Universality class of the conserved Manna model in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang Bub
2014-06-01
The nonequilibrium absorbing phase transition of the discrete conserved Manna model was studied via Monte Carlo simulations on a one-dimensional chain, using the natural initial states with a sequential update. The critical density of the particles was found to be smaller than the recently reported value, and the order-parameter exponent was considerably different from the directed percolation (DP) value. The influence of quenched disorder was also studied on a diluted strip of Lx×Ly lattice sites with Lx≫Ly, and the results were compared with those of the contact process (CP). It was found that the Manna model and the CP exhibited distinctly different behaviors; the CP exhibited nonuniversal power-law decreases of active-site densities in the Griffith phase, whereas the Manna model showed a standard critical behavior. These results consistently suggest that the Manna model belongs to a universality class that is different from the DP class.
Two-component Abelian sandpile models.
Alcaraz, F C; Pyatov, P; Rittenberg, V
2009-04-01
In one-component Abelian sandpile models, the toppling probabilities are independent quantities. This is not the case in multicomponent models. The condition of associativity of the underlying Abelian algebras imposes nonlinear relations among the toppling probabilities. These relations are derived for the case of two-component quadratic Abelian algebras. We show that Abelian sandpile models with two conservation laws have only trivial avalanches.
Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization: The operator solution of the WZW. sigma. model
do Amaral, R.L.P.G. ); Stephany Ruiz, J.E. )
1991-03-15
The complete equivalence between the Abelian and the non-Abelian bosonization formalisms for the treatment of SU({ital N}) fermions in two dimensions is analyzed and the operator solution of the Wess-Zumino-Witten nonlinear {sigma} model, written in terms of the scalar fields of the non-Abelian construction, is obtained. The importance of the order and disorder operators is stressed. In particular, they are used to show that an adequate reinterpretation of Mandelstam's formula gives the fermion representation in the non-Abelian bosonization formalism.
Feynman rules for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-09-24
Feynman rules for an abelian extension of gauge theories are discussed and explicitly derived. Vertices with three and four abelian gauge bosons are obtained. A discussion on an eventual structure for the photon is presented.
On spectroscopy for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.
2012-09-24
Postulated on the whole meaning a whole abelian gauge symmetry is being introduced. Various physical areas as complexity, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics are partially supporting this approach where the whole is at origin. However, the reductionist crisis given by quark confinement definitely sustains this insight. It says that fundamental parts can not be seen isolatedely. Consequently, there is an experimental situation where the parts should be substituted by something more. This makes us to look for writing the wholeness principle under gauge theory. For this, one reinterprets the gauge parameter where instead of compensating fields it is organizing a systemic gauge symmetry. Now, it introduces a fields set {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} rotating under a common gauge symmetry. Thus, given a fields collection {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} as origin, the effort at this work is to investigate on its spectroscopy. Analyze for the abelian case the correspondent involved quanta. Understand that for a whole model diversity replaces elementarity. Derive the associated quantum numbers as spin, mass, charge, discrete symmetries in terms of such systemic symmetry. Observe how the particles diversity is manifested in terms of wholeness.
Dual Superconductivity in Abelian Higgs Model of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajput, B. S.
2017-04-01
The study of generalized field associated with Abelian dyons has been undertaken and it has been demonstrated that topologically, a non-Abelian gauge theory is equivalent to a set of Abelian gauge theories supplemented by dyons which undergo condensation leading to confinement and consequently to superconducting model of QCD vacuum, where the Higgs field plays the role of a regulator only. Constructing the effective action for dyonic field in Abelian projection of QCD, it has been demonstrated that any charge (electrical or magnetic) of dyon screens its own direct potential to which it minimally couples and anti-screens the dual potential leading to dual superconductivity in accordance with generalized Meissner effect. In this Abelian projection of QCD an Abelian Higgs model (AHM) has been successfully constructed and it has been shown to incorporate dual superconductivity and confinement as the consequence of dyonic condensation. It has been demonstrated that in AHM t' Hooft loop creates the string (AHM-string) around which the monopole current under London limit leads to vanishing coherence length in the chromo-magnetic superconductor. It has also been shown that in London limit the squared density of monopole current around AHM-string has a maximum at the distance of the order of penetration length.
On discrete symmetries for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.
2012-09-24
Considering the whole concept applied to gauge theory a nonlinear abelian model is derived. A next step is to understand on the model properties. At this work, it will be devoted to discrete symmetries. For this, we will work based in two fields reference systems. This whole gauge symmetry allows to be analyzed through different sets which are the constructor basis {l_brace}D{sub {mu}},X{sup i}{sub {mu}}{r_brace} and the physical basis {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace}. Taking as fields reference system the diagonalized spin-1 sector, P, C, T and PCT symmetries are analyzed. They show that under this systemic model there are conservation laws driven for the parts and for the whole. It develops the meaning of whole-parity, field-parity and so on. However it is the whole symmetry that rules. This means that usually forbidden particles as pseudovector photons can be introduced through such whole abelian system. As result, one notices that the fields whole {l_brace}G{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} manifest a quanta diversity. It involves particles with different spins, masses and discrete quantum numbers under a same gauge symmetry. It says that without violating PCT symmetry different possibilities on discrete symmetries can be accommodated.
Matrix model for non-Abelian quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We propose a matrix quantum mechanics for a class of non-Abelian quantum Hall states. The model describes electrons which carry an internal SU(p ) spin. The ground states of the matrix model include spin-singlet generalizations of the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states and, in general, lie in a class previously introduced by Blok and Wen. The effective action for these states is a U(p ) Chern-Simons theory. We show how the matrix model can be derived from quantization of the vortices in this Chern-Simons theory and how the matrix model ground states can be reconstructed as correlation functions in the boundary WZW model.
Directed Abelian algebras and their application to stochastic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alcaraz, F. C.; Rittenberg, V.
2008-10-01
With each directed acyclic graph (this includes some D -dimensional lattices) one can associate some Abelian algebras that we call directed Abelian algebras (DAAs). On each site of the graph one attaches a generator of the algebra. These algebras depend on several parameters and are semisimple. Using any DAA, one can define a family of Hamiltonians which give the continuous time evolution of a stochastic process. The calculation of the spectra and ground-state wave functions (stationary state probability distributions) is an easy algebraic exercise. If one considers D -dimensional lattices and chooses Hamiltonians linear in the generators, in finite-size scaling the Hamiltonian spectrum is gapless with a critical dynamic exponent z=D . One possible application of the DAA is to sandpile models. In the paper we present this application, considering one- and two-dimensional lattices. In the one-dimensional case, when the DAA conserves the number of particles, the avalanches belong to the random walker universality class (critical exponent στ=3/2 ). We study the local density of particles inside large avalanches, showing a depletion of particles at the source of the avalanche and an enrichment at its end. In two dimensions we did extensive Monte-Carlo simulations and found στ=1.780±0.005 .
Matrix product states and the non-Abelian rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milsted, Ashley
2016-04-01
We use uniform matrix product states to study the (1 +1 )D O (2 ) and O (4 ) rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free non-Abelian lattice gauge theory on a "Hawaiian earring" graph for U (1 ) and S U (2 ), respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the β function, we find excellent agreement with known results, locating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for O (2 ) and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for O (4 ). To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of generalized Fourier modes of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher modes become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the non-Abelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for tensor network state studies of Yang-Mills on higher-dimensional graphs.
Height probabilities in the Abelian sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuji
2013-08-01
In this paper, we study the sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice with a particular boundary condition. Using a combinatorial method, we give the exact expressions for all single-site probabilities and some two-site joint probabilities. As a by-product, we prove that the height probabilities of bulk vertices are all the same for the Bethe lattice with certain given boundary condition, which was found from numerical evidence by Grassberger and Manna ["Some more sandpiles," J. Phys. (France) 51, 1077-1098 (1990)], 10.1051/jphys:0199000510110107700 but without a proof.
Asymptotically free scaling solutions in non-Abelian Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Zambelli, Luca
2015-07-01
We construct asymptotically free renormalization group trajectories for the generic non-Abelian Higgs model in four-dimensional spacetime. These ultraviolet-complete trajectories become visible by generalizing the renormalization/boundary conditions in the definition of the correlation functions of the theory. Though they are accessible in a controlled weak-coupling analysis, these trajectories originate from threshold phenomena which are missed in a conventional perturbative analysis relying on the deep Euclidean region. We identify a candidate three-parameter family of renormalization group trajectories interconnecting the asymptotically free ultraviolet regime with a Higgs phase in the low-energy limit. We provide estimates of their low-energy properties in the light of a possible application to the standard model Higgs sector. Finally, we find a two-parameter subclass of asymptotically free Coleman-Weinberg-type trajectories that do not suffer from a naturalness problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quadri, Andrea
2006-03-01
We elucidate the geometry of the polynomial formulation of the non-Abelian Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that a natural off-shell nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) differential exists allowing to implement the constraint on the σ field by means of BRST techniques. This is achieved by extending the ghost sector by an additional U(1) factor (Abelian embedding). An important consequence is that a further BRST-invariant but not gauge-invariant mass term can be written for the non-Abelian gauge fields. As all versions of the Stueckelberg theory, also the Abelian embedding formulation yields a nonpower-counting renormalizable theory in D=4. We then derive its natural power-counting renormalizable extension and show that the physical spectrum contains a physical massive scalar particle. Physical unitarity is also established. This model implements the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Abelian embedding formalism.
Multi-Higgs model with Abelian and non-Abelian discrete symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machado, A. C. B.; Pleitez, V.
2008-11-01
Usually in the context of the standard model and its multi-Higgs extensions the fermions mass matrices has the form Mαβ = Σi(Γi)αβlangleΦ0irangle, where Γi, denotes an arbitrary complex dimensionless 3 x 3 matrices (for Majorana it is symmetric), and langleΦ0irangle denotes the set of vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of one or more neutral scalar field. The mixing matrix and the mass pattern of each charged sector depend on the structure of the respective Γi's. It is well known that explicit, and predictive, forms of these matrices can be obtained by imposing flavor symmetries. Here we will turn the problem upside down. Mass matrices will be of the form Mαβ = f()αβ, where f denotes some dimensionless (Script O(1)) parameters. In general we need at most two f's and αβ is a matrix built with the VEVs of several scalar fields. At first sight, there is no gain in predictive power, we are just changing a dimensionless general matrix ΓαAbT by another one with mass dimension ()αβ. However it seems easier, at least in principle, to explain patterns of dynamical variables like VEVs, than dimensionless numbers. The value of the former can be explained by the dynamics (for instance by studying the scalar potential) and extra flavor symmetries that we can impose to the model. Therefore, we propose a multi-Higgs extension of the standard model with A4 otimes Z3 otimes Z'3 otimes Z''3 symmetries in which the mass matrices of the charged fermions, obtained from renormalizable interactions, are diagonal. Corrections induced by non-renormalizable interactions deviate these matrices from the diagonal form. Active neutrinos acquire mass only from non-renormalizable interactions. The main entries of the neutrino mass matrix arise only through dimension five operators, while the diagonal entries arise only from dimension six operators. The basic idea is to consider SU(2)l fermions doublets in the triplet representation of the A4 symmetry and Higgs doublets or right
CP(N-1) model on a disk and decay of a non-Abelian string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorsky, A.; Milekhin, A.
2013-10-01
We consider the role of quantum effects in the nonperturbative decay of the non-Abelian string with orientational moduli in nonsupersymmetric D=4 gauge theory. To this aim the effective action in the CP(N-1) model on a disk at large N has been calculated. It exhibits a phase transition at some radius, the “wrong sign” Luscher term, and a large boundary boojumlike negative contribution. The effect of the θ term and the possibility of the spontaneous creation of the non-Abelian string are briefly discussed.
Exact Mapping of the Stochastic Field Theory for Manna Sandpiles to Interfaces in Random Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2015-03-01
We show that the stochastic field theory for directed percolation in the presence of an additional conservation law [the conserved directed-percolation (C-DP) class] can be mapped exactly to the continuum theory for the depinning of an elastic interface in short-range correlated quenched disorder. Along one line of the parameters commonly studied, this mapping leads to the simplest overdamped dynamics. Away from this line, an additional memory term arises in the interface dynamics; we argue that this does not change the universality class. Since C-DP is believed to describe the Manna class of self-organized criticality, this shows that Manna stochastic sandpiles and disordered elastic interfaces (i.e., the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model) share the same universal large-scale behavior.
Phase structure of an Abelian two-Higgs model and high-temperature superconductors
Chernodub, M. N.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Schiller, A.
2006-03-01
We study the phase structure of a three-dimensional (3D) Abelian Higgs model with singly and doubly charged scalar fields coupled to a compact Abelian gauge field. The model is pretending to describe systems of strongly correlated electrons such as high-T{sub c} superconductivity in overdoped regime and exotic phases supporting excitations with fractionalized quantum numbers. We identify the Fermi liquid, the spin gap, the superconductor, and the strange metallic phases in which densities and properties of holon and spinon vortices and monopoles are explored. The phase diagram in the 3D coupling space is predicted. We show that at sufficiently strong gauge coupling the spinon-pair and holon condensation transitions merge together and become, unexpectedly, first order.
Numerical characterization of non-Abelian Moore-Read state in the microscopic lattice boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Gong, Shoushu; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2015-03-01
Identifying the interacting systems that host the non-Abelian (NA) topological phases have attracted intense attention in physics. Theoretically, it is possible to realize the NA Moore-Read (MR) state in bosonic system or double-layer system by coupling two Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states together. Here, based on the density matrix renormalization group and exact diagonalization calculations, we study two such examples in the microscopic lattice models and investigate their NA nature. In the first example, we provide a thorough characterization of the universal properties of MR state on Haldane honeycomb lattice model, including both the edge spectrum and the bulk anyonic quasiparticle statistics. By inspecting the entanglement spectral response to the U (1) flux, it is found that two of Abelian ground states can be adiabatically connected through a charge unit quasiparticle pumping from one edge to the other. In the second example, we study a double-layer bosonic FQH system built from the π-flux lattice model. Some evidences of NA nature has been identified, including the groundstate degeneracy and finite drag Hall conductance. The numerical methods we developed here provides a useful and practical way for detecting the full information of NA topological order. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46305.
Abelian symmetries in the two-Higgs-doublet model with fermions
Ferreira, P. M.; Silva, Joao P.
2011-03-15
We classify all possible implementations of an Abelian symmetry in the two-Higgs-doublet model with fermions. We identify those symmetries which are consistent with nonvanishing quark masses and a Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix (CKM), which is not block-diagonal. Our analysis takes us from a plethora of possibilities down to 246 relevant cases, requiring only 34 distinct matrix forms. We show that applying Z{sub n} with n{>=}4 to the scalar sector leads to a continuous U(1) symmetry in the whole Lagrangian. Finally, we address the possibilities of spontaneous CP violation and of natural suppression of the flavor-changing neutral currents. We explain why our work is relevant even for non-Abelian symmetries.
Effective models of doped quantum ladders of non-Abelian anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soni, Medha; Troyer, Matthias; Poilblanc, Didier
2016-01-01
Quantum spin models have been studied extensively in one and higher dimensions. Furthermore, these systems have been doped with holes to study t -J models of SU (2 ) spin-1/2. Their anyonic counterparts can be built from non-Abelian anyons, such as Fibonacci anyons described by SU (2) 3 theories, which are quantum deformations of the SU (2 ) algebra. Inspired by the physics of SU (2 ) spins, several works have explored ladders of Fibonacci anyons and also one-dimensional (1D) t -J models. Here, we aim to explore the combined effects of extended dimensionality and doping by studying ladders composed of coupled chains of interacting itinerant Fibonacci anyons. We show analytically that in the limit of strong rung couplings these models can be mapped onto effective 1D models. These effective models can either be gapped models of hole pairs, or gapless models described by t -J (or modified t -J -V ) chains of Fibonacci anyons, whose spectrum exhibits a fractionalization into charge and anyon degrees of freedom. The charge degrees of freedom are described by the hardcore boson spectra while the anyon sector is given by a chain of localized interacting anyons. By using exact diagonalizations for two-leg and three-leg ladders, we show that indeed the doped ladders show exactly the same behavior as that of t -J chains. In the strong ferromagnetic rung limit, we can obtain a new model that hosts two different kinds of Fibonacci particles, which we denote as the heavy τ 's and light τ 's. These two particle types carry the same (non-Abelian) topological charge but different (Abelian) electric charges. Once again, we map the two-dimensional ladder onto an effective chain carrying these heavy and light τ 's. We perform a finite size scaling analysis to show the appearance of gapless modes for certain anyon densities, whereas a topological gapped phase is suggested for another density regime.
Aspects of quantum corrections in a Lorentz-violating extension of the Abelian Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, L. C. T.; Fargnoli, H. G.; Baêta Scarpelli, A. P.
2013-06-01
We investigate new aspects related to the Abelian gauge-Higgs model with the addition of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term. We focus on one-loop quantum corrections to the photon and Higgs sectors due to spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry and show that new finite and definite Lorentz-breaking terms are induced. Specifically in the gauge sector, a CPT-even aether term is induced. Besides, aspects of the one-loop renormalization of the background vector-dependent terms are discussed.
Renormalization of Tensorial Group Field Theories: Abelian U(1) Models in Four Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrozza, Sylvain; Oriti, Daniele; Rivasseau, Vincent
2014-04-01
We tackle the issue of renormalizability for Tensorial Group Field Theories (TGFT) including gauge invariance conditions, with the rigorous tool of multi-scale analysis, to prepare the ground for applications to quantum gravity models. In the process, we define the appropriate generalization of some key QFT notions, including connectedness, locality and contraction of (high) subgraphs. We also define a new notion of Wick ordering, corresponding to the subtraction of (maximal) melonic tadpoles. We then consider the simplest examples of dynamical 4-dimensional TGFT with gauge invariance conditions for the Abelian U(1) case. We prove that they are super-renormalizable for any polynomial interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2012-11-01
We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N=6, U(N)×U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N2) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a ϕ4 theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.
Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
2012-11-02
We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.
Beta function in the non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in four dimensions
Alves, Van Sergio; Pinheiro, S. V. L.; Nascimento, Leonardo; Pena, Francisco
2009-08-15
In this paper we present the structure of the renormalization group in non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model up to 1-loop order. The model is not perturbatively renormalizable in the usual power counting sense, but it is treated as an effective theory, valid in a scale of energy in which p<<{lambda}, where p is the external momenta of the loop and {lambda} is a massive parameter that characterizes the couplings of the nonrenormalizable vertex. We clarify the tensorial structure of the interaction vertices and calculate the functions of the renormalization group. The analysis of the fixed points of the theory is also presented using Zimmermann's procedure for reducing the coupling constants. We find that the origin is an infrared-stable fixed point at low energies and also there is a nontrivial ultraviolet stable fixed point, indicating that the theory could be perturbatively investigated in the low momentum regime.
Three phases in the three-dimensional Abelian-Higgs model with nonlocal gauge interactions
Takashima, Shunsuke; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko
2006-08-15
We study the phase structure of the three-dimensional (3D) nonlocal compact U(1) lattice gauge theory coupled with a Higgs field by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonlocal interactions among gauge variables are along the temporal direction and mimic the effect of local coupling to massless particles. In contrast to the 3D local Abelian-Higgs model having only the confinement phase, the present model exhibits the confinement, Higgs, and Coulomb phases separated by three second-order transition lines emanating from a triple point. This result is relevant not only to the 3D massless QED coupled with a Higgs field but also to electron fractionalization phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems like the high-T{sub c} superconductors and the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Dynamical programming approach for controlling the directed Abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model.
Cajueiro, Daniel O; Andrade, R F S
2010-09-01
A dynamical programming approach is used to deal with the problem of controlling the directed abelian Dhar-Ramaswamy model on two-dimensional square lattice. Two strategies are considered to obtain explicit results to this task. First, the optimal solution of the problem is characterized by the solution of the Bellman equation obtained by numerical algorithms. Second, the solution is used as a benchmark to value how far from the optimum other heuristics that can be applied to larger systems are. This approach is the first attempt on the direction of schemes for controlling self-organized criticality that are based on optimization principles that consider explicitly a tradeoff between the size of the avalanches and the cost of intervention.
The abelian confinement mechanism revisited: New aspects of the Georgi–Glashow model
Anber, Mohamed M.
2014-02-15
The confinement problem remains one of the most difficult problems in theoretical physics. An important step toward the solution of this problem is Polyakov’s work on abelian confinement. The Georgi–Glashow model is a natural testing ground for this mechanism which has been surprising us by its richness and wide applicability. In this work, we shed light on two new aspects of this model in 2+1 D. First, we develop a many-body description of the effective degrees of freedom. Namely, we consider a non-relativistic gas of W-bosons in the background of monopole–instanton plasma. Many-body treatment is a standard toolkit in condensed matter physics. However, we add a new twist by supplying the monopole–instantons as external background field. Using this construction along with a mean-field approximation, we calculate the form of the potential between two electric probes as a function of their separation. This potential is expressed in terms of the Meijer-G function which interpolates between logarithmic and linear behavior at small and large distances, respectively. Second, we develop a systematic approach to integrate out the effect of the W-bosons at finite temperature in the range 0≤T
Adiabatic limit in Abelian Higgs model with application to Seiberg-Witten equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, A.
