored by NSF Grant: CBET #1033117.

  7. Non-Abelian fractional topological insulators in three spatial dimensions from coupled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    The study of topological order in three spatial dimensions constitutes a major frontier in theoretical condensed matter physics. Recently, substantial progress has been made in constructing (3+1)-dimensional Abelian topological states of matter from arrays of coupled quantum wires. In this talk, I will illustrate how wire constructions based on non-Abelian bosonization can be used to build and characterize non-Abelian symmetry-enriched topological phases in three dimensions. In particular, I will describe a family of states of matter, constructed in this way, that constitute a natural non-Abelian generalization of strongly correlated three dimensional fractional topological insulators. These states of matter support strongly interacting symmetry-protected gapless surface states, and host non-Abelian pointlike and linelike excitations in the bulk.

  8. Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Satija, Indubala I.; National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899; Dakin, Daniel C.

    2006-11-24

    We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. For Abelian gauges, such transitions occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case includemore » the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta.« less

  9. On an example of a system of differential equations that are integrated in Abelian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykh, M. D.; Sevastianov, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The short review of the theory of Abelian functions and its applications in mechanics and analytical theory of differential equations is given. We think that Abelian functions are the natural generalization of commonly used functions because if the general solution of the 2nd order differential equation depends algebraically on the constants of integration, then integrating this equation does not lead out of the realm of commonly used functions complemented by the Abelian functions (Painlevé theorem). We present a relatively simple example of a dynamical system that is integrated in Abelian integrals by “pairing” two copies of a hyperelliptic curve. Unfortunately, initially simple formulas unfold into very long ones. Apparently the theory of Abelian functions hasn’t been finished in the last century because without computer algebra systems it was impossible to complete the calculations to the end. All calculations presented in our report are performed in Sage.

  10. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  11. Vorticity field measurement using digital inline holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate the direct measurement of a 3D vorticity field using digital inline holographic microscopy. Microfiber tracer particles are illuminated with a 532 nm continuous diode laser and imaged using a single CCD camera. The recorded holographic images are processed using a GPU-accelerated inverse problem approach to reconstruct the 3D structure of each microfiber in the imaged volume. The translation and rotation of each microfiber are measured using a time-resolved image sequence - yielding velocity and vorticity point measurements. The accuracy and limitations of this method are investigated using synthetic holograms. Measurements of solid body rotational flow are used to validate the accuracy of the technique under known flow conditions. The technique is further applied to a practical turbulent flow case for investigating its 3D velocity field and vorticity distribution.

  12. Identification of vortices in complex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, P.; Balachandar, S.; Adrian, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Dating back to Leonardo da Vinci's famous sketches of vortices in turbulent flows, fluid dynamicists for over five centuries have continued to visualize and interpret complex flows in terms of motion of vortices. Nevertheless, much debate surrounds the question of how to unambiguously define vortices in complex flows. This debate has resulted in the availability of many vortex identification criteria---mathematical statements of what constitutes a vortex. Here we review the popularly used local or point- wise vortex identification criteria. Based on local flow kinematics, we describe a unified framework to interpret the similarities and differences in the usage of these criteria. We discuss the limitations on the applicability of these criteria when there is a significant component of vortex interactions. Finally, we provide guidelines for applying these criteria to geophysical flows.

  13. Faults Get Colder Through Transient Granular Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einav, I.; Rognon, P.; Miller, T.; Sulem, J.

    2018-03-01

    Fault temperatures govern their weakening and control the dynamics of earthquakes during slip. Despite predictions of significant temperature rise within fault gouges during earthquake events, observations of frictional melting zones along exhumed faults are relatively rare. Could there be a heat transfer mechanism, previously not considered, that results in ubiquitously colder faults during earthquakes? We demonstrate that the remarkable, previously neglected mechanism of heat transfer through transient granular vortices may be at the core of this. We present and analyze results from perpetual simple shear experiments on a system of granular disks with which we are able to quantify the sizes and lifetimes of granular vortices within fault gouges during earthquakes. We then develop a formula that captures the contribution these vortices have on heat transfer. Using this formula, we show that crustal faults such as those in the San Andreas system may experience a maximum temperature rise 5 to 10 times lower than previously thought.

  14. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  15. Cosmological bounds on non-Abelian dark forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2018-04-01

    Non-Abelian dark gauge forces that do not couple directly to ordinary matter may be realized in nature. The minimal form of such a dark force is a pure Yang-Mills theory. If the dark sector is reheated in the early Universe, it will be realized as a set of dark gluons at high temperatures and as a collection of dark glueballs at lower temperatures, with a cosmological phase transition from one form to the other. Despite being dark, the gauge fields of the new force can connect indirectly to the standard model through nonrenormalizable operators. These operators will transfer energy between the dark and visible sectors, and they allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. In this work we investigate the cosmological evolution and decays of dark glueballs in the presence of connector operators to the standard model. Dark glueball decays can modify cosmological and astrophysical observables, and we use these considerations to put very strong limits on the existence of pure non-Abelian dark forces. On the other hand, if one or more of the dark glueballs are stable, we find that they can potentially make up the dark matter of the Universe.

  16. On spectral synthesis on element-wise compact Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Let G be an arbitrary locally compact Abelian group and let C(G) be the space of all continuous complex-valued functions on G. A closed linear subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) is referred to as an invariant subspace if it is invariant with respect to the shifts τ_y\\colon f(x)\\mapsto f(xy), y\\in G. By definition, an invariant subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) admits strict spectral synthesis if \\mathscr H coincides with the closure in C(G) of the linear span of all characters of G belonging to \\mathscr H. We say that strict spectral synthesis holds in the space C(G) on G if every invariant subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) admits strict spectral synthesis. An element x of a topological group G is said to be compact if x is contained in some compact subgroup of G. A group G is said to be element-wise compact if all elements of G are compact. The main result of the paper is the proof of the fact that strict spectral synthesis holds in C(G) for a locally compact Abelian group G if and only if G is element-wise compact. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  17. Abelian Toda field theories on the noncommutative plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Carnero, Iraida

    2005-10-01

    Generalizations of GL(n) abelian Toda and GL with tilde above(n) abelian affine Toda field theories to the noncommutative plane are constructed. Our proposal relies on the noncommutative extension of a zero-curvature condition satisfied by algebra-valued gauge potentials dependent on the fields. This condition can be expressed as noncommutative Leznov-Saveliev equations which make possible to define the noncommutative generalizations as systems of second order differential equations, with an infinite chain of conserved currents. The actions corresponding to these field theories are also provided. The special cases of GL(2) Liouville and GL with tilde above(2) sinh/sine-Gordon are explicitly studied. It is also shown that from the noncommutative (anti-)self-dual Yang-Mills equations in four dimensions it is possible to obtain by dimensional reduction the equations of motion of the two-dimensional models constructed. This fact supports the validity of the noncommutative version of the Ward conjecture. The relation of our proposal to previous versions of some specific Toda field theories reported in the literature is presented as well.

  18. Non-Abelian integrable hierarchies: matrix biorthogonal polynomials and perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariznabarreta, Gerardo; García-Ardila, Juan C.; Mañas, Manuel; Marcellán, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, Geronimus–Uvarov perturbations for matrix orthogonal polynomials on the real line are studied and then applied to the analysis of non-Abelian integrable hierarchies. The orthogonality is understood in full generality, i.e. in terms of a nondegenerate continuous sesquilinear form, determined by a quasidefinite matrix of bivariate generalized functions with a well-defined support. We derive Christoffel-type formulas that give the perturbed matrix biorthogonal polynomials and their norms in terms of the original ones. The keystone for this finding is the Gauss–Borel factorization of the Gram matrix. Geronimus–Uvarov transformations are considered in the context of the 2D non-Abelian Toda lattice and noncommutative KP hierarchies. The interplay between transformations and integrable flows is discussed. Miwa shifts, τ-ratio matrix functions and Sato formulas are given. Bilinear identities, involving Geronimus–Uvarov transformations, first for the Baker functions, then secondly for the biorthogonal polynomials and its second kind functions, and finally for the τ-ratio matrix functions, are found.

  19. Directed Abelian algebras and their application to stochastic models.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, F C; Rittenberg, V

    2008-10-01

    With each directed acyclic graph (this includes some D-dimensional lattices) one can associate some Abelian algebras that we call directed Abelian algebras (DAAs). On each site of the graph one attaches a generator of the algebra. These algebras depend on several parameters and are semisimple. Using any DAA, one can define a family of Hamiltonians which give the continuous time evolution of a stochastic process. The calculation of the spectra and ground-state wave functions (stationary state probability distributions) is an easy algebraic exercise. If one considers D-dimensional lattices and chooses Hamiltonians linear in the generators, in finite-size scaling the Hamiltonian spectrum is gapless with a critical dynamic exponent z=D. One possible application of the DAA is to sandpile models. In the paper we present this application, considering one- and two-dimensional lattices. In the one-dimensional case, when the DAA conserves the number of particles, the avalanches belong to the random walker universality class (critical exponent sigma_(tau)=32 ). We study the local density of particles inside large avalanches, showing a depletion of particles at the source of the avalanche and an enrichment at its end. In two dimensions we did extensive Monte-Carlo simulations and found sigma_(tau)=1.780+/-0.005 .

  20. On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model

    SciTech Connect

    Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600

    Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws drivenmore » for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.« less

  1. Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  2. Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao

    2015-03-01

    We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.

  3. Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  4. Concentration of vorticity due to selective decay in doubly periodic vortices and a vortex pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    Strong vortices like tornadoes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones are often created in geophysical flows. It is important to understand the mechanism for the creation of these strong vortices. Recently, we found a purely hydrodynamic mechanism for the concentration of vorticity: it is due to selective decay in which circulation decays faster than angular momentum and energy. In this paper, two problems are investigated by direct numerical simulation to seek universality of this mechanism: doubly periodic vortices disturbed by an unstable eigenmode and a vortex pair disturbed by localized disturbances. In the former case, concentration of vorticity occurs when the wavenumber of the eigenmode is large, while it does not occur for small wavenumbers. For small wavenumbers the disturbances grow to a large amplitude eventually destroying the base flow. For large wavenumber, on the other hand, the growth of the disturbances saturates before destroying the base flow. Selective decay of inviscid invariants is shown to be responsible for the concentration of vorticity as in the previous study. In the case of a vortex pair disturbed by localized disturbances concentration of vorticity occurs twice: the first concentration is not related to selective decay; however, the second weak concentration is most likely due to selective decay.

  5. Sakurai Prize: The Future of Higgs Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson relied critically on precision calculations. The quantum contributions from the Higgs boson to the W and top quark masses suggested long before the Higgs discovery that a Standard Model Higgs boson should have a mass in the 100-200 GeV range. The experimental extraction of Higgs properties requires normalization to the predicted Higgs production and decay rates, for which higher order corrections are also essential. As Higgs physics becomes a mature subject, more and more precise calculations will be required. If there is new physics at high scales, it will contribute to the predictions and precision Higgs physics will be a window to beyond the Standard Model physics.

  6. Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.

  7. Vortices and the related principles of hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1921-01-01

    Here, conceptions concerning vortices are illustrated by the simplest possible examples. Mathematical formulas and similar means of presentation, which, for the most part, do not help the understanding of persons not versed therein, have been avoided as much as possible. Instead, the author has endeavored to demonstrate the phenomena by means of simple geometrical and mechanical illustrations. For the sake of clarity, the author chiefly considers currents in one plane only, a situation that can be readily represented by diagrams. Some of the peculiarities of vortices in three dimensional flow are briefly discussed.

  8. Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F

    2010-04-01

    Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.

  9. Monopolar vortices as relative equilibria and their dissipative decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandefliert, B. W.; Vangroesen, E. W. C.

    1991-11-01

    Families of confined rotating monopolar vortices are characterized using a variational formulation with the angular momentum as the driving force for confinement. The characterization for positive monopolar vortices given, can be extended to negative vortices or to vortices within a rotating frame of reference. Besides the uniform Kirchhoff paths, new branches of vorticity solutions are found restricting the dynamics to levelsets of both the angular momentum and the quadratic anisotropy. The rotation rate of the smooth vorticity structures depends on the vorticity profile. This is made perceptible by considering both minimum energy vortices and minimizing vortices, rotating counterclockwise and clockwise respectively. An approximation for the decay of the vortices due to dissipation is given in terms of the dissipation of the integrals in the inviscid system. This description enables us to consider dissipation of vortices without loss of confinement. The elliptical Kirchhoff patches are found to symmetrize into circular patches. The minimum energy vortices gradually diminish while expending their support, while the maximum energy vortices are unstable for the dissipative evolution.

  10. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGES

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~10 13–10 14 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  11. New decay modes of heavy Higgs bosons in a two Higgs doublet model with vectorlike leptons

    DOE PAGES

    Dermíšek, Radovan; Lunghi, Enrico; Shin, Seodong

    2016-05-25

    In models with extended Higgs sector and additional matter fields, the decay modes of heavy Higgs bosons can be dominated by cascade decays through the new fermions rendering present search strategies ineffective. Here, we investigate new decay topologies of heavy neutral Higgses in two Higgs doublet model with vectorlike leptons. We also discus constraints from existing searches and discovery prospects. Among the most interesting signatures are monojet, mono Z, mono Higgs, and Z and Higgs bosons produced with a pair of charged leptons.

  12. Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of an Abelian and non-Abelian exotic action for gravity in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx; Manuel-Cabrera, J., E-mail: jmanuel@ifuap.buap.mx

    2015-10-15

    A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of an Abelian and non-Abelian exotic action for gravity in three dimensions is performed. We obtain for the theories under study the constraints, the gauge transformations, the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and we perform the counting of physical degrees of freedom. In addition, we compare our results with those found in the literature where the canonical analysis is developed, in particular, we show that both the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects. - Highlights: • A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw analysis for exotic action of gravity is performed.more » • We show that Dirac’s brackets and Generalized [FJ] brackets are equivalent. • Without fixing the gauge exotic action is a non-commutative theory. • The fundamental gauge transformations of the theory are found. • Dirac and Faddeev–Jackiw approaches are compared.« less

  13. Higgs bosons in extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.

  14. Radiative mixing of the one Higgs boson and emergent self-interacting dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ernest

    2016-03-01

    In all scalar extensions of the standard model of particle interactions, the one Higgs boson responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking always mixes with other neutral scalars at tree level unless a symmetry prevents it. One unexplored important option is that the mixing may be radiative, and thus guaranteed to be small. Moreover, two first such examples are discussed. One is based on the soft breaking of the discrete symmetry Z3. The other starts with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A4which is then softly broken to Z3, and results in the emergence of an interesting dark-matter candidate together with a light mediatormore » for the dark matter to have its own long-range interaction.« less

  15. A factor involved in efficient breakdown of supersonic streamwise vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    Spatially developing processes in supersonic streamwise vortices were numerically simulated at Mach number 5.0. The vortex evolution largely depended on the azimuthal vorticity thickness of the vortices, which governs the negative helicity profile. Large vorticity thickness greatly enhanced the centrifugal instability, with consequent development of perturbations with competing wavenumbers outside the vortex core. During the transition process, supersonic streamwise vortices could generate large-scale spiral structures and a number of hairpin like vortices. Remarkably, the transition caused a dramatic increase in the total fluctuation energy of hypersonic flows, because the negative helicity profile destabilizes the flows due to helicity instability. Unstable growth might also relate to the correlation length between the axial and azimuthal vorticities of the streamwise vortices. The knowledge gained in this study is important for realizing effective fuel-oxidizer mixing in supersonic combustion engines.

  16. The motion of wake vortices in the terminal environment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-11-12

    The phenomenon of aircraft wake vortices has been known since the beginning of powered flight. However, the potential danger of encountering wake vortices has only recently become apparent. Within a few years, a significant fraction of the civil air ...

  17. Polar Vortices Observed in Ferroelectric | Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov Websites

    vortices" that appear to be the electrical cousins of magnetic skyrmions holds intriguing structures are confined to magnetic systems and aren't possible in ferroelectric materials, but through the . Ferroic materials display unique electrical or magnetic properties - or both in the case of multiferroics

  18. Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.

  19. A new diagnostic of stratospheric polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Luis; de La Torre, Laura; Nieto, Raquel; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2007-11-01

    We studied the main climatological features of the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheric vortices, using a new approach based on defining the vortex edge as the 50 hPa geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity at each hemisphere. Given the use of NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data, it was thought advisable to limit the study to the periods 1958 2004 for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 1979 2004 for the Southern Hemisphere (SH). After describing the method and testing sample results with those from other approaches, we analysed the climatological means and trends of the four most distinctive characteristics of the vortices: average latitude, strength, area, and temperature. In general terms, our results confirm most of what is already known about the stratospheric vortices from previous studies that used different data and approaches. In addition, the new methodology provides some interesting new quantifications of the dominant wavenumber and its interannual variability, as well as the principal variability modes through an empirical orthogonal function analysis that was performed directly over the vortex trajectories. The main drawbacks of the methodology, such as noticeable problems characterising highly disturbed stratospheric structures as multiple or off-pole vortices, are also identified.

  20. Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  1. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  2. Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian

    2018-05-04

    The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.

  3. Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  4. Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel-Amor, G.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.; Flores, O.

    2015-02-01

    The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Reτ ≲ 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of νt) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Reθ > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical

  5. Early Universe Higgs dynamics in the presence of the Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, Yohei; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Lebedev, Oleg

    Apparent metastability of the electroweak vacuum poses a number of cosmological questions. These concern evolution of the Higgs field to the current vacuum, and its stability during and after inflation. Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity interactions can make a crucial impact on these considerations potentially solving the problems. In this work, we allow for these couplings to be present simultaneously and study their interplay. We find that different combinations of the Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity couplings induce effective Higgs mass during and after inflation. This crucially affects the Higgs stability considerations during preheating. In particular, a wide range of the couplingsmore » leading to stable solutions becomes allowed.« less

  6. Semialigned two Higgs doublet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2018-02-01

    In the left-right symmetric model based on S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )B -L gauge symmetry, there appear heavy neutral scalar particles mediating quark flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. We consider a situation where such FCNCs give the only sign of the left-right model while WR gauge boson is decoupled, and name it "semialigned two Higgs doublet model" because the model resembles a two Higgs doublet model with mildly aligned Yukawa couplings to quarks. We predict a correlation among processes induced by quark FCNCs in the model, and argue that future precise calculation of meson-antimeson mixings and C P violation therein may hint at the semialigned two Higgs doublet model and the left-right model behind it.

  7. Cosmic Vorticity and the Origin Halo Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottlöber, Stefan; Knebe, Alexander; Hess, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field. Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e 1). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e 1, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.

  8. COSMIC VORTICITY AND THE ORIGIN HALO SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field.more » Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e{sub 1}). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e{sub 1}, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.« less

  9. Computation of design parameters and visualization of Goertler vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Alok K.

    1984-01-01

    A method for analyzing an airfoil regarding Goertler type instability was presented. A model for the visualizatin of Goertler vortices was designed and fabricated. A smoke generating apparatus was made to be used in the experiment. Experiments were conducted to photograph the vortices, however, the smoke generated was not enough to bring out the vortices.

  10. Unveiling a spinor field classification with non-Abelian gauge symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Luca; da Rocha, Roldão

    2018-05-01

    A spinor fields classification with non-Abelian gauge symmetries is introduced, generalizing the U(1) gauge symmetries-based Lounesto's classification. Here, a more general classification, contrary to the Lounesto's one, encompasses spinor multiplets, corresponding to non-Abelian gauge fields. The particular case of SU(2) gauge symmetry, encompassing electroweak and electromagnetic conserved charges, is then implemented by a non-Abelian spinor classification, now involving 14 mixed classes of spinor doublets. A richer flagpole, dipole, and flag-dipole structure naturally descends from this general classification. The Lounesto's classification of spinors is shown to arise as a Pauli's singlet, into this more general classification.

  11. Relativized problems with abelian phase group in topological dynamics.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D

    1976-04-01

    Let (X, T) be the equicontinuous minimal transformation group with X = pi(infinity)Z(2), the Cantor group, and S = [unk](infinity)Z(2) endowed with the discrete topology acting on X by right multiplication. For any countable group T we construct a function F:X x S --> T such that if (Y, T) is a minimal transformation group, then (X x Y, S) is a minimal transformation group with the action defined by (x, y)s = [xs, yF(x, s)]. If (W, T) is a minimal transformation group and varphi:(Y, T) --> (W, T) is a homomorphism, then identity x varphi:(X x Y, S) --> (X x W, S) is a homomorphism and has many of the same properties that varphi has. For this reason, one may assume that the phase group is abelian (or S) without loss of generality for many relativized problems in topological dynamics.

  12. Path-integral invariants in abelian Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, E.; Thuillier, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the U(1) Chern-Simons gauge theory defined in a general closed oriented 3-manifold M; the functional integration is used to compute the normalized partition function and the expectation values of the link holonomies. The non-perturbative path-integral is defined in the space of the gauge orbits of the connections which belong to the various inequivalent U(1) principal bundles over M; the different sectors of configuration space are labelled by the elements of the first homology group of M and are characterized by appropriate background connections. The gauge orbits of flat connections, whose classification is also based on the homology group, control the non-perturbative contributions to the mean values. The functional integration is carried out in any 3-manifold M, and the corresponding path-integral invariants turn out to be strictly related with the abelian Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery invariants.

  13. Quantum corrections to non-Abelian SUSY theories on orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot Nibbelink, Stefan; Hillenbach, Mark

    2006-07-01

    We consider supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theories coupled to hyper multiplets on five and six dimensional orbifolds, S/Z and T/Z, respectively. We compute the bulk and local fixed point renormalizations of the gauge couplings. To this end we extend supergraph techniques to these orbifolds by defining orbifold compatible delta functions. We develop their properties in detail. To cancel the bulk one-loop divergences the bulk gauge kinetic terms and dimension six higher derivative operators are required. The gauge couplings renormalize at the Z fixed points due to vector multiplet self interactions; the hyper multiplet renormalizes only non- Z fixed points. In 6D the Wess-Zumino-Witten term and a higher derivative analogue have to renormalize in the bulk as well to preserve 6D gauge invariance.

  14. Topological degeneracy of non-Abelian states for dummies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshikawa, Masaki; Kim, Yong Baek; Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Tewari, Sumanta

    2007-06-01

    We present a physical construction of degenerate groundstates of the Moore-Read Pfaffian states, which exhibits non-Abelian statistics, on general Riemann surface with genus g. The construction is given by a generalization of the recent argument [M.O., T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060601] which relates fractionalization and topological order. The nontrivial groundstate degeneracy obtained by Read and Green [Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 10267] based on differential geometry is reproduced exactly. Some restrictions on the statistics, due to the fractional charge of the quasiparticle are also discussed. Furthermore, the groundstate degeneracy of the p + i p superconductor in two dimensions, which is closely related to the Pfaffian states, is discussed with a similar construction.

  15. Abelianization and sequential confinement in 2 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Sergio; Giacomelli, Simone

    2017-10-01

    We consider the lagrangian description of Argyres-Douglas theories of type A 2 N -1, which is a SU( N) gauge theory with an adjoint and one fundamental flavor. An appropriate reformulation allows us to map the moduli space of vacua across the duality, and to dimensionally reduce. Going down to three dimensions, we find that the adjoint SQCD "abelianizes": in the infrared it is equivalent to a N=4 linear quiver theory. Moreover, we study the mirror dual: using a monopole duality to "sequentially confine" quivers tails with balanced nodes, we show that the mirror RG flow lands on N=4 SQED with N flavors. These results make the supersymmetry enhancement explicit and provide a physical derivation of previous proposals for the three dimensional mirror of AD theories.

  16. On spectral synthesis on zero-dimensional Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    Let G be a zero-dimensional locally compact Abelian group all of whose elements are compact, and let C(G) be the space of all complex-valued continuous functions on G. A closed linear subspace \\mathscr H\\subseteq C(G) is said to be an invariant subspace if it is invariant with respect to the translations \\tau_y\\colon f(x)\\mapsto f(x+y), y\\in G. In the paper, it is proved that any invariant subspace \\mathscr H admits spectral synthesis, that is, \\mathscr H coincides with the closed linear span of the characters of G belonging to \\mathscr H. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  17. Symplectic analysis of three-dimensional Abelian topological gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R.; Escalante, Alberto; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    A detailed Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of an Abelian topological gravity is performed; we show that this formalism is equivalent and more economical than Dirac's method. In particular, we identify the complete set of constraints of the theory, from which the number of physical degrees of freedom is explicitly computed. We prove that the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets and the Dirac ones coincide with each other. Moreover, we perform the Faddeev-Jackiw analysis of the theory at the chiral point, and the full set of constraints and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets are constructed. Finally we compare our results with those found in the literature and we discuss some remarks and prospects.