2017-03-01
In this paper we deal with the (2 + 1)-dimensional Higgs model governed by the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian. The static solutions of this model, called otherwise vortices, are described by the theorem of Taubes. This theorem gives, in particular, an explicit description of the moduli space of vortices (with respect to gauge transforms). However, much less is known about the moduli space of dynamical solutions. A description of slowly moving solutions may be given in terms of the adiabatic limit. In this limit the dynamical Ginzburg-Landau equations reduce to the adiabatic equation coinciding with the Euler equation for geodesics on the moduli space of vortices with respect to the Riemannian metric (called T-metric) determined by the kinetic energy of the model. A similar adiabatic limit procedure can be used to describe approximately solutions of the Seiberg-Witten equations on 4-dimensional symplectic manifolds. In this case the geodesics of T-metric are replaced by the pseudoholomorphic curves while the solutions of Seiberg-Witten equations reduce to the families of vortices defined in the normal planes to the limiting pseudoholomorphic curve. Such families should satisfy a nonlinear ∂-equation which can be considered as a complex analogue of the adiabatic equation. Respectively, the arising pseudoholomorphic curves may be considered as complex analogues of adiabatic geodesics in (2 + 1)-dimensional case. In this sense the Seiberg-Witten model may be treated as a (2 + 1)-dimensional analogue of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model2.
Gauge-invariant implementation of the Abelian-Higgs model on optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazavov, A.; Meurice, Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Unmuth-Yockey, J.; Zhang, Jin
2015-10-01
We present a gauge-invariant effective action for the Abelian-Higgs model (scalar electrodynamics) with a chemical potential μ on a (1 +1 )-dimensional lattice. This formulation provides an expansion in the hopping parameter κ which we test with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of the inverse gauge coupling βp l=1 /g2 and small values of the scalar self-coupling λ . In the opposite limit of infinitely large λ , the partition function can be written as a traced product of local tensors which allows us to write exact blocking formulas. Gauss's law is automatically satisfied and the introduction of μ has consequences only if we have an external electric field, g2=0 or an explicit gauge symmetry breaking. The time-continuum limit of the blocked transfer matrix can be obtained numerically and, for g2=0 and a spin-1 truncation, the small volume energy spectrum is identical to the low energy spectrum of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model in the limit of large on-site repulsion. We extend this procedure for finite βp l and derive a spin-1 approximation of the Hamiltonian. It involves new terms corresponding to transitions among the two species in the Bose-Hubbard model. We propose an optical lattice implementation involving a ladder structure.
Active error correction for Abelian and non-Abelian anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wootton, James R.; Hutter, Adrian
2016-02-01
We consider a class of decoding algorithms that are applicable to error correction for both Abelian and non-Abelian anyons. This class includes multiple algorithms that have recently attracted attention, including the Bravyi-Haah RG decoder and variants thereof. They are applied to both the problem of correcting a single burst of errors (with perfect syndrome measurements) and active correction of continuously occurring errors (with noisy syndrome measurements). For Abelian models we provide a threshold proof in both cases for all decoders in this class, showing that they can arbitrarily suppress errors when the noise rate is under a finite threshold. For non-Abelian models such a proof is found for a single burst of errors. The reasons why the proof cannot be applied to the case of continuously occurring errors are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád
2016-12-01
A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case in which only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core [condensate core (CC)] coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly, CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favored to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.
Phase diagram of a non-Abelian Aubry-André-Harper model with p -wave superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Liu, Xia-Ji; Xianlong, Gao; Hu, Hui
2016-03-01
We study theoretically a one-dimensional quasiperiodic Fermi system with topological p -wave superfluidity, which can be deduced from a topologically nontrivial tight-binding model on the square lattice in a uniform magnetic field and subject to a non-Abelian gauge field. The system may be regarded as a non-Abelian generalization of the well-known Aubry-André-Harper model. We investigate its phase diagram as a function of the strength of the quasidisorder and the amplitude of the p -wave order parameter through a number of numerical investigations, including a multifractal analysis. There are four distinct phases separated by three critical lines, i.e., two phases with all extended wave functions [(I) and (IV)], a topologically trivial phase (II) with all localized wave functions, and a critical phase (III) with all multifractal wave functions. Phase (I) is related to phase (IV) by duality. It also seems to be related to phase (II) by duality. Our proposed phase diagram may be observable in current cold-atom experiments, in view of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields and topological insulators/superfluids with ultracold atoms.
Infrared Abelian dominance without Abelian projection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raval, Haresh; Yajnik, Urjit A.
2015-04-01
Maximal Abelian gauge has been a particular choice to study dynamical generation of off-diagonal gluon masses in QCD. This gauge is a special case of an Abelian projection. Abelian dominance is characterized by off-diagonal gluons acquiring masses in the relevant phase. Here we propose a gauge condition which is quadratic in fields and which does not fall in the class of an Abelian projection. We explore the possible vacua of the gauge-fixed effective action of the theory and find evidence that ghost bilinears may be subject to condensation, which would signal acquisition of masses by off-diagonal gluons. Such a vacuum satisfies the requirement of Abelian dominance, providing an example of the hypothesis through a mechanism other than Abelian projection.
Confinement, NonAbelian monopoles, and 2D ℂPN-1 model on the worldsheet of finite-length strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Kenichi
2017-03-01
Quark confinement is proposed to be dual Meissner effect of nonAbelian kind. Important hints come from physics of strongly-coupled infrared-fixed-point theories in N = 2 supersymmetric QCD, which turn into confining vacua under a small relevant perturbation. The quest for the semiclassical origin of these nonAbelian monopoles, ubiquitous as the infrared degrees of freedom in supersymmetric gauge theories, motivates us to study the quantum dynamics of 2D ℂPN-1 model defined on a finite-width worldstrip, with various boundary conditions. The model is found to possess a unique phase ("confinement phase"), independent of the length of the string, showing the quantum persistence of the nonAbelian monopole.
Virtually Abelian quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro
2017-01-01
We study discrete-time quantum walks on Cayley graphs of non-Abelian groups, focusing on the easiest case of virtually Abelian groups. We present a technique to reduce the quantum walk to an equivalent one on an Abelian group with coin system having larger dimension. This method allows one to extend the notion of wave-vector to the virtually Abelian case and study analytically the walk dynamics. We apply the technique in the case of two quantum walks on virtually Abelian groups with planar Cayley graphs, finding the exact solution in terms of dispersion relation.
Automata representation for Abelian groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod
2013-04-01
A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.
Anisotropic inflation with non-abelian gauge kinetic function
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2011-06-01
We study an anisotropic inflation model with a gauge kinetic function for a non-abelian gauge field. We find that, in contrast to abelian models, the anisotropy can be either a prolate or an oblate type, which could lead to a different prediction from abelian models for the statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations. During a reheating phase, we find chaotic behaviour of the non-abelian gauge field which is caused by the nonlinear self-coupling of the gauge field. We compute a Lyapunov exponent of the chaos which turns out to be uncorrelated with the anisotropy.
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2007-03-15
We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension {mu} required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole l=10 is G{mu}=[2.04{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.12(sys.)]x10{sup -6}, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton's constant. This is a factor 2-3 higher than values in current circulation.
Effective Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials in cavity QED.
Larson, Jonas; Levin, Sergey
2009-07-03
Cavity QED models are analyzed in terms of field quadrature operators. We demonstrate that in such representation, the problem can be formulated in terms of effective gauge potentials. In this respect, it presents a completely new system in which gauge fields arise, possessing the advantages of purity, high control of system parameters as well as preparation and detection methods. Studying three well-known models, it is shown that either Abelian or non-Abelian gauge potentials can be constructed. The non-Abelian characteristics are confirmed via numerical simulations utilizing experimental parameters.
Study of the interaction and scattering of vortices in the Abelian Higgs (or Ginzburg-Landau) model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, Eric; Rebbi, Claudio; Strilka, Richard
1992-02-01
Line vortices arising in the Ginzburg-Landau or Abelian Higgs model are studied numerically. For a wide range of parameters simulations of parallel line vortices and antivortices were performed and the results are reported. The head-on 90° scattering is demonstrated to be independent of initial conditions provided that the vortex zeros first completely overlap. For critically coupled vortices the scattering behavior seems to be approximately velocity independent until β~0.4 and the collisions are approximately elastic until β~0.3. This suggests that higher-order modes arising from the collisions are not excited until β~0.3. When vortices and antivortices collide at highly relativistic speeds (β~0.9) it is found that the direction into which they reform depends upon the coupling constant. The metric on the moduli space M2 is calculated from its field-kinetic definition. The scattering angles directly calculated from the metric components are shown to agree with the numerical simulations. The nontrivial forms of the components are discussed in relation to the scattering results.
Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transitions in two-dimensional non-Abelian spin models.
Borisenko, Oleg; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro
2016-07-01
It is argued that two-dimensional U(N) spin models for any N undergo a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT)-like phase transition, similarly to the famous XY model. This conclusion follows from the Berezinskii-like calculation of the two-point correlation function in U(N) models, approximate renormalization group analysis, and numerical investigations of the U(2) model. It is shown, via Monte Carlo simulations, that the universality class of the U(2) model coincides with that of the XY model. Moreover, preliminary numerical results point out that two-dimensional SU(N) spin models with the fundamental and adjoint terms and N>4 exhibit two phase transitions of BKT type, similarly to Z(N) vector models.
Discrete symmetry enhancement in non-Abelian models and the existence of asymptotic freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patrascioiu, Adrian; Seiler, Erhard
2001-09-01
We study the universality between a discrete spin model with icosahedral symmetry and the O(3) model in two dimensions. For this purpose we study numerically the renormalized two-point functions of the spin field and the four point coupling constant. We find that those quantities seem to have the same continuum limits in the two models. This has far reaching consequences, because the icosahedron model is not asymptotically free in the sense that the coupling constant proposed by Lüscher, Weisz, and Wolff [Nucl. Phys. B359, 221 (1991)] does not approach zero in the short distance limit. By universality this then also applies to the O(3) model, contrary to the predictions of perturbation theory.
Functional scale-free networks in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarepour, M.; Niry, M. D.; Valizadeh, A.
2015-07-01
Recently, the similarity of the functional network of the brain and the Ising model was investigated by Chialvo [Nat. Phys. 6, 744 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1803]. This similarity supports the idea that the brain is a self-organized critical system. In this study we derive a functional network of the two-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model as a self-organized critical model, and compare its characteristics with those of the functional network of the brain, obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Self-dual configurations in Abelian Higgs models with k-generalized gauge field dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, R.; Cavalcante, A.; da Hora, E.
2016-12-01
We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios where the gauge field possesses a k-generalized dynamic, i.e., the kinetic term of gauge field is a highly nonlinear function of F μν F μν . We have implemented our proposal by means of a k-generalized model displaying the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon. We implement consistently the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield formalism providing highly nonlinear self-dual equations whose solutions are electrically neutral possessing total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. Among the infinite set of possible configurations, we have found families of k-generalized models whose self-dual equations have a form mathematically similar to the ones arising in the Maxwell-Higgs or Chern-Simons-Higgs models. Furthermore, we have verified that our proposal also supports infinite twinlike models with | ϕ|4-potential or | ϕ|6-potential. With the aim to show explicitly that the BPS equations are able to provide well-behaved configurations, we have considered a test model in order to study axially symmetric vortices. By depending of the self-dual potential, we have shown that the k-generalized model is able to produce solutions that for long distances have a exponential decay (as Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices) or have a power-law decay (characterizing delocalized vortices). In all cases, we observe that the generalization modifies the vortex core size, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2017-04-01
For topological sigma models, we propose that their local Lagrangian density is allowed to depend non-linearly on the de Rham's "velocities" DZA. Then, by differentiating the Lagrangian density with respect to the latter de Rham's "velocities", we define a "dynamical" anti-symplectic potential, in terms of which a "dynamical" anti-symplectic metric is defined, as well. We define the local and the functional antibracket via the dynamical anti-symplectic metric. Finally, we show that the generalized action of the sigma model satisfies the functional master equation, as required.
Renormalization-group approach to an Abelian sandpile model on planar lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chai-Yu; Hu, Chin-Kun
2002-08-01
One important step in the renormalization-group (RG) approach to a lattice sandpile model is the exact enumeration of all possible toppling processes of sandpile dynamics inside a cell for RG transformations. Here we propose a computer algorithm to carry out such exact enumeration for cells of planar lattices in the RG approach to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 381 (1987)] and consider both the reduced-high RG equations proposed by Pietronero, Vespignani, and Zapperi (PVZ) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1690 (1994)], and the real-height RG equations proposed by Ivashkevich [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3368 (1996)]. Using this algorithm, we are able to carry out RG transformations more quickly with large cell size, e.g., 3×3 cell for the square (SQ) lattice in PVZ RG equations, which is the largest cell size at the present, and find some mistakes in a previous paper [Phys. Rev. E 51, 1711 (1995)]. For SQ and plane triangular (PT) lattices, we obtain the only attractive fixed point for each lattice and calculate the avalanche exponent τ and the dynamical exponent z. Our results suggest that the increase of the cell size in the PVZ RG transformation does not lead to more accurate results. The implication of such result is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelenyuk, E. G.; Protasov, I. V.
1991-04-01
A filter phi on an abelian group G is called a T-filter if there exists a Hausdorff group topology under which phi converges to zero. G{phi} will denote the group G with the largest topology among those making phi converge to zero. This method of defining a group topology is completely equivalent to the definition of an abstract group by defining relations. We shall obtain characterizations of T-filters and of T-sequences; among these, we shall pay particular attention to T-sequences on the integers. The method of T-sequences will be used to construct a series of counterexamples for several open problems in topological algebra. For instance there exists, on every infinite abelian group, a topology distinguishing between sequentiality and the Fréchet-Urysohn property (this solves a problem posed by V.I. Malykhin) we also find a topology on the group of integers admitting no nontrivial continuous character, thus solving a problem of Nienhuys. We show also that on every infinite abelian group there exists a free ultrafilter which is not a T-ultrafilter.
The Auto-Bäcklund transformations for the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, Melike; Akbulut, Arzu; Bekir, Ahmet
2017-01-01
In this work, the homogeneous balance method is used to construct Auto-Bäcklund transformation of the Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli (BLMP) equation. With the aid of the transformations founded in this paper and Maple packet programme, abundant exact and explicit solutions to the BLMP equation are constructed.
More on the Abrikosov strings with non-Abelian moduli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei
2014-04-01
We continue explorations of deformed Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) strings, with non-Abelian moduli on the worldsheet. In a simple model with an extra field, we find classically stable ANO and non-Abelian strings. The tension of the latter is a few percent lower than the tension of the ANO string. Then, we calculate the interpolating field configuration. Once the kink mass Mk and the difference of tensions ΔT are found, we calculate the decay rate of the ANO string with a higher tension ("false vacuum") into the non-Abelian string with the lower tension ("genuine vacuum") through the "bubble" formation in the quasiclassical approximation.
Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories
Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-03-15
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Huan; Zheng, Yunqin; von Keyserlingk, Curt
2017-01-01
Dijkgraaf-Witten (DW) theories are of recent interest to the condensed matter community, in part because they represent topological phases of matter, but also because they characterize the response theory of certain symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. However, as yet there has not been a comprehensive treatment of the spectra of these models in the field theoretic setting even for Abelian gauge groups, the goal of this work is to fill the gap in the literature, especially for a selection of DW models with Abelian gauge groups but non-Abelian topological order. Particularly, we focus on the appearance of non-Abelian statistics in type-III twisted DW theories with Abelian gauge groups Z2⊗3. There are only 22 distinguishable line operators, and their fusion rules and correlation functions are calculated. The flux insertion operators have quantum dimension 2, which clearly demonstrates the non-Abelian topological order of type-III twisted DW theories.
Generalized symmetries of an 𝓝 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian-Yong; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Zu-Feng; Lou, Sen-Yue
2015-05-01
The formal series symmetry approach (FSSA), a quite powerful and straightforward method to establish infinitely many generalized symmetries of classical integrable systems, has been successfully extended in the supersymmetric framework to explore series of infinitely many generalized symmetries for supersymmetric systems. Taking the 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system as a concrete example, it is shown that the application of the extended FSSA to this supersymmetric system leads to a set of infinitely many generalized symmetries with an arbitrary function f (t). Some interesting special cases of symmetry algebras are presented, including a limit case f (t) = 1 related to the commutativity of higher order generalized symmetries. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275123, 11175092, 11475052, and 11435005), the Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213), and the Talent Fund and K CWong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.
Non-Abelian Born Infeld action, geometry and supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julio Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego
2005-12-01
In this work, we propose a new non-Abelian generalization of the Born Infeld Lagrangian. It is based on a geometrical property of the Abelian Born Infeld Lagrangian in its determinantal form. Our goal is to extend the Abelian second-type Born Infeld action to the non-Abelian form preserving this geometrical property, which permits us to compute the generalized volume element as a linear combination of the components of metric and the Yang Mills energy momentum tensors. Under the BPS-like condition, the action proposed reduces to that of the Yang Mills theory, independently of the gauge group. New instanton-wormhole solution and static and spherically symmetric solution in curved spacetime for an SU(2) isotopic ansatz are solved and the N= 1 supersymmetric extension of the model is performed.
Gravitating non-Abelian cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pádua Santos, Antônio; Bezerra de Mello, Eugênio R.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we study regular cosmic string solutions of the non-Abelian Higgs model coupled with gravity. In order to develop this analysis, we constructed a set of coupled non-linear differential equations. Because there is no closed solution for this set of equations, we solve it numerically. The solutions we are interested in asymptote to a flat spacetime with a planar angle deficit. The model under consideration presents two bosonic sectors, besides the non-Abelian gauge field. The two bosonic sectors may present a direct coupling, so we investigate the relevance of this coupling on the system, specifically in the linear energy density of the string and on the planar angle deficit. We also analyze the behaviors of these quantities as a function of the energy scale where the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken.
The Abelian heterotic conifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halmagyi, Nick; Israël, Dan; Svanes, Eirik
2016-07-01
We study heterotic supergravity on the conifold and its ℤ 2 orbifold with Abelian gauge fields and three-form flux. By taking a limit of large five brane charge, we are able suppress non-linear curvature corrections and construct exact supersymmetric solutions. At large distances, these solutions are generically locally Ricci-flat, have a magnetic flux through the two-sphere at infinity as well as non-zero five-brane charge. For a given flux, our family of solutions has three real parameters, the size of the pair of two spheres in the IR and the dilaton zero mode. We present an explicit analytic solution for a decoupled near horizon region which is not asymptotically locally Ricci-flat and where for a given flux, the size of the cycles is frozen and the only parameter is the dilaton zero mode. We also present an exactly solvable worldsheet CFT for this near horizon region. When one of the two cycles has vanishing size, the near horizon region no longer exists but nonetheless we obtain a solution on the (unorbifolded) resolved conifold.
Introducing Abelian Groups Using Bullseyes and Jenga
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Michael D.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this article is to share a new approach for introducing students to the definition and standard examples of Abelian groups. The definition of an Abelian group is revised to include six axioms. A bullseye provides a way to visualize elementary examples and non-examples of Abelian groups. An activity based on the game of Jenga is used…
Abelian Yang-Baxter deformations and TsT transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osten, David; van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2017-02-01
We prove that abelian Yang-Baxter deformations of superstring coset σ models are equivalent to sequences of commuting TsT transformations, meaning T dualities and coordinate shifts. Our results extend also to fermionic deformations and fermionic T duality, and naturally lead to a TsT subgroup of the superduality group OSp (db ,db | 2df). In cases like AdS5 ×S5, fermionic deformations necessarily lead to complex models. As an illustration of inequivalent deformations, we give all six abelian deformations of AdS3. We comment on the possible dual field theory interpretation of these (super-)TsT models.
Correlations between Abelian monopoles and center vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini Nejad, Seyed Mohsen; Deldar, Sedigheh
2017-04-01
We study the correlations between center vortices and Abelian monopoles for SU(3) gauge group. Combining fractional fluxes of monopoles, center vortex fluxes are constructed in the thick center vortex model. Calculating the potentials induced by fractional fluxes constructing the center vortex flux in a thick center vortex-like model and comparing with the potential induced by center vortices, we observe an attraction between fractional fluxes of monopoles constructing the center vortex flux. We conclude that the center vortex flux is stable, as expected. In addition, we show that adding a contribution of the monopole-antimonopole pairs in the potentials induced by center vortices ruins the Casimir scaling at intermediate regime.
Non-Abelian dynamics in the resonant decay of the Higgs after inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi
2014-10-01
We study the resonant decay of the Higgs condensate into weak gauge bosons after inflation and estimate the corrections arising from the non-Abelian self-interactions of the gauge fields. We find that non-Abelian interaction terms induce an effective mass which tends to shut down the resonance. For the broad resonance relevant for the Standard Model Higgs the produced gauge particles backreact on the dynamics of the Higgs condensate before the non-Abelian terms grow large. The non-Abelian terms can however significantly affect the final stages of the resonance after the backreaction. In the narrow resonance regime, which may be important for extensions of the Standard Model, the non-Abelian terms affect already the linear stage and terminate the resonance before the Higgs condensate is affected by the backreaction of decay products.
Non-Abelian quantum holonomy of hydrogenlike atoms
Mousolou, Vahid Azimi; Canali, Carlo M.; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2011-09-15
We study the Uhlmann holonomy [Rep. Math. Phys. 24, 229 (1986)] of quantum states for hydrogenlike atoms where the intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum are coupled by the spin-orbit interaction and are subject to a slowly varying magnetic field. We show that the holonomy for the orbital angular momentum and spin subsystems is non-Abelian while the holonomy of the whole system is Abelian. Quantum entanglement in the states of the whole system is crucially related to the non-Abelian gauge structure of the subsystems. We analyze the phase of the Wilson loop variable associated with the Uhlmann holonomy and find a relation between the phase of the whole system and corresponding marginal phases. Based on the results for the model system, we provide evidence that the phase of the Wilson loop variable and the mixed-state geometric phase [E. Sjoeqvist et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2845 (2000).] are generally inequivalent.
Fendley, Paul; Moore, Joel E; Xu, Cenke
2007-05-01
We study a constrained statistical-mechanical model in two dimensions that has three useful descriptions. They are (i) the Ising model on the honeycomb lattice, constrained to have three up spins and three down spins on every hexagon, (ii) the three-color and fully packed loop model on the links of the honeycomb lattice, with loops around a single hexagon forbidden, and (iii) three Ising models on interleaved triangular lattices, with domain walls of the different Ising models not allowed to cross. Unlike the three-color model, the configuration space on the sphere or plane is connected under local moves. On higher-genus surfaces there are infinitely many dynamical sectors, labeled by a noncontractible set of nonintersecting loops. We demonstrate that at infinite temperature the transfer matrix admits an unusual structure related to a gauge symmetry for the same model on an anisotropic lattice. This enables us to diagonalize the original transfer matrix for up to 36 sites, finding an entropy per plaquette S/k{B} approximately 0.3661 ... centered and substantial evidence that the model is not critical. We also find the striking property that the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix on an anisotropic lattice are given in terms of Fibonacci numbers. We comment on the possibility of a topological phase, with infinite topological degeneracy, in an associated two-dimensional quantum model.
Non-Abelian strings in supersymmetric Yang-Mills
Shifman, M.
2012-09-26
I give a broad review of novel phenomena discovered in certain Yang-Mills theories: non-Abelian strings and confined monopoles. Then I explain how these phenomena allow one to study strong dynamics of gauge theories in four dimensions from two-dimensional models emerging on the string world sheet.
Breaking an Abelian gauge symmetry near a black hole horizon
Gubser, Steven S.
2008-09-15
I argue that coupling the Abelian Higgs model to gravity plus a negative cosmological constant leads to black holes which spontaneously break the gauge invariance via a charged scalar condensate slightly outside their horizon. This suggests that black holes can superconduct.
Josephson instantons and Josephson monopoles in a non-Abelian Josephson junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, Muneto
2015-08-01
The non-Abelian Josephson junction is a junction of non-Abelian color superconductors sandwiching an insulator, or a non-Abelian domain wall if flexible, whose low-energy dynamics is described by a U (N ) principal chiral model with the conventional pion mass. A non-Abelian Josephson vortex is a non-Abelian vortex (color magnetic flux tube) residing inside the junction, that is described as a non-Abelian sine-Gordon soliton. In this paper, we propose Josephson instantons and Josephson monopoles, that is, Yang-Mills instantons and monopoles inside a non-Abelian Josephson junction, respectively, and show that they are described as S U (N ) Skyrmions and U (1 )N -1 vortices in the U (N ) principal chiral model without and with a twisted-mass term, respectively. Instantons with a twisted boundary condition are reduced (or T-dual) to monopoles, implying that C PN -1 lumps are T-dual to C PN -1 kinks inside a vortex. Here we find S U (N ) Skyrmions are T-dual to U (1 )N-1 vortices inside a wall. Our configurations suggest a yet another duality between C PN -1 lumps and S U (N ) Skyrmions as well as that between C PN -1 kinks and U (1 )N-1 vortices, viewed from different host solitons. They also suggest a duality between fractional instantons and bions in the C PN -1 model and those in the S U (N ) principal chiral model.
Fractional Fermions with Non-Abelian Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2013-03-01
We introduce a novel class of low-dimensional topological tight-binding models that allow for bound states that are fractionally charged fermions and exhibit non-Abelian braiding statistics. The proposed model consists of a double (single) ladder of spinless (spinful) fermions in the presence of magnetic fields. We study the system analytically in the continuum limit as well as numerically in the tight-binding representation. We find a topological phase transition with a topological gap that closes and reopens as a function of system parameters and chemical potential. The topological phase is of the type BDI and carries two degenerate midgap bound states that are localized at opposite ends of the ladders. We show numerically that these bound states are robust against a wide class of perturbations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-07-01
Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies, which has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem to be very close at hand. However, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e. quantum simulators , are currently developed in many leading laboratories. Many schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots, photonic networks, or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in the presence of gauge fields. In the quantum simulation framework, the generated (synthetic) gauge fields may be Abelian, in which case they are the direct analogues of the vector potentials commonly associated with magnetic fields. In condensed matter physics, strong magnetic fields lead to a plethora of fascinating phenomena, among which the most paradigmatic is perhaps the quantum Hall effect. The standard Hall effect consists in the appearance of a transverse current, when a longitudinal voltage difference is applied to a conducting sample. For quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors at low temperatures placed in very strong magnetic fields, the transverse conductivity, the ratio between the transverse current and the applied voltage, exhibits perfect and robust quantization, independent for instance of the material or of its geometry. Such an integer quantum Hall effect, is now understood as a deep consequence of underlying topological order. Although such a system is an insulator in the bulk, it supports topologically robust edge excitations which carry the Hall current. The robustness of these chiral excitations against backscattering explains the universality of the quantum Hall effect. Another
Quasi-degenerate neutrinos from an abelian family symmetry
Binetruy, P. |; Lavignac, S.; Petcov, S. |; Ramond, P.
1996-12-31
The authors show that models with an abelian family symmetry which accounts for the observed hierarchies of masses and mixings in the quark sector may also accommodate quasi-degeneracies in the neutrino mass spectrum. Such approximate degeneracies are, in this context, associated with large mixing angles. The parameters of this class of models are constrained. The authors discuss their phenomenological implications for present and foreseen neutrino experiments.
Non-abelian black holes and black strings in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Betti
2009-05-01
We review the properties of static, higher dimensional black hole solutions in theories where non-abelian gauge fields are minimally coupled to gravity. It is shown that black holes with hyperspherically symmetric horizon topology do not exist in d>4, but that hyperspherically symmetric black holes can be constructed numerically in generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills models. 5-dimensional black strings with horizon topology S2xS1 are also discussed. These are so-called undeformed and deformed non-abelian black strings, which are translationally invariant and correspond to 4-dimensional non-abelian black holes trivially extended into one extra dimensions. The fact that black strings can be deformed, i.e. axially symmetric for constant values of the extra coordinate is a new feature as compared to black string solutions of Einstein (-Maxwell) theory. It is argued that these non-abelian black strings are thermodynamically unstable.
Free energy for a damped cold atom in SU(2) non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.
2017-03-01
Our main aim in this work is to find out the exact formula of the equilibrium free energy for a cold atom subjected to a harmonic potential in the background of an artificial non-Abelian uniform magnetic field and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The heat bath consists of a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators, while its interaction with the cold atom is modeled in terms of bilinear coupling between the coordinate variables of the cold atom and the oscillators. The main thermodynamic properties of such a system are modified in comparison with the Abelian case. For a non-Abelian magnetic field generated from the laser methods employing degenerate dark states, we evaluate the effect of the non-Abelian dynamics on the magnetic moment of the cold atom.
Topologically stratified energy minimizers in a product Abelian field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xiaosen; Yang, Yisong
2015-09-01
We study a recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities. We first obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution realizing such impurities in the form of multiple vortices. We next reformulate the theory into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from Ns vortices and Ps anti-vortices (s = 1, 2) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface S which states that a solution with prescribed N1, N2 vortices and P1, P2 anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities
Conformal field theory approach to Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall quasielectrons.
Hansson, T H; Hermanns, M; Regnault, N; Viefers, S
2009-04-24
The quasiparticles in quantum Hall liquids carry fractional charge and obey fractional quantum statistics. Of particular recent interest are those with non-Abelian statistics, since their braiding properties could, in principle, be used for robust coding of quantum information. There is already a good theoretical understanding of quasiholes in both Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. Here we develop conformal field theory methods that allow for an equally precise description of quasielectrons and explicitly construct two- and four-quasielectron excitations of the non-Abelian Moore-Read state.
Detecting 3d Non-Abelian Anyons via Adiabatic Cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Seiji; Freedman, Michael; Yang, Kun
2011-03-01
Majorana fermions lie at the heart of a number of recent developments in condensed matter physics. One important application is the realization of non-abelian statistics and consequently a foundation for topological quantum computation. Theoretical propositions for Majorana systems abound, but experimental detection has proven challenging. Most attempts involve interferometry, but the degeneracy of the anyon state can be leveraged to produce a cooling effect, as previously shown in 2d. We apply this method of anyon detection to the 3d anyon model of Teo and Kane. Like the Fu-Kane model, this involves a hybrid system of topological insulator (TI) and superconductor (SC). The Majorana modes are localized to anisotropic hedgehogs in the order parameter which appear at the TI-SC interface. The effective model bears some resemblance to the non-Abelian Higgs model with scalar coupling as studied, for example, by Jackiw and Rebbi. In order to make concrete estimates relevant to experiments, we use parameters appropriate to Ca doped Bi 2 Se 3 as the topological insulator and Cu doped Bi 2 Se 3 as the superconductor. We find a temperature window in the milli-Kelvin regime where the presence of 3d non-abelian anyons will lead to an observable cooling effect.
Vortex states in a non-Abelian magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Predrag
2016-08-01
A type-II superconductor survives in an external magnetic field by admitting an Abrikosov lattice of quantized vortices. This is an imprint of the Aharonov-Bohm effect created by the Abelian U(1) gauge field. The simplest non-Abelian analog of such a gauge field, which belongs to the SU(2) symmetry group, can be found in topological insulators. Here we discover a superconducting ground state with a lattice of SU(2) vortices in a simple two-dimensional model that presents an SU(2) "magnetic" field (invariant under time reversal) to attractively interacting fermions. The model directly captures the correlated topological insulator quantum well, and approximates one channel for instabilities on the Kondo topological insulator surface. Due to its simplicity, the model might become amenable to cold atom simulations in the foreseeable future. The vitality of low-energy vortex states born out of SU(2) magnetic fields is promising for the creation of incompressible vortex liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
Non-Abelian Vortex Lattice in Dense QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, E.
2015-11-01
We show a possible spontaneous color ferromagnetismin the lattice system of non-Abelian vortices in rotating quark matter. The non-Abelian vortex has Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and CP(N-1) modes for SU(N) color and SU(N) flavor, which are localized along the vortex core. The CP(N-1) mode on each vortex site represents an orientation of color flux, and interaction among these modes causes the color ferromagnetism. The low energy effective theory in this system is described bya 3+1 dimensional CP(N-1) non-linear sigma model, from which we obtain magnon-like NG modes with an anisotropic dispersion relationω_p^2=apx,y^2+bp_z^2, when the vortex lines extend along z axis.
Bilarge neutrino mixing and Abelian flavor symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Gui-Jun; Morisi, S.; Valle, J. W. F.
2013-03-01
We explore two bilarge neutrino mixing Anzätze within the context of Abelian flavor symmetry theories: (BL1) sinθ12˜λ, sinθ13˜λ, sinθ23˜λ, and (BL2) sinθ12˜λ, sinθ13˜λ, sinθ23˜1-λ. The first pattern is proposed by two of us and is favored if the atmospheric mixing angle θ23 lies in the first octant, while the second one is preferred for the second octant of θ23. In order to reproduce the second texture, we find that the flavor symmetry should be U(1)×Zm, while for the first pattern the flavor symmetry should be extended to U(1)×Zm×Zn with m and n of different parity. Explicit models for both mixing patterns are constructed based on the flavor symmetries U(1)×Z3×Z4 and U(1)×Z2. The models are extended to the quark sector within the framework of SU(5) grand unified theory in order to give a successful description of quark and lepton masses and mixing simultaneously. Phenomenological implications are discussed.
Non-Abelian bubbles in microstate geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, Pedro F.
2016-11-01
We find the first smooth bubbling microstate geometries with non-Abelian fields. The solutions constitute an extension of the BPS three-charge smooth microstates. These consist in general families of regular supersymmetric solutions with non-trivial topology, i.e. bubbles, of {N}=d , d = 5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, having the asymptotic charges of a black hole or black ring but with no horizon. The non-Abelian fields make their presence at the very heart of the microstate structure: the physical size of the bubbles is affected by the non-Abelian topological charge they carry, which combines with the Abelian flux threading the bubbles to hold them up. Interestingly the non-Abelian fields carry a set of adjustable continuous parameters that do not alter the asymptotics of the solutions but modify the local geometry. This feature can be used to obtain a classically infinite number of microstate solutions with the asymptotics of a single black hole or black ring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iadecola, Thomas; Schuster, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio
2016-08-01
Many topological phenomena first proposed and observed in the context of electrons in solids have recently found counterparts in photonic and acoustic systems. In this work, we demonstrate that non-Abelian Berry phases can arise when coherent states of light are injected into "topological guided modes" in specially fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases, which depend on the order in which the guided beams are wound around one another. Notably, these effects survive the limit of large photon occupation, and can thus also be understood as wave phenomena arising directly from Maxwell's equations, without resorting to the quantization of light. We propose an optical interference experiment as a direct probe of this non-Abelian braiding of light.
Non-Abelian Dual Superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory due to Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
We give numerical evidences for the non-Abelian dual superconductivity due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as a mechanism for quark confinement, based on our new formulation of lattice gauge theory.
Non-Abelian black hole solutions in supergravity
Meessen, P.
2009-05-01
In this contribution we shall discuss some analytic examples of non-Abelian black holes in a specific N = 2 d = 4 supergravity theory. Some remarks will be made on a possible non-Abelian version of the attractor mechanism, that works in the Abelian theories.
The existence of self-dual vortices in a non-Abelian {Phi}{sup 2} Chern-Simons theory
Chen Shouxin; Wang Ying
2010-09-15
Applying the dynamic shooting method, we proved the existence of nontopological radially symmetric n-vortex solutions to the self-dual equation in non-Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory with a {Phi}{sup 2}-type potential. Moreover, we obtained all possible radially symmetric nontopological bare (or 0-vortex) solutions in the non-Abelian Chern-Simons model. Meanwhile, we established the asymptotic behavior for the solutions as |x|{yields}{infinity}.
Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan
There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.
Abelian Duality on Globally Hyperbolic Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Christian; Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.
2017-01-01
We study generalized electric/magnetic duality in Abelian gauge theory by combining techniques from locally covariant quantum field theory and Cheeger-Simons differential cohomology on the category of globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds. Our approach generalizes previous treatments using the Hamiltonian formalism in a manifestly covariant way and without the assumption of compact Cauchy surfaces. We construct semi-classical configuration spaces and corresponding presymplectic Abelian groups of observables, which are quantized by the CCR-functor to the category of C*-algebras. We demonstrate explicitly how duality is implemented as a natural isomorphism between quantum field theories. We apply this formalism to develop a fully covariant quantum theory of self-dual fields.
Special issue on non-Abelian gauge fields Special issue on non-Abelian gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2012-09-01
Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies and it is expected to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem very close, however, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e., quantum simulators, are currently being developed in many leading laboratories. Numerous schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in artificial, or synthetic, Abelian or even non-Abelian gauge fields. Abelian gauge fields are analogues to the standard magnetic field and lead to fascinating effects such as the integer or fractional quantum Hall effects (IQHE, FQHE) and vortex lattices. Non-Abelian gauge fields couple the motional states of the particles to their internal degrees of freedom (such as hyperfine states for atoms or ions, electronic spins for electrons, etc). In this sense, external non-Abelian fields extend the concept of spin-orbit coupling, which is familiar from AMO and condensed matter physics. They lead to yet another variety of fascinating novel phenomena such as the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE), 3D topological insulators, topological superconductors and superfluids of various kinds. Even more fascinating is the possibility of generating synthetic gauge fields that are dynamical, i.e., that evolve in time according to the corresponding lattice gauge theory (LGT). These dynamical gauge fields can also couple to matter fields, allowing the quantum simulation of such complex systems (notoriously hard to simulate using 'traditional' computers), which are particularly relevant for modern high-energy physics. So far there are only theoretical
Non-Abelian statistics in the fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, X. G.
1991-02-01
The fractional quantum Hall states with non-Abelian statistics are studied. Those states are shown to be characterized by non-Abelian topological orders and are identified with some of the Jain states. The gapless edge states are found to be described by non-Abelian Kac-Moody algebras. It is argued that the topological orders and the associated properties are robust against any kinds of small perturbations.
Improved HDRG decoders for qudit and non-Abelian quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutter, Adrian; Loss, Daniel; Wootton, James R.
2015-03-01
Hard-decision renormalization group (HDRG) decoders are an important class of decoding algorithms for topological quantum error correction. Due to their versatility, they have been used to decode systems with fractal logical operators, color codes, qudit topological codes, and non-Abelian systems. In this work, we develop a method of performing HDRG decoding which combines strengths of existing decoders and further improves upon them. In particular, we increase the minimal number of errors necessary for a logical error in a system of linear size L from \\Theta ({{L}2/3}) to Ω ({{L}1-ε }) for any ε \\gt 0. We apply our algorithm to decoding D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models and a non-Abelian anyon model with Fibonacci-like fusion rules, and show that it indeed significantly outperforms previous HDRG decoders. Furthermore, we provide the first study of continuous error correction with imperfect syndrome measurements for the D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models. The parallelized runtime of our algorithm is poly(log L) for the perfect measurement case. In the continuous case with imperfect syndrome measurements, the averaged runtime is O(1) for Abelian systems, while continuous error correction for non-Abelian anyons stays an open problem.
Dual computations of non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherrington, J. Wade; Christensen, J. Daniel; Khavkine, Igor
2007-11-01
In the past several decades there have been a number of proposals for computing with dual forms of non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories on the lattice. Motivated by the gauge-invariant, geometric picture offered by dual models and successful applications of duality in the U(1) case, we revisit the question of whether it is practical to perform numerical computation using non-Abelian dual models. Specifically, we consider three-dimensional SU(2) pure Yang-Mills as an accessible yet nontrivial case in which the gauge group is non-Abelian. Using methods developed recently in the context of spin foam quantum gravity, we derive an algorithm for efficiently computing the dual amplitude and describe Metropolis moves for sampling the dual ensemble. We relate our algorithms to prior work in non-Abelian dual computations of Hari Dass and his collaborators, addressing several problems that have been left open. We report results of spin expectation value computations over a range of lattice sizes and couplings that are in agreement with our conventional lattice computations. We conclude with an outlook on further development of dual methods and their application to problems of current interest.
Yukawa textures with an anomalous horizontal abelian symmetry
Binetruy, P.; Lavignac, S.; Ramond, P.
1996-01-01
The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and mixings may be obtained by adding an abelian family symmetry to the Minimal Supersymmetric Model and coupling quarks and leptons to an electroweak singlet scalar field. In a large class of such models, this symmetry suffers from anomalies which must be compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism; this in turn fixes the electroweak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} = 3/8 at the string scale, without any assumed GUT structure. The analysis is extended to two distinct generalizations of the Standard Model: neutrino masses and mixings and R-parity violating interactions. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, O.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hussein, M. S.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.
2016-12-01
We propose a mirror model for ordinary and dark matter that assumes a new SU(3) gauge group of transformations, as a natural extension of the Standard Model (SM). A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis, baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. The cross section for the elastic scattering of a dark proton by an ordinary proton is estimated and compare to the WIMP-nucleon experimental upper bounds. It is observed that all experimental bounds for the various cross sections can be accommodated consistently within the gauge model. We also suggest a way for direct detection of the new gauge boson via one example of a SM forbidden process: e+ + p → μ + + X, where X=Λ or Λ c .
Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.
Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto
2013-05-01
We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.
Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions
Calzetta, E.
2014-01-14
The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.
Three-loop calculations in non-abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, O. V.; Vladimirov, A. A.
2013-09-01
A detailed description of the method for analytical evaluation of the three-loop contributions to renormalization group functions is presented. This method is employed to calculate the charge renormalization function and anomalous dimensions for non-Abelian gauge theories with fermions in the three-loop approximation. A three-loop expression for the effective charge of QCD is given. Charge renormalization effects in the SU(4)-supersymmetric gauge model is shown to vanish at this level. A complete list of required formulas is given in Appendix. The above-mentioned results of three-loop calculations were published by the present authors (with A.Yu. Zharkov and L.V. Avdeev) in 1980 in Physics Letters B. The present text, which treats the subject in more details and contains a lot of calculational techniques, was also published in 1980 as the JINR Communication E2-80-483.
On S-Duality in Abelian Gauge Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witten, Edward
1995-09-01
U(1) gauge theory on R4 is known to possess an electric-magnetic duality symmetry that inverts the coupling constant and extends to an action of SL(2,Z). In this paper, the duality is studied on a general four-manifold and it is shown that the partition function is not a modular-invariant function but transforms as a modular form. This result plays an essential role in determining a new low-energy interaction that arises when N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is formulated on a four-manifold; the determination of this interaction gives a new test of the solution of the model and would enter in computations of the Donaldson invariants of four-manifolds with b+2≤1. Certain other aspects of abelian duality, relevant to matters such as the dependence of Donaldson invariants on the second Stieffel-Whitney class, are also analyzed.
Non-Abelian Dual Superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory Due to Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
The dual superconductivity is the promising mechanism for quark confinement. We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and already presented numerical evidences for the restricted field dominance and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension, by applying our new formulation of Yang-Mills theory to a lattice. In this talk, we focus on the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect and the type of dual superconductivity. We find that the measured chromo-electric flux tube between a quark and antiquark pair strongly supports the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles. Moreover, we give a remarkable result that the type of the resulting dual superconductor is the type I in SU(3) Yang-Mills, rather than the border between the type I and II, in marked contrast to the SU(2) case.
Abelian anomaly and neutral pion production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Craig
2011-04-01
The process γ* γ -->π0 is fascinating because in order to explain the associated transition form factor within the Standard Model on the full domain of momentum transfer, one must combine, using a single internally-consistent framework, an explanation of the essentially nonperturbative Abelian anomaly with the features of perturbative QCD. The case for attempting this has received a significant boost with the publication of data from the BaBar Collaboration [Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] because, while they agree with earlier experiments on their common domain of squared-momentum-transfer [CELLO - Z. Phys. C 49, 401 (1991); CLEO - Phys. Rev. D 57, 33 (1998)], the BaBar data are unexpectedly far above the prediction of perturbative QCD at larger values of Q2. I will elucidate the sensitivity of the γ* γ -->π0 transition form factor, Gγ* γπ(Q2) , to the pointwise behaviour of the interaction between quarks; and use existing Dyson-Schwinger equation calculations of this and the kindred γ*γ* -->π0 form factor to characterize the Q2-dependence of Gγ* γπ(Q2) . It will become apparent that in fully-self-consistent treatments of pion: static properties; and elastic and transition form factors, the asymptotic limit of the product Q2Gγ* γπ0(Q2) , which is determined a priori by the interaction employed, is not exceeded at any finite value of spacelike momentum transfer: the product is a monotonically-increasing concave function. Studies exist which interpret the BaBar data as an indication that the pion's distribution amplitude, φπ(x) , deviates dramatically from its QCD asymptotic form, indeed, that φπ(x) = constant, or is at least flat and nonvanishing at x = 0 , 1 . I will explain that such a distribution amplitude characterises an essentially-pointlike pion; and show that, when used in a fully-consistent treatment, it produces results for pion elastic and transition form factors that are in striking disagreement with experiment. A bound-state pion
Particle coupled to a heat bath in non-Abelian gauge potentials.
Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y H
2015-12-01
We derive the quantum Langevin equation (QLE) for a harmonically single trapped cold atom subjected to artificial non-Abelian gauge potentials and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The independent-oscillator (IO) and the momentum-momenta coupling models are studied. In each case, the non-Abelian effect on the QLE is pointed out for a U(2) gauge transformation. For the IO model, only the generalized Lorentz force is modified by the appearance of an additive term. For the momentum-momenta coupling model, the generalized Lorentz force as well as the friction force are subjected to modifications. The dependence of the system on the magnetic field is explicit even if the gauge potential is uniform in space.
Fendley, Paul; Fisher, Matthew P.A.; Nayak, Chetan
2009-07-15
We explain how (perturbed) boundary conformal field theory allows us to understand the tunneling of edge quasiparticles in non-Abelian topological states. The coupling between a bulk non-Abelian quasiparticle and the edge is due to resonant tunneling to a zero mode on the quasiparticle, which causes the zero mode to hybridize with the edge. This can be reformulated as the flow from one conformally invariant boundary condition to another in an associated critical statistical mechanical model. Tunneling from one edge to another at a point contact can split the system in two, either partially or completely. This can be reformulated in the critical statistical mechanical model as the flow from one type of defect line to another. We illustrate these two phenomena in detail in the context of the {nu}=5/2 quantum Hall state and the critical Ising model. We briefly discuss the case of Fibonacci anyons and conclude by explaining the general formulation and its physical interpretation.
Mesons from (non) Abelian T-dual backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Núñez, Carlos; Zoakos, Dimitrios
2017-01-01
In this work we study mesonic excitations in a Quantum Field Theory dual to the non Abelian T-dual of AdS 5 × S 5, using a D6 brane probe on the Sfetsos-Thompson background. Before and after the duality, we observe interesting differences between the spectra and interpret them. The spectrum of masses and the interactions between mesonic excitations teach valuable lessons about the character of non-Abelian T-duality and its implications for Holography. The case of Abelian T-duality is also studied.
Moduli of linear and abelian categories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anel, Mathieu
2006-07-01
Linear categories naturally have several identification relations : isomorphisms, categorical equivalences and Morita equivalences. In this thesis, we construct the classifying stacks for these three relations (\\ukcatiso, \\ukcateq, \\ukcatmor) together with the classifying stack of abelian categories (\\ukab), the originality of the subject being that, apart from the first one, these are higher stacks. The principal result is that, under some finiteness assumptions, these stacks are geometric in the sense of C. Simpson. In particular, one recover the Hochschild cohomology of a category C as the tangent complex, i.e. the object classifying first order deformations of C, of these stacks at the point defined by C. Moreover, there exists a natural sequence of surjective morphisms of stacks : \\ukcatiso tto \\ukcateq tto \\ukcatmor tto \\ukab for which we prove that the middle one is etale, and the right one is an equivalence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Shu-Liang; Gao, Yi-Tian; Hu, Lei; Huang, Qian-Min; Hu, Wen-Qiang
2017-02-01
Under investigation in this paper is a (3 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli equation in the incompressible fluid. With the aid of the bilinear form, Nth-order soliton-like solutions are obtained via the Pffafian method, rational solutions are derived with the ansätz method and periodic wave solutions are constructed via the Riemann theta function. The analytic solutions obtained via the Pffafian method are similar to the kink solitons, while, the interaction regions with little peaks are different from those of the usual kink solitons. The rational solutions which have one upper lump and one down deep hole are the bright-dark solitary wave solutions. For the rational solutions which combine the kink solitary wave with breather-like wave, asymptotic behaviors show that the breather-like wave disappears with the evolution of t. Relations between the one-soliton solutions and one-periodic wave solutions are analysed, which exhibit the asymptotic behaviors of the periodic waves.
Non-Abelian symmetries of the half-infinite XXZ spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baseilhac, Pascal; Belliard, Samuel
2017-03-01
The non-Abelian symmetries of the half-infinite XXZ spin chain for all possible types of integrable boundary conditions are classified. For each type of boundary conditions, an analog of the Chevalley-type presentation is given for the corresponding symmetry algebra. In particular, two new algebras arise that are, respectively, generated by the symmetry operators of the model with triangular and special Uq (gl2)-invariant integrable boundary conditions.
A new approach to non-Abelian hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Melgarejo, Jose J.; Rey, Soo-Jong; Surówka, Piotr
2017-02-01
We present a new approach to describe hydrodynamics carrying non-Abelian macroscopic degrees of freedom. Based on the Kaluza-Klein compactification of a higher-dimensional neutral dissipative fluid on a manifold of non-Abelian isometry, we obtain a four-dimensional colored dissipative fluid coupled to Yang-Mills gauge field. We derive transport coefficients of resulting colored fluid, which feature non-Abelian character of color charges. In particular, we obtain color-specific terms in the gradient expansions and response quantities such as the conductivity matrix and the chemical potentials. We argue that our Kaluza-Klein approach provides a robust description of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, and discuss some links between this system and quark-gluon plasma and fluid/gravity duality.
Non-Abelian bremsstrahlung and azimuthal asymmetries in high energy p+A reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulassy, M.; Levai, P.; Vitev, I.; Biró, T. S.
2014-09-01
We apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute to all orders in nuclear opacity the non-Abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event-by-event fluctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, vnM{1}, and even numbered 2ℓ gluon distribution, vnM{2ℓ}, inclusive distributions in high-energy p +A reactions as a function of harmonic n, target recoil cluster number, M, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at the RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form color scintillation antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to characteristic boost-noninvariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of the intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to vn moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic nonflow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd vn without invoking kT factorization. A test of the CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the vn(kT,η). Non-Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may, thus, provide a simple analytic solution to the beam energy scan puzzle of the near √s independence of vn(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV, where large-x valence-quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of vn in p(D)+A and noncentral A+A at the same dN/dη multiplicity as observed at the RHIC and LHC.
Non-Abelian dark matter and dark radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buen-Abad, Manuel A.; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo; Schmaltz, Martin
2015-07-01
We propose a new class of dark matter models with unusual phenomenology. What is ordinary about our models is that dark matter particles are weakly interacting massive particles; they are weakly coupled to the standard model and have weak scale masses. What is unusual is that they come in multiplets of a new dark non-Abelian gauge group with milliweak coupling. The massless dark gluons of this dark gauge group contribute to the energy density of the Universe as a form of weakly self-interacting dark radiation. In this paper we explore the consequences of having (i) dark matter in multiplets, (ii) self-interacting dark radiation, and (iii) dark matter which is weakly coupled to dark radiation. We find that (i) dark matter cross sections are modified by multiplicity factors which have significant consequences for collider searches and indirect detection, and (ii) dark gluons have thermal abundances which affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as dark radiation. Unlike additional massless neutrino species the dark gluons are interacting and have vanishing viscosity and (iii) the coupling of dark radiation to dark matter represents a new mechanism for damping the large scale structure power spectrum. A combination of additional radiation and slightly damped structure is interesting because it can remove tensions between global Λ CDM fits from the CMB and direct measurements of the Hubble expansion rate (H0) and large scale structure (σ8).
Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall states
Bonderson, Parsa; Gurarie, Victor; Nayak, Chetan
2011-02-15
We study the non-Abelian statistics of quasiparticles in the Ising-type quantum Hall states which are likely candidates to explain the observed Hall conductivity plateaus in the second Landau level, most notably the one at filling fraction {nu}=5/2. We complete the program started in V. Gurarie and C. Nayak, [Nucl. Phys. B 506, 685 (1997)]. and show that the degenerate four-quasihole and six-quasihole wave functions of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state are orthogonal with equal constant norms in the basis given by conformal blocks in a c=1+(1/2) conformal field theory. As a consequence, this proves that the non-Abelian statistics of the excitations in this state are given by the explicit analytic continuation of these wave functions. Our proof is based on a plasma analogy derived from the Coulomb gas construction of Ising model correlation functions involving both order and (at most two) disorder operators. We show how this computation also determines the non-Abelian statistics of collections of more than six quasiholes and give an explicit expression for the corresponding conformal block-derived wave functions for an arbitrary number of quasiholes. Our method also applies to the anti-Pfaffian wave function and to Bonderson-Slingerland hierarchy states constructed over the Moore-Read and anti-Pfaffian states.
Holographic nonlinear hydrodynamics from AdS/CFT with multiple/non-abelian symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung
2009-08-01
We study viscous hydrodynamics of hot conformal field theory plasma with multiple/non-Abelian symmetries in the framework of AdS/CFT correspondence, using a recently proposed method of directly solving bulk gravity in derivative expansion of local plasma parameters. Our motivation is to better describe the real QCD plasma produced at RHIC, incorporating its U(1)Nf flavor symmetry as well as SU(2)I non-Abelian iso-spin symmetry. As concrete examples, we choose to study the STU model for multiple U(1)3 symmetries, which is a sub-sector of 5D N=4 gauged SUGRA dual to N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, capturing Cartan U(1)3 dynamics inside the full R-symmetry. For SU(2), we analyze the minimal 4D N=3 gauged SUGRA whose bosonic action is simply an Einstein-Yang-Mills system, which corresponds to SU(2) R-symmetry dynamics on M2-branes at a Hyper-Kahler cone. By generalizing the bosonic action to arbitrary dimensions and Lie groups, we present our analysis and results for any non-Abelian plasma in arbitrary dimensions.
Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-01-01
We discuss recent progress in describing a certain non-Abelian vortex string as a critical superstring on a conifold and clarify some subtle points. This particular solitonic vortex is supported in four-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group, N f = 4 quark flavors and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Under certain conditions the non-Abelian vortex can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional superstring. In addition to four translational moduli the non-Abelian vortex under consideration carries six orientational and size moduli. The vortex moduli dynamics are described by a twodimensional sigma model with the target space R4 × Y 6 where Y 6 is a non-compact Calabi-Yau conifold. The closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) are identified with hadrons of 4D bulk N = 2 QCD. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are non-dynamical in 4D. A single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold is found. It is interpreted as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).
Abelian non-global logarithms from soft gluon clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Randall; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba
2012-09-01
Most recombination-style jet algorithms cluster soft gluons in a complex way. This leads to previously identified correlations in the soft gluon phase space and introduces logarithmic corrections to jet cross sections, which are known as clustering logarithms. The leading Abelian clustering logarithms occur at least at next-to leading logarithm (NLL) in the exponent of the distribution. Using the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), we show that new clustering effects contributing at NLL arise at each order. While numerical resummation of clustering logs is possible, it is unlikely that they can be analytically resummed to NLL. Clustering logarithms make the anti-kT algorithm theoretically preferred, for which they are power suppressed. They can arise in Abelian and non-Abelian terms, and we calculate the Abelian clustering logarithms at O ( {α_s^2} ) for the jet mass distribution using the Cambridge/Aachen and kT algorithms, including jet radius dependence, which extends previous results. We find that clustering logarithms can be naturally thought of as a class of non-global logarithms, which have traditionally been tied to non-Abelian correlations in soft gluon emission.
New Solutions for Non-Abelian Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J.
2016-12-01
We study the properties of classical vortex solutions in a non-Abelian gauge theory. A system of two adjoint Higgs fields breaks the SU(2) gauge symmetry to Z2 , producing 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles trapped on cosmic strings, termed beads; there are two charges of monopole and two degenerate string solutions. The strings break an accidental discrete Z2 symmetry of the theory, explaining the degeneracy of the ground state. Further symmetries of the model, not previously appreciated, emerge when the masses of the two adjoint Higgs fields are degenerate. The breaking of the enlarged discrete symmetry gives rise to additional string solutions and splits the monopoles into four types of "semipole": kink solutions that interpolate between the string solutions, classified by a complex gauge-invariant magnetic flux and a Z4 charge. At special values of the Higgs self-couplings, the accidental symmetry broken by the string is continuous, giving rise to supercurrents on the strings. The SU(2) theory can be embedded in a wide class of grand unified theories (GUTs), including SO(10). We argue that semipoles and supercurrents are generic on GUT strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattringer, Christof; Marchis, Carlotta
2017-03-01
We propose a new approach to strong coupling series and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories using the SU(2) case as an example. The Wilson gauge action is written as a sum over ;abelian color cycles; (ACC) which correspond to loops in color space around plaquettes. The ACCs are complex numbers which can be commuted freely such that the strong coupling series and the dual representation can be obtained as in the abelian case. Using a suitable representation of the SU(2) gauge variables we integrate out all original gauge links and identify the constraints for the dual variables in the SU(2) case. We show that the construction can be generalized to the case of SU(2) gauge fields with staggered fermions. The result is a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form and we discuss its applicability for possible dual simulations. The abelian color cycle concept can be generalized to other non-abelian gauge groups such as SU(3).
Simulating Dirac fermions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in optical lattices
Alba, E.; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, X.; Mur-Petit, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J.J.; Pachos, J.K.
2013-01-15
In this work we present an optical lattice setup to realize a full Dirac Hamiltonian in 2+1 dimensions. We show how all possible external potentials coupled to the Dirac field can arise from perturbations of the existing couplings of the honeycomb lattice pattern. This greatly simplifies the proposed implementations, requiring only spatial modulations of the intensity of the laser beams to induce complex non-Abelian potentials. We finally suggest several experiments to observe the properties of the quantum field theory in the setup. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work provides a very flexible setup for simulating Dirac fermions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript contains a detailed study of optical lattice deformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The link between lattice deformations and effective gauge Hamiltonians is studied.
Non-Abelian anyons: when Ising meets Fibonacci.
Grosfeld, E; Schoutens, K
2009-08-14
We consider an interface between two non-Abelian quantum Hall states: the Moore-Read state, supporting Ising anyons, and the k=2 non-Abelian spin-singlet state, supporting Fibonacci anyons. It is shown that the interface supports neutral excitations described by a (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge c=7/10. We discuss effects of the mismatch of the quantum statistical properties of the quasiholes between the two sides, as reflected by the interface theory.
Non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries of 10D SYM theory with magnetized extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki
2014-06-01
We study discrete flavor symmetries of the models based on a ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (10D SYM) theory compactified on magnetized tori. We assume non-vanishing non-factorizable fluxes as well as the orbifold projections. These setups allow model-building with more various flavor structures. Indeed, we show that there exist various classes of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries. In particular, we find that S 3 flavor symmetries can be realized in the framework of the magnetized 10D SYM theory for the first time.
Perfect Abelian dominance of confinement in mesons and baryons in SU(3) lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumichi, Naoyuki; Suganuma, Hideo
2016-11-01
For a long time, the quark confinement mechanism has been one of the most difficult problems in theoretical physics. In particular, there is no clear correspondence between the confinement and non-Abelian nature of QCD. We study the static interquark potential and its Abelian projection in both mesons and baryons in the maximally Abelian (MA) gauge in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD. Remarkably, we find that the quark confining force in QCD can be perfectly described only with Abelian variables in theMAgauge, which we call "perfect Abelian dominance" of the quark confinement.
Fibonacci anyons from Abelian bilayer quantum Hall states.
Vaezi, Abolhassan; Barkeshli, Maissam
2014-12-05
The possibility of realizing non-Abelian statistics and utilizing it for topological quantum computation (TQC) has generated widespread interest. However, the non-Abelian statistics that can be realized in most accessible proposals is not powerful enough for universal TQC. In this Letter, we consider a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with the 1/3 Laughlin state in each layer. We show that interlayer tunneling can drive a transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains the famous "Fibonacci" anyon, whose non-Abelian statistics is powerful enough for universal TQC. Our analysis rests on startling agreements from a variety of distinct methods, including thin torus limits, effective field theories, and coupled wire constructions. We provide evidence that the transition can be continuous, at which point the charge gap remains open while the neutral gap closes. This raises the question of whether these exotic phases may have already been realized at ν=2/3 in bilayers, as past experiments may not have definitively ruled them out.
Non-Abelian Bremsstrahlung and Azimuthal Asymmetries in High Energy p+A Reactions
Gyulassy, Miklos; Vitev, Ivan Mateev; Levai, Peter; ...
2014-09-25
Here we apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute the all-order in nuclear opacity non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event- by-event uctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, vmore » $$M\\atop{n}$$ {1}, and even number 2ℓ gluon, v$$M\\atop{n}$$ {2ℓ} inclusive distributions in high energy p+A reactions as a function of harmonic $n$, target recoil cluster number, $M$, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form Color Scintillation Antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to character- istic boost non-invariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to vn moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic non-flow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd vn without invoking kT factorization. A test of CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the vn(kTη). Non- Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may thus provide a simple analytic solution to Beam Energy Scan (BES) puzzle of the near $$\\sqrt{s}$$ independence of vn(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV where large-x valence quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of vn in p(D) + A and non-central A + A at same dN=dη multiplicity as observed at RHIC and LHC.« less
Phenomenological analysis of heterotic strings: Non-abelian constructions and landscape studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasnik, Vaibhav Hemant
String theory offers the unique promise of unifying all the known forces in nature. However, the internal consistency of the theory requires that spacetime have more than four dimensions. As a result, the extra dimensions must be compactified in some manner and how this compactification takes place is critical for determining the low-energy physical predictions of the theory. In this thesis we examine two distinct consequences of this fact. First, almost all of the prior research in string model-building has examined the consequences of compactifying on so-called "abelian" orbifolds. However, the most general class of compactifications, namely those on non-abelian orbifolds, remains almost completely unexplored. This thesis focuses on the low-energy phenomenological consequences of compactifying strings on non-abelian orbifolds. One of the main interests in pursuing these theories is that they can, in principle, naturally give rise to low-energy models which simultaneously have N=1 supersymmetry along with scalar particles transforming in the adjoint of the gauge group. These features, which are exceedingly difficult to achieve through abelian orbifolds, are exciting because they are the key ingredients in understanding how grand unification can emerge from string theory. Second, the need to compactify gives rise to a huge "landscape" of possible resulting low-energy phenomenologies. One of the goals of the landscape program in string theory is then to extract information about the space of string vacua in the form of statistical correlations between phenomenological features that are otherwise uncorrelated in field theory. Such correlations would thus represent features of string theory that hold independently of a vacuum-selection principle. In this thesis, we study statistical correlations between two features which are likely to be central to any potential description of nature at high-energy scales: gauge symmetries and spacetime supersymmetry. We analyze
Non-Abelian Bremsstrahlung and Azimuthal Asymmetries in High Energy p+A Reactions
Gyulassy, Miklos; Vitev, Ivan Mateev; Levai, Peter; Biro, Tamas S.
2014-09-25
Here we apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute the all-order in nuclear opacity non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event- by-event uctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, v$M\\atop{n}$ {1}, and even number 2ℓ gluon, v$M\\atop{n}$ {2ℓ} inclusive distributions in high energy p+A reactions as a function of harmonic $n$, target recoil cluster number, $M$, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form Color Scintillation Antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to character- istic boost non-invariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to v_{n} moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic non-flow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd v_{n} without invoking k_{T} factorization. A test of CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the v_{n}(k_{T}η). Non- Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may thus provide a simple analytic solution to Beam Energy Scan (BES) puzzle of the near $\\sqrt{s}$ independence of v_{n}(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV where large-x valence quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of v_{n} in p(D) + A and non-central A + A at same dN=dη multiplicity as observed at RHIC and LHC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, J. R.
1992-04-01
A model of a sourceless Abelian "gauge wall" consisting of a singular magnetic field occupying the (y, z)-plane is examined in the context of a flat Robertson-Walker space-time background. Exact solutions are found for the gauge field structure function. The solutions may be static or time dependent. Dynamic solutions exist which describe the absorption and emission of gauge field radiation by the gauge wall.
Experimental Identification of Non-Abelian Topological Orders on a Quantum Simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Keren; Wan, Yidun; Hung, Ling-Yan; Lan, Tian; Long, Guilu; Lu, Dawei; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-01
Topological orders can be used as media for topological quantum computing—a promising quantum computation model due to its invulnerability against local errors. Conversely, a quantum simulator, often regarded as a quantum computing device for special purposes, also offers a way of characterizing topological orders. Here, we show how to identify distinct topological orders via measuring their modular S and T matrices. In particular, we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator to study the properties of three topologically ordered matter phases described by the string-net model with two string types, including the Z2 toric code, doubled semion, and doubled Fibonacci. The third one, non-Abelian Fibonacci order is notably expected to be the simplest candidate for universal topological quantum computing. Our experiment serves as the basic module, built on which one can simulate braiding of non-Abelian anyons and ultimately, topological quantum computation via the braiding, and thus provides a new approach of investigating topological orders using quantum computers.
Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical string on a conifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koroteev, P.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2016-09-01
Non-Abelian vortex strings supported in a certain four-dimensional N =2 Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter were shown [1] to become critical superstrings. In addition to translational moduli, the non-Abelian strings under consideration carry orientational and size moduli. Their dynamics is described by the two-dimensional sigma model whose target space is a tautological bundle over the complex projective space. For the N =2 theory with the U (2 ) gauge group and four fundamental hypermultiplets, there are six orientational and size moduli. After combining with four translational moduli, they form a ten-dimensional target space, which is required for a superstring to be critical. For the theory in question, the target space of the sigma model is C2×Y6, where Y6 is a conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) and identify them with hadrons of the 4D bulk N =2 theory. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are nondynamical in 4D. We find a single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. We interpret this degree of freedom as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).