  18. Scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hostler, L.C.

    1986-09-01

    The gauge field theory of an N-italic-dimensional multiplet of spin- 1/2 particles is investigated using the Klein--Gordon-type wave equation )Pi x (1+i-italicsigma) x Pi+m-italic/sup 2/)Phi = 0, Pi/sub ..mu../equivalentpartial/partiali-italicx-italic/sub ..mu../-e-italicA-italic/sub ..mu../, investigated before by a number of authors, to describe the fermions. Here Phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor, and sigma repesents a Lorentz spin tensor whose components sigma/sub ..mu..//sub ..nu../ are ordinary 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. Feynman rules for the scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory are derived starting from the conventional field theory of the multiplet and converting it to the new description. Themore » equivalence of the new and the old formalism for arbitrary radiative processes is thereby established. The conversion to the scalar formalism is accomplished in a novel way by working in terms of the path integral representation of the generating functional of the vacuum tau-functions, tau(2,1, xxx 3 xxx)equivalent<0-chemically bondT-italic(Psi/sub in/(2) Psi-bar/sub in/(1) xxx A-italic/sub ..mu../(3)/sub in/ xxx S-italic)chemically bond0->, where Psi/sub in/ is a Heisenberg operator belonging to a 4N-italic x 1 Dirac wave function of the multiplet. The Feynman rules obtained generalize earlier results for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics.« less

  19. Non-Abelian S =1 chiral spin liquid on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Tu, Hong-Hao; Wu, Ying-Hai; He, Rong-Qiang; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2018-05-01

    We study S =1 spin liquid states on the kagome lattice constructed by Gutzwiller-projected px+i py superconductors. We show that the obtained spin liquids are either non-Abelian or Abelian topological phases, depending on the topology of the fermionic mean-field state. By calculating the modular matrices S and T , we confirm that projected topological superconductors are non-Abelian chiral spin liquid (NACSL). The chiral central charge and the spin Hall conductance we obtained agree very well with the S O (3) 1 (or, equivalently, S U (2) 2 ) field-theory predictions. We propose a local Hamiltonian which may stabilize the NACSL. From a variational study, we observe a topological phase transition from the NACSL to the Z2 Abelian spin liquid.

  20. Non-Abelian Parton Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Multilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Hai; Shi, Tao; Jain, Jainendra K

    2017-08-09

    The current proposals for producing non-Abelian anyons and Majorana particles, which are neither fermions nor bosons, are primarily based on the realization of topological superconductivity in two dimensions. We show theoretically that the unique Landau level structure of bilayer graphene provides a new possible avenue for achieving such exotic particles. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of a "parton" fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state, which supports non-Abelian particles without the usual topological superconductivity. Furthermore, we advance this state as the fundamental explanation of the puzzling 1/2 FQH effect observed in bilayer graphene [ Kim et al. Nano Lett. 2015 , 15 , 7445 ] and predict that it will also occur in trilayer graphene. We indicate experimental signatures that differentiate the parton state from other candidate non-Abelian FQH states and predict that a transverse electric field can induce a topological quantum phase transition between two distinct non-Abelian FQH states.

  1. Conformal field theory construction for non-Abelian hierarchy wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournois, Yoran; Hermanns, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect is the paradigmatic example of topologically ordered phases. One of its most fascinating aspects is the large variety of different topological orders that may be realized, in particular non-Abelian ones. Here we analyze a class of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall model states which are generalizations of the Abelian Haldane-Halperin hierarchy. We derive their topological properties and show that the quasiparticles obey non-Abelian fusion rules of type su (q)k . For a subset of these states we are able to derive the conformal field theory description that makes the topological properties—in particular braiding—of the state manifest. The model states we study provide explicit wave functions for a large variety of interesting topological orders, which may be relevant for certain fractional quantum Hall states observed in the first excited Landau level.

  2. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2013-01-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones. PMID:24336410

  3. The Higgs boson and cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  4. Unraveling the Higgs Boson Discovery

    ScienceCinema

    Yoshida, Rik

    2018-04-16

    Argonne physicist Rik Yoshida explains what the Higgs boson is and what its discovery means for physics, the universe, and life. The third of Argonne's "OutLoud" public lecture series, held at the lab on September 27, 2012. Find out when the next one is at http://www.anl.gov/community/outloud

  5. Fermiophobic Higgs boson and supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, E.; Kannike, K.; Mele, B.; Racioppi, A.; Raidal, M.

    2012-09-01

    If a light Higgs boson with mass 125 GeV is fermiophobic, or partially fermiophobic, then the minimal supersymmetric standard model is excluded. The minimal supersymmetric fermiophobic Higgs scenario can naturally be formulated in the context of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) that admits Z3 discrete symmetries. In the fermiophobic NMSSM, the supersymmetry naturalness criteria are relaxed by a factor Ncyt4/g4˜25, removing the little hierarchy problem and allowing sparticle masses to be naturally of order 2-3 TeV. This scale motivates wino or Higgsino dark matter. The SUSY flavor and CP problems as well as the constraints on sparticle and Higgs boson masses from b→sγ, Bs→μμ and direct LHC searches are relaxed in the fermiophobic NMSSM. The price to pay is that a new, yet unknown, mechanism must be introduced to generate fermion masses. We show that in the fermiophobic NMSSM the radiative Higgs boson branchings to γγ, γZ can be modified compared to the fermiophobic and ordinary standard model predictions, and fit present collider data better. Suppression of dark matter scattering off nuclei explains the absence of signal in XENON100.

  6. Higgs varieties and fundamental groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzo, Ugo; Graña Otero, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    After reviewing some "fundamental group schemes" that can be attached to a variety by means of Tannaka duality, we consider the example of the Higgs fundamental group scheme, surveying its main properties and relations with the other fundamental groups, and giving some examples.

  7. The Higgs boson and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-13

    I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.

  8. Non-Abelian Berry phase, instantons, and N=(0,4) supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Laia, Joao N.

    2010-12-15

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, the non-Abelian Berry phase is known to obey certain differential equations. Here we study N=(0,4) systems and show that the non-Abelian Berry connection over R{sup 4n} satisfies a generalization of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Upon dimensional reduction, these become the tt* equations. We further study the Berry connection in N=(4,4) theories and show that the curvature is covariantly constant.

  9. Anomalous Quasiparticle Symmetries and Non-Abelian Defects on Symmetrically Gapped Surfaces of Weak Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Mross, David F; Essin, Andrew; Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady

    2016-01-22

    We show that boundaries of 3D weak topological insulators can become gapped by strong interactions while preserving all symmetries, leading to Abelian surface topological order. The anomalous nature of weak topological insulator surfaces manifests itself in a nontrivial action of symmetries on the quasiparticles; most strikingly, translations change the anyon types in a manner impossible in strictly 2D systems with the same symmetry. As a further consequence, screw dislocations form non-Abelian defects that trap Z_{4} parafermion zero modes.

  10. Helical vortices: viscous dynamics and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maurice; Selcuk, Can; Delbende, Ivan; Ijlra-Upmc Team; Limsi-Cnrs Team

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamical properties of helical vortices is of great importance for numerous applications such as wind turbines, helicopter rotors, ship propellers. Locally these flows often display a helical symmetry: fields are invariant through combined axial translation of distance Δz and rotation of angle θ = Δz / L around the same z-axis, where 2 πL denotes the helix pitch. A DNS code with built-in helical symmetry has been developed in order to compute viscous quasi-steady basic states with one or multiple vortices. These states will be characterized (core structure, ellipticity, ...) as a function of the pitch, without or with an axial flow component. The instability modes growing in the above base flows and their growth rates are investigated by a linearized version of the DNS code coupled to an Arnoldi procedure. This analysis is complemented by a helical thin-cored vortex filaments model. ANR HELIX.

  11. Emergent vortices in populations of colloidal rollers

    PubMed Central

    Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Das, Debasish; Savoie, Charles; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Shitara, Kyohei; Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coherent vortical motion has been reported in a wide variety of populations including living organisms (bacteria, fishes, human crowds) and synthetic active matter (shaken grains, mixtures of biopolymers), yet a unified description of the formation and structure of this pattern remains lacking. Here we report the self-organization of motile colloids into a macroscopic steadily rotating vortex. Combining physical experiments and numerical simulations, we elucidate this collective behaviour. We demonstrate that the emergent-vortex structure lives on the verge of a phase separation, and single out the very constituents responsible for this state of polar active matter. Building on this observation, we establish a continuum theory and lay out a strong foundation for the description of vortical collective motion in a broad class of motile populations constrained by geometrical boundaries. PMID:26088835

  12. Stability of knotted vortices in wave chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alexander; Dennis, Mark

    Large scale tangles of disordered filaments occur in many diverse physical systems, from turbulent superfluids to optical volume speckle to liquid crystal phases. They can exhibit particular large scale random statistics despite very different local physics. We have previously used the topological statistics of knotting and linking to characterise the large scale tangling, using the vortices of three-dimensional wave chaos as a universal model system whose physical lengthscales are set only by the wavelength. Unlike geometrical quantities, the statistics of knotting depend strongly on the physical system and boundary conditions. Although knotting patterns characterise different systems, the topology of vortices is highly unstable to perturbation, under which they may reconnect with one another. In systems of constructed knots, these reconnections generally rapidly destroy the knot, but for vortex tangles the topological statistics must be stable. Using large scale simulations of chaotic eigenfunctions, we numerically investigate the prevalence and impact of reconnection events, and their effect on the topology of the tangle.

  13. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  14. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-06

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.

  15. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He

    PubMed Central

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki

    1999-01-01

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe. PMID:10393895

  16. Hydromagnetic vortices. II - Further dawnside events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, M. A.; Southwood, D. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the 11 December 1977 plasma vortex event the subject of a multi-instrument investigation (Saunders et al., 1983) - was neither atypical nor uncommon, by describing the magnetic and plasma characteristics of three further vortices recorded within 3 weeks of, and at similar locations to, the 11 December study. One of the new events has added interest since magnetic pulsations were seen simultaneously on the ground in the vicinity of the satellite magnetic 'footprint'.

  17. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  18. Radially separated classical lumps in non-Abelian gauge models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzlaff, Jürgen

    1985-04-01

    We search for smooth and time-independent finite-energy solutions to Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with an arbitrary compact gauge group. Excluding the monopole solutions which have been studied before, we concentrate on configurations with no long-range fields, which include the saddle points corresponding to noncontractible (hyper-) loops. It is shown that if the radial dependence of the fields is factorized, only one solution satisfies all these conditions. This solution is the one which has been studied before by Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu and by Boguta, and whose existence has recently been proved rigorously. Formulas for the asymptotic behavior of this solution are given.

  19. Light charged Higgs boson scenario in 3-Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, A. G.; Moretti, Stefano; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine

    2017-08-01

    The constraints from the measurements of the B → Xsγ decay rate on the parameter space of 3-Higgs Doublet Models (3HDMs), where all the doublets have nonzero vacuum expectation values, are studied at the next-to-leading order in QCD. In order to naturally avoid the presence of flavour changing neutral currents at the tree level, we impose two softly-broken discrete Z2 symmetries. This gives rise to five independent types of 3HDMs that differ in their Yukawa couplings. We show that in all these 3HDMs (including the case of type-II-like Yukawa interactions) both masses of the two charged Higgs bosons mH1± and mH2± can be smaller than the top mass mt while complying with the constraints from B → Xsγ. As an interesting phenomenological consequence, the branching ratios of the charged Higgs bosons decay into the cb final states can be as large as 80% when their masses are taken to be below mt in two of the five 3HDMs (named as Type-Y and Type-Z). This light charged Higgs boson scenario provides a hallmark 3HDM signature that cannot be realised in Z2 symmetric 2-Higgs doublet models. We find that in the Type-Y and Type-Z 3HDMs the scenario with 90GeV < mH1±, mH2± < mt is ruled out by the direct searches at the LHC, but in the Type-Y 3HDM 80GeV < mH1± < 90GeV and 90GeV < mH2± < mt is allowed by B → Xsγ and direct searches at LEP2, Tevatron and LHC due to the reduced sensitivity of these searches to the degenerate case mH1±≈ mW±. The cases where only one or both charged Higgs bosons are above the top quark mass are also naturally allowed in the both Type-Y and Type-Z 3HDMs.

  20. Surfzone vorticity in the presence of extreme bathymetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surfzone vorticity was measured at Duck, NC using a novel 5-m diameter vorticity sensor deployed in 1.75 m water depth. During the 4-week deployment the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry developed 200-m long mega-cusps with alongshore vertical changes of 1.5 m or more. When waves were small and the vorticity sensor was seaward of the surfzone, vorticity variance and mean vorticity varied with the tidally modulated water depth, consistent with a net seaward flux of surfzone-generated vorticity. Vorticity variance increased with incident wave heights up to 2-m. However, vorticity variance remained relatively constant for incident wave heights above 2-m, and suggests that eddy energy may become saturated in the inner surfzone during large wave events. In the presence of mega-cusps the mean vorticity (shear) is often large and generated by bathymetrically controlled rip currents, while vorticity variance remains strongly correlated with the incident wave height. Funded by NSF, ASD(R&E), and WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute.

  1. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector

    SciTech Connect

    de Florian, D.

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplifiedmore » template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic Higgs boson decays. This report follows three previous working-group reports: Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002), Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002), and Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs properties (CERN-2013-004). The current report serves as the baseline reference for Higgs physics in LHC Run 2 and beyond.« less

  2. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; Karl, Robert; List, Jenny; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Peskin, Michael E.; Tian, Junping

    2018-03-01

    Future e+e- colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e+e- data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e+e- colliders.

  3. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon

    Future e +e – colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e +e – data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. Lastly, we apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e +e – colliders.

  4. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    DOE PAGES

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; ...

    2018-03-20

    Future e +e – colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e +e – data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. Lastly, we apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e +e – colliders.

  5. Higgs Particle: The Origin of Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yasuhiro

    2007-11-01

    The Higgs particle is a new elementary particle predicted in the Standard Model of the elementary particle physics. It plays a special role in the theory of mass generation of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. In this article, theoretical issues on the Higgs mechanism are first discussed, and then experimental prospects on the Higgs particle study at the future collider experiments, LHC and ILC, are reviewed. The Higgs coupling determination is an essential step to establish the mass generation mechanism, which could lead to a deeper understanding of particle physics.

  6. CP violation in heavy MSSM Higgs scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, M.; Ellis, J.; Lee, J. S.; ...

    2016-02-18

    We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales M S above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass M H+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenariosmore » with a charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization-group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG effects from the effective two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) scale M H± to the scale M S. Here, we illustrate the possibility of non-decoupling CP-violating effects in the heavy Higgs sector using new benchmark scenarios named.« less

  7. CP violation in heavy MSSM Higgs scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, M.; Ellis, J.; Lee, J. S.

    We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales M S above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass M H+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenariosmore » with a charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization-group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG effects from the effective two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) scale M H± to the scale M S. Here, we illustrate the possibility of non-decoupling CP-violating effects in the heavy Higgs sector using new benchmark scenarios named.« less

  8. AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.

  9. Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2015-12-21

    A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer.

  10. Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer. PMID:26687580

  11. Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2018-02-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponent ν ≈2.3 and that ν is observed to be superuniversal, i.e., the same in the vicinity of distinct critical points [Sondhi et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 315 (1997), 10.1103/RevModPhys.69.315]. Duality motivates effective descriptions for a fractional quantum Hall plateau transition involving a Chern-Simons field with U (Nc) gauge group coupled to Nf=1 fermion. We study one class of theories in a controlled limit where Nf≫Nc and calculate ν to leading nontrivial order in the absence of disorder. Although these theories do not yield an anomalously large exponent ν within the large Nf≫Nc expansion, they do offer a new parameter space of theories that is apparently different from prior works involving Abelian Chern-Simons gauge fields [Wen and Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1501 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.1501; Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 48, 13749 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.13749].

  12. Non-Abelian strategies in quantum penny flip game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate and analyze generalizations of the quantum penny flip game. In the penny flip game, one coin has two states, heads or tails, and two players apply alternating operations on the coin. In the original Meyer game, the first player is allowed to use quantum (i.e., non-commutative) operations, but the second player is still only allowed to use classical (i.e., commutative) operations. In our generalized games, both players are allowed to use non-commutative operations, with the second player being partially restricted in what operators they use. We show that even if the second player is allowed to use "phase-variable" operations, which are non-Abelian in general, the first player still has winning strategies. Furthermore, we show that even when the second player is allowed to choose one from two or more elements of the group U(2), the second player has winning strategies under certain conditions. These results suggest that there is often a method for restoring the quantum state disturbed by another agent.

  13. Experimental realization of non-Abelian non-adiabatic geometric gates.

    PubMed

    Abdumalikov, A A; Fink, J M; Juliusson, K; Pechal, M; Berger, S; Wallraff, A; Filipp, S

    2013-04-25

    The geometric aspects of quantum mechanics are emphasized most prominently by the concept of geometric phases, which are acquired whenever a quantum system evolves along a path in Hilbert space, that is, the space of quantum states of the system. The geometric phase is determined only by the shape of this path and is, in its simplest form, a real number. However, if the system has degenerate energy levels, then matrix-valued geometric state transformations, known as non-Abelian holonomies--the effect of which depends on the order of two consecutive paths--can be obtained. They are important, for example, for the creation of synthetic gauge fields in cold atomic gases or the description of non-Abelian anyon statistics. Moreover, there are proposals to exploit non-Abelian holonomic gates for the purposes of noise-resilient quantum computation. In contrast to Abelian geometric operations, non-Abelian ones have been observed only in nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments with a large number of spins, and without full characterization of the geometric process and its non-commutative nature. Here we realize non-Abelian non-adiabatic holonomic quantum operations on a single, superconducting, artificial three-level atom by applying a well-controlled, two-tone microwave drive. Using quantum process tomography, we determine fidelities of the resulting non-commuting gates that exceed 95 per cent. We show that two different quantum gates, originating from two distinct paths in Hilbert space, yield non-equivalent transformations when applied in different orders. This provides evidence for the non-Abelian character of the implemented holonomic quantum operations. In combination with a non-trivial two-quantum-bit gate, our method suggests a way to universal holonomic quantum computing.

  14. Vorticity and Λ polarization in baryon rich matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baznat, Mircea; Gudima, Konstantin; Prokhorov, George; Sorin, Alexander; Teryaev, Oleg; Zakharov, Valentin

    2018-02-01

    The polarization of Λ hyperons due to axial chiral vortical effect is discussed. The effect is proportional to (strange) chemical potential and is pronounced at lower energies in baryon-rich matter. The polarization of ¯ has the same sihn and larger magnitude. The emergence of vortical structures is observed in kinetic QGSM models. The hydrodynamical helicity separation receives the contribution of longitudinal velocity and vorticity implying the quadrupole structure of the latter. The transition from the quark vortical effects to baryons in confined phase may be achieved by exploring the axial charge. At the hadronic level the polarization corresponds to the cores of quantized vortices in pionic superfluid. The chiral vortical effects may be also studied in the frmework of Wigner function establishing the relation to the thermodynamical approach to polarization.

  15. Numerical studies of the margin of vortices with decaying cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Ting, L.

    1986-01-01

    The merging of vortices to a single one is a canonical incompressible viscous flow problem. The merging process begins when the core sizes or the vortices are comparable to their distances and ends when the contour lines of constant vorticity lines are circularized around one center. Approximate solutions to this problem are constructed by adapting the asymptotic solutions for distinct vortices. For the early stage of merging, the next-order terms in the asymptotic solutions are added to the leading term. For the later stage of merging, the vorticity distribution is reinitialized by vortices with overlapping core structures guided by the 'rule of merging' and the velocity of the 'vortex centers' are then defined by a minimum principle. To show the accuracy of the approximate solution, it is compared with the finite-difference solution.

  16. Interactions and scattering of quantum vortices in a polariton fluid.

    PubMed

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Carretero-González, Ricardo; Gianfrate, Antonio; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Rodrigues, Augusto S; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J; Lerario, Giovanni; Ballarini, Dario; De Giorgi, Milena; Gigli, Giuseppe; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Sanvitto, Daniele

    2018-04-13

    Quantum vortices, the quantized version of classical vortices, play a prominent role in superfluid and superconductor phase transitions. However, their exploration at a particle level in open quantum systems has gained considerable attention only recently. Here we study vortex pair interactions in a resonant polariton fluid created in a solid-state microcavity. By tracking the vortices on picosecond time scales, we reveal the role of nonlinearity, as well as of density and phase gradients, in driving their rotational dynamics. Such effects are also responsible for the split of composite spin-vortex molecules into elementary half-vortices, when seeding opposite vorticity between the two spinorial components. Remarkably, we also observe that vortices placed in close proximity experience a pull-push scenario leading to unusual scattering-like events that can be described by a tunable effective potential. Understanding vortex interactions can be useful in quantum hydrodynamics and in the development of vortex-based lattices, gyroscopes, and logic devices.

  17. Polarization in heavy-ion collisions: magnetic field and vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baznat, M.; Gudima, K.; Prokhorov, G.; Sorin, A.; Teryaev, O.; Zakharov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The polarization of hyperons due to axial chiral vortical effect is discussed. The effect is proportional to (strange) chemical potential and is pronounced at lower energies, contrary to that of magnetic field. The polarization of antihyperons has the same sign and larger magnitude. The emergence of vortical structures is observed in kinetic QGSM models. The hydrodynamical helicity separation receives the contribution of longitudinal velocity and vorticity implying the quadrupole structure of the latter. The transition from the quark vortical effects to baryons in confined phase may be achieved by exploring the axial charge. At the hadronic level the polarization corresponds to the cores of quantized vortices in pionic superfluid. The chiral vortical effects may be also studied in the frmework of Wigner function establishing the relation to the thermodynamical approach to polarization.

  18. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed ideamore » is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.« less

  19. Double Resummation for Higgs Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Marzani, Simone

    2018-05-01

    We present the first double-resummed prediction of the inclusive cross section for the main Higgs production channel in proton-proton collisions, namely, gluon fusion. Our calculation incorporates to all orders in perturbation theory two distinct towers of logarithmic corrections which are enhanced, respectively, at threshold, i.e., large x , and in the high-energy limit, i.e., small x . Large-x logarithms are resummed to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, while small-x ones to leading logarithmic accuracy. The double-resummed cross section is furthermore matched to the state-of-the-art fixed-order prediction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading accuracy. We find that double resummation corrects the Higgs production rate by 2% at the currently explored center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and its impact reaches 10% at future circular colliders at 100 TeV.

  20. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  1. Baroclinic Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shearing Flows: Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Zombie Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram

    Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to

  2. Living without supersymmetry—the conformal alternative and a dynamical Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the key results of supersymmetry can be achieved via conformal symmetry instead. We propose that the Higgs boson be a dynamical fermion-antifermion bound state rather than an elementary scalar field, so that there is then no quadratically divergent self-energy problem for it and thus no need to invoke supersymmetry to resolve the problem. To obtain such a dynamical Higgs boson we study a conformal invariant gauge theory of interacting fermions and gauge bosons. The conformal invariance of the theory is realized via scaling with anomalous dimensions in the ultraviolet, and by a dynamical symmetry breaking via fermion bilinear condensates in the infrared, a breaking in which the dynamical dimension of the composite operator \\bar{\\psi }\\psi is reduced from three to two. With this reduction in dimension we can augment the gauge theory with a four-fermion interaction made renormalizable by this reduction, and can reinterpret the theory as a renormalizable version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, with the gauge theory sector with its now massive fermion being a mean-field theory and the four-fermion interaction being the residual interaction. It is this residual interaction and not the mean field that then generates dynamical Goldstone and Higgs states, states that, as noted by Baker and Johnson, the gauge theory sector itself does not possess. The Higgs boson is found to be a narrow resonance just above threshold, with its width potentially being a diagnostic that could distinguish a dynamical Higgs boson from an elementary one. We couple the theory to a gravity theory, conformal gravity, that is equally conformal invariant, with the interplay between conformal gravity and the four-fermion interaction taking care of the vacuum energy problem. With conformal gravity being a unitary and renormalizable quantum theory of gravity there is no need for string theory with its supersymmetric underpinnings. With the vacuum energy problem being resolved and

  3. Baryonic Higgs at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Duerr, Michael; Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Smirnov, Juri

    2017-09-20

    We investigate the possible collider signatures of a new Higgs in simple extensions of the Standard Model where baryon number is a local symmetry spontaneously broken at the low scale. Here, we refer to this new Higgs as “Baryonic Higgs”. This Higgs has peculiar properties since it can decay into all Standard Model particles, the leptophobic gauge boson, and the vector-like quarks present in these theories to ensure anomaly cancellation. We investigate in detail the constraints from the γγ, Zγ, ZZ, and W W searches at the Large Hadron Collider, needed to find a lower bound on the scale atmore » which baryon number is spontaneously broken. The di-photon channel turns out to be a very sensitive probe in the case of small scalar mixing and can severely constrain the baryonic scale. Finally, we also study the properties of the leptophobic gauge boson in order to understand the testability of these theories at the LHC.« less

  4. Baryonic Higgs at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael; Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Smirnov, Juri

    We investigate the possible collider signatures of a new Higgs in simple extensions of the Standard Model where baryon number is a local symmetry spontaneously broken at the low scale. Here, we refer to this new Higgs as “Baryonic Higgs”. This Higgs has peculiar properties since it can decay into all Standard Model particles, the leptophobic gauge boson, and the vector-like quarks present in these theories to ensure anomaly cancellation. We investigate in detail the constraints from the γγ, Zγ, ZZ, and W W searches at the Large Hadron Collider, needed to find a lower bound on the scale atmore » which baryon number is spontaneously broken. The di-photon channel turns out to be a very sensitive probe in the case of small scalar mixing and can severely constrain the baryonic scale. Finally, we also study the properties of the leptophobic gauge boson in order to understand the testability of these theories at the LHC.« less

  5. Neural networks for Higgs physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentindo-Repond, Silvia; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Prosper, Harrison B.

    2001-08-01

    The main application of neural networks (NN) in Higgs physics so far has been to optimize the signal over background ratio. The positive result obtained imply that the use of NN will lead to a big reduction in the integrated luminosity required for the discovery of the Higgs in RunII. Neural Networks have also been recently used in Higgs physics to set up tagging algorithms to identify the heavy flavor content of jets. Whereas in the previous studies the NN b-tagging methods used are channel-independent, a channel-dependent method has been used in the present work. The signal pp¯→WH→lνbb¯ has been studied against the dominant background pp¯→Wbb¯, in an attempt to improve the signal over background ratio by trying to push the invariant mass of the background events further away from the signal. This result would get the equivalent effect of an improved mass resolution.

  6. Enhanced di-Higgs boson production in the complex Higgs singlet model

    DOE PAGES

    Dawson, S.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-01-31

    Here, we consider the standard model (SM) extended by the addition of a complex scalar singlet, with no assumptions about additional symmetries of the potential. This model provides for resonant di-Higgs production of Higgs particles with different masses. We demonstrate that regions of parameter space allowed by precision electroweak measurements, experimental limits on single Higgs production, and perturbative unitarity allow for large di-Higgs production rates relative to the SM rates. In this scenario, the dominant production mechanism of the new scalar states is di-Higgs production. Results are presented formore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 13, 27 and 100 TeV.« less

  7. Enhanced di-Higgs boson production in the complex Higgs singlet model

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.; Sullivan, M.

    Here, we consider the standard model (SM) extended by the addition of a complex scalar singlet, with no assumptions about additional symmetries of the potential. This model provides for resonant di-Higgs production of Higgs particles with different masses. We demonstrate that regions of parameter space allowed by precision electroweak measurements, experimental limits on single Higgs production, and perturbative unitarity allow for large di-Higgs production rates relative to the SM rates. In this scenario, the dominant production mechanism of the new scalar states is di-Higgs production. Results are presented formore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 13, 27 and 100 TeV.« less

  8. Models for some aspects of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    A frictionless adiabatic model is used to study the growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear, taking account of the effects of axial drag, heat transfer and precipitation-induced downdrafts. It is found that downdrafts of tornadic magnitude may occur in negatively buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects is also discussed.

  9. Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.

  10. Internal energy flows in composite optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Manuel F.; Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.

    2016-09-01

    We study the energy ow pattern in the superposition of two off-axis optical vortices with orthogonal polarization states. This system presents a rich structure of polarization singularities, which allows us to study the transverse spin and orbital angular momentum of different polarization morphologies, which includes C points (stars, lemons and monstars) and L lines. We perform numerical simulations of the optical forces acting on submicron particles and show interesting configurations. We provide the set of control parameters to unambiguously distinguish between the spin and orbital ow contributions.

  11. On relation between scalar interfaces and vorticity in inviscid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, O. N.; Patwardhan, Saurabh

    2013-11-01

    A great variety of applications like pollutant mixing in the atmosphere, mixing of reactants in combustion highlight the importance of passive scalar dynamics in fluid flows. The other dynamically important variable in the study of fluid flow is the vorticity. Vorticity though, unlike a passive scalar, does affect the fluid motion. The dynamics of scalar (linear) and vorticity (non-linear) are governed by the equations which inherently have different characteristics. This paper addresses the question of the faithfulness of representation of vorticity by scalar marker and the motivation for this comes from the experiment of Head and Bandyopadhyay (1981) which showed the existence of coherent vortices by using smoke flow visualization in a turbulent boundary layer. We will show analytically in regions where the molecular diffusion effects are negligible, the vorticity and scalar gradients are orthogonal to each other. The iso- surface of scalar follows the vorticity in an inviscid situation. Also, we will demonstrate that in the case of unsteady burgers vortex and vortex shedding behind a finite circular cylinder, the scalar gradient is orthogonal to vorticity and inner product of vorticity and scalar gradients is zero in regions away from the wall.

  12. Anomaly inflow on QCD axial domain-walls and vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Imaki, Shota

    2018-06-01

    We study the chiral effective theory in the presence of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vortices. Gauge invariance requires novel terms from vortex singularities in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action, which incorporate anomaly-induced currents along the vortices. We examine these terms for systems with QCD axial domain-walls bounded by vortices (vortons) under magnetic fields. We discuss how the baryon and electric charge conservations are satisfied in these systems through interplay between domain-walls and vortices, manifesting Callan-Harvey's mechanism of anomaly inflow.

  13. Vorticity Probes and the Characterization of Vortices in the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Perez, J. C.; Bengtson, R. D.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Fassler, M.

    2003-10-01

    A new five-pin probe design called the Vorticity Probe is presented that explicitly measures the vorticity in the ExB flow from the floating potentials independent on any absolute calibration errors. The five Tantulum probe tips are arranged in a diamond pattern with 5mm tip spacing. The fluctuating floating potential at each tip is measured and used to compute a finite-difference approximation of the ExB vorticity. The probe is tested in the LAPD device run with a variable bias between the anode and the chamber wall that creates a sharply localized Er-profile at 30cm from the axis of the 100cm diameter chamber. The fluctuations observed are peaked in the shear flow layer and are being correlated with theoretical calculations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for this plasma. Nonlinear calculations are presented and test particle motion in the mixture of waves and vortices are described. The spectrum at 15 to 30 kHz matches the theoretical prediction from the measured dEr/dr gradient that reaches 17kV/m^2 in the B=0.2T axial magnetic field. The parallel wavelength and azimuthal mode numbers are being measured for further comfirmation of the of the mode classification.

  14. New scheme for color confinement and violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Bornyakov, Vitaly

    2018-02-01

    A new scheme for color confinement in QCD due to violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities is proposed. The violation of the non-Abelian Bianchi identities (VNABI) Jμ is equal to Abelian-like monopole currents kμ defined by the violation of the Abelian-like Bianchi identities. Although VNABI is an adjoint operator satisfying the covariant conservation law DμJμ=0 , it satisfies, at the same time, the Abelian-like conservation law ∂μJμ=0 . The Abelian-like conservation law ∂μJμ=0 is also gauge-covariant. There are N2-1 conserved magnetic charges in the case of color S U (N ). The charge of each component of VNABI is quantized à la Dirac. The color-invariant eigenvalues λμ of VNABI also satisfy the Abelian conservation law ∂μλμ=0 and the magnetic charges of the eigenvalues are also quantized à la Dirac. If the color invariant eigenvalues condense in the QCD vacuum, each color component of the non-Abelian electric field Ea is squeezed by the corresponding color component of the solenoidal current Jμa. Then only the color singlets alone can survive as a physical state and non-Abelian color confinement is realized. This confinement picture is completely new in comparison with the previously studied monopole confinement scenario based on an Abelian projection after some partial gauge-fixing, where Abelian neutral states can survive as physical. To check if the scenario is realized in nature, numerical studies are done in the framework of lattice field theory by adopting pure S U (2 ) gauge theory for simplicity. Considering Jμ(x )=kμ(x ) in the continuum formulation, we adopt an Abelian-like definition of a monopole following DeGrand-Toussaint as a lattice version of VNABI, since the Dirac quantization condition of the magnetic charge is satisfied on lattice partially. To reduce severe lattice artifacts, we introduce various techniques of smoothing the thermalized vacuum. Smooth gauge fixings such as the maximal center gauge (MCG), block

  15. Status of the charged Higgs boson in two Higgs doublet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Stål, O.; Stefaniak, T.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of charged Higgs boson(s) is inevitable in models with two (or more) Higgs doublets. Hence, their discovery would constitute unambiguous evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Taking into account all relevant results from direct charged and neutral Higgs boson searches at LEP and the LHC, as well as the most recent constraints from flavour physics, we present a detailed analysis of the current phenomenological status of the charged Higgs sector in a variety of well-motivated two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs). We find that charged Higgs bosons as light as 75 GeV can still be compatible with the combined data, although this implies severely suppressed charged Higgs couplings to all fermions. In more popular models, e.g. the 2HDM of Type II, we find that flavour physics observables impose a combined lower limit on the charged Higgs mass of M_{H^± } ≳ 600 GeV - independent of tan β - which increases to M_{H^± } ≳ 650 GeV for tan β < 1. We furthermore find that in certain scenarios, the signature of a charged Higgs boson decaying into a lighter neutral Higgs boson and a W boson provides a promising experimental avenue that would greatly complement the existing LHC search programme for charged Higgs boson(s).

  16. Higgs couplings and new signals from Flavon-Higgs mixing effects within multi-scalar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo; Saldaña-Salazar, Ulises J.

    2016-12-01

    Testing the properties of the Higgs particle discovered at the LHC and searching for new physics signals, are some of the most important tasks of Particle Physics today. Current measurements of the Higgs couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, seem consistent with the Standard Model, and when taken as a function of the particle mass, should lay on a single line. However, in models with an extended Higgs sector the diagonal Higgs couplings to up-quarks, down-quarks and charged leptons, could lay on different lines, while non-diagonal flavor-violating Higgs couplings could appear too. We describe these possibilities within the context of multi-Higgs doublet models that employ the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism to generate the Yukawa hierarchies. Furthermore, one of the doublets can be chosen to be of the inert type, which provides a viable dark matter candidate. The mixing of the Higgs doublets with the flavon field, can provide plenty of interesting signals, including: i) small corrections to the couplings of the SM-like Higgs, ii) exotic signals from the flavon fields, iii) new signatures from the heavy Higgs bosons. These aspects are studied within a specific model with 3 + 1 Higgs doublets and a singlet FN field. Constraints on the model are derived from the study of K and D mixing and the Higgs search at the LHC. For last, the implications from the latter aforementioned constraints to the FCNC top decay t → ch are presented too.

  17. Tomographic PIV Study of Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Tomographic PIV is used in a free surface water channel to quantify the flow behavior of hairpin vortices that are artificially generated in a laminar boundary layer. Direct injection from a 32:1 aspect ratio slot at low blowing ratios (0 . 1 < BR < 0 . 2) is used to generate an isolated hairpin vortex in a thick laminar boundary layer (485 < Reδ* < 600). Due to the large dynamic range of length and velocity scales (the resulting vortices have advection velocities 5X greater than their tangential velocities), a tailored optical arrangement and specialized post processing techniques are required to fully capture the small-scale behavior and long-time development of the flow field. Hairpin generation and evolution are presented using the λ2 criterion derived from the instantaneous, three-dimensional velocity field. The insight provided by the tomographic data is also compared to the conclusions drawn from 2D PIV and passive scalar visualizations. Finally, the three-dimensional behavior of the measured velocity field is correlated with that of a simultaneously imaged, passive scalar dye that marks the boundary of the injected fluid, allowing the examination of the entrainment behavior of the hairpin. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  18. Aharonov-Bohm effect with many vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Fabio; Scharff Goldhaber, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect is the prime example of a zero-field-strength configuration where a nontrivial vector potential acquires physical significance, a typical quantum mechanical effect. We consider an extension of the traditional A-B problem, by studying a two-dimensional medium filled with many point-like vortices. Systems like this might be present within a type II superconducting layer in the presence of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to the layer, and have been studied in different limits. We construct an explicit solution for the wave function of a scalar particle moving within one such layer when the vortices occupy the sites of a square lattice and have all the same strength, equal to half of the flux quantum. From this construction, we infer some general characteristics of the spectrum, including the conclusion that such a flux array produces a repulsive barrier to an incident low-energy charged particle, so that the penetration probability decays exponentially with distance from the edge.

  19. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  20. Signatures of Higgs dilaton and critical Higgs inflation.

    PubMed

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2018-03-06

    We test the Higgs dilaton inflation model (HDM) using the latest cosmological datasets, including the cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data from the Planck satellite (2015), the BICEP and Keck Array experiments, the type Ia supernovae from the JLA catalogue, the baryon acoustic oscillations from CMASS, LOWZ and 6dF, the weak lensing data from the CFHTLenS survey and the matter power spectrum measurements from the latest SDSS data release. We find that the values of all cosmological parameters allowed by the HDM are well within the Planck satellite (2015) constraints. In particular, we determine [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (at 95.5% c.l.). We also place new stringent constraints on the couplings of the HDM, ξ χ <0.00328 and [Formula: see text] (at 95.5% c.l.). We find that the HDM is only slightly better than the w 0 w a CDM model, with [Formula: see text] Given that the HDM has two fewer parameters, we find Bayesian evidence favouring the HDM over the w 0 w a CDM model. We also study the critical Higgs inflation model, taking into account the running of both the self-coupling λ( μ ) and the non-minimal coupling to gravity ξ ( μ ). We find peaks in the curvature power spectrum at scales corresponding to the critical value μ that re-enter during the radiation era and collapse to form a broad distribution of clustered primordial black holes, which could constitute today the main component of dark matter.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Seeking heavy Higgs bosons through cascade decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Fuks, Benjamin; Poulose, P.; Sahoo, Shibananda

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the LHC discovery prospects for a heavy Higgs boson decaying into the standard model Higgs boson and additional weak bosons. We consider a generic model-independent new physics configuration where this decay proceeds via a cascade involving other intermediate scalar bosons and focus on an LHC final-state signature comprised either of four b -jets and two charged leptons or of four charged leptons and two b -jets. We design two analyses of the corresponding signals, and demonstrate that a 5 σ discovery at the 14 TeV LHC is possible for various combinations of the parent and daughter Higgs-boson masses. We moreover find that the standard model backgrounds can be sufficiently rejected to guarantee the reconstruction of the parent Higgs boson mass. We apply our analyses to the Type-II two-Higgs-doublet model and identify the regions of the parameter space to which the LHC is sensitive.

  2. Minimal composite Higgs models at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, Marcela; Da Rold, Leandro; Pontón, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    We consider composite Higgs models where the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of an approximate global symmetry by some underlying strong dynamics. We focus on the SO(5) → SO(4) symmetry breaking pattern, assuming the "partial compositeness" paradigm. We study the consequences on Higgs physics of the fermionic representations produced by the strong dynamics, that mix with the Standard Model (SM) degrees of freedom. We consider models based on the lowest-dimensional representations of SO(5) that allow for the custodial protection of the coupling, i.e. the 5, 10 and 14. We find a generic suppression of the gluon fusion process, while the Higgs branching fractions can be enhanced or suppressed compared to the SM. Interestingly, a precise measurement of the Higgs boson couplings can distinguish between different realizations in the fermionic sector, thus providing crucial information about the nature of the UV dynamics.

  3. Topological Quantum Phase Transition in Synthetic Non-Abelian Gauge Potential: Gauge Invariance and Experimental Detections

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153

  4. Fault-tolerant Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on non-Abelian anyons.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Oh, C H

    2010-08-06

    We propose a scheme to test the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on braidings of non-Abelian anyons, which are exotic quasiparticle excitations of topological states of matter. Because topological ordered states are robust against local perturbations, this scheme is in some sense "fault-tolerant" and might close the detection inefficiency loophole problem in previous experimental tests of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox. In turn, the construction of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox reveals the nonlocal property of non-Abelian anyons. Our results indicate that the non-Abelian fractional statistics is a pure quantum effect and cannot be described by local realistic theories. Finally, we present a possible experimental implementation of the scheme based on the anyonic interferometry technologies.

  5. Non-abelian anyons and topological quantum information processing in 1D wire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicea, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Topological quantum computation provides an elegant solution to decoherence, circumventing this infamous problem at the hardware level. The most basic requirement in this approach is the ability to stabilize and manipulate particles exhibiting non-Abelian exchange statistics -- Majorana fermions being the simplest example. Curiously, Majorana fermions have been predicted to arise both in 2D systems, where non-Abelian statistics is well established, and in 1D, where exchange statistics of any type is ill-defined. An important question then arises: do Majorana fermions in 1D hold the same technological promise as their 2D counterparts? In this talk I will answer this question in the affirmative, describing how one can indeed manipulate and harness the non-Abelian statistics of Majoranas in a remarkably simple fashion using networks formed by quantum wires or topological insulator edges.

  6. Towards a theory of stochastic vorticity-augmentation. [tornado model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, V. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new hypothesis to account for the formation of tornadoes is presented. An elementary one-dimensional theory is formulated for vorticity transfer between an ambient sheared wind and a transverse penetrating jet. The theory points out the relevant quantities to be determined in describing the present stochastic mode of vorticity augmentation.

  7. Numerical Capture of Wing-tip Vortex Using Vorticity Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baili; Lou, Jing; Kang, Chang Wei; Wilson, Alexander; Lundberg, Johan; Bensow, Rickard

    2012-11-01

    Tracking vortices accurately over large distances is very important in many areas of engineering, for instance flow over rotating helicopter blades, ship propeller blades and aircraft wings. However, due to the inherent numerical dissipation in the advection step of flow simulation, current Euler and RANS field solvers tend to damp these vortices too fast. One possible solution to reduce the unphysical decay of these vortices is the application of vorticity confinement methods. In this study, a vorticity confinement term is added to the momentum conservation equations which is a function of the local element size, the vorticity and the gradient of the absolute value of vorticity. The approach has been evaluated by a systematic numerical study on the tip vortex trailing from a rectangular NACA0012 half-wing. The simulated structure and development of the wing-tip vortex agree well with experiments both qualitatively and quantitatively without any adverse effects on the global flow field. It is shown that vorticity confinement can negate the effect of numerical dissipation, leading to a more or less constant vortex strength. This is an approximate method in that genuine viscous diffusion of the vortex is not modeled, but it can be appropriate for vortex dominant flows over short to medium length scales where viscous diffusion can be neglected.

  8. Analysis of vortical structures in turbulent natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangro; Lee, Changhoon

    2014-11-01

    Natural convection of fluid within two parallel walls, Rayleigh-Bénard convection, is studied by direct numerical simulation using a spectral method. The flow is in soft turbulence regime with Rayleigh number 106, 107, 108, Prandtl number 0 . 7 and aspect ratio 4. We investigate the relations between thermal plumes and vortical structures through manipulating the evolution equations of vorticity and velocity gradient tensor. According to simulation results, horizontal vorticity occurs near the wall and changes into vertical vorticity by vertical stretching of fluid element which is caused by vertical movement of the thermal plume. Additionally, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and invariants of velocity gradient tensor show the topologies of vortical structures, including how vortical structures are tilted or stretched. Difference of velocity gradient tensor between inside thermal plumes and background region is also investigated, and the result indicates that thermal plumes play an important role in changing the distribution of vortical structures. The results of this study are consistent with other researches which suggest that vertical vorticity is stronger in high Rayleigh number flows. Details will be presented in the meeting.

  9. Pressure measurements of wake vortices near the ground

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-04-30

    It has been known since the beginning of air flight that an : aircraft leaves in its wake a pair of highly concentrated, : counter-rotating trailing vortices. With the introduction of : jumbo jets, the vortices generated by these aircraft can become ...

  10. Coupled Control of Flow Separation and Streamwise Vortical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Travis; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2017-11-01

    The flow in offset diffusers of modern propulsion systems are dominated by streamwise vorticity concentrations that advect of low-momentum fluid from the flow boundaries into the core flow and give rise to flow distortion and losses at the engine inlet. Because the formation of these vortices is strongly coupled to trapped vorticity concentrations within locally-separated flow domains over concave surfaces of the diffuser bends, this coupling is exploited for controlling the streamwise evolution of the vortices and thereby significantly reduce the flow distortion and losses. The scale and topology of the trapped vorticity are manipulated at an operating throat Mach number of 0.64 by using a spanwise array of fluidic oscillating jets that are placed upstream of the separation domain. The present investigations demonstrate that the actuation alters the structure of both the trapped and streamwise vortices. In particular, the distribution of the streamwise vortices is altered and their strength is diminished by actuation-induced streamwise vorticity concentrations of opposite sense. As a result, the actuation leads to significant suppression of pressure distortion at the engine inlet (by as much as 60%) at an actuation level that utilizes less than 0.4% of the diffuser's mass flow rate. Supported by ONR.

  11. Aircraft Wake Vortices : An Assessment of the Current Situation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge about aircraft wake vortices in the summer of 1990 is summarized. With the advent of a new FAA wake vortex program, the current situation was assessed by answering five questions: (1) What do we know about wake vortices, (2) wh...

  12. Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-08-01

    Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.

  13. Bulk stabilization, the extra-dimensional Higgs portal and missing energy in Higgs events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Ross; Burgess, C. P.

    2013-05-01

    To solve the hierarchy problem, extra-dimensional models must explain why the new dimensions stabilize to the right size, and the known mechanisms for doing so require bulk scalars that couple to the branes. Because of these couplings the energetics of dimensional stabilization competes with the energetics of the Higgs vacuum, with potentially observable effects. These effects are particularly strong for one or two extra dimensions because the bulk-Higgs couplings can then be super-renormalizable or dimensionless. Experimental reach for such extra-dimensional Higgs `portals' are stronger than for gravitational couplings because they are less suppressed at low-energies. We compute how Higgs-bulk coupling through such a portal with two extra dimensions back-reacts onto properties of the Higgs boson. When the KK mass is smaller than the Higgs mass, mixing with KK modes results in an invisible Higgs decay width, missing-energy signals at high-energy colliders, and new mechanisms of energy loss in stars and supernovae. Astrophysical bounds turn out to be complementary to collider measurements, with observable LHC signals allowed by existing constraints. We comment on the changes to the Higgs mass-coupling relationship caused by Higgs-bulk mixing, and how the resulting modifications to the running of Higgs couplings alter vacuum-stability and triviality bounds.

  14. Corrections to di-Higgs boson production with light stops and modified Higgs couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peisi; Joglekar, Aniket; Li, Min; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2018-04-01

    The Higgs pair production in gluon fusion is a sensitive probe of beyond-standard model (BSM) phenomena and its detection is a major goal for the LHC and higher energy hadron collider experiments. In this work we reanalyze the possible modifications of the Higgs pair production cross section within low energy supersymmetry models. We show that the supersymmetric contributions to the Higgs pair production cross section are strongly correlated with the ones of the single Higgs production in the gluon fusion channel. Motivated by the analysis of ATLAS and CMS Higgs production data, we show that the scalar superpartners' contributions may lead to significant modification of the di-Higgs production rate and invariant mass distribution with respect to the SM predictions. We also analyze the combined effects on the di-Higgs production rate of a modification of the Higgs trilinear and top-quark Yukawa couplings in the presence of light stops. In particular, we show that due to the destructive interference of the triangle and box amplitude contributions to the di-Higgs production cross section, even a small modification of the top-quark Yukawa coupling can lead to a significant increase of the di-Higgs production rate.

  15. Higgs-portal assisted Higgs inflation with a sizeable tensor-to-scalar ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinsu; Ko, Pyungwon; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: kimjinsu@kias.re.kr, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr, E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es

    We show that the Higgs portal interactions involving extra dark Higgs field can save generically the original Higgs inflation of the standard model (SM) from the problem of a deep non-SM vacuum in the SM Higgs potential. Specifically, we show that such interactions disconnect the top quark pole mass from inflationary observables and allow multi-dimensional parameter space to save the Higgs inflation, thanks to the additional parameters (the dark Higgs boson mass m {sub φ}, the mixing angle α between the SM Higgs H and dark Higgs Φ, and the mixed quartic coupling) affecting RG-running of the Higgs quartic coupling.more » The effect of Higgs portal interactions may lead to a larger tensor-to-scalar ratio, 0.08 ∼< r ∼< 0.1, by adjusting relevant parameters in wide ranges of α and m {sub φ}, some region of which can be probed at future colliders. Performing a numerical analysis we find an allowed region of parameters, matching the latest Planck data.« less

  16. 125 GeV Higgs boson mass from 5D gauge-Higgs unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jason; Okada, Nobuchika

    2018-03-01

    In the context of a simple gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) scenario based on the gauge group SU(3)×U(1)^' in a 5D flat space-time, we investigate the possibility of reproducing the observed Higgs boson mass of around 125 GeV. We introduce bulk fermion multiplets with a bulk mass and a (half-)periodic boundary condition. In our analysis, we adopt a low-energy effective theoretical approach of the GHU scenario, where the running Higgs quartic coupling is required to vanish at the compactification scale. Under this "gauge-Higgs condition," we investigate the renormalization group evolution of the Higgs quartic coupling and find a relation between the bulk mass and the compactification scale so as to reproduce the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass. Through quantum corrections at the one-loop level, the bulk fermions contribute to the Higgs boson production and decay processes and deviate the Higgs boson signal strengths at the Large Hadron Collider experiments from the Standard Model (SM) predictions. Employing the current experimental data that show that the Higgs boson signal strengths for a variety of Higgs decay modes are consistent with the SM predictions, we obtain lower mass bounds on the lightest mode of the bulk fermions to be around 1 TeV.

  17. Sakurai Prize: Extended Higgs Sectors--phenomenology and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunion, John

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a spin-0 state at 125 GeV with properties close to those predicted for the single Higgs boson of the Standard Model does not preclude the existence of additional Higgs bosons. In this talk, models with extended Higgs sectors are reviewed, including two-Higgs-doublet models with and without an extra singlet Higgs field and supersymmetric models. Special emphasis is given to the limit in which the couplings and properties of one of the Higgs bosons of the extended Higgs sector are very close to those predicted for the single Standard Model Higgs boson while the other Higgs bosons are relatively light, perhaps even having masses close to or below the SM-like 125 GeV state. Constraints on this type of scenario given existing data are summarized and prospects for observing these non-SM-like Higgs bosons are discussed. Supported by the Department of Energy.

  18. Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohya, Satoshi, E-mail: ohyasato@fjfi.cvut.cz

    2014-12-15

    We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills.