Non-Abelian S U (N -1 ) -singlet fractional quantum Hall states from coupled wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Y.; Lecheminant, P.
2017-03-01
The construction of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states from the two-dimensional array of quantum wires provides a useful way to control strong interactions in microscopic models and has been successfully applied to the Laughlin, Moore-Read, and Read-Rezayi states. We extend this construction to the Abelian and non-Abelian S U (N -1 ) -singlet FQH states at filling fraction ν =k (N -1 )/[N +k (N -1 )m ] labeled by integers k and m , which are potentially realized in multicomponent quantum Hall systems or S U (N ) spin systems. Utilizing the bosonization approach and conformal field theory (CFT), we show that their bulk quasiparticles and gapless edge excitations are both described by an (N -1 ) -component free-boson CFT and the S U (N) k/[U(1 ) ] N -1 CFT known as the Gepner parafermion. Their generalization to different filling fractions is also proposed. In addition, we argue possible applications of these results to two kinds of lattice systems: bosons interacting via occupation-dependent correlated hoppings and an S U (N ) Heisenberg model.
Experimental Identification of Non-Abelian Topological Orders on a Quantum Simulator.
Li, Keren; Wan, Yidun; Hung, Ling-Yan; Lan, Tian; Long, Guilu; Lu, Dawei; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-24
Topological orders can be used as media for topological quantum computing-a promising quantum computation model due to its invulnerability against local errors. Conversely, a quantum simulator, often regarded as a quantum computing device for special purposes, also offers a way of characterizing topological orders. Here, we show how to identify distinct topological orders via measuring their modular S and T matrices. In particular, we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator to study the properties of three topologically ordered matter phases described by the string-net model with two string types, including the Z_{2} toric code, doubled semion, and doubled Fibonacci. The third one, non-Abelian Fibonacci order is notably expected to be the simplest candidate for universal topological quantum computing. Our experiment serves as the basic module, built on which one can simulate braiding of non-Abelian anyons and ultimately, topological quantum computation via the braiding, and thus provides a new approach of investigating topological orders using quantum computers.
Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguchi, Shinichi; Pandey, Vipul Kumar; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-05-01
We apply a generalized Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU (2) Yang-Mills (YM) theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA) gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev-Popov (FP) effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.
Non-Abelian gauge theory on q-Quantum spaces
Schraml, Stefan L.
2002-08-23
Gauge theories on q-deformed spaces are constructed using covariant derivatives. For this purpose a ''vielbein'' is introduced, which transforms under gauge transformations. The non-Abelian case is treated by establishing a connection to gauge theories on commutative spaces, i.e. by a Seiberg-Witten map. As an example we consider the Manin plane. Remarks are made concerning the relation between covariant coordinates and covariant derivatives.
Non-Abelian Vortices, Hecke Modifications and Singular Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baptista, J. M.
2010-06-01
In this note, we show that for the group G = U( N) the space of Hecke modifications of a rank N vector bundle over a Riemann surface C coincides with the moduli space of solutions of certain non-Abelian vortex equations over C. Through the recent work of Kapustin and Witten this then leads to an isomorphism between the moduli space of vortices and the moduli space of singular monopoles on the product of C with a closed interval I.
Discretized Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on arbitrary graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kai; Kumar, Krishna; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-09-01
In this paper, we show how to discretize the Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on generic planar lattices/graphs (with or without translational symmetries) embedded in arbitrary two-dimensional closed orientable manifolds. We find that, as long as a one-to-one correspondence between vertices and faces can be defined on the graph such that each face is paired up with a neighboring vertex (and vice versa), a discretized Abelian Chern-Simons theory can be constructed consistently. We further verify that all the essential properties of the Chern-Simons gauge theory are preserved in the discretized setup. In addition, we find that the existence of such a one-to-one correspondence is not only a sufficient condition for discretizing a Chern-Simons gauge theory but, for the discretized theory to be nonsingular and to preserve some key properties of the topological field theory, this correspondence is also a necessary one. A specific example will then be provided, in which we discretize the Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory on a tetrahedron.
Designer non-Abelian anyon platforms: from Majorana to Fibonacci
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady
2015-12-01
The emergence of non-Abelian anyons from large collections of interacting elementary particles is a conceptually beautiful phenomenon with important ramifications for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Over the last few decades the field has evolved from a highly theoretical subject to an active experimental area, particularly following proposals for trapping non-Abelian anyons in ‘engineered’ structures built from well-understood components. In this short overview we briefly tour the impressive progress that has taken place in the quest for the simplest type of non-Abelian anyon—defects binding Majorana zero modes—and then turn to similar strategies for pursuing more exotic excitations. Specifically, we describe how interfacing simple quantum Hall systems with conventional superconductors yields ‘parafermionic’ generalizations of Majorana modes and even Fibonacci anyons—the latter enabling fully fault tolerant universal quantum computation. We structure our treatment in a manner that unifies these topics in a coherent way. The ideas synthesized here spotlight largely uncharted experimental territory in the field of quantum Hall physics that appears ripe for discovery.
Quantisation of monopoles with non-abelian magnetic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bais, F. A.; Schroers, B. J.
1998-02-01
Magnetic monopoles in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with a non-abelian unbroken gauge group are classified by holomorphic charges in addition to the topological charges familiar from the abelian case. As a result the moduli spaces of monopoles of given topological charge are stratified according to the holomorphic charges. Here the physical consequences of the stratification are explored in the case where the gauge group SU(3) is broken to U(2). The description due to Dancer of the moduli space of charge-two monopoles is reviewed and interpreted physically in terms of non-abelian magnetic dipole moments. Semi-classical quantisation leads to dyonic states which are labelled by a magnetic charge and a representation of the subgroup of U(2) which leaves the magnetic charge invariant (centraliser subgroup). A key result of this paper is that these states fall into representations of the semi-direct product U(2) ⋉ R4. The combination rules (Clebsch-Gordan coefficients) of dyonic states can thus be deduced. Electric-magnetic duality properties of the theory are discussed in the light of our results, and supersymmetric dyonic BPS states which fill the SL(2, Z) orbit of the basic massive W-bosons are found.
Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honecker, Gabriele; Staessens, Wieland
2015-07-01
We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete ℤn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/ℤ2N and T6/ℤ2 × ℤ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent ℤ2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial ℤ3 charge.
Wilson loop and magnetic monopole through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2008-04-15
I show that the Wilson loop operator for the SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge connection is exactly rewritten in terms of conserved gauge-invariant magnetic and electric currents through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem of the Diakonov-Petrov type. Here the magnetic current originates from the magnetic monopole derived in the gauge-invariant way from the pure Yang-Mills theory even in the absence of the Higgs scalar field, in sharp contrast to the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole in the Georgi-Glashow gauge-Higgs model. The resulting representation indicates that the Wilson loop operator in fundamental representations can be a probe for a single magnetic monopole irrespective of N in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, against the conventional wisdom. Moreover, I show that the quantization condition for the magnetic charge follows from the fact that the non-Abelian Stokes theorem does not depend on the surface chosen for writing the surface integral. The obtained geometrical and topological representations of the Wilson loop operator have important implications to understanding quark confinement according to the dual superconductor picture.
Wilson loop and magnetic monopole through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2008-04-01
I show that the Wilson loop operator for the SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge connection is exactly rewritten in terms of conserved gauge-invariant magnetic and electric currents through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem of the Diakonov-Petrov type. Here the magnetic current originates from the magnetic monopole derived in the gauge-invariant way from the pure Yang-Mills theory even in the absence of the Higgs scalar field, in sharp contrast to the ’t Hooft Polyakov magnetic monopole in the Georgi-Glashow gauge-Higgs model. The resulting representation indicates that the Wilson loop operator in fundamental representations can be a probe for a single magnetic monopole irrespective of N in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, against the conventional wisdom. Moreover, I show that the quantization condition for the magnetic charge follows from the fact that the non-Abelian Stokes theorem does not depend on the surface chosen for writing the surface integral. The obtained geometrical and topological representations of the Wilson loop operator have important implications to understanding quark confinement according to the dual superconductor picture.
Non-Abelian black string solutions of N = (2,0) , d = 6 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cano, Pablo A.; Ortín, Tomás; Santoli, Camilla
2016-12-01
We show that, when compactified on a circle, N = (2, 0), d = 6 supergravity coupled to 1 tensor multiplet and n V vector multiplets is dual to N = (2 , 0) , d = 6 supergravity coupled to just n T = n V + 1 tensor multiplets and no vector multiplets. Both theories reduce to the same models of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity coupled to n V 5 = n V + 2 vector fields. We derive Buscher rules that relate solutions of these theories (and of the theory that one obtains by dualizing the 3-form field strength) admitting an isometry. Since the relations between the fields of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity and those of the 6-dimensional theories are the same with or without gaugings, we construct supersymmetric non-Abelian solutions of the 6-dimensional gauged theories by uplifting the recently found 5-dimensional supersymmetric non-Abelian black-hole solutions. The solutions describe the usual superpositions of strings and waves supplemented by a BPST instanton in the transverse directions, similar to the gauge dyonic string of Duff, Lü and Pope. One of the solutions obtained interpolates smoothly between two AdS3× S3 geometries with different radii.
Quark confinement due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou
2012-10-23
We present recent results on quark confinement: in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, confinement of fundamental quarks is obtained due to the dual Meissner effect originated from non-Abelian magnetic monopoles defined in a gauge-invariant way, which is distinct from the well-known Abelian projection scenario. This is achieved by using a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator and a new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory.
Escalante, Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, J.
2015-10-15
A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of an Abelian and non-Abelian exotic action for gravity in three dimensions is performed. We obtain for the theories under study the constraints, the gauge transformations, the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and we perform the counting of physical degrees of freedom. In addition, we compare our results with those found in the literature where the canonical analysis is developed, in particular, we show that both the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects. - Highlights: • A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw analysis for exotic action of gravity is performed. • We show that Dirac’s brackets and Generalized [FJ] brackets are equivalent. • Without fixing the gauge exotic action is a non-commutative theory. • The fundamental gauge transformations of the theory are found. • Dirac and Faddeev–Jackiw approaches are compared.
Bounds on topological Abelian string-vortex and string-cigar from information-entropic measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, R. A. C.; Dantas, D. M.; Almeida, C. A. S.; da Rocha, Roldão
2016-04-01
In this work we obtain bounds on the topological Abelian string-vortex and on the string-cigar, by using a new measure of configurational complexity, known as configurational entropy. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of six-dimensional braneworlds scenarios is capable to probe situations where the parameters responsible for the brane thickness are arbitrary. The so-called configurational entropy (CE) selects the best value of the parameter in the model. This is accomplished by minimizing the CE, namely, by selecting the most appropriate parameters in the model that correspond to the most organized system, based upon the Shannon information theory. This information-theoretical measure of complexity provides a complementary perspective to situations where strictly energy-based arguments are inconclusive. We show that the higher the energy the higher the CE, what shows an important correlation between the energy of the a localized field configuration and its associated entropic measure.
Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-12-01
We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.
Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D N = 1 conformal supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Shuntaro; Higaki, Tetsutaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Yokokura, Ryo
2016-09-01
We consider Abelian tensor hierarchy in four-dimensional N = 1 supergravity in the conformal superspace formalism, where the so-called covariant approach is used to antisymmetric tensor fields. We introduce p-form gauge superfields as superforms in the conformal superspace. We solve the Bianchi identities under the constraints for the super-forms. As a result, each of form fields is expressed by a single gauge invariant superfield. We also show the relation between the superspace formalism and the superconformal tensor calculus.
Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N = 1 superspace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Linch, William D.; Robbins, Daniel
2016-03-01
With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N =1superspaceandconstructitsChern-Simons-likeinvariants. Whenspecializedtothe case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N = 1 superfields.
On spectral synthesis on zero-dimensional Abelian groups
Platonov, S S
2013-09-30
Let G be a zero-dimensional locally compact Abelian group all of whose elements are compact, and let C(G) be the space of all complex-valued continuous functions on G. A closed linear subspace H⊆C(G) is said to be an invariant subspace if it is invariant with respect to the translations τ{sub y}:f(x)↦f(x+y), y∈G. In the paper, it is proved that any invariant subspace H admits spectral synthesis, that is, H coincides with the closed linear span of the characters of G belonging to H. Bibliography: 25 titles.
Phase transitions in Abelian lattice gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheluvaraja, Srinath
2000-02-01
We study the phase transition in the U (1) lattice gauge theory using the Wilson-Polyakov line as the order parameter. The Wilson-Polyakov line remains very small at strong coupling and becomes non-zero at weak coupling, signalling a confinement-to-deconfinement phase transition. The decondensation of monopole loops is responsible for this phase transition. A finite size scaling analysis of the susceptibility of the Wilson line gives a ratio for icons/Journals/Common/gamma" ALT="gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> /icons/Journals/Common/nu" ALT="nu" ALIGN="TOP"/> which is quite close to the corresponding value in the three-dimensional planar model. A scaling behaviour of the monopole loop distribution function is also established at the point of the second-order phase transition. A measurement of the plaquette susceptibility at the transition point shows that it does not scale with the four-dimensional volume as is expected of a first-order bulk transition.
Anisotopic inflation with a non-abelian gauge field in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahiri, Sayantani
2017-01-01
In presence of Gauss-Bonnet corrections, we study anisotropic inflation aided by a massless SU(2) gauge field where both the gauge field and the Gauss-Bonnet term are non-minimally coupled to the inflaton. In this scenario, under slow-roll approximations, the anisotropic inflation is realized as an attractor solution with quadratic forms of inflaton potential and Gauss-Bonnet coupling function. We show that the degree of anisotropy is proportional to the additive combination of two slow-roll parameters of the theory. The anisotropy may become either positive or negative similar to the non-Gauss-Bonnet framework, a feature of the model for anisotropic inflation supported by a non-abelian gauge field but the effect of Gauss-Bonnet term further enhances or suppresses the generated anisotropy.
Low-energy signals from kinetic mixing with a warped abelian hidden sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, Kristian L.; Morrissey, David E.
2011-02-01
We investigate the detailed phenomenology of a light Abelian hidden sector in the Randall-Sundrum framework. Relative to other works with light hidden sectors, the main new feature is a tower of hidden Kaluza-Klein vectors that kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and Z. We investigate the decay properties of the hidden sector fields in some detail, and develop an approach for calculating processes initiated on the ultraviolet brane of a warped space with large injection momentum relative to the infrared scale. Using these results, we determine the detailed bounds on the light warped hidden sector from precision electroweak measurements and low-energy experiments. We find viable regions of parameter space that lead to significant production rates for several of the hidden Kaluza-Klein vectors in meson factories and fixed-target experiments. This offers the possibility of exploring the structure of an extra spacetime dimension with lower-energy probes.
Topology, and (in)stability of non-Abelian monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng-Ming; Horvathy, Peter A.; Rawnsley, John
2012-01-01
The stability problem of non-Abelian monopoles with respect to "Brandt-Neri-Coleman type" variations reduces to that of a pure gauge theory on the two-sphere. Each topological sector admits exactly one stable monopole charge, and each unstable monopole admits 2∑(2|q|-1) negative modes, where the sum goes over the negative eigenvalues q of an operator related to the non-Abelian charge Q of Goddard, Nuyts and Olive. An explicit construction for the [up-to-conjugation] unique stable charge, as well as the negative modes of the Hessian at any other charge is given. The relation to loops in the residual group is explained. From the global point of view, the instability is associated with energy-reducing two-spheres, which, consistently with the Morse theory, generate the homology of the configuration space. Our spheres are tangent to the negative modes at the considered critical point, and may indicate possible decay routes of an unstable monopole as a cascade into lower lying critical points.
Origin of Abelian gauge symmetries in heterotic/F-theory duality
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Klevers, Denis; Poretschkin, Maximilian; Song, Peng
2016-04-07
Here, we study aspects of heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory on general Calabi-Yau manifolds with a rank one Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. By rigorously performing the stable degeneration limit in a class of toric models, and also derive both the Calabi-Yau geometry and the spectral cover describing the vector bundle in the heterotic dual theory. We carefully investigate the spectral cover employing the group law on the elliptic curve in the heterotic theory. We find in explicit examples that there are three different classes of heterotic duals that have U(1) factors in their low energy effective theories: split spectral covers describing bundles with S(U(m) x U(1)) structure group, spectral covers containing torsional sections that seem to give rise to bundles with SU(m) x Z_k structure group and bundles with purely non-Abelian structure groups having a centralizer in E_8 containing a U(1) factor. In the former two cases, it is required that the elliptic fibration on the heterotic side has a non-trivial Mordell-Weil group. And while the number of geometrically massless U(1)'s is determined entirely by geometry on the F-theory side, on the heterotic side the correct number of U(1)'s is found by taking into account a Stuckelberg mechanism in the lower-dimensional effective theory. Finally, in geometry, this corresponds to the condition that sections in the two half K3 surfaces that arise in the stable degeneration limit of F-theory can be glued together globally.
Origin of Abelian gauge symmetries in heterotic/F-theory duality
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Klevers, Denis; ...
2016-04-07
Here, we study aspects of heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory on general Calabi-Yau manifolds with a rank one Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. By rigorously performing the stable degeneration limit in a class of toric models, and also derive both the Calabi-Yau geometry and the spectral cover describing the vector bundle in the heterotic dual theory. We carefully investigate the spectral cover employing the group law on the elliptic curve in the heterotic theory. We find in explicit examples that there are three different classes of heterotic duals that have U(1) factors in theirmore » low energy effective theories: split spectral covers describing bundles with S(U(m) x U(1)) structure group, spectral covers containing torsional sections that seem to give rise to bundles with SU(m) x Z_k structure group and bundles with purely non-Abelian structure groups having a centralizer in E_8 containing a U(1) factor. In the former two cases, it is required that the elliptic fibration on the heterotic side has a non-trivial Mordell-Weil group. And while the number of geometrically massless U(1)'s is determined entirely by geometry on the F-theory side, on the heterotic side the correct number of U(1)'s is found by taking into account a Stuckelberg mechanism in the lower-dimensional effective theory. Finally, in geometry, this corresponds to the condition that sections in the two half K3 surfaces that arise in the stable degeneration limit of F-theory can be glued together globally.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saniga, Metod
1995-03-01
It is demonstrated that the kinematic 'peculiarity' of the early Sab galaxy NGC 4826 can easily be understood in terms of the Abelian Higgs (AH) model of spiral galaxies. A cylindrically symmetric AH vorto-source (-sink) with a disk-to-bulge ratio Omega greater than 1 is discussed and the distributions of the diagonal components of the corresponding stress-energy tensor Tmu,nu are presented. It is argued that the sign-changing component Tphiphi could account for the existence of two counter-rotating gas disks while negative values of Trr imply inward gas motions as observed in the outer and transition regions of the galaxy.
Detecting non-Abelian geometric phases with three-level Λ systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yan-Xiong; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Ding; Yan, Hui
2011-09-01
We show that a non-Abelian gauge potential in two nearly degenerated dressed states may be induced by two laser beams interacting with a three-level Λ atomic system. We demonstrate that the populations of the atomic states at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops are dependent on the order of those two loops, showing an unambiguous signature of the non-Abelian geometric phase. Through numerical calculations, we show that the non-Abelian feature of the geometric phases can be tested under realistic conditions.
Detecting non-Abelian geometric phases with three-level {Lambda} systems
Du Yanxiong; Xue Zhengyuan; Zhang Xinding; Yan Hui
2011-09-15
We show that a non-Abelian gauge potential in two nearly degenerated dressed states may be induced by two laser beams interacting with a three-level {Lambda} atomic system. We demonstrate that the populations of the atomic states at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops are dependent on the order of those two loops, showing an unambiguous signature of the non-Abelian geometric phase. Through numerical calculations, we show that the non-Abelian feature of the geometric phases can be tested under realistic conditions.
Symplectic analysis of three-dimensional Abelian topological gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R.; Escalante, Alberto; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo
2017-02-01
A detailed Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of an Abelian topological gravity is performed; we show that this formalism is equivalent and more economical than Dirac's method. In particular, we identify the complete set of constraints of the theory, from which the number of physical degrees of freedom is explicitly computed. We prove that the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets and the Dirac ones coincide with each other. Moreover, we perform the Faddeev-Jackiw analysis of the theory at the chiral point, and the full set of constraints and the generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets are constructed. Finally we compare our results with those found in the literature and we discuss some remarks and prospects.
Abelian gauge theories on compact manifolds and the Gribov ambiguity
Kelnhofer, Gerald
2008-05-15
We study the quantization of Abelian gauge theories of principal torus bundles over compact manifolds with and without boundary. It is shown that these gauge theories suffer from a Gribov ambiguity originating in the nontriviality of the bundle of connections whose geometrical structure will be analyzed in detail. Motivated by the stochastic quantization approach, we propose a modified functional integral measure on the space of connections that takes the Gribov problem into account. This functional integral measure is used to calculate the partition function, Green's functions, and the field strength correlating functions in any dimension by using the fact that the space of inequivalent connections itself admits the structure of a bundle over a finite dimensional torus. Green's functions are shown to be affected by the nontrivial topology, giving rise to nonvanishing vacuum expectation values for the gauge fields.
Topological degeneracy of non-Abelian states for dummies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshikawa, Masaki; Kim, Yong Baek; Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Tewari, Sumanta
2007-06-01
We present a physical construction of degenerate groundstates of the Moore-Read Pfaffian states, which exhibits non-Abelian statistics, on general Riemann surface with genus g. The construction is given by a generalization of the recent argument [M.O., T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060601] which relates fractionalization and topological order. The nontrivial groundstate degeneracy obtained by Read and Green [Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 10267] based on differential geometry is reproduced exactly. Some restrictions on the statistics, due to the fractional charge of the quasiparticle are also discussed. Furthermore, the groundstate degeneracy of the p + i p superconductor in two dimensions, which is closely related to the Pfaffian states, is discussed with a similar construction.
Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity
Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry
2006-03-15
Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description.
Field theory aspects of non-Abelian T-duality and {N} =2 linear quivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano, Yolanda; Núñez, Carlos
2016-05-01
In this paper we propose a linear quiver with gauge groups of increasing rank as field theory dual to the AdS 5 background constructed by Sfetsos and Thompson through non-Abelian T-duality. The formalism to study 4d {N} = 2 SUSY CFTs developed by Gaiotto and Maldacena is essential for our proposal. We point out an interesting relation between (Hopf) Abelian and non-Abelian T-dual backgrounds that allows to see both backgrounds as different limits of a solution constructed by Maldacena and Núñez. This suggests different completions of the long quiver describing the CFT dual to the nonAbelian T-dual background that match different observables.
On algebraic cycles on complex Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankeev, S. G.
2008-08-01
If the Hodge conjecture holds for some generic (in the sense of Weil) geometric fibre X_s of an Abelian scheme \\pi\\colon X\\to C over a smooth projective curve C, then numerical equivalence of algebraic cycles on X coincides with homological equivalence. The Hodge conjecture for all complex Abelian varieties is equivalent to the standard conjecture B(X) of Lefschetz type on the algebraicity of the Hodge operator \\ast for all Abelian schemes \\pi\\colon X\\to C over smooth projective curves. We investigate some properties of the Gauss-Manin connection and Hodge bundles associated with Abelian schemes over smooth projective curves, with applications to the conjectures of Hodge and Tate.
Capri, M.A.L. . E-mail: marcio@dft.if.uerj.br; Sobreiro, R.F. . E-mail: sobreiro@uerj.br; Sorella, S.P. . E-mail: sorella@uerj.br; Thibes, R. . E-mail: thibes@dft.if.uerj.br
2007-08-15
A detailed discussion of the renormalization properties of a class of gauges which interpolates among the Landau, Coulomb and maximal Abelian gauges is provided in the framework of the algebraic renormalization in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions.
Magnetic monopoles and Abelian gauge fixing in SU(4) gauge group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Eshraghi, Mojtaba; Kahnemuii, Mohammad Javad
2016-01-01
Abelian gauge fixing procedure is used to create the SU (4) magnetic monopoles in the vicinity of the points where the gluon field becomes singular. The matrix of the scalar field is considered as almost diagonal in the SU (2) and SU (3) subspaces. The gauge transformation which diagonalizes the hedgehog filed, transforms the gluon field into two regular and singular parts. The abelian magnetic monopoles which appear in the latter part obey the quantization condition.
Dual Meissner Effect and Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopole in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru
2013-03-01
We measure the color flux produced by a pair of quark and antiquark and examine whether or not the non-Abelian dual superconductivity claimed by us is indeed a mechanism of quark confinement. We present a preliminary result of the direct evidence for the non-abelian dual Meissner effect, that is to say, restricted U(2)-field part of the flux tube plays the dominant role in the quarkantiquark potential.
Marginal and non-commutative deformations via non-abelian T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; Thompson, Daniel C.
2017-02-01
In this short article we develop recent proposals to relate Yang-Baxter sigmamodels and non-abelian T-duality. We demonstrate explicitly that the holographic spacetimes associated to both (multi-parameter)- β-deformations and non-commutative deformations of N = 4 super Yang-Mills gauge theory including the RR fluxes can be obtained via the machinery of non-abelian T-duality in Type II supergravity.
Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure: From Abelian gauge anomalies to the Stueckelberg mechanism
Lima, Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago
2014-02-15
Revisiting a path-integral procedure developed by Harada and Tsutsui for recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard current conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the application of the Harada–Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism. -- Highlights: • A gauge restoration technique from Abelian anomalous models is discussed. • It is shown that there is another way that leads to gauge symmetry restoration from such technique. • It is shown that the first gauge restoration preserves the anomaly, while the proposed second one is free from anomalies. • It is shown that the proposed gauge symmetry restoration can be identified with the Stueckelberg mechanism.
Non-Abelian dark forces and the relic densities of dark glueballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris
2017-01-01
Our understanding of the Universe is known to be incomplete, and new gauge forces beyond those of the Standard Model might be crucial to describing its observed properties. A minimal and well-motivated possibility is a pure Yang-Mills non-Abelian dark gauge force with no direct connection to the Standard Model. We determine here the relic abundances of the glueball bound states that arise in such theories and investigate their cosmological effects. Glueballs are first formed in a confining phase transition, and their relic densities are set by a network of annihilation and transfer reactions. The lightest glueball has no lighter states to annihilate into, and its yield is set mainly by 3 →2 number-changing processes which persistently release energy into the glueball gas during freeze-out. The abundances of the heavier glueballs are dominated by 2 →2 transfer reactions and tend to be much smaller than the lightest state. We also investigate potential connectors between the dark force and the Standard Model that allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. If the connection is weak, the lightest glueball can be very long-lived or stable and is a viable dark matter candidate. For stronger connections, the lightest glueball will decay quickly, but other heavier glueball states can remain stable and contribute to the dark matter density.
AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.
2016-05-01
We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, David
2016-12-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.
Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving.
Zhang, J; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-12-21
A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer.
Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin orbit coupled substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leurs, B. W. A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D. I.; Zaanen, J.
2008-04-01
Motivated by the heavy ion collision experiments there is much activity in studying the hydrodynamical properties of non-Abelian (quark-gluon) plasmas. A major question is how to deal with color currents. Although not widely appreciated, quite similar issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of the transport of spins in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The key insight is that the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in condensed matter systems can be rewritten in a language of SU(2) covariant derivatives where the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields: the Pauli system can be viewed as Yang-Mills quantum-mechanics in a 'fixed frame', and it can be viewed as an 'analogous system' for non-Abelian transport in the same spirit as Volovik's identification of the He superfluids as analogies for quantum fields in curved space time. We take a similar perspective as Jackiw and coworkers in their recent study of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, twisting the interpretation into the 'fixed frame' context, to find out what this means for spin transport in condensed matter systems. We present an extension of Jackiw's scheme: non-Abelian hydrodynamical currents can be factored in a 'non-coherent' classical part, and a coherent part requiring macroscopic non-Abelian quantum entanglement. Hereby it becomes particularly manifest that non-Abelian fluid flow is a much richer affair than familiar hydrodynamics, and this permits us to classify the various spin transport phenomena in condensed matter physics in an unifying framework. The "particle based hydrodynamics" of Jackiw et al. is recognized as the high temperature spin transport associated with semiconductor spintronics. In this context the absence of faithful hydrodynamics is well known, but in our formulation it is directly associated with the fact that the covariant conservation of non-Abelian currents turns into a disastrous non
Fractional quantum Hall bilayers at half filling: Tunneling-driven non-Abelian phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Liu, Zhao; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2016-12-01
Multicomponent quantum Hall systems with internal degrees of freedom provide a fertile ground for the emergence of exotic quantum liquids. Here, we investigate the possibility of non-Abelian topological order in the half-filled fractional quantum Hall (FQH) bilayer system driven by the tunneling effect between two layers. By means of the state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group, we unveil "fingerprint" evidence of the non-Abelian Moore-Read Pfaffian state emerging in the intermediate-tunneling regime, including the ground-state degeneracy on the torus geometry and the topological entanglement spectroscopy (entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy) on the spherical geometry, respectively. Remarkably, the phase transition from the previously identified Abelian (331) Halperin state to the non-Abelian Moore-Read Pfaffian state is determined to be continuous, which is signaled by the continuous evolution of the universal part of the entanglement spectrum, and discontinuities in the excitation gap and the derivative of the ground-state energy. Our results not only provide a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of realizing a non-Abelian state through coupling different degrees of freedom, but also open up a possibility in FQH bilayer systems for detecting different chiral p -wave pairing states.
Non-abelian T-duality and consistent truncations in type-II supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Lozano, Yolanda; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Sfetsos, Konstadinos
2012-08-01
For a general class of SO(4) symmetric backgrounds in type-II supergravity, we show that the action of non-Abelian T-duality can be described via consistent truncation to seven dimensional theories with seemingly massive modes. As such, any solution to these theories uplifts to both massive type IIA and IIB supergravities presenting an invertible map between the two. For supersymmetric backgrounds, we show that for spinors transforming under SO(4) the non-Abelian T-duality transformation breaks the original supersymmetry by half. We use these mappings to generate the non-Abelian T-duals of the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave, the Lin, Lunin, Maldacena geometries and spacetimes with Lifshitz symmetry.
Perfect Abelian dominance of confinement in quark-antiquark potential in SU(3) lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suganuma, Hideo; Sakumichi, Naoyuki
2016-01-01
In the context of the dual superconductor picture for the confinement mechanism, we study maximally Abelian (MA) projection of quark confinement in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD with 324 at β=6.4 (i.e., a ≃ 0.058 fm). We investigate the static quark-antiquark potential V(r), its Abelian part VAbel(r) and its off-diagonal part Voff(r), respectively, from the on-axis lattice data. As a remarkable fact, we find almost perfect Abelian dominance for quark confinement, i.e., σAbel ≃ σ for the string tension, on the fine and large-volume lattice. We find also a nontrivial summation relation of V (r) ≃ VAbel(r)+Voff(r).
Perfect Abelian dominance of confinement in quark-antiquark potential in SU(3) lattice QCD
Suganuma, Hideo; Sakumichi, Naoyuki
2016-01-22
In the context of the dual superconductor picture for the confinement mechanism, we study maximally Abelian (MA) projection of quark confinement in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD with 32{sup 4} at β=6.4 (i.e., a ≃ 0.058 fm). We investigate the static quark-antiquark potential V(r), its Abelian part V{sub Abel}(r) and its off-diagonal part V{sub off}(r), respectively, from the on-axis lattice data. As a remarkable fact, we find almost perfect Abelian dominance for quark confinement, i.e., σ{sub Abel} ≃ σ for the string tension, on the fine and large-volume lattice. We find also a nontrivial summation relation of V (r) ≃ V{sub Abel}(r)+V{sub off}(r)
Abelian projections of the mass-deformed ABJM theory and weakly curved dual geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yoonbai; Kwon, O.-Kab; Tolla, D. D.
2013-04-01
We construct N=2, 4 supersymmetric Abelian projections of the N=6 mass-deformed Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. There are well-defined dual background geometries for the N=2 Abelian theory, while those geometries are unclear for the N=4 Abelian theory. The N=2 theory is built on the supersymmetric vacua of the mass-deformed ABJM theory, which are proven to have a one-to-one correspondence with the Zk quotient of Lin-Lunin-Maldacena geometries. We select one special vacuum of the mass-deformed ABJM theory and show that the corresponding geometry is weakly curved at every point of the entire space transverse to the M2-branes in the large-N limit.
Controlling and probing non-abelian emergent gauge potentials in spinor Bose-Fermi mixtures
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Tatara, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2015-01-01
Gauge fields, typified by the electromagnetic field, often appear as emergent phenomena due to geometrical properties of a curved Hilbert subspace, and provide a key mechanism for understanding such exotic phenomena as the anomalous and topological Hall effects. Non-abelian gauge potentials serve as a source of non-singular magnetic monopoles. Here we show that unlike conventional solid materials, the non-abelianness of emergent gauge potentials in spinor Bose-Fermi atomic mixtures can be continuously varied by changing the relative particle-number densities of bosons and fermions. The non-abelian feature is captured by an explicit dependence of the measurable spin current density of fermions in the mixture on the variable coupling constant. Spinor mixtures also provide us with a method to coherently and spontaneously generate a pure spin current without relying on the spin Hall effect. Such a spin current is expected to have potential applications in the new generation of atomtronic devices. PMID:26330292
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops.
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153
Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials: From the Hofstadter Moth to Lattice Gauge Theory
Osterloh, K.; Baig, M.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-07-01
We demonstrate how to create artificial external non-Abelian gauge potentials acting on cold atoms in optical lattices. The method employs atoms with k internal states, and laser assisted state sensitive tunneling, described by unitary kxk matrices. The single-particle dynamics in the case of intense U(2) vector potentials lead to a generalized Hofstadter butterfly spectrum which shows a complex mothlike structure. We discuss the possibility to realize non-Abelian interferometry (Aharonov-Bohm effect) and to study many-body dynamics of ultracold matter in external lattice gauge fields.
Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions
Ohya, Satoshi
2014-12-15
We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills.
Non-Abelian geometric phase and long-range atomic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zygelman, B.
1990-01-01
It is shown how gauge fields, or geometric phases, manifest as observable effects in both bound and free diatom systems. It is shown that, in addition to altering energy splittings in bound systems, geometric phases induce transitions in levels separated by a finite-energy gap. An example is given where the non-Abelian gauge field couples nondegenerate electronic levels in a diatom. This gauge-field coupling gives rise to an observable effect. It is shown that when the diatom is 'pulled apart', the non-Abelian geometric phase manifests as a long-range atomic force.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinea, F. J.; Navarro-Lérida, F.
2002-03-01
In this paper we prove that in a stationary axisymmetric SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory the most reasonable circularity conditions that can be considered for the Yang-Mills fields imply in fact that the field is of embedded Abelian type, or else that the metric is not asymptotically flat.
A Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem for semi-abelian varieties over function fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrand, Daniel; Pillay, Anand
2010-04-01
We prove an analogue of the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem (that the exponentials of a {Q} -linearly independent set of algebraic numbers are algebraically independent), replacing {Q}^{alg} by {C}(t)^{alg} and {G}_{m}^{n} by a semi-abelian variety over {C}(t)^{alg} . Both the formulations of our results and the methods are differential algebraic in nature.
Double Weyl points and Fermi arcs of topological semimetals in non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepori, L.; Fulga, I. C.; Trombettoni, A.; Burrello, M.
2016-11-01
We study the effect of a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge potential mimicking spin-orbit coupling on the topological semimetal induced by a magnetic field having π flux per plaquette and acting on fermions in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice. The Abelian π -flux term gives rise to a spectrum characterized by Weyl points. The non-Abelian term is chosen to be gauge equivalent to both a 2D Rashba and a Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the anisotropic nature of the coupling between spin and momentum and of the presence of a C4 rotation symmetry, when the non-Abelian part is turned on, the Weyl points assume a quadratic dispersion along two directions and constitute double monopoles for the Berry curvature. We examine the main features of this system both analytically and numerically, focusing on its gapless surface modes, the so-called Fermi arcs. We discuss the stability of the system under confining hard-wall and harmonic potentials, relevant for the implementation in ultracold atom settings, and the effect of rotation symmetry breaking.
Symmetry-protected non-Abelian braiding of Majorana Kramers pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Pin; He, Ying-Ping; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2016-12-01
We develop a complete theory for symmetry protected non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers' pairs (MKPs) in time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductors, with fundamental results being uncovered. By introducing an effective Hamiltonian approach to describe the braiding of MKPs, we show that the non-Abelian braiding is protected when the effective Hamiltonian exhibits a new TR-like antiunitary symmetry, which is satisfied if the system is free of dynamical noise. Importantly, even the dynamical noise cannot cause error in braiding, unless the noise correlation function breaks a dynamical TR symmetry. This is a profound result and generalizes the TR symmetry protection of MKPs to the dynamical regime. Moreover, the resulted error by noise is shown to be a higher-order effect, compared with the decoherence of Majorana qubits without TR symmetry protection. This study completes the theory of symmetry-protected non-Abelian statistics of MKPs, and shows that the non-Abelian braiding of MKPs is well observable and may have versatile applications to future quantum computation technologies.
Generalized type IIB supergravity equations and non-Abelian classical r-matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-11-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring with non-Abelian classical r-matrices which satisfy the homogeneous classical Yang-Baxter equation. By performing a supercoset construction, we can get deformed {{AdS}}5× {S}5 backgrounds. While this is a new area of research, the current understanding is that Abelian classical r-matrices give rise to solutions of type IIB supergravity, while non-Abelian classical r-matrices lead to solutions of the generalized supergravity equations. We examine here some examples of non-Abelian classical r-matrices and derive the associated backgrounds explicitly. All of the resulting backgrounds satisfy the generalized equations. For some of them, we derive ‘T-dualized’ backgrounds by adding a linear coordinate dependence to the dilaton and show that these satisfy the usual type IIB supergravity equations. Remarkably, some of the ‘T-dualized’ backgrounds are locally identical to undeformed {{AdS}}5× {S}5 after an appropriate coordinate transformation, but this seems not to be generally the case.
Non-Abelian effects in a quadrupole system rotating around two axes
Zwanziger, J.W.; Koenig, M.; Pines, A. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA )
1990-09-01
The {sup 35}Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of a single crystal of sodium chlorate (R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2281 (1987)) rotating about two axes reflects a non-Abelian gauge potential. This gauge potential is an example of Wilczek and Zee's (Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2111 (1984)) generalization of Berry's phase to the adiabatic transport of degenerate states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abanin, Dmitry
2013-03-01
Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non-Abelian quasiparticles in traditional GaAs-based 2d systems is their lack of tunability: the effective electron interactions in such systems are fixed at values which make non-Abelian states either absent of very fragile. Therefore it is desirable to find alternative, tunable 2d systems that host robust non-Abelian quantum Hall states. In this talk, we will discuss the phase diagram of fractional quantum Hall states in recently discovered 2d Dirac materials (graphene, bilayer graphene, topological insulators). We will show that the effective interactions in these materials can be naturally tuned in a broad range, in contrast to GaAs. This tunability is achieved by external fields that control the mass gap of Dirac fermions. Alternatively, the effective interactions can be controlled by engineering the dielectric environment of the 2d Dirac electron gas. We will demonstrate that the tunability of interactions in Dirac materials allows one to stabilize non-Abelian states, as well as to drive phase transitions between various correlated phases (quantum Hall states, Fermi-liquid-like states, and states with broken translational symmetry) in a controlled manner. Connecting to experiments, we will argue that a very promising candidate material for tuning interactions and stabilizing non-Abelian states is bilayer graphene, where the gap can be naturally controlled by perpendicular electric field. Our study provides a realistic route towards engineering robust fractional and non-Abelian quantum Hall states in graphene and other Dirac materials. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non-Abelian
Non-abelian dark matter solutions for Galactic gamma-ray excess and Perseus 3.5 keV X-ray line
Cheung, Kingman; Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming
2015-05-26
We attempt to explain simultaneously the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and the 3.5 keV X-ray line from the Perseus cluster based on a class of non-abelian SU(2) DM models, in which the dark matter and an excited state comprise a “dark” SU(2) doublet. The non-abelian group kinetically mixes with the standard model gauge group via dimensions-5 operators. The dark matter particles annihilate into standard model fermions, followed by fragmentation and bremsstrahlung, and thus producing a continuous spectrum of gamma-rays. On the other hand, the dark matter particles can annihilate into a pair of excited states, each of which decays back into the dark matter particle and an X-ray photon, which has an energy equal to the mass difference between the dark matter and the excited state, which is set to be 3.5 keV. The large hierarchy between the required X-ray and γ-ray annihilation cross-sections can be achieved by a very small kinetic mixing between the SM and dark sector, which effectively suppresses the annihilation into the standard model fermions but not into the excited state.
Non-abelian dark matter solutions for Galactic gamma-ray excess and Perseus 3.5 keV X-ray line
Cheung, Kingman; Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming E-mail: wei-chih.huang@ucl.ac.uk
2015-05-01
We attempt to explain simultaneously the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and the 3.5 keV X-ray line from the Perseus cluster based on a class of non-abelian SU(2) DM models, in which the dark matter and an excited state comprise a ''dark'' SU(2) doublet. The non-abelian group kinetically mixes with the standard model gauge group via dimensions-5 operators. The dark matter particles annihilate into standard model fermions, followed by fragmentation and bremsstrahlung, and thus producing a continuous spectrum of gamma-rays. On the other hand, the dark matter particles can annihilate into a pair of excited states, each of which decays back into the dark matter particle and an X-ray photon, which has an energy equal to the mass difference between the dark matter and the excited state, which is set to be 3.5 keV. The large hierarchy between the required X-ray and γ-ray annihilation cross-sections can be achieved by a very small kinetic mixing between the SM and dark sector, which effectively suppresses the annihilation into the standard model fermions but not into the excited state.
Control of tripod-scheme cold-atom wavepackets by manipulating a non-Abelian vector potential
Zhang Qi; Gong Jiangbin; Oh, C.H.
2010-06-15
Tripod-scheme cold atoms interacting with laser beams have attracted considerable interest for their role in synthesizing effective non-Abelian vector potentials. Such effective vector potentials can be exploited to realize an all-optical imprinting of geometric phases onto matter waves. By working on carefully designed extensions of our previous work, we show that coherent lattice structure of cold-atom sub-wavepackets can be formed and that the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect can be easily manifested via the translational motion of cold atoms. We also show that by changing the frame of reference, effects due to a non-Abelian vector potential may be connected with a simple dynamical phase effect, and that under certain conditions it can be understood as an Abelian geometric phase in a different frame of reference. Results should help design better schemes for the control of cold-atom matter waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2013-03-01
We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement in the SU(3) Yang-Mills (YM) theory, and have given numerical evidences for the restricted-field dominance and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension by applying a new formulation of the YM theory on a lattice. To establish the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement, we have observed the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory by measuring the chromoelectric flux created by the quark-antiquark source, and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole currents induced around the flux. We conclude that the dual superconductivity of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is strictly the type I and that this type of dual superconductivity is reproduced by the restricted field and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole part, in sharp contrast to the SU(2) case: the border of type I and type II.