  19. Condensation and critical exponents of an ideal non-Abelian gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaei, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein

    2017-11-01

    We investigate an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics and derive the expressions for some thermodynamic quantities. It is found that thermodynamic quantities are finite at the condensation point where their derivatives diverge and, near this point, they behave as \\vert T-Tc\\vert^{-ρ} in which Tc denotes the condensation temperature and ρ is a critical exponent. The critical exponents related to the heat capacity and compressibility are obtained by fitting numerical results and others are obtained using the scaling law hypothesis for a three-dimensional non-Abelian ideal gas. This set of critical exponents introduces a new universality class.

  20. Helical vortices: linear stability analysis and nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, C.; Delbende, I.; Rossi, M.

    2018-02-01

    We numerically investigate, within the context of helical symmetry, the dynamics of a regular array of two or three helical vortices with or without a straight central hub vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are linearised to study the instabilities of such basic states. For vortices with low pitches, an unstable mode is extracted which corresponds to a displacement mode and growth rates are found to compare well with results valid for an infinite row of point vortices or an infinite alley of vortex rings. For larger pitches, the system is stable with respect to helically symmetric perturbations. In the nonlinear regime, we follow the time-evolution of the above basic states when initially perturbed by the dominant instability mode. For two vortices, sequences of overtaking events, leapfrogging and eventually merging are observed. The transition between such behaviours occurs at a critical ratio involving the core size and the vortex-separation distance. Cases with three helical vortices are also presented.

  1. Numerical simulation of the vortical flow around a pitching airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang; Li, Gaohua; Wang, Fuxin

    2017-04-01

    In order to study the dynamic behaviors of the flapping wing, the vortical flow around a pitching NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. The unsteady flow field is obtained by a very efficient zonal procedure based on the velocity-vorticity formulation and the Reynolds number based on the chord length of the airfoil is set to 1 million. The zonal procedure divides up the whole computation domain in to three zones: potential flow zone, boundary layer zone and Navier-Stokes zone. Since the vorticity is absent in the potential flow zone, the vorticity transport equation needs only to be solved in the boundary layer zone and Navier-Stokes zone. Moreover, the boundary layer equations are solved in the boundary layer zone. This arrangement drastically reduces the computation time against the traditional numerical method. After the flow field computation, the evolution of the vortices around the airfoil is analyzed in detail.

  2. Nanoscale assembly of superconducting vortices with scanning tunnelling microscope tip

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Tempere, Jacques; Xue, Cun; Devreese, Jozef T.; Van de Vondel, Joris; Zhou, Youhe; Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices play a crucial role in determining the properties of superconductors as well as their applications. Therefore, characterization and manipulation of vortices, especially at the single-vortex level, is of great importance. Among many techniques to study single vortices, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) stands out as a powerful tool, due to its ability to detect the local electronic states and high spatial resolution. However, local control of superconductivity as well as the manipulation of individual vortices with the STM tip is still lacking. Here we report a new function of the STM, namely to control the local pinning in a superconductor through the heating effect. Such effect allows us to quench the superconducting state at nanoscale, and leads to the growth of vortex clusters whose size can be controlled by the bias voltage. We also demonstrate the use of an STM tip to assemble single-quantum vortices into desired nanoscale configurations. PMID:27934960

  3. Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.

  4. Numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-11-01

    Vortices produced by vibrated reeds and flapping foils can improve heat transfer efficiency in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we modeled and simulated the fluid flow and temperature in a 2-D channel flow with vortices injected at the upstream boundary. We classified four types of vortex streets depending on the Reynolds number and vortices' strengths and spacings, and studied the different vortex dynamics in each situation. We then used Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study the effect of the vortices on mixing and determined how the Nusselt number and Coefficients of performance vary with flow parameters and Peclet numbers.

  5. The Higgs mass coincidence problem: why is the Higgs mass ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrente-Lujan, E.

    2014-02-01

    In the light of the recent LHC boson discovery, we present a phenomenological evaluation of the ratio , from the LHC combined value, we get () This value is close to 1 with a precision of the order . Similarly we evaluate the ratio . From the up-to-date mass values we get . The Higgs mass is numerically close (at the level) to the . From these relations we can write any two mass ratios as a function of, exclusively, the Weinberg angle (with a precision of the order of or better): For example: , . In the limit all the masses would become equal . We review the theoretical situation of this ratio in the SM and beyond. In the SM these relations are rather stable under RGE pointing out to some underlying UV symmetry. In the SM such a ratio hints for a non-casual relation of the type with . Moreover the existence of relations could be interpreted as a hint for a role of the custodial symmetry, together with other unknown mechanism. Without a symmetry at hand to explain then in the SM, there arises a Higgs mass coincidence problem, why the ratios are so close to one, can we find a mechanism that naturally gives , ?

  6. Black holes and Higgs stability

    SciTech Connect

    Tetradis, Nikolaos; Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  7. Stability and nonlinear adjustment of vortices in Keplerian flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, G.; Tevzadze, A.; Chagelishvili, G.; Mignone, A.; Rossi, P.; Ferrari, A.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We investigate the stability, nonlinear development and equilibrium structure of vortices in a background shearing Keplerian flow Methods: We make use of high-resolution global two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic simulations. We introduce the concept of nonlinear adjustment to describe the transition of unbalanced vortical fields to a long-lived configuration. Results: We discuss the conditions under which vortical perturbations evolve into long-lived persistent structures and we describe the properties of these equilibrium vortices. The properties of equilibrium vortices appear to be independent from the initial conditions and depend only on the local disk parameters. In particular we find that the ratio of the vortex size to the local disk scale height increases with the decrease of the sound speed, reaching values well above the unity. The process of spiral density wave generation by the vortex, discussed in our previous work, appear to maintain its efficiency also at nonlinear amplitudes and we observe the formation of spiral shocks attached to the vortex. The shocks may have important consequences on the long term vortex evolution and possibly on the global disk dynamics. Conclusions: Our study strengthens the arguments in favor of anticyclonic vortices as the candidates for the promotion of planetary formation. Hydrodynamic shocks that are an intrinsic property of persistent vortices in compressible Keplerian flows are an important contributor to the overall balance. These shocks support vortices against viscous dissipation by generating local potential vorticity and should be responsible for the eventual fate of the persistent anticyclonic vortices. Numerical codes have be able to resolve shock waves to describe the vortex dynamics correctly.

  8. Charged and uncharged vortices in quasiclassical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yusuke; Kato, Yusuke

    2018-03-01

    The charging effect of a superconducting vortex core is very important for transport properties of superconducting vortices. The chiral p-wave superconductor, known as a topological superconductor (SC), has a Majorana fermion in a vortex core and the charging effect has been studied using microscopic Bogoliubov{de Gennes (BdG) theory. According to calculations based on the BdG theory, one type of the vortex is charged as well as the vortex of the s-wave SC, while the other is uncharged. We reproduce this interesting charging effect using an augmented quasiclassical theory in chiral p-wave SCs, by which we can deal with particle-hole asymmetry in the quasiclassical approximation.

  9. Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.

  10. Radial vorticity constraint in core flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asari, S.; Lesur, V.

    2011-11-01

    We present a new method for estimating core surface flows by relaxing the tangentially geostrophic (TG) constraint. Ageostrophic flows are allowed if they are consistent with the radial component of the vorticity equation under assumptions of the magnetostrophic force balance and an insulating mantle. We thus derive a tangentially magnetostrophic (TM) constraint for flows in the spherical harmonic domain and implement it in a least squares inversion of GRIMM-2, a recently proposed core field model, for temporally continuous core flow models (2000.0-2010.0). Comparing the flows calculated using the TG and TM constraints, we show that the number of degrees of freedom for the poloidal flows is notably increased by admitting ageostrophic flows compatible with the TM constraint. We find a significantly improved fit to the GRIMM-2 secular variation (SV) by including zonal poloidal flow in TM flow models. Correlations between the predicted and observed length-of-day variations are equally good under the TG and TM constraints. In addition, we estimate flow models by imposing the TM constraint together with other dynamical constraints: either purely toroidal (PT) flow or helical flow constraint. For the PT case we cannot find any flow which explains the observed SV, while for the helical case the SV can be fitted. The poor compatibility between the TM and PT constraints seems to arise from the absence of zonal poloidal flows. The PT flow assumption is likely to be negated when the radial magnetostrophic vorticity balance is taken into account, even if otherwise consistent with magnetic observations.

  11. Off-Shell Higgs Probe of Naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Han, Tao; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan

    2018-03-01

    Examining the Higgs sector at high energy scales through off-shell Higgs production can potentially shed light on the naturalness problem of the Higgs boson mass. We propose such a study at the LHC by utilizing a representative model with a new scalar field (S ) coupled to the standard model Higgs doublet (H ) in a form |S |2|H |2. In the process p p →h*→Z Z , the dominant momentum-dependent part of the one-loop scalar singlet corrections, especially above the new threshold at 2 mS, leads to a measurable deviation in the differential distribution of the Z -pair invariant mass, in accordance with the quadratic divergence cancellation to the Higgs mass. We find that it is conceivable to probe such new physics at the 5 σ level at the high-luminosity LHC, improving further with the upgraded 27 TeV LHC, without requiring the precise measurement of the Higgs boson total width. The discovery of such a Higgs portal could also have important implications for thermal dark matter as well as for electroweak baryogenesis.

  12. Off-Shell Higgs Probe of Naturalness.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Han, Tao; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan

    2018-03-16

    Examining the Higgs sector at high energy scales through off-shell Higgs production can potentially shed light on the naturalness problem of the Higgs boson mass. We propose such a study at the LHC by utilizing a representative model with a new scalar field (S) coupled to the standard model Higgs doublet (H) in a form |S|^{2}|H|^{2}. In the process pp→h^{*}→ZZ, the dominant momentum-dependent part of the one-loop scalar singlet corrections, especially above the new threshold at 2m_{S}, leads to a measurable deviation in the differential distribution of the Z-pair invariant mass, in accordance with the quadratic divergence cancellation to the Higgs mass. We find that it is conceivable to probe such new physics at the 5σ level at the high-luminosity LHC, improving further with the upgraded 27 TeV LHC, without requiring the precise measurement of the Higgs boson total width. The discovery of such a Higgs portal could also have important implications for thermal dark matter as well as for electroweak baryogenesis.

  13. A tale of twin Higgs: natural twin two Higgs doublet models

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-12-28

    In original twin Higgs model, vacuum misalignment between electroweak and new physics scales is realized by adding explicit Z 2 breaking term. Introducing additional twin Higgs could accommodate spontaneous Z 2 breaking, which explains origin of this misalignment. We introduce a class of twin two Higgs doublet models with most general scalar potential, and discuss general conditions which trigger electroweak and Z 2 symmetry breaking. Various scenarios on realising the vacuum misalignment are systematically discussed in a natural composite two Higgs double model framework: explicit Z 2 breaking, radiative Z 2 breaking, tadpole-induced Z 2 breaking, and quartic-induced Z 2more » breaking. Finally, we investigate the Higgs mass spectra and Higgs phenomenology in these scenarios.« less

  14. Probing the Higgs self coupling via single Higgs production at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Degrassi, G.; Giardino, P. P.; Maltoni, F.; ...

    2016-12-16

    Here, we propose a method to determine the trilinear Higgs self coupling that is alternative to the direct measurement of Higgs pair production total cross sections and differential distributions. Furthermore, the method relies on the effects that electroweak loops featuring an anomalous trilinear coupling would imprint on single Higgs production at the LHC. We first calculate these contributions to all the phenomenologically relevant Higgs production (ggF, VBF, WH, ZH, tmore » $$\\bar{t}$$ ) and decay (γγ,WW*/ZZ*→ 4f, b$$\\bar{b}$$,ττ) modes at the LHC and then estimate the sensitivity to the trilinear coupling via a one-parameter fit to the single Higgs measurements at the LHC 8 TeV. We also found that the bounds on the self coupling are already competitive with those from Higgs pair production and will be further improved in the current and next LHC runs.« less

  15. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  16. Higgs-precision constraints on colored naturalness

    DOE PAGES

    Essig, Rouven; Meade, Patrick; Ramani, Harikrishnan; ...

    2017-09-19

    The presence of weak-scale colored top partners is among the simplest solutions to the Higgs hierarchy problem and allows for a natural electroweak scale. We examine the constraints on generic colored top partners coming solely from their effect on the production and decay rates of the observed Higgs with a mass of 125 GeV. We use the latest Higgs precision data from the Tevatron and the LHC as of EPS 2017 to derive the current limits on spin-0, spin-1/2, and spin-1 colored top partners. We also investigate the expected sensitivity from the Run 3 and Run 4 of the LHC,more » as well from possible future electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, including the ILC, CEPC, FCC-ee, and FCC-hh. We discuss constraints on top partners in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and Little Higgs theories. We also consider various model-building aspects — multiple top partners, modified couplings between the Higgs and Standard-Model particles, and non-Standard-Model Higgs sectors — and evaluate how these weaken the current limits and expected sensitivities. By modifying other Standard-Model Higgs couplings, we find that the best way to hide low-mass top partners from current data is through modifications of the top-Yukawa coupling, although future measurements of top-quark-pair production in association with a Higgs will extensively probe this possibility. We also demonstrate that models with multiple top partners can generically avoid current and future Higgs precision measurements. Nevertheless, some of the model parameter space can be probed with precision measurements at future electron-positron colliders of, for example, the e + e - → Zhcrosssection.« less

  17. Higgs-precision constraints on colored naturalness

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Meade, Patrick; Ramani, Harikrishnan

    The presence of weak-scale colored top partners is among the simplest solutions to the Higgs hierarchy problem and allows for a natural electroweak scale. We examine the constraints on generic colored top partners coming solely from their effect on the production and decay rates of the observed Higgs with a mass of 125 GeV. We use the latest Higgs precision data from the Tevatron and the LHC as of EPS 2017 to derive the current limits on spin-0, spin-1/2, and spin-1 colored top partners. We also investigate the expected sensitivity from the Run 3 and Run 4 of the LHC,more » as well from possible future electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, including the ILC, CEPC, FCC-ee, and FCC-hh. We discuss constraints on top partners in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and Little Higgs theories. We also consider various model-building aspects — multiple top partners, modified couplings between the Higgs and Standard-Model particles, and non-Standard-Model Higgs sectors — and evaluate how these weaken the current limits and expected sensitivities. By modifying other Standard-Model Higgs couplings, we find that the best way to hide low-mass top partners from current data is through modifications of the top-Yukawa coupling, although future measurements of top-quark-pair production in association with a Higgs will extensively probe this possibility. We also demonstrate that models with multiple top partners can generically avoid current and future Higgs precision measurements. Nevertheless, some of the model parameter space can be probed with precision measurements at future electron-positron colliders of, for example, the e + e - → Zhcrosssection.« less

  18. Signatures of Higgs dilaton and critical Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    We test the Higgs dilaton inflation model (HDM) using the latest cosmological datasets, including the cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data from the Planck satellite (2015), the BICEP and Keck Array experiments, the type Ia supernovae from the JLA catalogue, the baryon acoustic oscillations from CMASS, LOWZ and 6dF, the weak lensing data from the CFHTLenS survey and the matter power spectrum measurements from the latest SDSS data release. We find that the values of all cosmological parameters allowed by the HDM are well within the Planck satellite (2015) constraints. In particular, we determine , , , and (at 95.5% c.l.). We also place new stringent constraints on the couplings of the HDM, ξχ<0.00328 and (at 95.5% c.l.). We find that the HDM is only slightly better than the w0waCDM model, with . Given that the HDM has two fewer parameters, we find Bayesian evidence favouring the HDM over the w0waCDM model. We also study the critical Higgs inflation model, taking into account the running of both the self-coupling λ(μ) and the non-minimal coupling to gravity ξ(μ). We find peaks in the curvature power spectrum at scales corresponding to the critical value μ that re-enter during the radiation era and collapse to form a broad distribution of clustered primordial black holes, which could constitute today the main

  19. Magnetic Soliton, Homotopy and Higgs Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-24

    OD-AL67 366 NAGETIC SOLITON ONOTOPY ND HIGGS THEORY(U) FOREIGNI n1/ 1TECHNOLOGY D V NRIGHT-PATTERSON AFD ON Y LI ET AL. UNCLSSIIED24 APR 86 FTD-ID...MAGNETIC SOLITON, HOMOTOPY AND HIGGS THEORY by Li Yuanjie and Lei Shizu *. . * . .%..**% . . .-..C./ ~~~Approved for public release; -," Distribution...HOMOTOPY AND HIGGS THEORY By: Li Yuanjie and Lei Shizu English pages: 9 Source: Huazhong Gongxueyuan Xuebao, Vol. 11, Nr. 6, 1983, pp. 65-70 Country of

  20. SM Higgs properties measurement at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, William

    2010-02-10

    The discovery of a new particle in the Higgs searches being prepared for LHC will not guarantee that the Standard Model Higgs boson has been seen. This paper discusses the possibilities for measuring the spin, parity and couplings of the particle, under the assumption that it does in fact behave like the Standard Model Higgs. The key question, which cannot alas be answered, is: if it looks like a dog, and barks like a dog, how much of the DNA must we analyse to be sure that it is a dog?

  1. Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.

    PubMed

    Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A

    2015-12-11

    We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe.

  2. SM Higgs properties measurement at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, William

    2010-02-01

    The discovery of a new particle in the Higgs searches being prepared for LHC will not guarantee that the Standard Model Higgs boson has been seen. This paper discusses the possibilities for measuring the spin, parity and couplings of the particle, under the assumption that it does in fact behave like the Standard Model Higgs. The key question, which cannot alas be answered, is: if it looks like a dog, and barks like a dog, how much of the DNA must we analyse to be sure that it is a dog?

  3. A light Higgs boson would invite supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J.; Ross, D.

    2001-05-01

    If the Higgs boson weighs about 115 GeV, the effective potential of the Standard Model becomes unstable above a scale of about 106 GeV. This instability may be rectified only by new bosonic particles such as stop squarks. However, avoiding the instability requires fine-tuning of the model couplings, in particular if the theory is not to become non-perturbative before the Planck scale. Such fine-tuning is automatic in a supersymmetric model, but is lost if there are no higgsinos. A light Higgs boson would be prima facie evidence for supersymmetry in the top-quark and Higgs sectors.

  4. Neutral Naturalness from Orbifold Higgs Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    We present a general class of natural theories in which the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson in an orbifolded gauge theory. The symmetry protecting the Higgs boson at low energies is an accidental global symmetry of the quadratic action, rather than a full continuous symmetry. The lightest degrees of freedom protecting the weak scale carry no standard model (SM) quantum numbers and interact with visible matter principally through the Higgs portal. This opens the door to the systematic study of "neutral naturalness": natural theories with SM-neutral states that are as yet untested by the LHC.

  5. The vector-like twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro; ...

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present a version of the twin Higgs mechanism with vector-like top partners. In this setup all gauge anomalies automatically cancel, even without twin leptons. The matter content of the most minimal twin sector is therefore just two twin tops and one twin bottom. The LHC phenomenology, illustrated with two example models, is dominated by twin glueball decays, possibly in association with Higgs bosons. We further construct an explicit four-dimensional UV completion and discuss a variety of UV completions relevant for both vector-like and fraternal twin Higgs models.

  6. Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.

  7. Network community-based model reduction for vortical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan Meena, Muralikrishnan; Nair, Aditya G.; Taira, Kunihiko

    2018-06-01

    A network community-based reduced-order model is developed to capture key interactions among coherent structures in high-dimensional unsteady vortical flows. The present approach is data-inspired and founded on network-theoretic techniques to identify important vortical communities that are comprised of vortical elements that share similar dynamical behavior. The overall interaction-based physics of the high-dimensional flow field is distilled into the vortical community centroids, considerably reducing the system dimension. Taking advantage of these vortical interactions, the proposed methodology is applied to formulate reduced-order models for the inter-community dynamics of vortical flows, and predict lift and drag forces on bodies in wake flows. We demonstrate the capabilities of these models by accurately capturing the macroscopic dynamics of a collection of discrete point vortices, and the complex unsteady aerodynamic forces on a circular cylinder and an airfoil with a Gurney flap. The present formulation is found to be robust against simulated experimental noise and turbulence due to its integrating nature of the system reduction.

  8. On non-abelian T-duality and deformations of supercoset string sigma-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2017-10-01

    We elaborate on the class of deformed T-dual (DTD) models obtained by first adding a topological term to the action of a supercoset sigma model and then performing (non-abelian) T-duality on a subalgebra \\tilde{g} of the superisometry algebra. These models inherit the classical integrability of the parent one, and they include as special cases the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter sigma models as well as their non-abelian T-duals. Many properties of DTD models have simple algebraic interpretations. For example we show that their (non-abelian) T-duals — including certain deformations — are again in the same class, where \\tilde{g} gets enlarged or shrinks by adding or removing generators corresponding to the dualised isometries. Moreover, we show that Weyl invariance of these models is equivalent to \\tilde{g} being unimodular; when this property is not satisfied one can always remove one generator to obtain a unimodular \\tilde{g} , which is equivalent to (formal) T-duality. We also work out the target space superfields and, as a by-product, we prove the conjectured transformation law for Ramond-Ramond (RR) fields under bosonic non-abelian T-duality of supercosets, generalising it to cases involving also fermionic T-dualities.

  9. Semi-abelian Z-theory: NLSM+ ϕ 3 from the open string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    We continue our investigation of Z-theory, the second double-copy component of open-string tree-level interactions besides super-Yang-Mills (sYM). We show that the amplitudes of the extended non-linear sigma model (NLSM) recently considered by Cachazo, Cha, and Mizera are reproduced by the leading α '-order of Z-theory amplitudes in the semi-abelian case. The extension refers to a coupling of NLSM pions to bi-adjoint scalars, and the semi-abelian case involves to a partial symmetrization over one of the color orderings that characterize the Z-theory amplitudes. Alternatively, the partial symmetrization corresponds to a mixed interaction among abelian and non-abelian states in the underlying open-superstring amplitude. We simplify these permutation sums via monodromy relations which greatly increase the efficiency in extracting the α '-expansion of these amplitudes. Their α '-corrections encode higher-derivative interactions between NLSM pions and bi-colored scalars all of which obey the duality between color and kinematics. Through double-copy, these results can be used to generate the predictions of supersymmetric Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory coupled with sYM as well as a complete tower of higher-order α '-corrections.

  10. Automorphisms of Order Structures of Abelian Parts of Operator Algebras and Their Role in Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that any order isomorphism between the structures of unital associative JB subalgebras of JB algebras is given naturally by a partially linear Jordan isomorphism. The same holds for nonunital subalgebras and order isomorphisms preserving the unital subalgebra. Finally, we recover usual action of time evolution group on a von Neumann factor from group of automorphisms of the structure of Abelian subalgebras.

  11. Improved HDRG decoders for qudit and non-Abelian quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Adrian; Loss, Daniel; Wootton, James R.

    2015-03-01

    Hard-decision renormalization group (HDRG) decoders are an important class of decoding algorithms for topological quantum error correction. Due to their versatility, they have been used to decode systems with fractal logical operators, color codes, qudit topological codes, and non-Abelian systems. In this work, we develop a method of performing HDRG decoding which combines strengths of existing decoders and further improves upon them. In particular, we increase the minimal number of errors necessary for a logical error in a system of linear size L from \\Theta ({{L}2/3}) to Ω ({{L}1-ε }) for any ε \\gt 0. We apply our algorithm to decoding D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models and a non-Abelian anyon model with Fibonacci-like fusion rules, and show that it indeed significantly outperforms previous HDRG decoders. Furthermore, we provide the first study of continuous error correction with imperfect syndrome measurements for the D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models. The parallelized runtime of our algorithm is poly(log L) for the perfect measurement case. In the continuous case with imperfect syndrome measurements, the averaged runtime is O(1) for Abelian systems, while continuous error correction for non-Abelian anyons stays an open problem.

  12. Experimental evidence for non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Zuo, Wei-Jie; Li, Wen-Tian; He, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Non-Abelian gauge potentials are quite relevant in subatomic physics, but they are relatively rare in a condensed matter context. Here we report the experimental evidence for non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. At a magic twisted angle, θ ≈(1.11±0.05 ) ∘ , a pronounced sharp peak, which arises from the nondispersive flat bands at the charge neutrality point, is observed in the tunneling density of states due to the action of the non-Abelian gauge fields. Moreover, we observe confined electronic states in the twisted bilayer, as manifested by regularly spaced tunneling peaks with energy spacing δ E ≈vF/D ≈70 meV (here vF is the Fermi velocity of graphene and D is the period of the moiré patterns). This indicates that the non-Abelian gauge potentials in twisted graphene bilayers confine low-energy electrons into a triangular array of quantum dots following the modulation of the moiré patterns. Our results also directly demonstrate that the Fermi velocity in twisted bilayers can be tuned from about 106m /s to zero by simply reducing the twisted angle of about 2∘.

  13. Modified non-Abelian Toda field equations and twisted quasigraded Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Skrypnyk, T.

    We construct a new family of quasigraded Lie algebras that admit the Kostant-Adler scheme. They coincide with special quasigraded deformations of twisted subalgebras of the loop algebras. Using them we obtain new hierarchies of integrable equations in partial derivatives which we call 'modified' non-Abelian Toda field hierarchies.

  14. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S.; Holmes, J.; Patel, M.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable.The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone can be of use to investigate the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  15. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  16. Some Decays of Neutral Higgs Bosons in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinh Cuong, Nguyen; Thi Thu Trang, Do; Thi Phuong Thuy, Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    To solve the μ problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), a single field S is added to build the Next Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). Vacuum enlarged with non-zero vevs of the neutral-even CP is the combination of Hu, Hd and S. In the NMSSM, the higgs sector is increased to 7 higgs (compared with 5 higgs in the MSSM), including three higgs which are even-CP h1,2,3(mh1 < mh2 < mh3), two higgs which are odd-CP a1,2(ma1 < ma2) and a couple of charged higgs H±. The decays higgs into higgs is one of the remarkable new points of the NMSSM. In this paper we study some decays of neutral Higgs bosons. The numerical results are also presented together with evaluations.

  17. Lidar investigation of wake vortices generated by a landing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalikho, Igor N.; Banakh, Viktor A.; Falits, Andrey V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of measurements of parameters of aircraft wake vortices by a Stream Line coherent Doppler lidar during the three-day experiment on the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport are presented. We have analyzed spatial dynamics and evolution of the wake vortices generated by aircrafts of various types: from the Airbus A319 passenger aircraft to the heavy Boeing B747-8 cargo aircraft entering the landing at Tolmachevo Airport. It is shown that the Stream Line lidar may well be used to obtain reliable information about the presence and intensity of aircraft wake vortices in the vicinity of the runway.

  18. An asymmetric pair of vortices adjacent to a spinning cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosilevskii, G.; Seginer, A.

    The two-dimensional flow field over a spinning circular cylinder is analyzed using an extension of the Foeppl method. Equilibrium equations for two asymmetric point vortices in the wake of the cylinder are solved for a case when both vortices are equidistant from the cylinder. The two Foeppl solutions for the cylinder are presented. It is observed that the spin does not affect the angle between the two vortices; however, it displaces the vortex pair in the spin direction and the sinus of the displacement angle is proportional to the spin rate.

  19. Dynamics of circular arrangements of vorticity in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Rohith V.; Ravichandran, S.; Perlekar, Prasad; Govindarajan, Rama

    2016-07-01

    The merger of two like-signed vortices is a well-studied problem, but in a turbulent flow, we may often have more than two like-signed vortices interacting. We study the merger of three or more identical corotating vortices initially arranged on the vertices of a regular polygon. At low to moderate Reynolds numbers, we find an additional stage in the merger process, absent in the merger of two vortices, where an annular vortical structure is formed and is long lived. Vortex merger is slowed down significantly due to this. Such annular vortices are known at far higher Reynolds numbers in studies of tropical cyclones, which have been noticed to a break down into individual vortices. In the preannular stage, vortical structures in a viscous flow are found here to tilt and realign in a manner similar to the inviscid case, but the pronounced filaments visible in the latter are practically absent in the former. Five or fewer vortices initially elongate radially, and then reorient their long axis closer to the azimuthal direction so as to form an annulus. With six or more vortices, the initial alignment is already azimuthal. Interestingly at higher Reynolds numbers, the merger of an odd number of vortices is found to proceed very differently from that of an even number. The former process is rapid and chaotic whereas the latter proceeds more slowly via pairing events. The annular vortex takes the form of a generalized Lamb-Oseen vortex (GLO), and diffuses inward until it forms a standard Lamb-Oseen vortex. For lower Reynolds number, the numerical (fully nonlinear) evolution of the GLO vortex follows exactly the analytical evolution until merger. At higher Reynolds numbers, the annulus goes through instabilities whose nonlinear stages show a pronounced difference between even and odd mode disturbances. Here again, the odd mode causes an early collapse of the annulus via decaying turbulence into a single central vortex, whereas the even mode disturbance causes a more

  20. Renormalization group flow of the Higgs potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Sondenheimer, René

    2018-01-01

    We summarize results for local and global properties of the effective potential for the Higgs boson obtained from the functional renormalization group, which allows one to describe the effective potential as a function of both scalar field amplitude and renormalization group scale. This sheds light onto the limitations of standard estimates which rely on the identification of the two scales and helps in clarifying the origin of a possible property of meta-stability of the Higgs potential. We demonstrate that the inclusion of higher-dimensional operators induced by an underlying theory at a high scale (GUT or Planck scale) can relax the conventional lower bound on the Higgs mass derived from the criterion of absolute stability. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  1. Superheavy dark matter through Higgs portal operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    The WIMPzilla hypothesis is that the dark matter is a super-weakly-interacting and superheavy particle. Conventionally, the WIMPzilla abundance is set by gravitational particle production during or at the end of inflation. In this study we allow the WIMPzilla to interact directly with Standard Model fields through the Higgs portal, and we calculate the thermal production (freeze-in) of WIMPzilla dark matter from the annihilation of Higgs boson pairs in the plasma. The two particle-physics model parameters are the WIMPzilla mass and the Higgs-WIMPzilla coupling. The two cosmological parameters are the reheating temperature and the expansion rate of the universe at the end of inflation. We delineate the regions of parameter space where either gravitational or thermal production is dominant, and within those regions we identify the parameters that predict the observed dark matter relic abundance. Allowing for thermal production opens up the parameter space, even for Planck-suppressed Higgs-WIMPzilla interactions.

  2. Renormalization group flow of the Higgs potential.

    PubMed

    Gies, Holger; Sondenheimer, René

    2018-03-06

    We summarize results for local and global properties of the effective potential for the Higgs boson obtained from the functional renormalization group, which allows one to describe the effective potential as a function of both scalar field amplitude and renormalization group scale. This sheds light onto the limitations of standard estimates which rely on the identification of the two scales and helps in clarifying the origin of a possible property of meta-stability of the Higgs potential. We demonstrate that the inclusion of higher-dimensional operators induced by an underlying theory at a high scale (GUT or Planck scale) can relax the conventional lower bound on the Higgs mass derived from the criterion of absolute stability.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Improving acceptance for Higgs events at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sforza, Federico; /INFN, Pisa

    2008-03-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles predicts the existence of the Higgs boson as the responsable of the electroweak symmetry breaking, the process by which fermions and vector bosons acquire mass. The Higgs existence is one of the most important questions in the present high energy physics research. This work concerns the search of W H associate production at the CDF II experiment (Collider Detector at Fermilab).

  4. Probing the Higgs vacuum with general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannheim, Philip D.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the Higgs vacuum can be revealed in gravitational experiments which probe the Schwarzschild geometry to only one order in MG/r beyond that needed for the classical tests of general relativity. The possibility that deviations from the conventional geometry are at least theoretically conceivable is explored. The deviations obtained provide a diagnostic test for searching for the existence of macroscopic scalar fields and open up the possiblity for further exploring the Higgs mechanism.

  5. Discovering uncolored naturalness in exotic Higgs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-12-01

    Solutions to the hierarchy problem usually require top partners. In standard SUSY or composite Higgs theories, the partners carry SM color and are becoming increasingly constrained by LHC searches. However, theories like Folded SUSY (FS), Twin Higgs (TH) and Quirky Little Higgs (QLH) introduce uncolored top partners, which can be SM singlets or carry electroweak charge. Their small production cross section left doubt as to whether the LHC can effectively probe such scenarios. Typically, these partners are charged under their own mirror color gauge group. In FS and QLH, the absence of light mirror matter allows glueballs to form at the bottom of the mirror spectrum. This is also the case in some TH realizations. The Higgs can decay to these mirror glueballs, with the glueballs decaying into SM particles with potentially observable lifetimes. We undertake the first detailed study of this glueball signature and quantitatively demonstrate the discovery potential of uncolored naturalness via exotic Higgs decays at the LHC and a potential future 100TeV collider. Our findings indicate that mirror glueballs are the smoking gun signature of natural FS and QLH type theories, in analogy to tree-level Higgs coupling shifts for the TH. We show that glueball masses in the ˜ 10-60 GeV mass range are theoretically preferred. Careful treatment of lifetime, mirror-hadronization and non-perturbative uncertainties is required to perform meaningful collider studies. We outline several new search strategies for exotic Higgs decays of the form h → XX → 4 f at the LHC, with X having lifetimes in the 10 μm to km range. We find that FS stops can be probed with masses up to 600 (1100) GeV at the LHC with 300 (3000) fb-1 of data, and TH top partners could be accessible with masses up to 900 (1500) GeV. This makes exotic Higgs decays the prime discovery channel for uncolored naturalness at the LHC.

  6. Supersymmetric Sneutrino-Higgs inflation

    DOE PAGES

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt A.; Purves, Austin

    2016-10-04

    It is shown that in the phenomenologically realistic supersymmetric MSSM theory, a linear combination of the neutral, up Higgs field with the third family left- and right-handed sneutrinos can play the role of the cosmological inflaton. Assuming that supersymmetry is softly broken at a mass scale of order , the potential energy associated with this field allows for 60 e-foldings of inflation with the cosmological parameters being consistent with all Planck2015 data. The theory does not require any non-standard coupling to gravity and the physical fields are all sub-Planckian during the inflationary epoch. It will be shown that there ismore » a “robust” set of initial conditions which, in addition to satisfying the Planck data, simultaneously are consistent with all present LHC phenomenological requirements.« less

  7. Higgs potential from derivative interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadri, A.

    2017-06-01

    A formulation of the linear σ model with derivative interactions is studied. The classical theory is on-shell equivalent to the σ model with the standard quartic Higgs potential. The mass of the scalar mode only appears in the quadratic part and not in the interaction vertices, unlike in the ordinary formulation of the theory. Renormalization of the model is discussed. A nonpower-counting renormalizable extension, obeying the defining functional identities of the theory, is presented. This extension is physically equivalent to the tree-level inclusion of a dimension-six effective operator ∂μ(Φ†Φ)∂μ(Φ†Φ). The resulting UV divergences are arranged in a perturbation series around the power-counting renormalizable theory. The application of the formalism to the Standard Model in the presence of the dimension-six operator ∂μ(Φ†Φ)∂μ(Φ†Φ) is discussed.

  8. A study on assimilating potential vorticity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Ménard, Richard; Riishøjgaard, Lars Peter; Cohn, Stephen E.; Rood, Richard B.

    1998-08-01

    The correlation that exists between the potential vorticity (PV) field and the distribution of chemical tracers such as ozone suggests the possibility of using tracer observations as proxy PV data in atmospheric data assimilation systems. Especially in the stratosphere, there are plentiful tracer observations but a general lack of reliable wind observations, and the correlation is most pronounced. The issue investigated in this study is how model dynamics would respond to the assimilation of PV data. First, numerical experiments of identical-twin type were conducted with a simple univariate nuding algorithm and a global shallow water model based on PV and divergence (PV-D model). All model fields are successfully reconstructed through the insertion of complete PV data alone if an appropriate value for the nudging coefficient is used. A simple linear analysis suggests that slow modes are recovered rapidly, at a rate nearly independent of spatial scale. In a more realistic experiment, appropriately scaled total ozone data from the NIMBUS-7 TOMS instrument were assimilated as proxy PV data into the PV-D model over a 10-day period. The resulting model PV field matches the observed total ozone field relatively well on large spatial scales, and the PV, geopotential and divergence fields are dynamically consistent. These results indicate the potential usefulness that tracer observations, as proxy PV data, may offer in a data assimilation system.

  9. Artificial ice using superconducting vortices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trastoy Quintela, Juan; Malnou, Maxime; Ulysse, Christian; Bernard, Rozenn; Bergeal, Nicolas; Faini, Giancarlo; Lesueur, Jerome; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.

    2016-10-01

    We use magnetic flux quanta (superconducting vortices) on artificial energy landscapes (pinning arrays) to create a new type of artificial ice. This vortex ice shows unusual temperature effects that offer new possibilities in the study of ice systems. We have investigated the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays that present geometrical frustration. The pinning arrays are fabricated on YBCO films using masked O+ ion irradiation. The details of the magneto-resistance imply that the flux lattice organizes into a vortex ice. The absence of history-dependent effects suggests that the vortex ice is highly ordered. Due to the technique used for the artificial energy landscape fabrication, we have the ability to change the pinning array geometry using temperature as a control knob. In particular we can switch the geometrical frustration on and off, which opens the door to performing a new type of annealing absent in other artificial ice systems. * Work supported by the French ANR "MASTHER", and the Fundación Barrié (Galicia, Spain)

  10. Magnetic vortices in nanocaps induced by curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelgawad, Ahmed M.; Nambiar, Nikhil; Bapna, Mukund; Chen, Hao; Majetich, Sara A.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles with room temperature remanent magnetic vortices stabilized by their curvature are very intriguing due to their potential use in biomedicine. In the present study, we investigate room temperature magnetic chirality in 100 nm diameter permalloy spherical caps with 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Micromagnetic OOMMF simulations predict the equilibrium spin structure for these caps to form a vortex state. We fabricate the permalloy caps by sputtering permalloy on both close-packed and sparse arrays of polystyrene nanoparticles. Magnetic force microscopy scans show a clear signature of a vortex state in close-packed caps of both 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Alternating gradient magnetometry measurements of the caps are consistent with a remnant vortex state in 30 nm thick caps and a transition to an onion state followed by a vortex state in 10 nm thick caps. Out-of-plane measurements supported by micromagnetic simulations shows that an out-of-plane field can stabilize a vortex state down to a diameter of 15 nm.

  11. Control of vortical separation on conical bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourtos, Nikos J.; Roberts, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    In a variety of aeronautical applications, the flow around conical bodies at incidence is of interest. Such applications include, but are not limited to, highly maneuverable aircraft with delta wings, the aerospace plane and nose portions of spike inlets. The theoretical model used has three parts. First, the single line vortex model is used within the framework of slender body theory, to compute the outer inviscid field for specified separation lines. Next, the three dimensional boundary layer is represented by a momentum equation for the cross flow, analogous to that for a plane boundary layer; a von Karman Pohlhausen approximation is applied to solve this equation. The cross flow separation for both laminar and turbulent layers is determined by matching the pressure at the upper and lower separation points. This iterative procedure yields a unique solution for the separation lines and consequently for the position of the vortices and the vortex lift on the body. Lastly, control of separation is achieved by blowing tangentially from a slot located along a cone generator. It is found that for very small blowing coefficients, the separation can be postponed or suppressedy completely.

  12. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; ...

    2016-12-30

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarksmore » can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H ± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.« less

  13. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; ...

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  14. Initial conditions for critical Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvio, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    It has been pointed out that a large non-minimal coupling ξ between the Higgs and the Ricci scalar can source higher derivative operators, which may change the predictions of Higgs inflation. A variant, called critical Higgs inflation, employs the near-criticality of the top mass to introduce an inflection point in the potential and lower drastically the value of ξ. We here study whether critical Higgs inflation can occur even if the pre-inflationary initial conditions do not satisfy the slow-roll behavior (retaining translation and rotation symmetries). A positive answer is found: inflation turns out to be an attractor and therefore no fine-tuning of the initial conditions is necessary. A very large initial Higgs time-derivative (as compared to the potential energy density) is compensated by a moderate increase in the initial field value. These conclusions are reached by solving the exact Higgs equation without using the slow-roll approximation. This also allows us to consistently treat the inflection point, where the standard slow-roll approximation breaks down. Here we make use of an approach that is independent of the UV completion of gravity, by taking initial conditions that always involve sub-planckian energies.

  15. Sphalerons in composite and nonstandard Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannowsky, Michael; Tamarit, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson and the rather precise measurement of all electroweak boson's masses the local structure of the electroweak symmetry breaking potential is already quite well established. However, despite being a key ingredient to a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, the global structure of the electroweak potential remains entirely unknown. The existence of sphalerons, unstable solutions of the classical action of motion that are interpolating between topologically distinct vacua, is a direct consequence of the Standard Model's SU (2 )L gauge group. Nevertheless, the sphaleron energy depends on the shape of the Higgs potential away from the minimum and can therefore be a litmus test for its global structure. Focusing on two scenarios, the minimal composite Higgs model SO (5 )/SO (4 ) or an elementary Higgs with a deformed electroweak potential, we calculate the change of the sphaleron energy compared to the Standard Model prediction. We find that the sphaleron energy would have to be measured to O (10 )% accuracy to exclude sizeable global deviations from the Standard Model Higgs potential. We further find that because of the periodicity of the scalar potential in composite Higgs models a second sphaleron branch with larger energy arises.

  16. Influence of flaps and engines on aircraft wake vortices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-09-01

    Although pervious investigations have shown that the nature of aircraft wake vortices depends on the aircraft type and flap configuration, the causes for these differences have not been clearly identified. In this Note we show that observed differenc...

  17. Simulation of wake vortices descending in a stably stratified atmosphere.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-07-01

    An experimental water tank simulation of aircraft wake vortices descending in a stable atmosphere has indicated that the atmospheric stability stops the downward movement and in some cases produces a subsequent rebound. The tests were carried out in ...

  18. Decay characteristics of wake vortices from jet transport aircraft

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-06

    For more than two decades cw doppler lidars have been used to study the decay of wake vortices generated by : jet transport aircraft. With appropriate scan and data processing strategies, the vortex tangential velocity profile can : be measured every...

  19. EFFECTS OF DUST FEEDBACK ON VORTICES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison; Li, Hui

    2014-11-10

    We carried out two-dimensional, high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios (0.001-0.01) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number 4 × 10{sup –4}-0.16) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inward, vortices are very effective at collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with a higher initial dust/gasmore » density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.« less

  20. Vortices and antivortices in two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2017-04-01

    Vortices are commonly observed in the context of classical hydrodynamics: from whirlpools after stirring the coffee in a cup to a violent atmospheric phenomenon such as a tornado, all classical vortices are characterized by an arbitrary circulation value of the local velocity field. On the other hand the appearance of vortices with quantized circulation represents one of the fundamental signatures of macroscopic quantum phenomena. In two-dimensional superfluids quantized vortices play a key role in determining finite-temperature properties, as the superfluid phase and the normal state are separated by a vortex unbinding transition, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Very recent experiments with two-dimensional superfluid fermions motivate the present work: we present theoretical results based on the renormalization group showing that the universal jump of the superfluid density and the critical temperature crucially depend on the interaction strength, providing a strong benchmark for forthcoming investigations.

  1. Use of a commercial wind SODAR for measuring wake vortices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the application of a commercial wind SODAR (SOnic Detection : And Ranging) to the measurement of aircraft wake vortices. Changes in data collection and : processing were required to extract vortex location and circulation from th...

  2. Acoustic characterization of wake vortices in ground effect

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The experience and findings of an exploratory effort to characterize the sound emitted by : aircraft wake vortices near the ground are presented. A line array of four directional : microphones was deployed and recorded the wakes of several commercial...

  3. Vorticity Dynamics in Axial Compressor Flow Diagnosis and Design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Yang, Yan-Tao; Wu, Hong; Li, Qiu-Shi; Mao, Feng; Zhou, Sheng

    2007-11-01

    It is well recognized that vorticity and vortical structures appear inevitably in viscous compressor flows and have strong influence on the compressor performance. But conventional analysis and design procedure cannot pinpoint the quantitative contribution of each individual vortical structure to the integrated performance of a compressor, such as the stagnation-pressure ratio and efficiency. We fill this gap by using the so-called derivative-moment transformation which has been successfully applied to external aerodynamics. We show that the compressor performance is mainly controlled by the radial distribution of azimuthal vorticity, of which an optimization in the through-flow design stage leads to a simple Abel equation of the second kind. Solving the equation yields desired circulation distribution that optimizes the blade geometry. The advantage of this new procedure is demonstrated by numerical examples, including the posterior performance check by 3-D Navier-Stokes simulation.

  4. The role of surface vorticity during unsteady separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melius, Matthew S.; Mulleners, Karen; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

    2018-04-01

    Unsteady flow separation in rotationally augmented flow fields plays a significant role in a variety of fundamental flows. Through the use of time-resolved particle image velocimetry, vorticity accumulation and vortex shedding during unsteady separation over a three-dimensional airfoil are examined. The results of the study describe the critical role of surface vorticity accumulation during unsteady separation and reattachment. Through evaluation of the unsteady characteristics of the shear layer, it is demonstrated that the buildup and shedding of surface vorticity directly influence the dynamic changes of the separation point location. The quantitative characterization of surface vorticity and shear layer stability enables improved aerodynamic designs and has a broad impact within the field of unsteady fluid dynamics.

  5. Comparing the dynamics of skyrmions and superconducting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Lin, S. Z.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.

    2014-08-01

    Vortices in type-II superconductors have attracted enormous attention as ideal systems in which to study nonequilibrium collective phenomena, since the self-ordering of the vortices competes with quenched disorder and thermal effects. Dynamic effects found in vortex systems include depinning, nonequilibrium phase transitions, creep, structural order-disorder transitions, and melting. Understanding vortex dynamics is also important for applications of superconductors which require the vortices either to remain pinned or to move in a controlled fashion. Recently, topological defects called skyrmions have been realized experimentally in chiral magnets. Here we highlight similarities and differences between skyrmion dynamics and vortex dynamics. Many of the previous ideas and experimental setups that have been applied to superconducting vortices can also be used to study skyrmions. We also discuss some of the differences between the two systems, such as the potentially large contribution of the Magnus force in the skyrmion system that can dramatically alter the dynamics and transport properties.

  6. Aircraft wake vortices : an annotated bibliography (1923-1990)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    This annotated bibliography consists of abstracts of publications on aircraft wake : vortices. The material is arranged alphabetically by author(s) and then by month : and year of publication. Experimental and theoretical articles are included and : ...

  7. Aircraft Wake Vortices - An Annotated Bibliography (1923-1975)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is presented which consists of 570 abstracts of publications on aircraft wake vortices. The material is arranged alphabetically by year of publication and covers the time period through 1975. Experimental and theoretical art...

  8. Vortices and antivortices in two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases

    PubMed Central

    Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2017-01-01

    Vortices are commonly observed in the context of classical hydrodynamics: from whirlpools after stirring the coffee in a cup to a violent atmospheric phenomenon such as a tornado, all classical vortices are characterized by an arbitrary circulation value of the local velocity field. On the other hand the appearance of vortices with quantized circulation represents one of the fundamental signatures of macroscopic quantum phenomena. In two-dimensional superfluids quantized vortices play a key role in determining finite-temperature properties, as the superfluid phase and the normal state are separated by a vortex unbinding transition, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Very recent experiments with two-dimensional superfluid fermions motivate the present work: we present theoretical results based on the renormalization group showing that the universal jump of the superfluid density and the critical temperature crucially depend on the interaction strength, providing a strong benchmark for forthcoming investigations. PMID:28374762

  9. Measurements of Vorticity Vectors in Couette Flow with the Vorticity Optical Probe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Web 1981). The three components of the vorticity vector are measured, any two of them quite accurately. Multipoint measurement arrangements have been...the distribution of trajectory lengths is given by POrN ) rN O<rN<R. fwio-R R -rN where R is the angular measure of the detector radius. (The random...orticitv were performed deep within the viscous sublaver v 2.3). .At y < 10. the fluctuating vortici, ,tatistics show good agreement with the simulatins of

  10. Large-Eddy Simulations of Dust Devils and Convective Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Aymeric; Barth, Erika; Gu, Zhaolin; Hoffmann, Fabian; Ito, Junshi; Jemmett-Smith, Bradley; Klose, Martina; Nishizawa, Seiya; Raasch, Siegfried; Rafkin, Scot; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tyler, Daniel; Wei, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we address the use of numerical computations called Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to study dust devils, and the more general class of atmospheric phenomena they belong to (convective vortices). We describe the main elements of the LES methodology. We review the properties, statistics, and variability of dust devils and convective vortices resolved by LES in both terrestrial and Martian environments. The current challenges faced by modelers using LES for dust devils are also discussed in detail.

  11. Observations on streamwise vortices in laminar and turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morkovin, M. V.

    1979-01-01

    The frequent but often unsuspected presence of streamwise vortices in nominally two dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers and some of their consequences are described. Since there is no body of systematic information on streamwise vortices imbedded in boundary layers, a number of issues concerning their occurrence and behavior are discussed in the form of a set of succinct observations. Desirable experimental and numerical research to remedy the current lack of knowledge is recommended.

  12. Characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Chen, W J

    2017-08-01

    Topological defects in condensed matter are attracting e significant attention due to their important role in phase transition and their fascinating characteristics. Among the various types of matter, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structure are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects-vortices-have been found to commonly exist in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems. Understanding the characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferroics can provide us with deeper insight into the phase transition of condensed matter and also exciting opportunities in designing novel functional devices such as nano-memories, sensors, and transducers based on topological defects. In this review, we summarize the recent experimental and theoretical progress in ferroic vortices, with emphasis on those spin/dipole vortices formed in nanoscale ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics, and those structural domain vortices formed in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. We begin with an overview of this field. The fundamental concepts of ferroic vortices, followed by the theoretical simulation and experimental methods to explore ferroic vortices, are then introduced. The various characteristics of vortices (e.g. formation mechanisms, static/dynamic features, and electronic properties) and their controllability (e.g. by size, geometry, external thermal, electrical, magnetic, or mechanical fields) in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics are discussed in detail in individual sections. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on this rapidly developing field.

  13. Visualization and Quantification of Rotor Tip Vortices in Helicopter Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Holst, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an automated approach for effective extraction, visualization, and quantification of vortex core radii from the Navier-Stokes simulations of a UH-60A rotor in forward flight. We adopt a scaled Q-criterion to determine vortex regions and then perform vortex core profiling in these regions to calculate vortex core radii. This method provides an efficient way of visualizing and quantifying the blade tip vortices. Moreover, the vortices radii are displayed graphically in a plane.