Proposed Aharonov-Casher interferometry of non-Abelian vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2011-03-01
We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov- Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed. Work supported by ICMT at UIUC, NSERC of Canada, CAS fellowship at UIUC, and the U.S. Department of Energy.
Local Monte Carlo Implementation of the Non-Abelian Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect
Zapp, Korinna; Stachel, Johanna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-10-09
The non-Abelian Landau-Pomeranschuk-Migdal (LPM) effect arises from the quantum interference between spatially separated, inelastic radiation processes in matter. A consistent probabilistic implementation of this LPM effect is a prerequisite for extending the use of Monte Carlo (MC) event generators to the simulation of jetlike multiparticle final states in nuclear collisions. Here, we propose a local MC algorithm, which is based solely on relating the LPM effect to the probabilistic concept of formation time for virtual quanta. This accounts probabilistically for the characteristic L{sup 2} dependence of average parton energy loss and the characteristic 1/sq root(omega) modification of the non-Abelian LPM effect. Additional kinematic constraints are found to modify these L{sup 2} and omega dependencies characteristically in accordance with analytical estimates.
Double and Negative Reflection of Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials
Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Ruseckas, Julius; Jacob, Andreas; Santos, Luis; Oehberg, Patrik
2008-05-23
Atom reflection is studied in the presence of a non-Abelian vector potential proportional to a spin-1/2 operator. The potential is produced by a relatively simple laser configuration for atoms with a tripod level scheme. We show that the atomic motion is described by two different dispersion branches with positive or negative chirality. As a consequence, atom reflection shows unusual features, since an incident wave may split into two reflected ones at a barrier, an ordinary specular reflection, and an additional nonspecular one. Remarkably, the latter wave can exhibit negative reflection and may become evanescent if the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value. These reflection properties are crucial for future designs in non-Abelian atom optics.
Non-Abelian vortices on a cylinder: Duality between vortices and walls
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke; Ohta, Kazutoshi
2006-04-15
We investigate vortices on a cylinder in supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theory with hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. We identify moduli space of periodic vortices and find that a pair of wall-like objects appears as the vortex moduli is varied. Usual domain walls also can be obtained from the single vortex on the cylinder by introducing a twisted boundary condition. We can understand these phenomena as a T duality among D-brane configurations in type II superstring theories. Using this T-duality picture, we find a one-to-one correspondence between the moduli space of non-Abelian vortices and that of kinky D-brane configurations for domain walls.
Quasinormal modes of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bécar, Ramón; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2017-02-01
We study the quasinormal modes of scalar field perturbations in the background of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We find that the quasinormal frequencies have no real part so there is no oscillatory behavior in the perturbations, only exponential decay, that is, the system is always overdamped, which guarantees the mode stability of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We determine analytically the quasinormal modes for massless scalar fields for a dynamical exponent z=2 and hyperscaling violating exponent tilde{θ }>-2. Also, we obtain numerically the quasinormal frequencies for different values of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violating exponent by using the improved asymptotic iteration method.
Non-Abelian holonomic transformation in the presence of classical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jun; Lam, Chi-Hang; Wu, Lian-Ao
2017-01-01
It is proposed that high-speed universal quantum gates can be realized by using non-Abelian holonomic transformation. A cyclic evolution path which brings the system periodically back to a degenerate qubit subspace is crucial to holonomic quantum computing. The cyclic nature and the resulting gate operations are fully dependent on the precise control of driving parameters, such as the modulated envelop function of Rabi frequency and the control phases. We investigate the effects of fluctuations in these driving parameters on the transformation fidelity of a universal set of single-qubit quantum gates. We compare the damage effects from different noise sources and determine the "sweet spots" in the driving parameter space. The nonadiabatic non-Abelian quantum gate is found to be more susceptible to classical noises on the envelop function than that on the control phases. We also extend our study to a two-qubit quantum gate.
Maximal Abelian and Curci-Ferrari gauges in momentum subtraction at three loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, J. M.; Gracey, J. A.
2015-12-01
The vertex structure of QCD fixed in the maximal Abelian gauge (MAG) and Curci-Ferrari gauge is analyzed at two loops at the fully symmetric point for the 3-point functions corresponding to the three momentum subtraction (MOM) renormalization schemes. Consequently, the three-loop renormalization group functions are determined for each of these three schemes in each gauge using properties of the renormalization group equation.
Exact Solution of the One-Dimensional Non-Abelian Coulomb Gas at Large {ital N}
Semenoff, G.W.; Tirkkonen, O.; Zarembo, K. |
1996-09-01
The problem of computing the thermodynamic properties of a one-dimensional gas of particles which transform in the adjoint representation of the gauge group and interact through non-Abelian electric fields is formulated and solved in the large {ital N} limit. The explicit solution exhibits a first order confinement-deconfinement phase transition with computable properties and describes two-dimensional adjoint QCD in the limit where matter field masses are large. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
A reciprocity formula from abelian BF and Turaev-Viro theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathieu, P.; Thuillier, F.
2016-11-01
In this article we show that the use of Deligne-Beilinson cohomology in the context of the U (1) BF theory on a closed 3-manifold M yields a discrete ZN BF theory whose partition function is an abelian TV invariant of M. By comparing the expectation values of the U (1) and ZN holonomies in both BF theories we obtain a reciprocity formula.
Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices
Paul, S.K.
1987-05-15
Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.
On entanglement entropy in non-Abelian lattice gauge theory and 3D quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delcamp, Clement; Dittrich, Bianca; Riello, Aldo
2016-11-01
Entanglement entropy is a valuable tool for characterizing the correlation structure of quantum field theories. When applied to gauge theories, subtleties arise which prevent the factorization of the Hilbert space underlying the notion of entanglement entropy. Borrowing techniques from extended topological field theories, we introduce a new definition of entanglement entropy for both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. Being based on the notion of excitations, it provides a completely relational way of defining regions. Therefore, it naturally applies to background independent theories, e.g. gravity, by circumventing the difficulty of specifying the position of the entangling surface. We relate our construction to earlier proposals and argue that it brings these closer to each other. In particular, it yields the non-Abelian analogue of the `magnetic centre choice', as obtained through an extended-Hilbert-space method, but applied to the recently introduced fusion basis for 3D lattice gauge theories. We point out that the different definitions of entanglement entropy can be related to a choice of (squeezed) vacuum state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Seikou; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro
2015-02-01
In the S U (2 ) Yang-Mills theory on the four-dimensional Euclidean lattice, we confirm the gauge-independent "Abelian" dominance (or the restricted field dominance) and gauge-independent magnetic-monopole dominance in the string tension of the linear potential extracted from the Wilson loop in the fundamental representation. The dual Meissner effect is observed by demonstrating the squeezing of the chromoelectric field flux connecting a pair of a quark and an antiquark. In addition, the circular magnetic-monopole current is induced around the chromoelectric flux. The type of the dual superconductivity is also determined by fitting the result with the dual Ginzburg-Landau model. Thus, the dual superconductor picture for quark confinement is supported in a gauge-independent manner. These results are obtained based on a reformulation of the lattice Yang-Mills theory based on the change of variables à la Cho-Duan-Ge-Faddeev-Niemi combined with a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator. We give a new procedure (called the reduction) for obtaining the color direction field that plays the central role in this reformulation.
Magnetic-field-tuned Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and evidence for non-Abelian anyons at ν = 5/2.
Willett, R L; Nayak, C; Shtengel, K; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2013-11-01
We show that the resistance of the ν = 5/2 quantum Hall state, confined to an interferometer, oscillates with the magnetic field consistent with an Ising-type non-Abelian state. In three quantum Hall interferometers of different sizes, resistance oscillations at ν = 7/3 and integer filling factors have the magnetic field period expected if the number of quasiparticles contained within the interferometer changes so as to keep the area and the total charge within the interferometer constant. Under these conditions, an Abelian state such as the (3, 3, 1) state would show oscillations with the same period as at an integer quantum Hall state. However, in an Ising-type non-Abelian state there would be a rapid oscillation associated with the "even-odd effect" and a slower one associated with the accumulated Abelian phase due to both the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Abelian part of the quasiparticle braiding statistics. Our measurements at ν = 5/2 are consistent with the latter.
Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.
Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III
2010-10-01
We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.
Current algebra and the nonlinear σ-model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, S.
2007-06-01
We present the current algebra of a particular form in the nonlinear σ-model. The algebra has a non-Abelian form with field-dependent structure functions. We comment on the connection of the model with noncommutative space.
Russian doll spectrum in a non-Abelian string-net ladder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien
2015-04-01
We study a string-net ladder in the presence of a string tension. Focusing on the simplest non-Abelian anyon theory with a quantum dimension larger than two, we determine the phase diagram and find a Russian doll spectrum featuring size-independent energy levels as well as highly degenerate zero-energy eigenstates. At the self-dual points, we compute the gap exactly by using a mapping onto the Temperley-Lieb chain. These results are in stark contrast with the ones obtained for Fibonacci or Ising theories.
Probing Non-Abelian Statistics of Majorana Fermions in Ultracold Atomic Superfluid
Zhu Shiliang; Shao, L.-B.; Wang, Z. D.; Duan, L.-M.
2011-03-11
We propose an experiment to directly probe the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions by braiding them in an s-wave superfluid of ultracold atoms. We show that different orders of braiding operations give orthogonal output states that can be distinguished through Raman spectroscopy. Realization of Majorana states in an s-wave superfluid requires strong spin-orbital coupling and a controllable Zeeman field in the perpendicular direction. We present a simple laser configuration to generate the artificial spin-orbital coupling and the required Zeeman field in the dark-state subspace.
Mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory and link invariants
Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Grau, Javier; Leal, Lorenzo
2013-12-15
A mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory is presented. The study relies on the formulation of a theory of differential forms in the lattice, including a consistent definition of the Hodge duality operation. Explicit expressions for the Gauss Linking Number in the lattice, which correspond to their continuum counterparts are given. A discussion of the discretization of metric structures in the space of transverse vector densities is presented. The study of these metrics could serve to obtain explicit formulae for knot an link invariants in the lattice.
Non-Abelian monopoles as the origin of dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falomir, H.; Gamboa, J.; Méndez, F.
2016-07-01
We suggest that dark matter may be partially constituted by a dilute ’t Hooft-Polyakov monopoles gas. We reach this conclusion by using the Georgi-Glashow model coupled to a dual kinetic mixing term F𝒢˜ where F is the electromagnetic field and 𝒢 the ’t Hooft tensor. We show that these monopoles carry both (Maxwell) electric and (Georgi-Glashow) magnetic charges and the electric charge quantization condition is modified in terms of a dimensionless real parameter. This parameter could be determined from milli-charged particle experiments.
Physics of a two-dimensional electron gas with cold atoms in non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satija, Indubala I.; Dakin, Daniel C.; Vaishnav, J. Y.; Clark, Charles W.
2008-04-01
Motivated by the possibility of creating non-Abelian fields using cold atoms in optical lattices, we explore the richness and complexity of noninteracting two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in a lattice, subjected to such fields. In the continuum limit, a non-Abelian system characterized by a two-component “magnetic flux” describes a harmonic oscillator existing in two different charge states (mimicking a particle-hole pair) where the coupling between the states is determined by the non-Abelian parameter, namely, the difference between the two components of the “magnetic flux.” A key feature of the non-Abelian system is a splitting of the Landau energy levels, which broaden into bands, as the spectrum depends explicitly on the transverse momentum. These Landau bands result in a coarse-grained “moth,” a continuum version of the generalized Hofstadter butterfly. Furthermore, the bands overlap, leading to effective relativistic effects. Importantly, similar features also characterize the corresponding two-dimensional lattice problem when at least one of the components of the magnetic flux is an irrational number. The lattice system with two competing “magnetic fluxes” penetrating the unit cell provides a rich environment in which to study localization phenomena. Some unique aspects of the transport properties of the non-Abelian system are the possibility of inducing localization by varying the quasimomentum, and the absence of localization of certain zero-energy states exhibiting a linear energy-momentum relation. Furthermore, non-Abelian systems provide an interesting localization scenario where the localization transition is accompanied by a transition from relativistic to nonrelativistic theory.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-08
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
Creating and manipulating non-Abelian anyons in cold atom systems using auxiliary bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuhe; Sreejith, G. J.; Jain, J. K.
2015-08-01
The possibility of realizing bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect in ultracold atomic systems suggests a new route to producing and manipulating anyons, by introducing auxiliary bosons of a different species that capture quasiholes and thus inherit their nontrivial braiding properties. States with localized quasiholes at any desired locations can be obtained by annihilating the auxiliary bosons at those locations. We explore how this method can be used to generate non-Abelian quasiholes of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state for bosons at filling factor ν =1 . We show that a Hamiltonian with an appropriate three-body interaction can produce two-quasihole states in two distinct fusion channels of the topological "qubit." Characteristics of these states that are related to the non-Abelian nature can be probed and verified by a measurement of the effective relative angular momentum of the auxiliary bosons, which is directly related to their pair distribution function. Moore-Read states of more than two quasiholes can also be produced in a similar fashion. We investigate some issues related to the experimental feasibility of this approach, in particular, how large the systems should be for a realization of this physics and to what extent this physics carries over to systems with the more standard two-body contact interaction.
Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation.
Pan, Wei; Thalakulam, Madhu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Crawford, Matthew; Nielsen, Erik; Cederberg, Jeffrey George
2013-10-01
Topological quantum computation (TQC) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. Under this approach, the topological properties of a non-Abelian quantum system, which are insensitive to local perturbations, are utilized to process and transport quantum information. The encoded information can be protected and rendered immune from nearly all environmental decoherence processes without additional error-correction. It is believed that the low energy excitations of the so-called =5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state may obey non-Abelian statistics. Our goal is to explore this novel FQH state and to understand and create a scientific foundation of this quantum matter state for the emerging TQC technology. We present in this report the results from a coherent study that focused on obtaining a knowledge base of the physics that underpins TQC. We first present the results of bulk transport properties, including the nature of disorder on the 5/2 state and spin transitions in the second Landau level. We then describe the development and application of edge tunneling techniques to quantify and understand the quasiparticle physics of the 5/2 state.
Non-Abelian Gauge Symmetry in the Causal Epstein-Glaser Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurth, Tobias
Non-Abelian gauge symmetry in (3 + 1)-dimensional space-time is analyzed in the causal Epstein-Glaser framework. In this formalism, the technical details concerning the well-known UV and IR problem in quantum field theory are separated and reduced to well-defined problems, namely the causal splitting and the adiabatic switching of operator-valued distributions. Non-Abelian gauge invariance in perturbation theory is completely discussed in the well-defined Fock space of free asymptotic fields. The LSZ formalism is not used in this construction. The linear operator condition of asymptotic gauge invariance is sufficient for the unitarity of the S matrix in the physical subspace and the usual Slavnov-Taylor identities. We explicitly derive the most general specific coupling compatible with this condition. By analyzing only tree graphs in the second order of perturbation theory we show that the well-known Yang-Mills couplings with anticommuting ghosts are the only ones which are compatible with asymptotic gauge invariance. The required generalizations for linear gauges are given.
Black string first order flow in N = 2, d = 5 abelian gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klemm, Dietmar; Petri, Nicolò; Rabbiosi, Marco
2017-01-01
We derive both BPS and non-BPS first-order flow equations for magnetically charged black strings in five-dimensional N = 2 abelian gauged supergravity, using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. This is first done for the coupling to vector multiplets only and U(1) Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) gauging, and then generalized to the case where also hyper-multiplets are present, and abelian symmetries of the quaternionic hyperscalar target space are gauged. We then use these results to derive the attractor equations for near-horizon geometries of extremal black strings, and solve them explicitely for the case where the constants appearing in the Chern-Simons term of the supergravity action satisfy an adjoint identity. This allows to compute in generality the central charge of the two-dimensional conformal field theory that describes the black strings in the infrared, in terms of the magnetic charges, the CY intersection numbers and the FI constants. Finally, we extend the r-map to gauged supergravity and use it to relate our flow equations to those in four dimensions.
Non-Abelian statistics and topological quantum information processing in 1D wire networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicea, Jason; Oreg, Yuval; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2011-03-01
Topological quantum computation provides an elegant way around decoherence, as one encodes quantum information in a non-local fashion that the environment finds difficult to corrupt. Here we establish that one of the key operations---braiding of non-Abelian anyons---can be implemented in one-dimensional semiconductor wire networks. Previous work [Lutchyn et al., arXiv:1002.4033 and Oreg et al., arXiv:1003.1145] provided a recipe for driving semiconducting wires into a topological phase supporting long-sought particles known as Majorana fermions that can store topologically protected quantum information. Majorana fermions in this setting can be transported, created, and fused by applying locally tunable gates to the wire. More importantly, we show that networks of such wires allow braiding of Majorana fermions and that they exhibit non-Abelian statistics like vortices in a p+ip superconductor. We propose experimental setups that enable the Majorana fusion rules to be probed, along with networks that allow for efficient exchange of arbitrary numbers of Majorana fermions. This work paves a new path forward in topological quantum computation that benefits from physical transparency and experimental realism.
Gluon mass generation and infrared Abelian dominance in Yang-Mills theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro
2006-12-01
Dual superconductivity is believed to be a promising mechanism for quark confinement. Indeed, that this picture is true has been confirmed in the maximal Abelian (MA) gauge. However, it is not yet confirmed in any other gauge, and the MA gauge explicitly breaks color symmetry. To remedy this defect, we propose to use our compact formulation of a non-linear change of variables (NLCV), called once by the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi (CFN) decomposition, on a lattice. This formulation has succeeded to extract the magnetic monopole with integer-valued magnetic charge in the gauge-invariant way. We present measurements of various correlation functions for the operators constructed from the NLCV in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Some of our results reproduce previous results obtained in MA gauge, e.g., DeGrand-Toussaint monopole, infrared Abelian dominance and off-diagonal gluon mass generation. These studies preserve color symmetry, which is sharp contrast to the conventional MA gauge. We argue the gauge fixing independence of these results and the implications for quark confinement
Aharonov-Bohm order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories
Lo, H.
1995-12-15
The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been invoked to probe the phase structure of a gauge theory. Yet in the case of non-Abelian gauge theories, it proves difficult to formulate a general procedure that unambiguously specifies the realization of the gauge symmetry, e.g., the unbroken subgroup. In this paper we propose a set of order parameters that will do the job. We articulate the fact that any useful Aharonov-Bohm experiment necessarily proceeds in two stages: calibration and measurement. World sheets of virtual cosmic string loops can wrap around test charges, thus changing their states relative to other charges in the universe. Consequently, repeated flux measurements with test charges will not necessarily agree. This was the main stumbling block to previous attempts to construct order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories. In those works, the particles that one uses for calibration and subsequent measurement are stored in {ital separate} ``boxes.`` By storing all test particles in the {ital same} ``box`` we show how quantum fluctuations can be overcome. The importance of gauge fixing is also emphasized. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a “hairline” solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877
Confining and repulsive potentials from effective non-Abelian gauge fields in graphene bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of shear and strain in graphene bilayers, under conditions where the distortion of the lattice gives rise to a smooth one-dimensional modulation in the stacking sequence of the bilayer. We show that strain and shear produce characteristic Moiré patterns which can have the same visual appearance on a large scale, but representing graphene bilayers with quite different electronic properties. The different features in the low-energy electronic bands can be ascribed to the effect of a fictitious non-Abelian gauge field mimicking the smooth modulation of the stacking order. Strained and sheared bilayers show a complementary behavior, which can be understood from the fact that the non-Abelian gauge field acts as a repulsive interaction in the former, expelling the electron density away from the stacking domain walls, while behaving as a confining interaction leading to localization of the electronic states in the sheared bilayers. In this latter case, the presence of the effective gauge field explains the development of almost flat low-energy bands, resembling the form of the zeroth Landau level characteristic of a Dirac fermion field. The estimate of the gauge field strength in those systems gives a magnitude of the order of several tens of tesla, implying a robust phenomenology that should be susceptible of being observed in suitably distorted bilayer samples.
Chaos-order transition in Bianchi type I non-Abelian Born-Infeld cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadichev, Vladimir V.; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2005-10-01
We investigate the Bianchi I cosmology with the homogeneous SU(2) Yang-Mills field governed by the non-Abelian Born-Infeld action. A similar system with the standard Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) action is known to exhibit chaotic behavior induced by the Yang-Mills field. When the action is replaced by the Born-Infeld type non-Abelian action (NBI), the chaos-order transition is observed in the high-energy region. This is interpreted as a smothering effect due to (nonperturbative in α') string corrections to the classical EYM action. We give numerical evidence for the chaos-order transition and present an analytical proof of regularity of color oscillations in the limit of strong Born-Infeld nonlinearity. We also perform a general analysis of the Bianchi I NBI cosmology and derive an exact solution in the case of only the U(1) component excited. Our new exact solution generalizes the Rosen solution of the Bianchi I Einstein-Maxwell cosmology to the U(1) Einstein-Born-Infeld theory.
Spontaneous magnetization through non-Abelian vortex formation in rotating dense quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinci, Walter; Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto
2012-10-01
When a color superconductor of high density QCD is rotating, superfluid vortices are inevitably created along the rotation axis. In the color-flavor locked phase realized at the asymptotically large chemical potential, there appear non-Abelian vortices carrying both circulations of superfluid and color magnetic fluxes. A family of solutions has a degeneracy characterized by the Nambu-Goldstone modes CP2, associated with the color-flavor locked symmetry spontaneously broken in the vicinity of the vortex. In this paper, we study electromagnetic coupling of the non-Abelian vortices and find that the degeneracy is removed with the induced effective potential. We obtain one stable vortex solution and a family of metastable vortex solutions, both of which carry ordinary magnetic fluxes in addition to color magnetic fluxes. We discuss quantum mechanical decay of the metastable vortices by quantum tunneling and compare the effective potential with the other known potentials, the quantum mechanically induced potential and the potential induced by the strange quark mass.