  14. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  15. Complementarity between nonstandard Higgs boson searches and precision Higgs boson measurements in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian

    Precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties at the LHC provide relevant constraints on possible weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the context of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) these constraints seem to suggest that all the additional, non-SM-like Higgs bosons should be heavy, with masses larger than about 400 GeV. This article shows that such results do not hold when the theory approaches the conditions for “alignment independent of decoupling,” where the lightest CP-even Higgs boson has SM-like tree-level couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, independently of the nonstandard Higgs boson masses. In addition, the combinationmore » of current bounds from direct Higgs boson searches at the LHC, along with the alignment conditions, have a significant impact on the allowed MSSM parameter space yielding light additional Higgs bosons. In particular, after ensuring the correct mass for the lightest CP-even Higgs boson, we find that precision measurements and direct searches are complementary and may soon be able to probe the region of non-SM-like Higgs boson with masses below the top quark pair mass threshold of 350 GeV and low to moderate values of tanβ.« less

  16. Complementarity between nonstandard Higgs boson searches and precision Higgs boson measurements in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian

    Precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties at the LHC provide relevant constraints on possible weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the context of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) these constraints seem to suggest that all the additional, non-SM-like Higgs bosons should be heavy, with masses larger than about 400 GeV. This article shows that such results do not hold when the theory approaches the conditions for “alignment independent of decoupling,” where the lightest CP -even Higgs boson has SM-like tree-level couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, independently of the nonstandard Higgs boson masses. The combination ofmore » current bounds from direct Higgs boson searches at the LHC, along with the alignment conditions, have a significant impact on the allowed MSSM parameter space yielding light additional Higgs bosons. In particular, after ensuring the correct mass for the lightest CP -even Higgs boson, we find that precision measurements and direct searches are complementary and may soon be able to probe the region of non-SM-like Higgs boson with masses below the top quark pair mass threshold of 350 GeV and low to moderate values of tanβ« less

  17. Complementarity between nonstandard Higgs boson searches and precision Higgs boson measurements in the MSSM

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; ...

    2015-02-03

    Precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties at the LHC provide relevant constraints on possible weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the context of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) these constraints seem to suggest that all the additional, non-SM-like Higgs bosons should be heavy, with masses larger than about 400 GeV. This article shows that such results do not hold when the theory approaches the conditions for “alignment independent of decoupling,” where the lightest CP-even Higgs boson has SM-like tree-level couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, independently of the nonstandard Higgs boson masses. In addition, the combinationmore » of current bounds from direct Higgs boson searches at the LHC, along with the alignment conditions, have a significant impact on the allowed MSSM parameter space yielding light additional Higgs bosons. In particular, after ensuring the correct mass for the lightest CP-even Higgs boson, we find that precision measurements and direct searches are complementary and may soon be able to probe the region of non-SM-like Higgs boson with masses below the top quark pair mass threshold of 350 GeV and low to moderate values of tanβ.« less

  18. Hybrid Manipulation of Streamwise Vorticity in a Diffuser Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gissen, Abraham; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2010-11-01

    The formation of streamwise vorticity concentrations by exploiting the interaction of surface-mounted passive (micro-vanes) and active (synthetic jets) flow control elements with the cross flow is investigated experimentally in a small-scale serpentine duct at high subsonic speeds (up to M = 0.6). Streamwise vortices can be a key element in the mitigation of the adverse effects on pressure recovery and distortion caused by the naturally occurring secondary flows in embedded propulsion systems with complex inlet geometries. Counter rotating and single-sense vortices are formed using conventional passive micro-vanes and active high-power synthetic jet actuators. Interaction of the flow control elements is examined through a hybrid actuation scheme whereby synthetic jet actuation augments the primary vanes' vortices resulting in dynamic enhancement of their strength. It is shown that such sub-boundary layer individual vortices can merge and evolve into duct-scale vortical structures that counteract the inherent secondary flow and mitigates global flow distortion.

  19. A Laboratory Study of Vortical Structures in Rotating Convection Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hao; Sun, Shiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zhou, Bowen; Thermal Turbulence Research Team

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory study of the columnar vortex structure in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is conducted. A rectangular water tank is uniformly heated from below and cooled from above, with Ra = (6 . 35 +/- 0 . 77) ×107 , Ta = 9 . 84 ×107 , Pr = 7 . 34 . The columnar vortices are vertically aligned and quasi steady. Two 2D PIV systems were used to measure velocity field. One system performs horizontal scans at 9 different heights every 13.6s, covering 62% of the total depth. The other system scans vertically to obtain the vertical velocity profile. The measured vertical vorticity profiles of most vortices are quasi-linear with height while the vertical velocities are nearly uniform with only a small curvature. A simple model to deduce vertical velocity profile from vertical vorticity profile is proposed. Under quasi-steady and axisymmetric conditions, a ``vortex core'' assumption is introduced to simplify vertical vorticity equation. A linear ODE about vertical velocity is obtained whenever a vertical vorticity profile is given and solved with experimental data as input. The result is approximately in agreement with the measurement. This work was supported by Undergraduates Training Project (J1103410).

  20. Static and dynamic properties of heavily doped quantum vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnyuk, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum vortices in superfluids may capture matter and deposit it inside their core. By doping vortices with foreign particles one can effectively visualize them and study them experimentally. To acquire a better understanding of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter, and clarify the details of recent experiments, the properties of doped vortices are investigated here theoretically in the regimes where the doping mass becomes close to the total mass of superfluid particles forming a vortex. Such formations are dynamically stable and, possessing both vorticity and enhanced inertia, demonstrate properties that are different from the pure vortex case. The goal of this paper is to define and investigate the universal aspects of heavily doped vortex behavior, which can be realized in different types of quantum mixtures. The proposed 3D model is based on a system of coupled semiclassical matter wave equations that are solved numerically in a wide range of physical parameters. The size, geometry and binding energy of dopants in different regimes are discussed. The coupled motion of a vortex-dopant complex and decoupling conditions are studied. The reconnection of vortices, taken as an example of a fundamental process responsible for the evolution of a quantum turbulent state, is modeled to illustrate the difference between the light and heavy doping cases.

  1. Airfoil Drag Reduction using Controlled Trapped Vorticity Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, Michael; Glezer, Ari

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a lifting surface at low angles of attack (when the base flow is fully attached) is improved through fluidic modification of its ``apparent'' shape by superposition of near-surface trapped vorticity concentrations. In the present wind tunnel investigations, a controlled trapped vorticity concentration is formed on the pressure surface of an airfoil (NACA 4415) using a hybrid actuator comprising a passive obstruction of scale O(0.01c) and an integral synthetic jet actuator. The jet actuation frequency [Stact O(10)] is selected to be at least an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic unstable frequency of the airfoil wake, thereby decoupling the actuation from the global instabilities of the base flow. Regulation of vorticity accumulation in the vicinity of the actuator by the jet effects changes in the local pressure, leading in turn to changes in the airfoil's drag and lift. Trapped vorticity can lead to a significant reduction in drag and reduced lift (owing to the sense of the vorticity), e.g. at α =4° and Re = 6.7 .105 the drag and lift reductions are 14% and 2%, respectively. PIV measurements show the spatial variation in the distribution of vorticity concentrations and yield estimates of the corresponding changes in circulation.

  2. A study of the temporal stability of multiple cell vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of initial mean velocity field on the stability characteristics of longitudinal vortices is documented in detail. The temporal stability of isolated multiple cell vortices is considered. The types of vortices studied include single cell as well as two and three cell vortices. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has drastic effects on the stability characteristics. On the basis of numerical calculations, it is concluded that the growth rates of instabilities in multiple cell vortices are substantially larger (two to threefold increases are observed) than those of a single cell vortex. It is also determined that there is a substantial increase in the effective range of axial and azimuthal wavenumbers where instabilities are present. But most importantly, there is the appearance of a variety of viscous modes of instability. In the case of vortices, these latter instabilities which highlight the importance of viscous forces have never been reported before. These effects are discussed in detail for the case of a two cell vortex.

  3. Observations of ionospheric convection vortices - Signatures of momentum transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, M. A.; Clauer, C. R.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Kelly, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionospheric flow have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain. One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally antisunward for several hours at a time. Assuming each vortex to be the convection pattern produced by a small field aligned current moving across the ionosphere, the amount of field aligned current was found by fitting a modeled ground magnetic signature to measurements from the chain of magnetometers. The calculated field aligned current is seen to be steady for each vortex and neighboring vortices have currents of opposite sign. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, it is argued that this class of vortices is caused by surface waves at the magnetopause. No strong correlations between field aligned current strength and solar wind density, velocity, or Bz is found.

  4. The structure of intense vorticity in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, J.; Wray, A. A.; Saffman, P. G.; Rogallo, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the intense vorticity regions is studied in numerically simulated homogeneous, isotropic, equilibrium turbulent flow fields at four different Reynolds numbers in the range Re(sub lambda) = 36-171. In accordance with previous investigators, this vorticity is found to be organized in coherent, cylindrical or ribbon-like, vortices ('worms'). A statistical study suggests that they are just especially intense features of the background, O(omega'), vorticity. Their radii scale with the Kolmogorov microscale and their lengths with the integral scale of the flow. An interesting observation is that the Reynolds number based on the circulation of the intense vortices, gamma/nu, increases monotonically with Re(sub lambda), raising the question of the stability of the structures in the limit of Re(sub lambda) approaching infinity. One and two-dimensional statistics of vorticity and strain are presented; they are non-gaussian, and the behavior of their tails depends strongly on the Reynolds number. There is no evidence of convergence to a limiting distribution in our range of Re(sub lambda), even though the energy spectra and the energy dissipation rate show good asymptotic properties in the higher Reynolds number cases. Evidence is presented to show that worms are natural features of the flow and that they do not depend on the particular forcing scheme.

  5. Higgs pair production at NLO QCD for CP-violating Higgs sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröber, R.; Mühlleitner, M.; Spira, M.

    2017-12-01

    Higgs pair production through gluon fusion is an important process at the LHC to test the dynamics underlying electroweak symmetry breaking. Higgs sectors beyond the Standard Model (SM) can substantially modify this cross section through novel couplings not present in the SM or the on-shell production of new heavy Higgs bosons that subsequently decay into Higgs pairs. CP violation in the Higgs sector is important for the explanation of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry through electroweak baryogenesis. In this work we compute the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections in the heavy top quark limit, including the effects of CP violation in the Higgs sector. We choose the effective theory (EFT) approach, which provides a rather model-independent way to explore New Physics (NP) effects by adding dimension-6 operators, both CP-conserving and CP-violating ones, to the SM Lagrangian. Furthermore, we perform the computation within a specific UV-complete model and choose as benchmark model the general 2-Higgs-Doublet Model with CP violation, the C2HDM. Depending on the dimension-6 coefficients, the relative NLO QCD corrections are affected by several per cent through the new CP-violating operators. This is also the case for SM-like Higgs pair production in the C2HDM, while the relative QCD corrections in the production of heavier C2HDM Higgs boson pairs deviate more strongly from the SM case. The absolute cross sections both in the EFT and the C2HDM can be modified by more than an order of magnitude. In particular, in the C2HDM the resonant production of Higgs pairs can by far exceed the SM cross section.

  6. Characterization of aircraft dynamic wake vortices and atmospheric turbulence by coherent doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songhua; Zhai, Xiaochun; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao

    2018-04-01

    Field observations for the wake vortices by Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) have been carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) and Tianjin Binhai International Airport (TBIA) to investigate the wake vortices evolution characteristics and the near-ground effect. This paper introduces the dynamic wake vortices and atmospheric turbulence monitoring technique, successfully demonstrating that the CDL can capture the key characteristics of wake vortices in real-time, including wake vortices intensity, spatial-temporal evolution and so forth.

  7. Got a Minute? Which Higgs did we find?

    SciTech Connect

    Stupak, John

    2014-06-26

    Dr. John Stupak talks about the discovery of the Higgs boson. Did scientists find the Higgs boson predicted back in 1964 or did they find just one of a group of particles, with the others still to be found?

  8. Got a Minute? Which Higgs did we find?

    ScienceCinema

    Stupak, John

    2018-01-16

    Dr. John Stupak talks about the discovery of the Higgs boson. Did scientists find the Higgs boson predicted back in 1964 or did they find just one of a group of particles, with the others still to be found?

  9. Higgs Pair Production as a Signal of Enhanced Yukawa Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Carmona, Adrián

    We present a non-trivial correlation between the enhancement of the Higgs-fermion couplings and the Higgs pair production cross section in two Higgs doublet models with a flavour symmetry. This symmetry suppresses flavour-changing neutral couplings of the Higgs boson and allows for a partial explanation of the hierarchy in the Yukawa sector. After taking into account the constraints from electroweak precision measurements, Higgs coupling strength measurements, and unitarity and perturbativity bounds, we identify an interesting region of parameter space leading to enhanced Yukawa couplings as well as enhanced di-Higgs gluon fusion production at the LHC reach. This effect is visible inmore » both the resonant and non-resonant contributions to the Higgs pair production cross section. We encourage dedicated searches based on differential distributions as a novel way to indirectly probe enhanced Higgs couplings to light fermions.« less

  10. Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied

  11. Streamwise vortices destabilize swimming bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Maia, Anabela; Sheltzer, Alex P; Tytell, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    In their natural environment, fish must swim stably through unsteady flows and vortices, including vertical vortices, typically shed by posts in a flow, horizontal cross-flow vortices, often produced by a step or a waterfall in a stream, and streamwise vortices, where the axis of rotation is aligned with the direction of the flow. Streamwise vortices are commonly shed by bluff bodies in streams and by ships' propellers and axial turbines, but we know little about their effects on fish. Here, we describe how bluegill sunfish use more energy and are destabilized more often in flow with strong streamwise vorticity. The vortices were created inside a sealed flow tank by an array of four turbines with similar diameter to the experimental fish. We measured oxygen consumption for seven sunfish swimming at 1.5 body lengths (BL) s(-1) with the turbines rotating at 2 Hz and with the turbines off (control). Simultaneously, we filmed the fish ventrally and recorded the fraction of time spent maneuvering side-to-side and accelerating forward. Separately, we also recorded lateral and ventral video for a combination of swimming speeds (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 BL s(-1)) and turbine speeds (0, 1, 2 and 3 Hz), immediately after turning the turbines on and 10 min later to test for accommodation. Bluegill sunfish are negatively affected by streamwise vorticity. Spills (loss of heading), maneuvers and accelerations were more frequent when the turbines were on than in the control treatment. These unsteady behaviors, particularly acceleration, correlated with an increase in oxygen consumption in the vortex flow. Bluegill sunfish are generally fast to recover from roll perturbations and do so by moving their pectoral fins. The frequency of spills decreased after the turbines had run for 10 min, but was still markedly higher than in the control, showing that fish partially adapt to streamwise vorticity, but not completely. Coping with streamwise vorticity may be an important energetic

  12. The balance of dynamic vorticity for the Presidents' Day storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotocny, Tom Harmon

    1990-06-01

    The maintenance of isentropic dynamic vorticity, defined as the vertical component of the curl of momentum, is examined for the life cycle of the Presidents'Day storm. Dynamic vorticity and its tendency are also compared to the more commonly used kinematic vorticity and its tendency. Diagnostics are first performed on an inviscid numerical simulation of an amplifying baroclinic disturbance by a hybrid isentropic-sigma coordinate channel model. The main purpose for studying a simulation with the channel model is to examine the first-order balance of dynamic vorticity during development under simplified conditions. A more in-depth evaluation of dynamic vorticity is presented for an excellent numerical simulation of the Presidents' Day storm of 18 to 20 February 1979. Dynamic vorticity diagnostics for the Presidents' Day storm reveal the importance of mass asymmetries within an isentropic layer and also document the effect of weak static stability. Prior to cyclogenesis, a strong cyclonic circulation tendency exists from both the vertical advection of vorticity and tilting terms. Another important feature is the merging of two synoptic scale short waves; one propagating southeast from the Great Lakes states, the other moving northeast from the Gulf of Mexico. Cyclogenesis is initiated by the latter of these two short waves, while rapid development occurs when the Great Lakes short waves reaches the Middle Atlantic states. During rapid development, an assessment of the ageostrophic component on spin-up is obtained from a balance of the divergence term and pressure stresses. Spin-up from the ageostrophic component is largest ahead of the lower tropospheric warm front. The impact of an 80 m/s subtropical jet streak, which enhances upper tropospheric processes during development, is also examined.

  13. Characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Chen, W. J.

    2017-08-01

    Topological defects in condensed matter are attracting e significant attention due to their important role in phase transition and their fascinating characteristics. Among the various types of matter, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structure are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects—vortices—have been found to commonly exist in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems. Understanding the characteristics and controllability of vortices in ferroics can provide us with deeper insight into the phase transition of condensed matter and also exciting opportunities in designing novel functional devices such as nano-memories, sensors, and transducers based on topological defects. In this review, we summarize the recent experimental and theoretical progress in ferroic vortices, with emphasis on those spin/dipole vortices formed in nanoscale ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics, and those structural domain vortices formed in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. We begin with an overview of this field. The fundamental concepts of ferroic vortices, followed by the theoretical simulation and experimental methods to explore ferroic vortices, are then introduced. The various characteristics of vortices (e.g. formation mechanisms, static/dynamic features, and electronic properties) and their controllability (e.g. by size, geometry, external thermal, electrical, magnetic, or mechanical fields) in ferromagnetics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics are discussed in detail in individual sections. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on this rapidly developing field.

  14. Slowly-growing gap-opening planets trigger weaker vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Michael; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Lin, Min-Kai

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a giant planet in a low-viscosity disc can create a gap edge in the disc's radial density profile sharp enough to excite the Rossby wave instability. This instability may evolve into dust-trapping vortices that might explain the 'banana-shaped' features in recently observed asymmetric transition discs with inner cavities. Previous hydrodynamical simulations of planet-induced vortices have neglected the time-scale of hundreds to thousands of orbits to grow a massive planet to Jupiter size. In this work, we study the effect of a giant planet's runaway growth time-scale on the lifetime and characteristics of the resulting vortex. For two different planet masses (1 and 5 Jupiter masses) and two different disc viscosities (α = 3 × 10-4 and 3 × 10-5), we compare the vortices induced by planets with several different growth time-scales between 10 and 4000 planet orbits. In general, we find that slowly-growing planets create significantly weaker vortices with lifetimes and surface densities reduced by more than 50 per cent. For the higher disc viscosity, the longest growth time-scales in our study inhibit vortex formation altogether. Additionally, slowly-growing planets produce vortices that are up to twice as elongated, with azimuthal extents well above 180° in some cases. These unique, elongated vortices likely create a distinct signature in the dust observations that differentiates them from the more concentrated vortices that correspond to planets with faster growth time-scales. Lastly, we find that the low viscosities necessary for vortex formation likely prevent planets from growing quickly enough to trigger the instability in self-consistent models.

  15. On the exotic Higgs decays in effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Bélusca-Maïto, Hermès; Falkowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We discuss exotic Higgs decays in an effective field theory where the Standard Model is extended by dimension-6 operators. We review and update the status of two-body lepton- and quark-flavor-violating decays involving the Higgs boson. We also comment on the possibility of observing three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays in this context.

  16. Dual representation of lattice QCD with worldlines and worldsheets of Abelian color fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Carlotta; Gattringer, Christof

    2018-02-01

    We present a new dual representation for lattice QCD in terms of wordlines and worldsheets. The exact reformulation is carried out using the recently developed Abelian color flux method where the action is decomposed into commuting minimal terms that connect different colors on neighboring sites. Expanding the Boltzmann factors for these commuting terms allows one to reorganize the gauge field contributions according to links such that the gauge fields can be integrated out in closed form. The emerging constraints give the dual variables the structure of worldlines for the fermions and worldsheets for the gauge degrees of freedom. The partition sum has the form of a strong coupling expansion, and with the Abelian color flux approach discussed here all coefficients of the expansion are known in closed form. We present the dual form for three cases: pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory, strong coupling QCD and full QCD, and discuss in detail the constraints for the color fluxes and their physical interpretation.

  17. Haag duality for Kitaev’s quantum double model for abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Leander; Naaijkens, Pieter

    2015-11-01

    We prove Haag duality for cone-like regions in the ground state representation corresponding to the translational invariant ground state of Kitaev’s quantum double model for finite abelian groups. This property says that if an observable commutes with all observables localized outside the cone region, it actually is an element of the von Neumann algebra generated by the local observables inside the cone. This strengthens locality, which says that observables localized in disjoint regions commute. As an application, we consider the superselection structure of the quantum double model for abelian groups on an infinite lattice in the spirit of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts program in algebraic quantum field theory. We find that, as is the case for the toric code model on an infinite lattice, the superselection structure is given by the category of irreducible representations of the quantum double.

  18. Non-Abelian sigma models from Yang-Mills theory compactified on a circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Tatiana A.; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2018-06-01

    We consider SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on R 2 , 1 ×S1, where S1 is a spatial circle. In the infrared limit of a small-circle radius the Yang-Mills action reduces to the action of a sigma model on R 2 , 1 whose target space is a 2 (N - 1)-dimensional torus modulo the Weyl-group action. We argue that there is freedom in the choice of the framing of the gauge bundles, which leads to more general options. In particular, we show that this low-energy limit can give rise to a target space SU (N) ×SU (N) /ZN. The latter is the direct product of SU(N) and its Langlands dual SU (N) /ZN, and it contains the above-mentioned torus as its maximal Abelian subgroup. An analogous result is obtained for any non-Abelian gauge group.

  19. Fermiophobia in a Higgs triplet model

    SciTech Connect

    Akeroyd, A. G.; NExT Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ; Diaz, Marco A.

    2011-05-01

    A fermiophobic Higgs boson can arise in models with an extended Higgs sector, such as models with scalars in an isospin triplet representation. In a specific model with a scalar triplet and spontaneous violation of lepton number induced by a scalar singlet field, we show that fermiophobia is not a fine-tuned situation, unlike in two higgs doublet models. We study distinctive signals of fermiophobia which can be probed at the LHC. For the case of a small Higgs mass, a characteristic signal would be a moderate B(H{yields}{gamma}{gamma}) accompanied by a large B(H{yields}JJ) (where J is a Majoron), the latter beingmore » an invisible decay. For the case of a large Higgs mass there is the possibility of dominant H{yields}ZZ, WW and suppressed H{yields}JJ decay modes. In this situation, B(H{yields}ZZ) is larger than B(H{yields}WW), which differs from the SM prediction.« less

  20. Minimal Composite Higgs Models at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Da Rold, Leandro; Pontón, Eduardo

    2014-06-26

    We consider composite Higgs models where the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of an approximate global symmetry by some underlying strong dynamics. We focus on the SO(5) → SO(4) symmetry breaking pattern, assuming the “partial compositeness” paradigm. We study the consequences on Higgs physics of the fermionic representations produced by the strong dynamics, that mix with the Standard Model (SM) degrees of freedom. We consider models based on the lowest-dimensional representations of SO(5) that allow for the custodial protection of the Z b ¯ b coupling, i.e. the 5, 10 and 14. We findmore » a generic suppression of the gluon fusion process, while the Higgs branching fractions can be enhanced or suppressed compared to the SM. Interestingly, a precise measurement of the Higgs boson couplings can distinguish between different realizations in the fermionic sector, thus providing crucial information about the nature of the UV dynamics.« less

  1. Unitarity and predictiveness in new Higgs inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Jacopo; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke

    2018-03-01

    In new Higgs inflation the Higgs kinetic terms are non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor, allowing the Higgs field to play the role of the inflaton. The new interaction is non-renormalizable, and the model only describes physics below some cutoff scale. Even if the unknown UV physics does not affect the tree level inflaton potential significantly, it may still enter at loop level and modify the running of the Standard Model (SM) parameters. This is analogous to what happens in the original model for Higgs inflation. A key difference, though, is that in new Higgs inflation the inflationary predictions are sensitive to this running. Thus the boundary conditions at the EW scale as well as the unknown UV completion may leave a signature on the inflationary parameters. However, this dependence can be evaded if the kinetic terms of the SM fermions and gauge fields are non-minimally coupled to gravity as well. Our approach to determine the model's UV dependence and the connection between low and high scale physics can be used in any particle physics model of inflation.

  2. Higgs EFT for 2HDM and beyond.

    PubMed

    Bélusca-Maïto, Hermès; Falkowski, Adam; Fontes, Duarte; Romão, Jorge C; Silva, João P

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the validity of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SM EFT) as the low-energy effective theory for the two-Higgs-doublet Model (2HDM). Using the up-to-date Higgs signal strength measurements at the LHC, one can obtain a likelihood function for the Wilson coefficients of dimension-6 operators in the EFT Lagrangian. Given the matching between the 2HDM and the EFT, the constraints on the Wilson coefficients can be translated into constraints on the parameters of the 2HDM Lagrangian. We discuss under which conditions such a procedure correctly reproduces the true limits on the 2HDM. Finally, we employ the SM EFT to identify the pattern of the Higgs boson couplings that are needed to improve the fit to the current Higgs data. To this end, one needs, simultaneously, to increase the top Yukawa coupling, decrease the bottom Yukawa coupling, and induce a new contact interaction of the Higgs boson with gluons. We comment on how these modifications can be realized in the 2HDM extended by new colored particles.

  3. Enhanced Higgs mass in Compact Supersymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Tobioka, Kohsaku; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-04-05

    The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with (Formula presented.) which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. And while the zero mode contribution of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgsmore » mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50%. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top mass depend on higher powers in the Higgs field. And, as a result the Higgs mass is enhanced up to 15 GeV from the previous calculation. We also show the whole parameter space is testable at the LHC run II.« less

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Bicomplexes and conservation laws in non-Abelian Toda models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueuvoghlanian, E. P.

    2001-08-01

    A bicomplex structure is associated with the Leznov-Saveliev equation of integrable models. The linear problem associated with the zero-curvature condition is derived in terms of the bicomplex linear equation. The explicit example of a non-Abelian conformal affine Toda model is discussed in detail and its conservation laws are derived from the zero-curvature representation of its equation of motion.

  5. Trivial solutions of generalized supergravity vs non-abelian T-duality anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Linus

    2018-06-01

    The equations that follow from kappa symmetry of the type II Green-Schwarz string are a certain deformation, by a Killing vector field K, of the type II supergravity equations. We analyze under what conditions solutions of these 'generalized' supergravity equations are trivial in the sense that they solve also the standard supergravity equations. We argue that for this to happen K must be null and satisfy dK =iK H with H = dB the NSNS three-form field strength. Non-trivial examples are provided by symmetric pp-wave solutions. We then analyze the consequences for non-abelian T-duality and the closely related homogenous Yang-Baxter sigma models. When one performs non-abelian T-duality of a string sigma model on a non-unimodular (sub)algebra one generates a non-vanishing K proportional to the trace of the structure constants. This is expected to lead to an anomaly but we show that when K satisfies the same conditions the anomaly in fact goes away leading to more possibilities for non-anomalous non-abelian T-duality.

  6. Non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue of classical electromagnetic duality

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Hong-Mo; Faridani, J.; Tsun, T.S.

    The classic question of non-Abelian Yang-Mills analogue to electromagnetic duality is examined here in a minimalist fashion at the strictly four-dimensional, classical field, and point charge level. A generalization of the Abelian Hodge star duality is found which, though not yet known to give dual symmetry, reproduces analogues to many dual properties of the Abelian theory. For example, there is a dual potential, but it is a two-indexed tensor {ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}} of the Freedman-Townsend-type. Though not itself functioning as such, {ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}} gives rise to a dual parallel transport {ital {tilde A}}{sub {mu}} for the phase of themore » wave function of the color magnetic charge, this last being a monopole of the Yang-Mills field but a source of the dual field. The standard color (electric) charge itself is found to be a monpole of {ital {tilde A}}{sub {mu}}. At the same time, the gauge symmetry is found doubled from say SU({ital N}) to SU({ital N}){times}SU({ital N}). A novel feature is that all equations of motion, including the standard Yang-Mills and Wong equations, are here derived from a ``universal`` principle, namely, the Wu-Yang criterion for monpoles, where interactions arise purely as a consequence of the topological definition of the monopole charge. The technique used is the loop space formulation of Polyakov.« less

  7. A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

  8. Efficient collective swimming by harnessing vortices through deep reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Verma, Siddhartha; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2018-06-05

    Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm. The RL algorithm relies on a policy defined by deep, recurrent neural nets, with long-short-term memory cells, that are essential for capturing the unsteadiness of the two-way interactions between the fish and the vortical flow field. Surprisingly, we find that swimming in-line with a leader is not associated with energetic benefits for the follower. Instead, "smart swimmer(s)" place themselves at off-center positions, with respect to the axis of the leader(s) and deform their body to synchronize with the momentum of the oncoming vortices, thus enhancing their swimming efficiency at no cost to the leader(s). The results confirm that fish may harvest energy deposited in vortices and support the conjecture that swimming in formation is energetically advantageous. Moreover, this study demonstrates that deep RL can produce navigation algorithms for complex unsteady and vortical flow fields, with promising implications for energy savings in autonomous robotic swarms.

  9. Bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation in a vortical flow

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Shahrzad; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial aggregation and patchiness play an important role in a variety of ecological processes such as competition, adaptation, epidemics, and succession. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamics of their environment can lead to their aggregation. This is specially important since microbial habitats are rarely at rest (e.g., ocean, blood stream, flow in porous media, and flow through membrane filtration processes). In order to study the dynamics of bacterial collection in a vortical flow, we utilize a microfluidic system to mimic some of the important microbial conditions at ecologically relevant spatiotemporal scales. We experimentally demonstrate the formation of “ring”-shaped bacterial collection patterns and subsequently the formation of biofilm streamers in a microfluidic system. Acoustic streaming of a microbubble is used to generate a vortical flow in a microchannel. Due to bacteria's finite-size, the microorganisms are directed to closed streamlines and trapped in the vortical flow. The collection of bacteria in the vortices occurs in a matter of seconds, and unexpectedly, triggers the formation of biofilm streamers within minutes. Swimming bacteria have a competitive advantage to respond to their environmental conditions. In order to investigate the role of bacterial motility on the rate of collection, two strains of Escherichia coli bacteria with different motilities are used. We show that the bacterial collection in a vortical flow is strongly pronounced for high motile bacteria. PMID:24339847

  10. Vorticity Transport on a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; Farnsworth, John; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The circulation budget within dynamic stall vortices was investigated on a flexible NACA 0018 wing model of aspect ratio 6 undergoing stall flutter. The wing had an initial angle of attack of 6 degrees, Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 and large-amplitude, primarily torsional, limit cycle oscillations were observed at a reduced frequency of k = πfc / U = 0 . 1 . Phase-locked stereo PIV measurements were obtained at multiple chordwise planes around the 62.5% and 75% spanwise locations to characterize the flow field within thin volumetric regions over the suction surface. Transient surface pressure measurements were used to estimate boundary vorticity flux. Recent analyses on plunging and rotating wings indicates that the magnitude of the pressure-gradient-driven boundary flux of secondary vorticity is a significant fraction of the magnitude of the convective flux from the separated leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary vorticity plays a significant role in regulating the strength of the primary vortex. This phenomenon is examined in the present case, and the physical mechanisms governing the growth and evolution of the dynamic stall vortices are explored. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Flow Interactions and Control Program monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith, and through the 2014 AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).

  11. The influence of convective activity on the vorticity budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, T. L.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of convective activity on the vorticity budget was determined during the AVE VII and AVE-SESAME I periods. This was accomplished by evaluating each term in the expanded vorticity equation with twisting and tilting and friction representing the residual of all other terms. Convective areas were delineated by use of radar summary charts. The influence of convective activity was established by analyzing contoured fields of each term as well as numerical values and profiles of the various terms in convective and nonconvective areas. Vertical motion was computed by the kinematic method, and all computations were performed over the central United States using a grid spacing of 158 km. The results show that, in convective areas in particular, the residual is of comparable magnitude to the horizontal advection and divergence terms, and therefore, cannot be neglected. In convective areas, the residual term represents a sink of vorticity below 500 mb and a strong source near 300 mb. In nonconvective areas, the residual was small in magnitude at all levels, but tended to be negative (vorticity sink) at 300 mb. The local change term, over convective areas, tended to be balanced by the residual term, and appeared to be a good indicator of development (vorticity becoming more cyclonic). Finally, the shape of the vertical profiles of the term in the budget equation agreed with those found by other investigators for easterly waves, but the terms were one order of magnitude larger than those for easterly waves.

  12. Numerical simulation of vortical ideal fluid flow through curved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshkin, N. P.; Mounnamprang, P.

    2003-04-01

    A numerical algorithm to study the boundary-value problem in which the governing equations are the steady Euler equations and the vorticity is given on the inflow parts of the domain boundary is developed. The Euler equations are implemented in terms of the stream function and vorticity. An irregular physical domain is transformed into a rectangle in the computational domain and the Euler equations are rewritten with respect to a curvilinear co-ordinate system. The convergence of the finite-difference equations to the exact solution is shown experimentally for the test problems by comparing the computational results with the exact solutions on the sequence of grids. To find the pressure from the known vorticity and stream function, the Euler equations are utilized in the Gromeka-Lamb form. The numerical algorithm is illustrated with several examples of steady flow through a two-dimensional channel with curved walls. The analysis of calculations shows strong dependence of the pressure field on the vorticity given at the inflow parts of the boundary. Plots of the flow structure and isobars, for different geometries of channel and for different values of vorticity on entrance, are also presented.

  13. Beyond the standard Higgs after the 125 GeV Higgs discovery

    PubMed Central

    Grojean, C.

    2015-01-01

    An elementary, weakly coupled and solitary Higgs boson allows one to extend the validity of the Standard Model up to very high energy, maybe as high as the Planck scale. Nonetheless, this scenario fails to fill the universe with dark matter and does not explain the matter–antimatter asymmetry. However, amending the Standard Model tends to destabilize the weak scale by large quantum corrections to the Higgs potential. New degrees of freedom, new forces, new organizing principles are required to provide a consistent and natural description of physics beyond the standard Higgs.

  14. Beyond the standard Higgs after the 125 GeV Higgs discovery.

    PubMed

    Grojean, C

    2015-01-13

    An elementary weakly coupled and solitary Higgs boson allows one to extend the validity of the Standard Model up to very high energy, maybe as high as the Planck scale. Nonetheless, this scenario fails to fill the universe with dark matter and does not explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry. However, amending the Standard Model tends to destabilize the weak scale by large quantum corrections to the Higgs potential. New degrees of freedom, new forces, new organizing principles are required to provide a consistent and natural description of physics beyond the standard Higgs.

  15. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them belowmore » or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov« less

  16. Higgs C P violation from vectorlike quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Dawson, S.; Zhang, Yue

    2015-10-20

    We explore CP violating aspects in the Higgs sector of models where new vectorlike quarks carry Yukawa couplings mainly to the third generation quarks of the Standard Model. We point out that in the simplest model, Higgs CP violating interactions only exist in the hWW channel. At low energy, we nd that rare B decays can place similarly strong constraints as those from electric dipole moments on the source of CP violation. These observations offer a new handle to discriminate from other Higgs CP violating scenarios such as scalar sector extensions of the Standard Model, and imply an interesting futuremore » interplay among limits from different experiments.« less

  17. Light quark Yukawa couplings from Higgs kinematics

    DOE PAGES

    Soreq, Yotam; Zhu, Hua Xing; Zupan, Jure

    2016-12-13

    We show that the normalized Higgs production p T and y h distributions are sensitive probes of Higgs couplings to light quarks. For up and/or down quark Yukawa couplings comparable to the SM b quark Yukawa themore » $$\\bar{u}u$$ or $$\\bar{d}d$$ fusion production of the Higgs could lead to appreciable softer p T distribution than in the SM. The rapidity distribution, on the other hand, becomes more forward. Here, we find that, owing partially to a downward fluctuation, one can derive competitive bounds on the two couplings using ATLAS measurements of normalized p T distribution at 8TeV. With 300 fb -1 at 13TeV LHC one could establish flavor non-universality of the Yukawa couplings in the down sector.« less

  18. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  19. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2017-12-09

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  20. Higgs boson from an extended symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Bellazzini, Brando; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.

    The variety of ideas put forward in the context of a composite picture for the Higgs boson calls for a simple and effective description of the related phenomenology. Such a description is given here by means of a minimal model and is explicitly applied to the example of a Higgs-top sector from an SO(5) symmetry. We discuss the spectrum, the electroweak precision tests, B-physics, and naturalness. We show the difficulty in complying with the different constraints. The extended gauge sector relative to the standard SU(2)xU(1), if there is any, has little or no impact on these considerations. We also discussmore » the relation of the minimal model with its 'little Higgs' or holographic extensions based on the same symmetry.« less

  1. Higgs enhancement for the dark matter relic density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Julia; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2018-04-01

    We consider the long-range effect of the Higgs on the density of thermal-relic dark matter. While the electroweak gauge boson and gluon exchange have been previously studied, the Higgs is typically thought to mediate only contact interactions. We show that the Sommerfeld enhancement due to a 125 GeV Higgs can deplete TeV-scale dark matter significantly and describe how the interplay between the Higgs and other mediators influences this effect. We discuss the importance of the Higgs enhancement in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and its implications for experiments.

  2. Vacuum Stability in Split SUSY and Little Higgs Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Alakabha; Zhang, Xinmin

    We study the stability of the effective Higgs potential in the split supersymmetry and Little Higgs models. In particular, we study the effects of higher dimensional operators in the effective potential on the Higgs mass predictions. We find that the size and sign of the higher dimensional operators can significantly change the Higgs mass required to maintain vacuum stability in Split SUSY models. In the Little Higgs models the effects of higher dimensional operators can be large because of a relatively lower cutoff scale. Working with a specific model we find that a contribution from the higher dimensional operator with coefficient of O(1) can destabilize the vacuum.

  3. Natural Higgs mass in supersymmetry from nondecoupling effects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ruderman, Joshua T; Tobioka, Kohsaku

    2014-05-16

    The Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Nondecoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs boson, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. We show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. We explore the modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, which we call the "Dirac next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model."

  4. Asymptotically Free Natural Supersymmetric Twin Higgs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    Twin Higgs (TH) models explain the absence of new colored particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). All known ultraviolet completions of TH models require some nonperturbative dynamics below the Planck scale. We propose a supersymmetric model in which the TH mechanism is introduced by a new asymptotically free gauge interaction. The model features natural EWSB for squarks and gluino heavier than 2 TeV even if supersymmetry breaking is mediated around the Planck scale, and has interesting flavor phenomenology including the top quark decay into the Higgs boson and the up quark which may be discovered at the LHC.

  5. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Peter Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancey, Conducted by Norman

    1998-01-01

    Peter Higgs, FRSE, FRS held until recently a personal chair in theoretical physics at the University of Edinburgh and is now an emeritus professor. Peter is well known for predicting the existence of a new particle, the Higgs boson - as yet unconfirmed. He has been awarded a number of prizes in recognition of his work, most recently the Paul Dirac Medal and Prize for outstanding contributions to theoretical physics from the Institute of Physics and the 1997 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by the European Physical Society.

  6. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called `near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  7. Supersymmetric D-term Twin Higgs

    DOE PAGES

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-06-01

    Here, we propose a new type of supersymmetric Twin Higgs model where the SU(4) invariant quartic term is provided by a D-term potential of a new U(1) gauge symmetry. In the model the 125 GeV Higgs mass can be obtained for stop masses below 1 TeV, and a tuning required to obtain the correct electroweak scale can be as low as 20%. Finally, a stop mass of about 2 TeV is also possible with tuning of order O(10)% .

  8. Asymptotically Free Natural Supersymmetric Twin Higgs Model.

    PubMed

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-25

    Twin Higgs (TH) models explain the absence of new colored particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). All known ultraviolet completions of TH models require some nonperturbative dynamics below the Planck scale. We propose a supersymmetric model in which the TH mechanism is introduced by a new asymptotically free gauge interaction. The model features natural EWSB for squarks and gluino heavier than 2 TeV even if supersymmetry breaking is mediated around the Planck scale, and has interesting flavor phenomenology including the top quark decay into the Higgs boson and the up quark which may be discovered at the LHC.

  9. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, J R

    2018-03-06

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called 'near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result ismore » of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.« less

  11. Feedback control of flow vorticity at low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, Maria; Gurevich, Pavel; Stark, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Our aim is to explore strategies of feedback control to design and stabilize novel dynamic flow patterns in model systems of complex fluids. To introduce the control strategies, we investigate the simple Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number in a circular geometry. Then, the fluid vorticity satisfies a diffusion equation. We determine the mean vorticity in the sensing area and use two control strategies to feed it back into the system by controlling the angular velocity of the circular boundary. Hysteretic feedback control generates self-regulated stable oscillations in time, the frequency of which can be adjusted over several orders of magnitude by tuning the relevant feedback parameters. Time-delayed feedback control initiates unstable vorticity modes for sufficiently large feedback strength. For increasing delay time, we first observe oscillations with beats and then regular trains of narrow pulses. Close to the transition line between the resting fluid and the unstable modes, these patterns are relatively stable over long times.

  12. Rapid expulsion of microswimmers by a vortical flow

    DOE PAGES

    Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-03-23

    Interactions of microswimmers with their fluid environment are exceptionally complex. Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a vortical flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observe a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a vortical structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuationsmore » of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model reveals that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed light on bacteria-flow interactions.« less

  13. Decay of Far-Flowfield in Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Chigier, N. A.; Sheaffer, Y. S.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for reduction of velocities in trailing vortices of large aircraft are of current interest for the purpose of shortening the waiting time between landings at central airports. We have made finite-difference calculations of the flow in turbulent wake vortices as an aid to interpretation of wind-tunnel and flight experiments directed toward that end. Finite-difference solutions are capable of adding flexibility to such investigations if they are based on an adequate model of turbulence. Interesting developments have been taking place in the knowledge of turbulence that may lead to a complete theory in the future. In the meantime, approximate methods that yield reasonable agreement with experiment are appropriate. The simplified turbulence model we have selected contains features that account for the major effects disclosed by more sophisticated models in which the parameters are not yet established. Several puzzles are thereby resolved that arose in previous theoretical investigations of wake vortices.

  14. Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortices: Real Case Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Shao-Hua; Ding, Feng; Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model, TASS, is used to simulate the behavior of aircraft wake vortices in a real atmosphere. The purpose for this study is to validate the use of TASS for simulating the decay and transport of wake vortices. Three simulations are performed and the results are compared with the observed data from the 1994-1995 Memphis field experiments. The selected cases have an atmospheric environment of weak turbulence and stable stratification. The model simulations are initialized with appropriate meteorological conditions and a post roll-up vortex system. The behavior of wake vortices as they descend within the atmospheric boundary layer and interact with the ground is discussed.

  15. Approach and separation of quantum vortices with balanced cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Robert M.; Rorai, C.; Skipper, J.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2014-11-01

    Using two innovations, smooth but different, scaling laws for the reconnection of pairs of initially orthogonal and anti-parallel quantum vortices are obtained using the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations. For the anti-parallel case, the scaling laws just before and after reconnection obey the dimensional δ ~ | t - tr| 1 / 2 prediction with temporal symmetry about the reconnection time tr and physical space symmetry about xr, the mid-point between the vortices, with extensions forming the edges of an equilateral pyramid. For all of the orthogonal cases, before reconnection δin ~(t -tr) 1 / 3 and after reconnection δout ~(tr - t) 2 / 3 , which are respectively slower and faster than the dimensional prediction. In these cases, the reconnection takes place in a plane defined by the directions of the curvature and vorticity. Robert.Kerr@warwick.ac.uk.

  16. A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.

    2007-12-01

    Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.

  17. Kinematics of velocity and vorticity correlations in turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematic problem of calculating second-order velocity moments from given values of the vorticity covariance is examined. Integral representation formulas for second-order velocity moments in terms of the two-point vorticity correlation tensor are derived. The special relationships existing between velocity moments in isotropic turbulence are expressed in terms of the integral formulas yielding several kinematic constraints on the two-point vorticity correlation tensor in isotropic turbulence. Numerical evaluation of these constraints suggests that a Gaussian curve may be the only form of the longitudinal velocity correlation coefficient which is consistent with the requirement of isotropy. It is shown that if this is the case, then a family of exact solutions to the decay of isotropic turbulence may be obtained which contains Batchelor's final period solution as a special case. In addition, the computed results suggest a method of approximating the integral representation formulas in general turbulent shear flows.

  18. Pair interactions of heavy vortices in quantum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of quantum vortex pairs carrying heavy doping matter trapped inside their cores is studied. The nonlinear classical matter field formalism is used to build a universal mathematical model of a heavy vortex applicable to different types of quantum mixtures. It is shown how the usual vortex dynamics typical for undoped pairs qualitatively changes when heavy dopants are used: heavy vortices with opposite topological charges (chiralities) attract each other, while vortices with the same charge are repelled. The force responsible for such behavior appears as a result of superposition of vortices velocity fields in the presence of doping substance and can be considered as a special realization of the Magnus effect. The force is evaluated quantitatively and its inverse proportionality to the distance is demonstrated. The mechanism described in this paper gives an example of how a light nonlinear classical field may realize repulsive and attractive interactions between embedded heavy impurities.

  19. Vorticity equation for MHD fast waves in geospace environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The MHD vorticity equation is modified in order to apply it to nonlinear MHD fast waves or shocks when their extent along the magnetic field is limited. Field-aligned current (FAC) generation is also discussed on the basis of this modified vorticity equation. When the wave normal is not aligned to the finite velocity convection and the source region is spatially limited, a longitudinal polarization causes a pair of plus and minus charges inside the compressional plane waves or shocks, generating a pair of FACs. This polarization is not related to the separation between the electrons and ions caused by their difference in mass, a separation which is inherent to compressional waves. The resultant double field-aligned current structure exists both with and without the contributions from curvature drift, which is questionable in terms of its contribution to vorticity change from the viewpoint of single-particle motion.

  20. Local and global Λ polarization in a vortical fluid

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hui; Petersen, Hannah; Pang, Long -Gang; ...

    2017-09-25

    We compute the fermion spin distribution in the vortical fluid created in off-central high energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity in quantum kinetic theory. As a result of strong collectivity, the spatial distribution of the local vorticity on the freeze-out hyper-surface strongly correlates to the rapidity and azimuthal angle distribution of fermion spins. We investigate the sensitivity of the local polarization to the initial fluid velocity in the hydrodynamic model and compute the global polarization of Λ hyperons by the AMPT model. The energymore » dependence of the global polarization agrees with the STAR data.« less

  1. Local and global Λ polarization in a vortical fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Petersen, Hannah; Pang, Long -Gang

    We compute the fermion spin distribution in the vortical fluid created in off-central high energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity in quantum kinetic theory. As a result of strong collectivity, the spatial distribution of the local vorticity on the freeze-out hyper-surface strongly correlates to the rapidity and azimuthal angle distribution of fermion spins. We investigate the sensitivity of the local polarization to the initial fluid velocity in the hydrodynamic model and compute the global polarization of Λ hyperons by the AMPT model. The energymore » dependence of the global polarization agrees with the STAR data.« less

  2. Experiments on tip vortices interacting with downstream wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-05-01

    The interaction of meandering tip vortices shed from a leading wing with a downstream wing was investigated experimentally in a water tunnel using flow visualization, particle image velocimetry measurements, and volumetric velocity measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices may exhibit sudden variations of the vortex core location when the wing-tip separation is within approximately twice the vortex core radius. This is caused by the formation of vortex dipoles near the wing tip. In contrast, co-rotating upstream vortices do not exhibit such sensitivity. Large spanwise displacement of the trajectory due to the image vortex is possible when the incident vortex is further inboard. For both co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices, as long as there is no direct impingement upon the wing, there is a little change in the structure of the time-averaged vortex past the wing, even though the tip vortex shed from the downstream wing may be substantially weakened or strengthened. In the absence of the downstream wing, as well as for weak interactions, the most energetic unsteady modes represent the first helical mode | m| = 1, which is estimated from the three-dimensional Proper Orthogonal Decomposition modes and has a very large wavelength, on the order of 102 times the vortex core radius, λ/ a = O(102). Instantaneous vorticity measurements as well as flow visualization suggest the existence of a smaller wavelength, λ/ a = 5-6, which is not among the most energetic modes. These two-orders of magnitude different wavelengths are in agreement with the previous measurements of tip vortices and also exhibit qualitative agreement with the transient energy growth analysis. The very long wavelength mode in the upstream vortex may persist during the interaction, and reveal coupling with the trailing vortex as well as increased meandering.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics of Vortices in Different Types of Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikhzada, Ahmad

    As a major component of linear particle accelerators, superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities are required to operate with lowest energy dissipation and highest accelerating gradient. SRF cavities are made of polycrystalline materials in which grain boundaries can limit maximum RF currents and produce additional power dissipation sources due to local penetration of Josephson vortices. The essential physics of vortex penetration and mechanisms of dissipation of vortices driven by strong RF currents along networks of grain boundaries and their contribution to the residual surface resistance have not been well understood. To evaluate how GBs can limit the performance of SRF materials,more » particularly Nb and Nb3Sn, we performed extensive numerical simulations of nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices in grain boundaries under strong dc and RF fields. The RF power due to penetration of vortices both in weakly-coupled and strongly-coupled grain boundaries was calculated as functions of the RF field and frequency. The result of this calculation manifested a quadratic dependence of power to field amplitude at strong RF currents, an illustration of resistive behavior of grain boundaries. Our calculations also showed that the surface resistance is a complicated function of field controlled by penetration and annihilation of vortices and antivortices in strong RF fields which ultimately saturates to normal resistivity of grain boundary. We found that Cherenkov radiation of rapidly moving vortices in grain boundaries can produce a new instability causing generation of expanding vortex-antivortex pair which ultimately drives the entire GB in a resistive state. This effect is more pronounced in polycrystalline thin film and multilayer coating structures in which it can cause significant increase in power dissipation and results in hysteresis effects in I-V characteristics, particularly at low temperatures.« less

  4. Probing baryogenesis through the Higgs boson self-coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, M.; Eichhorn, A.; Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Plehn, T.; Scherer, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    The link between a modified Higgs self-coupling and the strong first-order phase transition necessary for baryogenesis is well explored for polynomial extensions of the Higgs potential. We broaden this argument beyond leading polynomial expansions of the Higgs potential to higher polynomial terms and to nonpolynomial Higgs potentials. For our quantitative analysis we resort to the functional renormalization group, which allows us to evolve the full Higgs potential to higher scales and finite temperature. In all cases we find that a strong first-order phase transition manifests itself in an enhancement of the Higgs self-coupling by at least 50%, implying that such modified Higgs potentials should be accessible at the LHC.

  5. Doubling down on naturalness with a supersymmetric twin Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Howe, Kiel

    2014-03-01

    We show that naturalness of the weak scale can be comfortably reconciled with both LHC null results and observed Higgs properties provided the double protection of supersymmetry and the twin Higgs mechanism. This double protection radically alters conventional signs of naturalness at the LHC while respecting gauge coupling unification and precision electroweak limits. We find the measured Higgs mass, couplings, and percent-level naturalness of the weak scale are compatible with stops at ~ 3.5 TeV and higgsinos at ~ 1 TeV. The primary signs of naturalness in this scenario include modifications of Higgs couplings, a modest invisible Higgs width, resonant Higgs pair production, and an invisibly-decaying heavy Higgs.

  6. Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Lebedev, Oleg

    2016-11-11

    The Higgs-inflaton coupling plays an important role in the Higgs field dynamics in the early Universe. Even a tiny coupling generated at loop level can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the electroweak vacuum. Such Higgs-inflaton interaction is present both at the trilinear and quartic levels in realistic reheating models. In this work, we examine the Higgs dynamics during the preheating epoch, focusing on the effects of the parametric and tachyonic resonances. We use lattice simulations and other numerical tools in our studies. We find that the resonances can induce large fluctuations of the Higgs field which destabilizemore » the electroweak vacuum. Our considerations thus provide an upper bound on quartic and trilinear interactions between the Higgs and the inflaton. We conclude that there exists a favorable range of the couplings within which the Higgs field is stabilized during both inflation and preheating epochs.« less

  7. Supersymmetry with a pNGB Higgs and partial compositeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocca, David; Parolini, Alberto; Serone, Marco

    2014-03-01

    We study the consequences of combining SUSY with a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson Higgs coming from an SO(5)/SO(4) coset and "partial compositeness". In particular, we focus on how electroweak symmetry breaking and the Higgs mass are reproduced in models where the symmetry SO(5) is linearly realized. The global symmetry forbids tree-level contributions to the Higgs potential coming from D-terms, differently from what happens in most of the SUSY little-Higgs constructions. While the stops are generally heavy, light fermion top partners below 1 TeV are predicted. In contrast to what happens in non-SUSY composite Higgs models, they are necessary to reproduce the correct top, rather than Higgs, mass. En passant, we point out that, independently of SUSY, models where t R is fully composite and embedded in the 5 of SO(5) generally predict a too light Higgs.

  8. Effect of vorticity on polycrystalline ice deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Jansen, Daniela; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-04-01

    Understanding ice sheet dynamics requires a good knowledge of how dynamic recrystallisation controls ice microstructures and rheology at different boundary conditions. In polar ice sheets, pure shear flattening typically occurs at the top of the sheets, while simple shearing dominates near their base. We present a series of two-dimensional microdynamic numerical simulations that couple ice deformation with dynamic recrystallisation of various intensities, paying special attention to the effect of boundary conditions. The viscoplastic full-field numerical modelling approach (VPFFT) (Lebensohn, 2001) is used to calculate the response of a polycrystalline aggregate that deforms purely by dislocation glide. This code is coupled with the ELLE microstructural modelling platform that includes recrystallisation in the aggregate by intracrystalline recovery, nucleation by polygonisation, as well as grain boundary migration driven by the reduction of surface and strain energies (Llorens et al., 2016a, 2016b, 2017). The results reveal that regardless the amount of DRX and ice flow a single c-axes maximum develops all simulations. This maximum is oriented approximately parallel to the maximum finite shortening direction and rotates in simple shear towards the normal to the shear plane. This leads to a distinctly different behaviour in pure and simple shear. In pure shear, the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) and shape-preferred orientation (SPO) are increasingly unfavourable for deformation, leading to hardening and an increased activity of non-basal slip. The opposite happens in simple shear, where the imposed vorticity causes rotation of the LPO and SPO to a favourable orientation, leading to strain softening. An increase of recrystallisation enhances the activity of the non-basal slip, due to the reduction of deformation localisation. In pure shear conditions, the pyramidal slip activity is thus even more enhanced and can become higher than the basal-slip activity. Our

  9. New constraints and discovery potential for Higgs to Higgs cascade decays through vectorlike leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Dermíšek, Radovan; Lunghi, Enrico; Shin, Seodong

    One of the cleanest signatures of a heavy Higgs boson in models with vectorlike leptons is H→e ± 4ℓ ∓→hℓ +ℓ - which, in two Higgs doublet model type-II, can even be the dominant decay mode of heavy Higgses. Among the decay modes of the standard model like Higgs boson, h, we consider bb¯¯ and γγ as representative channels with sizable and negligible background, respectively. We obtained new model independent limits on production cross section for this process from recasting existing experimental searches and interpret them within the two Higgs doublet model. In addition, we show that these limits canmore » be improved by about two orders of magnitude with appropriate selection cuts immediately with existing data sets. We also discuss expected sensitivities with integrated luminosity up to 3 ab -1 and present a brief overview of other channels.« less

  10. New constraints and discovery potential for Higgs to Higgs cascade decays through vectorlike leptons

    DOE PAGES

    Dermíšek, Radovan; Lunghi, Enrico; Shin, Seodong

    2016-10-17

    One of the cleanest signatures of a heavy Higgs boson in models with vectorlike leptons is H→e ± 4ℓ ∓→hℓ +ℓ - which, in two Higgs doublet model type-II, can even be the dominant decay mode of heavy Higgses. Among the decay modes of the standard model like Higgs boson, h, we consider bb¯¯ and γγ as representative channels with sizable and negligible background, respectively. We obtained new model independent limits on production cross section for this process from recasting existing experimental searches and interpret them within the two Higgs doublet model. In addition, we show that these limits canmore » be improved by about two orders of magnitude with appropriate selection cuts immediately with existing data sets. We also discuss expected sensitivities with integrated luminosity up to 3 ab -1 and present a brief overview of other channels.« less

  11. The Higgs vacuum uplifted: revisiting the electroweak phase transition with a second Higgs doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsch, G. C.; Huber, S. J.; Mimasu, K.; No, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of a second Higgs doublet in Nature could lead to a cosmological first order electroweak phase transition and explain the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. We explore the parameter space of such a two-Higgs-doublet-model and show that a first order electroweak phase transition strongly correlates with a significant uplifting of the Higgs vacuum w.r.t. its Standard Model value. We then obtain the spectrum and properties of the new scalars H 0, A 0 and H ± that signal such a phase transition, showing that the decay A 0 → H 0 Z at the LHC and a sizable deviation in the Higgs self-coupling λ hhh from its SM value are sensitive indicators of a strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the 2HDM.

  12. Direct and indirect constraints on CP-violating Higgs-quark and Higgs-gluon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y. T.; Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.

    Here we investigate direct and indirect constraints on the complete set of anomalous CP-violating Higgs couplings to quarks and gluons originating from dimension-6 operators, by studying their signatures at the LHC and in electric dipole moments (EDMs). We also show that existing uncertainties in hadronic and nuclear matrix elements have a significant impact on the interpretation of EDM experiments, and we quantify the improvements needed to fully exploit the power of EDM searches. Currently, the best bounds on the anomalous CP-violating Higgs interactions come from a combination of EDM measurements and the data from LHC Run 1. We argue thatmore » Higgs production cross section and branching ratios measurements at the LHC Run 2 will not improve the constraints significantly. But, the bounds on the couplings scale roughly linearly with EDM limits, so that future theoretical and experimental EDM developments can have a major impact in pinning down interactions of the Higgs.« less

  13. Maximizing the significance in Higgs boson pair analyses [Mad-Maximized Higgs Pair Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, Felix; Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter

    Here, we study Higgs pair production with a subsequent decay to a pair of photons and a pair of bottoms at the LHC. We use the log-likelihood ratio to identify the kinematic regions which either allow us to separate the di-Higgs signal from backgrounds or to determine the Higgs self-coupling. We find that both regions are separate enough to ensure that details of the background modeling will not affect the determination of the self-coupling. Assuming dominant statistical uncertainties we determine the best precision with which the Higgs self-coupling can be probed in this channel. We finally comment on the samemore » questions at a future 100 TeV collider.« less

  14. Maximizing the significance in Higgs boson pair analyses [Mad-Maximized Higgs Pair Analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Kling, Felix; Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter

    2017-02-22

    Here, we study Higgs pair production with a subsequent decay to a pair of photons and a pair of bottoms at the LHC. We use the log-likelihood ratio to identify the kinematic regions which either allow us to separate the di-Higgs signal from backgrounds or to determine the Higgs self-coupling. We find that both regions are separate enough to ensure that details of the background modeling will not affect the determination of the self-coupling. Assuming dominant statistical uncertainties we determine the best precision with which the Higgs self-coupling can be probed in this channel. We finally comment on the samemore » questions at a future 100 TeV collider.« less

  15. Direct and indirect constraints on CP-violating Higgs-quark and Higgs-gluon interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Chien, Y. T.; Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here we investigate direct and indirect constraints on the complete set of anomalous CP-violating Higgs couplings to quarks and gluons originating from dimension-6 operators, by studying their signatures at the LHC and in electric dipole moments (EDMs). We also show that existing uncertainties in hadronic and nuclear matrix elements have a significant impact on the interpretation of EDM experiments, and we quantify the improvements needed to fully exploit the power of EDM searches. Currently, the best bounds on the anomalous CP-violating Higgs interactions come from a combination of EDM measurements and the data from LHC Run 1. We argue thatmore » Higgs production cross section and branching ratios measurements at the LHC Run 2 will not improve the constraints significantly. But, the bounds on the couplings scale roughly linearly with EDM limits, so that future theoretical and experimental EDM developments can have a major impact in pinning down interactions of the Higgs.« less

  16. Unfolding of Vortices into Topological Stripes in a Multiferroic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mostovoy, M.; Han, M. G.; Horibe, Y.; Aoki, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic hexagonal RMnO3 (R =rare earths) crystals exhibit dense networks of vortex lines at which six domain walls merge. While the domain walls can be readily moved with an applied electric field, the vortex cores so far have been impossible to control. Our experiments demonstrate that shear strain induces a Magnus-type force pulling vortices and antivortices in opposite directions and unfolding them into a topological stripe domain state. We discuss the analogy between this effect and the current-driven dynamics of vortices in superconductors and superfluids.

  17. Vortical susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter

    DOE PAGES

    Aristova, A.; Frenklakh, D.; Gorsky, A.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, the susceptibility of finite-density QCD matter to vorticity is introduced, as an analog of magnetic susceptibility. It describes the spin polarization of quarks and antiquarks in finite-density QCD matter induced by rotation. We estimate this quantity in the chirally broken phase using the mixed gauge-gravity anomaly at finite baryon density. It is proposed that the vortical susceptibility of QCD matter is responsible for the polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons observed recently in heavy ion collisions at RHIC by the STAR collaboration.

  18. Exploring extended scalar sectors with di-Higgs signals: a Higgs EFT perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Tyler; Joglekar, Aniket; Li, Hao-Lin; Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2018-05-01

    We consider extended scalar sectors of the Standard Model as ultraviolet complete motivations for studying the effective Higgs self-interaction operators of the Standard Model effective field theory. We investigate all motivated heavy scalar models which generate the dimension-six effective operator, | H|6, at tree level and proceed to identify the full set of tree-level dimension-six operators by integrating out the heavy scalars. Of seven models which generate | H|6 at tree level only two, quadruplets of hypercharge Y = 3 Y H and Y = Y H , generate only this operator. Next we perform global fits to constrain relevant Wilson coefficients from the LHC single Higgs measurements as well as the electroweak oblique parameters S and T. We find that the T parameter puts very strong constraints on the Wilson coefficient of the | H|6 operator in the triplet and quadruplet models, while the singlet and doublet models could still have Higgs self-couplings which deviate significantly from the standard model prediction. To determine the extent to which the | H|6 operator could be constrained, we study the di-Higgs signatures at the future 100 TeV collider and explore future sensitivity of this operator. Projected onto the Higgs potential parameters of the extended scalar sectors, with 30 ab-1 luminosity data we will be able to explore the Higgs potential parameters in all seven models.

  19. Dilaton vs Higgs: Nearly Conformal Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the model in which the conformal symmetry can be broken spontaneously, and a light scalar dilaton could emerge in the low-energy spectrum. The contribution of the dark photon production relevant to two photons decays of a Higgs boson/dilaton is discussed.

  20. On the trail of the Higgs boson

    DOE PAGES

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2015-09-11

    I review theoretical issues associated with the Higgs boson and the mystery of spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. In addition, this essay is intended as an introduction to the special issue of Annalen der Physik, “Particle Physics after the Higgs”.

  1. Partially natural two Higgs doublet models

    DOE PAGES

    Draper, Patrick; Haber, Howard E.; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2016-06-21

    It is possible that the electroweak scale is low due to the fine-tuning of microscopic parameters, which can result from selection effects. The experimental discovery of new light fundamental scalars other than the Standard Model Higgs boson would seem to disfavor this possibility, since generically such states imply parametrically worse fine-tuning with no compelling connection to selection effects. We discuss counterexamples where the Higgs boson is light because of fine-tuning, and a second scalar doublet is light because a discrete symmetry relates its mass to the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Our examples require new vectorlike fermions atmore » the electroweak scale, and the models possess a rich electroweak vacuum structure. Furthermore, the mechanism that we discuss does not protect a small CP-odd Higgs mass in split or high-scale supersymmetry-breaking scenarios of the MSSM due to an incompatibility between the discrete symmetries and holomorphy.« less

  2. Fitting Higgs data with nonlinear effective theory.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, G; Catà, O; Celis, A; Krause, C

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper we showed that the electroweak chiral Lagrangian at leading order is equivalent to the conventional [Formula: see text] formalism used by ATLAS and CMS to test Higgs anomalous couplings. Here we apply this fact to fit the latest Higgs data. The new aspect of our analysis is a systematic interpretation of the fit parameters within an EFT. Concentrating on the processes of Higgs production and decay that have been measured so far, six parameters turn out to be relevant: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. A global Bayesian fit is then performed with the result [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. Additionally, we show how this leading-order parametrization can be generalized to next-to-leading order, thus improving the [Formula: see text] formalism systematically. The differences with a linear EFT analysis including operators of dimension six are also discussed. One of the main conclusions of our analysis is that since the conventional [Formula: see text] formalism can be properly justified within a QFT framework, it should continue to play a central role in analyzing and interpreting Higgs data.

  3. Crystallized and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao-Fei; Fan, Heng; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Vortex is a topological defect with a quantized winding number of the phase in superfluids and superconductors. Here, we investigate the crystallized (triangular, square, honeycomb) and amorphous vortices in rotating atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by using the damped projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The amorphous vortices are the result of the considerable deviation induced by the interaction of atomic-molecular vortices. By changing the atom-molecule interaction from attractive to repulsive, the configuration of vortices can change from an overlapped atomic-molecular vortices to carbon-dioxide-type ones, then to atomic vortices with interstitial molecular vortices, and finally into independent separated ones. The Raman detuning can tune the ratio of the atomic vortex to the molecular vortex. We provide a phase diagram of vortices in rotating atomic-molecular BECs as a function of Raman detuning and the strength of atom-molecule interaction. PMID:24573303

  4. The Standard Model and Higgs physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torassa, Ezio

    2018-05-01

    The Standard Model is a consistent and computable theory that successfully describes the elementary particle interactions. The strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions have been included in the theory exploiting the relation between group symmetries and group generators, in order to smartly introduce the force carriers. The group properties lead to constraints between boson masses and couplings. All the measurements performed at the LEP, Tevatron, LHC and other accelerators proved the consistency of the Standard Model. A key element of the theory is the Higgs field, which together with the spontaneous symmetry breaking, gives mass to the vector bosons and to the fermions. Unlike the case of vector bosons, the theory does not provide prediction for the Higgs boson mass. The LEP experiments, while providing very precise measurements of the Standard Model theory, searched for the evidence of the Higgs boson until the year 2000. The discovery of the top quark in 1994 by the Tevatron experiments and of the Higgs boson in 2012 by the LHC experiments were considered as the completion of the fundamental particles list of the Standard Model theory. Nevertheless the neutrino oscillations, the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe evidence that we need a new extended model. In the Standard Model there are also some unattractive theoretical aspects like the divergent loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and the very small Yukawa couplings needed to describe the neutrino masses. For all these reasons, the hunt of discrepancies between Standard Model and data is still going on with the aim to finally describe the new extended theory.

  5. Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices.

    PubMed

    Huhn, F; van Rees, W M; Gazzola, M; Rossinelli, D; Haller, G; Koumoutsakos, P

    2015-08-01

    Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.

  7. Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2001-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65deg delta wing with different values of leading-edge bluntness, and the second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the windtunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

  8. Wind effects on the lateral motion of wake vortices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    This report examines the influence of crosswind and other factors on the behavior of wake vortices between parallel runways. The measurements used in the analysis came from landing (1976-77) and takeoff (1980) operations at O'Hare International Airpo...

  9. Measurements of wake vortices interacting with the ground

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-09-01

    Although wake vortices are known to decay more rapidly near the ground than away from the ground, the details of the ground interaction are not well understood. Propeller anemometer arrays located under the approach path have been used to study vorte...

  10. Boson Hamiltonians and stochasticity for the vorticity equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hubert H.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the vorticity in time for two-dimensional inviscid flow and in Lagrangian time for three-dimensional viscous flow is written in Hamiltonian form by introducing Bose operators. The addition of the viscous and convective terms, respectively, leads to an interpretation of the Hamiltonian contribution to the evolution as Langevin noise.

  11. A complex analysis approach to the motion of uniform vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    A new mathematical approach to kinematics and dynamics of planar uniform vortices in an incompressible inviscid fluid is presented. It is based on an integral relation between Schwarz function of the vortex boundary and induced velocity. This relation is firstly used for investigating the kinematics of a vortex having its Schwarz function with two simple poles in a transformed plane. The vortex boundary is the image of the unit circle through the conformal map obtained by conjugating its Schwarz function. The resulting analysis is based on geometric and algebraic properties of that map. Moreover, it is shown that the steady configurations of a uniform vortex, possibly in presence of point vortices, can be also investigated by means of the integral relation. The vortex equilibria are divided in two classes, depending on the behavior of the velocity on the boundary, measured in a reference system rotating with this curve. If it vanishes, the analysis is rather simple. However, vortices having nonvanishing relative velocity are also investigated, in presence of a polygonal symmetry. In order to study the vortex dynamics, the definition of Schwarz function is then extended to a Lagrangian framework. This Lagrangian Schwarz function solves a nonlinear integrodifferential Cauchy problem, that is transformed in a singular integral equation. Its analytical solution is here approached in terms of successive approximations. The self-induced dynamics, as well as the interactions with a point vortex, or between two uniform vortices are analyzed.

  12. 3D visualization of unsteady 2D airplane wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Zheng, Z. C.

    1994-01-01

    Air flowing around the wing tips of an airplane forms horizontal tornado-like vortices that can be dangerous to following aircraft. The dynamics of such vortices, including ground and atmospheric effects, can be predicted by numerical simulation, allowing the safety and capacity of airports to be improved. In this paper, we introduce three-dimensional techniques for visualizing time-dependent, two-dimensional wake vortex computations, and the hazard strength of such vortices near the ground. We describe a vortex core tracing algorithm and a local tiling method to visualize the vortex evolution. The tiling method converts time-dependent, two-dimensional vortex cores into three-dimensional vortex tubes. Finally, a novel approach calculates the induced rolling moment on the following airplane at each grid point within a region near the vortex tubes and thus allows three-dimensional visualization of the hazard strength of the vortices. We also suggest ways of combining multiple visualization methods to present more information simultaneously.

  13. Effect of ground wind shear on aircraft trailing vortices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-08-01

    The motion of the pair of trailing vortices generated by an aircraft is not well described by simple line vortex theory in the presence of a cross wind near the ground. Experimental observations indicate that the up-wind vortex usually drops to a low...

  14. On hairpin vortex generation from near-wall streamwise vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinshan; Huang, Weixi; Xu, Chunxiao

    2015-04-01

    The generation of a hairpin vortex from near-wall streamwise vortices is studied via the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the streak transient growth in the minimal channel flow at . The streak profile is obtained by conditionally averaging the DNS data of the fully developed turbulent channel flow at the same Reynolds number. The near-wall streamwise vortices are produced by the transient growth of the streak which is initially subjected to the sinuous perturbation of the spanwise velocity. It is shown that the arch head of the hairpin vortex first grows from the downstream end of the stronger streamwise vortex and then connects with the weaker, opposite-signed streamwise vortex in their overlap region, forming a complete individual hairpin structure. The vorticity transport along the vortex lines indicates that the strength increase and the spatial expansion of the arch head are due to the stretching and the turning of the vorticity vector, respectively. The hairpin packets could be further produced from the generated individual hairpin vortex following the parent-offspring process.

  15. Vortices Bump into a Hot Spot in Jupiter Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-14

    In this series of images from NASA Cassini spacecraft, a dark, rectangular hot spot interacts with a line of vortices that approaches from on the upper-right side. The interaction distorts the shape of the hot spot, leaving it diminished.

  16. Numerical investigation of Dean vortices in a curved pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A.; Bosioc, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian fluid through a curved circular duct. The numerical simulations produced for different Dean numbers show clearly the presence of two steady Dean vortices. Therefore, results confirm that helical flow constitutes an important flow signature in vessels, and its strength as a fluid dynamic index.

  17. Generation of Vorticity by Slow Conductive Cooling Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Glasner, Ami; Livne, Eli

    1996-11-01

    Rapid energy release in a gas produces a ``hot channel" or ``fireball", depending on the energy release geometry. During its relaxation, the ``hot channel" develops significant vorticity and turbulence(J.M. Picone, J.P. Boris, J.R. Greig, M. Raleigh, and R.F. Fernsler, J. Atmos. Sci. 38), 2056 (1981). that strongly enhance its cooling. Picone and Boris(J.M. Picone and J.P. Boris, Phys. Fluids 26), 365 (1983). attributed the effect to an earlier, plasma-expansion-related stage of the process. We show that vorticity can also be produced on a longer time scale. After a few acoustic times, the plasma pressure becomes very close to the ambient pressure. As the temperature is still high, slow (subacoustic) conductive cooling flow (CCF) develops that cools the cavity and fills it with gas from the periphery(B. Meerson, Phys. Fluids A 1), 887 (1989); D. Kaganovich, B. Meerson, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, and J. Levin, Phys. Plasmas 3, 631 (1996).. Due to asymmetries, this flow develops significant vorticity on the heat-conduction time scale. We present a simplified theory for this effect that employs, as a zero-order solution, a novel two-dimensional (2d) similarity solution for an irrotational isobaric CCF. We also report on gas-dynamic simulations in 2d (with the heat transfer taken into account) which show vorticity generation by the slow CCF.

  18. Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A.; Cano, D.

    2009-04-01

    Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.

  19. On the evolution of vortices in massive protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, Arnaud; Lin, Min-Kai

    2018-05-01

    It is expected that a pressure bump can be formed at the inner edge of a dead-zone, and where vortices can develop through the Rossby Wave Instability (RWI). It has been suggested that self-gravity can significantly affect the evolution of such vortices. We present the results of 2D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of vortices forming at a pressure bump in self-gravitating discs with Toomre parameter in the range 4 - 30. We consider isothermal plus non-isothermal disc models that employ either the classical β prescription or a more realistic treatment for cooling. The main aim is to investigate whether the condensating effect of self-gravity can stabilize vortices in sufficiently massive discs. We confirm that in isothermal disc models with Q ≳ 15, vortex decay occurs due to the vortex self-gravitational torque. For discs with 3≲ Q ≲ 7, the vortex develops gravitational instabilities within its core and undergoes gravitational collapse, whereas more massive discs give rise to the formation of global eccentric modes. In non-isothermal discs with β cooling, the vortex maintains a turbulent core prior to undergoing gravitational collapse for β ≲ 0.1, whereas it decays if β ≥ 1. In models that incorpore both self-gravity and a better treatment for cooling, however, a stable vortex is formed with aspect ratio χ ˜ 3 - 4. Our results indicate that self-gravity significantly impacts the evolution of vortices forming in protoplanetary discs, although the thermodynamical structure of the vortex is equally important for determining its long-term dynamics.

  20. The life-cycle of Riemann-Silberstein electromagnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    To study the singularities of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave field in free space, it is desirable to use a quantity that combines both the electric field E and the magnetic field B in equal measure. The Riemann-Silberstein (R-S) field is a way of doing this. It is based on the real physical E and B and one constructs from them the complex vector field {F}={E}+{{i}} {B}. Then, one constructs {F}\\cdot {F} and studies the optical vortices of this R-S complex scalar field. Unlike the better-known and much studied optical vortices of a monochromatic complex scalar field, which are stationary, these vortices are normally in continual motion; they oscillate at the optical frequency. We study their life cycle in the simplest model that is sufficiently generic, namely, fields generated by the interference of four randomly chosen plane elliptically polarised waves. The topological events in the life cycle do not repeat on a 3D space lattice in a stationary laboratory frame. In space-time, however, the R-S vortices are invariant under any Lorentz transformation, and because of this and the inherent time repetition there is a particular moving frame in space-time, reached by a Lorentz transformation, where there exists a repeating pattern of events in space. Its 4D unit cell constitutes, in effect, a description of the whole infinite pattern. Just because they are in constant motion, it is not surprising that the R-S vortex lines in the model make reconnections and appear as rings that either shrink to nothing or appear from nothing. However, these processes occur in groups of four, reflecting the fact that the unit cell is face-centred. What distinguishes the R-S field from the other complex scalar fields containing vortices is the existence of this face-centred repeating cell.