Non-Abelian evolution of electromagnetic waves in a weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Frolov, D. Yu.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2007-05-01
A theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in a weakly anisotropic smoothly inhomogeneous medium is developed, based on the quantum-mechanical diagonalization procedure applied to Maxwell equations. The equations of motion for the translational (ray) and intrinsic (polarization) degrees of freedom are derived ab initio. The ray equations take into account the optical Magnus effect (spin Hall effect of photons) as well as trajectory variations owing to the medium anisotropy. Polarization evolution is described by the precession equation for the Stokes vector. In the generic case, the evolution of wave turns out to be non-Abelian: it is accompanied by mutual conversion of the normal modes and periodic oscillations of the ray trajectories analogous to electron zitterbewegung. The general theory is applied to examples of wave evolution in media with circular and linear birefringence.
Demonstrating non-Abelian braiding of surface code defects in a five qubit experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wootton, James R.
2017-03-01
Currently, the mainstream approach to quantum computing is through surface codes. One way to store and manipulate quantum information with these to create defects in the codes which can be moved and used as if they were particles. Specifically, they simulate the behaviour of exotic particles known as Majoranas, which are a kind of non-Abelian anyon. By exchanging these particles, important gates for quantum computation can be implemented. Here we investigate the simplest possible exchange operation for two surface code Majoranas. This is found to act non-trivially on only five qubits. The system is then truncated to these five qubits, so that the exchange process can be run on the IBM 5Q processor. The results demonstrate the expected effect of the exchange. This paper has been written in a style that should hopefully be accessible to both professional and amateur scientists.
Robustness of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates against parametric noise
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-10-01
We present a numerical study of the robustness of a specific class of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates. We take into account the parametric noise due to stochastic fluctuations of the control fields which drive the time-dependent Hamiltonian along an adiabatic loop. The performance estimator used is the state fidelity between noiseless and noisy holonomic gates. We carry over our analysis with different correlation times and we find out that noisy holonomic gates seem to be close to the noiseless ones for 'short' and 'long' noise correlation times. This result can be interpreted as a consequence of the geometric nature of the holonomic operator. Our simulations have been performed by using parameters relevant to the excitonic proposal for the implementation of holonomic quantum computation [P. Solinas et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 121307 (2003)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Sondhi, S. L.
2016-06-01
Recent work suggests that a sharp definition of "phase of matter" can be given for some quantum systems out of equilibrium, first for many-body localized systems with time-independent Hamiltonians and more recently for periodically driven or Floquet localized systems. In this work, we propose a classification of the finite Abelian symmetry-protected phases of interacting Floquet localized systems in one dimension. We find that the different Floquet phases correspond to elements of ClG×AG , where ClG is the undriven interacting classification, and AG is a set of (twisted) one-dimensional representations corresponding to symmetry group G . We will address symmetry-broken phases in a subsequent paper C. W. von Keyserlingk and S. L. Sondhi, following paper, Phys. Rev. B 93, 245146 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245146.
Low energy dynamics of slender monopoles in non-Abelian superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, M.; Blaschke, F.; Eto, M.; Sakai, N.
2016-01-01
Low energy dynamics of magnetic monopoles and anti-monopoles in the U(2)c gauge theory is studied in the Higgs (non-Abelian superconducting) phase. The monopoles in this phase are slender ellipsoids, pierced by a vortex string. We investigate scattering of monopole with anti-monopole and find that they do not always decay into radiation, contrary to our naive intuition. They can repel, make bound states (magnetic mesons) or resonances. We point out that some part of solutions in 1 + 3 dimensions can be mapped exactly onto the sine-Gordon system in 1 + 1 dimensions in the first non-trivial order of rigid-body approximation and we provide analytic formulas for such solutions there.
Non-abelian gauge fields and topological insulators in shaken optical lattices.
Hauke, Philipp; Tieleman, Olivier; Celi, Alessio; Olschläger, Christoph; Simonet, Juliette; Struck, Julian; Weinberg, Malte; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, André
2012-10-05
Time-periodic driving like lattice shaking offers a low-demanding method to generate artificial gauge fields in optical lattices. We identify the relevant symmetries that have to be broken by the driving function for that purpose and demonstrate the power of this method by making concrete proposals for its application to two-dimensional lattice systems: We show how to tune frustration and how to create and control band touching points like Dirac cones in the shaken kagome lattice. We propose the realization of a topological and a quantum spin Hall insulator in a shaken spin-dependent hexagonal lattice. We describe how strong artificial magnetic fields can be achieved for example in a square lattice by employing superlattice modulation. Finally, exemplified on a shaken spin-dependent square lattice, we develop a method to create strong non-abelian gauge fields.
Non-Abelian localization for supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories on a Seifert manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka
2012-11-01
We derive non-Abelian localization formulas for supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory with matters on a Seifert manifold M, which is the three-dimensional space of a circle bundle over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ, by using the cohomological approach introduced by Källén. We find that the partition function and the vacuum expectation value of the supersymmetric Wilson loop reduces to a finite dimensional integral and summation over classical flux configurations labeled by discrete integers. We also find that the partition function reduces further to just a discrete sum over integers in some cases, and evaluate the supersymmetric index (Witten index) exactly on S1×Σ. The index completely agrees with the previous prediction from field theory and branes. We discuss a vacuum structure of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory deduced from the localization.
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2016-11-01
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Non-Abelian evolution of electromagnetic waves in a weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous medium
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Frolov, D. Yu.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2007-05-15
A theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in a weakly anisotropic smoothly inhomogeneous medium is developed, based on the quantum-mechanical diagonalization procedure applied to Maxwell equations. The equations of motion for the translational (ray) and intrinsic (polarization) degrees of freedom are derived ab initio. The ray equations take into account the optical Magnus effect (spin Hall effect of photons) as well as trajectory variations owing to the medium anisotropy. Polarization evolution is described by the precession equation for the Stokes vector. In the generic case, the evolution of wave turns out to be non-Abelian: it is accompanied by mutual conversion of the normal modes and periodic oscillations of the ray trajectories analogous to electron zitterbewegung. The general theory is applied to examples of wave evolution in media with circular and linear birefringence.
Wire constructions of Abelian topological phases in three or more dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iadecola, Thomas; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2016-05-01
Coupled-wire constructions have proven to be useful tools to characterize Abelian and non-Abelian topological states of matter in two spatial dimensions. In many cases, their success has been complemented by the vast arsenal of other theoretical tools available to study such systems. In three dimensions, however, much less is known about topological phases. Since the theoretical arsenal in this case is smaller, it stands to reason that wire constructions, which are based on one-dimensional physics, could play a useful role in developing a greater microscopic understanding of three-dimensional topological phases. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive strategy, based on the geometric arrangement of commuting projectors in the toric code, to generate and characterize coupled-wire realizations of strongly interacting three-dimensional topological phases. We show how this method can be used to construct pointlike and linelike excitations, and to determine the topological degeneracy. We also point out how, with minor modifications, the machinery already developed in two dimensions can be naturally applied to study the surface states of these systems, a fact that has implications for the study of surface topological order. Finally, we show that the strategy developed for the construction of three-dimensional topological phases generalizes readily to arbitrary dimensions, vastly expanding the existing landscape of coupled-wire theories. Throughout the paper, we discuss Zm topological order in three and four dimensions as a concrete example of this approach, but the approach itself is not limited to this type of topological order.
Kinetic equations modelling wealth redistribution: A comparison of approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Düring, Bertram; Matthes, Daniel; Toscani, Giuseppe
2008-11-01
Kinetic equations modelling the redistribution of wealth in simple market economies is one of the major topics in the field of econophysics. We present a unifying approach to the qualitative study for a large variety of such models, which is based on a moment analysis in the related homogeneous Boltzmann equation, and on the use of suitable metrics for probability measures. In consequence, we are able to classify the most important feature of the steady wealth distribution, namely the fatness of the Pareto tail, and the dynamical stability of the latter in terms of the model parameters. Our results apply, e.g., to the market model with risky investments [S. Cordier, L. Pareschi, and G. Toscani, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 253 (2005)], and to the model with quenched saving propensities [A. Chatterjee, B. K. Chakrabarti, and S. S. Manna, Physica A 335, 155 (2004)]. Also, we present results from numerical experiments that confirm the theoretical predictions.
Kinetic equations modelling wealth redistribution: a comparison of approaches.
Düring, Bertram; Matthes, Daniel; Toscani, Giuseppe
2008-11-01
Kinetic equations modelling the redistribution of wealth in simple market economies is one of the major topics in the field of econophysics. We present a unifying approach to the qualitative study for a large variety of such models, which is based on a moment analysis in the related homogeneous Boltzmann equation, and on the use of suitable metrics for probability measures. In consequence, we are able to classify the most important feature of the steady wealth distribution, namely the fatness of the Pareto tail, and the dynamical stability of the latter in terms of the model parameters. Our results apply, e.g., to the market model with risky investments [S. Cordier, L. Pareschi, and G. Toscani, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 253 (2005)], and to the model with quenched saving propensities [A. Chatterjee, B. K. Chakrabarti, and S. S. Manna, Physica A 335, 155 (2004)]. Also, we present results from numerical experiments that confirm the theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2011-03-01
We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov-Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral P-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2015-12-01
We give a gauge-independent definition of magnetic monopoles in the S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory through the Wilson loop operator. For this purpose, we give an explicit proof of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of the S U (N ) gauge group to derive a new form for the non-Abelian Stokes theorem. The new form is used to extract the magnetic-monopole contribution to the Wilson loop operator in a gauge-invariant way, which enables us to discuss confinement of quarks in any representation from the viewpoint of the dual superconductor vacuum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhao; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Lee, Kyungmin; Kim, Eun-Ah
2015-08-01
Recent theoretical insights into the possibility of non-Abelian phases in ν =2 /3 fractional quantum Hall states revived the interest in the numerical phase diagram of the problem. We investigate the effect of various kinds of two-body interlayer couplings on the (330) bilayer state and exactly solve the Hamiltonian for up to 14 electrons on sphere and torus geometries. We consider interlayer tunneling, short-ranged repulsive/attractive pseudopotential interactions, and Coulomb repulsion. We find a 6-fold ground-state degeneracy on the torus when the interlayer hollow-core interaction is dominant. To identify the topological nature of this phase we measure the orbital-cut entanglement spectrum, quasihole counting, topological entanglement entropy, and wave-function overlap. Comparing the numerical results to the theoretical predictions, we interpret this 6-fold ground-state degeneracy phase to be the non-Abelian bilayer Fibonacci state.
Hikami, Kazuhiro
2008-07-15
We study topological properties of quasi-particle states in the non-Abelian quantum Hall states. We apply a skein-theoretic method to the Read-Rezayi state whose effective theory is the SU(2){sub K} Chern-Simons theory. As a generalization of the Pfaffian (K = 2) and the Fibonacci (K = 3) anyon states, we compute the braiding matrices of quasi-particle states with arbitrary spins. Furthermore we propose a method to compute the entanglement entropy skein-theoretically. We find that the entanglement entropy has a nontrivial contribution called the topological entanglement entropy which depends on the quantum dimension of non-Abelian quasi-particle intertwining two subsystems.
Poincaré polynomials for Abelian symplectic quotients of pure r-qubits via wall-crossings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molladavoudi, Saeid; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin
2015-10-01
In this paper, we compute a recursive wall-crossing formula for the Poincaré polynomials and Euler characteristics of Abelian symplectic quotients of a complex projective manifold under a special effective action of a torus with non-trivial characters. An analogy can be made with the space of pure states of a composite quantum system containing r-quantum bits under action of the maximal torus of Local Unitary operations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2015-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress in understanding quark confinement. The emphasis of this review is placed on how to obtain a manifestly gauge-independent picture for quark confinement supporting the dual superconductivity in the Yang-Mills theory, which should be compared with the Abelian projection proposed by 't Hooft. The basic tools are novel reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory based on change of variables extending the decomposition of the SU(N) Yang-Mills field due to Cho, Duan-Ge and Faddeev-Niemi, together with the combined use of extended versions of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the SU(N) Wilson loop operator. Moreover, we give the lattice gauge theoretical versions of the reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which enables us to perform the numerical simulations on the lattice. In fact, we present some numerical evidences for supporting the dual superconductivity for quark confinement. The numerical simulations include the derivation of the linear potential for static interquark potential, i.e., non-vanishing string tension, in which the "Abelian" dominance and magnetic monopole dominance are established, confirmation of the dual Meissner effect by measuring the chromoelectric flux tube between quark-antiquark pair, the induced magnetic-monopole current, and the type of dual superconductivity, etc. In addition, we give a direct connection between the topological configuration of the Yang-Mills field such as instantons/merons and the magnetic monopole. We show especially that magnetic monopoles in the Yang-Mills theory can be constructed in a manifestly gauge-invariant way starting from the gauge-invariant Wilson loop operator and thereby the contribution from the magnetic monopoles can be extracted from the Wilson loop in a gauge-invariant way through the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator, which is a prerequisite for exhibiting magnetic monopole dominance for quark
Spin correlations and topological entanglement entropy in a non-Abelian spin-one spin liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wildeboer, Julia; Bonesteel, N. E.
2016-07-01
We analyze the properties of a non-Abelian spin-one chiral spin liquid state proposed by Greiter and Thomale [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 207203 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.207203] using Monte Carlo. In this state the bosonic ν =1 Moore-Read Pfaffian wave function is used to describe a gas of bosonic spin flips on a square lattice with one flux quantum per plaquette. For toroidal geometries there is a three-dimensional space of these states corresponding to the topological degeneracy of the bosonic Moore-Read state on the torus. We show that spin correlations for different states in this space become indistinguishable for large system size. We also calculate the Renyi entanglement entropy for different system partitions to extract the topological entanglement entropy and provide evidence that the topological order of the lattice spin-liquid state is the same as that of the continuum Moore-Read state from which it is constructed.
Index theorem and Majorana zero modes along a non-Abelian vortex in a color superconductor
Fujiwara, Takanori; Fukui, Takahiro; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro
2011-10-01
Color superconductivity in high-density QCD exhibits the color-flavor-locked phase. To explore zero modes in the color-flavor-locked phase in the presence of a non-Abelian vortex with an SU(2) symmetry in the vortex core, we apply the index theorem to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian. From the calculation of the topological index, we find that triplet, doublet and singlet sectors of SU(2) have certain number of chiral Majorana zero modes in the limit of vanishing chemical potential. We also solve the BdG equation by the use of the series expansion to show that the number of zero modes and their chirality match the result of the index theorem. From particle-hole symmetry of the BdG Hamiltonian, we conclude that if and only if the index of a given sector is odd, one zero mode survives generically for a finite chemical potential. We argue that this result should hold nonperturbatively even in the high-density limit.
Quantum simulation of Abelian Wu–Yang monopoles in spin-1/2 systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ze-Lin; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao
2017-04-01
With the help of the Berry curvature and the first Chern number (C 1), we both analytically and numerically investigate and thus simulate artificial magnetic monopoles formed in parameter space of the Hamiltonian of a driven superconducting qubit. The topological structure of a spin-1/2 system (qubit) can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Degenerate points in parameter space act as sources (C 1 = 1, represented by quantum ground state manifold) or sinks (C 1 = ‑1, represented by quantum excited state manifold) of the magnetic field. We note that the strength of the magnetic field (described by Berry curvature) has an apparent impact on the quantum states during the process of topological transition. It exhibits an unusual property that the transition of the quantum states is asymmetric when the degenerate point passes from outside to inside and again outside the manifold spanned by system parameters. Our results also pave the way to explore intriguing properties of Abelian Wu–Yang monopoles in other spin-1/2 systems.
Dual-BRST symmetry: 6D Abelian 3-form gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.
2012-04-01
Within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we demonstrate the existence of the novel off-shell nilpotent (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries in the context of a six (5+1)-dimensional (6D) free Abelian 3-form gauge theory. Under these local and continuous symmetry transformations, the total gauge-fixing term of the Lagrangian density remains invariant. This observation should be contrasted with the off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, under which, the total kinetic term of the theory remains invariant. The anticommutator of the above nilpotent (anti-)BRST and (anti-)dual-BRST transformations leads to the derivation of a bosonic symmetry in the theory. There exists a discrete symmetry transformation in the theory which provides a thread of connection between the nilpotent (anti-)BRST and (anti-)dual-BRST transformations. This theory is endowed with a ghost-scale symmetry, too. We discuss the algebra of these symmetry transformations and show that the structure of the algebra is reminiscent of the algebra of de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry.
Nilpotent Symmetries for Matter Fields in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, R. P.
In the framework of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, the derivation of the BRST and anti-BRST nilpotent symmetry transformations for the matter fields, present in any arbitrary interacting gauge theory, has been a long-standing problem. In our present investigation, the local, covariant, continuous and off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for the Dirac fields (ψ ,bar ψ ) are derived in the framework of the augmented superfield formulation where the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian gauge theory is considered on the six (4 + 2)-dimensional supermanifold parametrized by the four even space-time coordinates xμ and a couple of odd elements (θ and bar θ ) of the Grassmann algebra. The requirement of the invariance of the matter (super)currents and the horizontality condition on the (super)manifolds leads to the derivation of the nilpotent symmetries for the matter fields as well as the gauge and the (anti)ghost fields of the theory in the general scheme of augmented superfield formalism.
Localizing gauge fields on a topological Abelian string and the Coulomb law
Torrealba S, Rafael S.
2010-07-15
The confinement of electromagnetic field is studied in axial symmetrical, warped, six-dimensional brane world, using a recently proposed topological Abelian string-vortex solution as background. It was found, that the massless gauge field fluctuations follow four-dimensional Maxwell equations in the Lorenz gauge. The massless zero mode is localized when the thickness of the string vortex is less than 5{beta}/4{pi}e{sup 2}v{sup 2} and there are no other localized massless modes. There is also an infinite of nonlocalized massive Fourier modes, that follow four-dimensional Proca equations with a continuous spectrum. To compute the corrections to the Coulomb potential, a radial cutoff was introduced, in order to achieve a discrete mass spectrum. As a main result, a (R{sub o}/{beta}R{sup 2}) correction was found for the four-dimensional effective Coulomb law; the result is in correspondence with the observed behavior of the Coulomb potential at today's measurable distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sau, Jay D.; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, S.
2010-12-01
We show that an ordinary semiconducting thin film with spin-orbit coupling can, under appropriate circumstances, be in a quantum topologically ordered state supporting exotic Majorana excitations which follow non-Abelian statistics. The key to the quantum topological order is the coexistence of spin-orbit coupling with proximity-induced s -wave superconductivity and an externally induced Zeeman coupling of the spins. For the Zeeman coupling below a critical value, the system is a nontopological (proximity-induced) s -wave superconductor. However, for a range of Zeeman coupling above the critical value, the lowest energy excited state inside a vortex is a zero-energy Majorana fermion state. The system, thus, has entered into a non-Abelian s -wave superconducting state via a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) tuned by the Zeeman coupling. In the topological phase, since the time-reversal symmetry is explicitly broken by the Zeeman term in the Hamiltonian, the edge of the film constitutes a chiral Majorana wire. Just like the s -wave superconductivity, the Zeeman coupling can also be proximity induced in the film by an adjacent magnetic insulator. We show this by an explicit model tight-binding calculation for both types of proximity effects in the heterostructure geometry. Here we show that the same TQPT can be accessed by varying the interface transparency between the film and the superconductor. For the transparency below (above) a critical value, the system is a topological (regular) s -wave superconductor. In the one-dimensional version of the same structure and for the Zeeman coupling above the critical value, there are localized Majorana zero-energy modes at the two ends of a semiconducting quantum nanowire. In this case, the Zeeman coupling can be induced more easily by an external magnetic field parallel to the wire, obviating the need for a magnetic insulator. We show that, despite the fact that the superconducting pair potential in the nanowire is
Braiding and Berry's phases in non-Abelian quantum hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zikos, Georgios
If one could be built, a quantum computer would be capable of storing and manipulating quantum states with sufficient accuracy to carry out computations that no classical computer can do (most notably factoring integers in polynomial time). The greatest obstacle to building such a device is the problem of error and decoherence. Classical computers can exploit the physical robustness of ordered states to protect classical information (as in, for example, the magnetically ordered state of a hard drive). Remarkably, a type of quantum order known as topological order can, in principle, play the same role for quantum information. The best studied topologically ordered states are quantum Hall states. These states arise when a two-dimensional electron gas is placed in a strong magnetic field and cooled to low temperatures. Under the right conditions, the electrons condense into an incompressible quantum liquid whose excitations are particle-like objects with fractional charge (quasiparticles). Certain quantum Hall states are thought to be non Abelian. This means that when a finite number of quasiparticles are present and fixed in space there is a low energy Hilbert space with finite dimension, rather than a unique state. Unitary operations can then be carried out on this Hilbert space by adiabatically dragging quasiparticles around one another so that their world-lines sweep out braids in 2+1 dimensional space time. A quantum computer which stores quantum information in this Hilbert space and computes by braiding is known as a topological quantum computer. In this thesis I review our work on determining precisely how one would carry out a computation on a topological quantum computer. I focus on the so-called Fibonacci anyons---quasiparticles which may exist in the experimentally observed quantum Hall state at Landau level filling fraction nu = 12/5. I give explicit prescriptions for encoding qubits (quantum bits) using Fibonacci anyons, and show how one would carry out a
Temme, F P
2004-03-01
The physics of dual group scalar invariants (SIs) as (Lie algebraic) group measures (L-GMs) and its significance to non-Abelian NMR spin systems motivates this overview of uniform general-2n [AX](2n) spin evolution, which represents an extensive addendum to Corio's earlier (essentially restricted) view of Abelian spin system SU(2)-based SI-cardinalities. The [Formula: see text] values in [J. Magn. Reson., 134 (1998) 131] arise from strictly linear recoupled time-reversal invariance (TRI) models. In contrast, here we discuss the physical significance of an alternative polyhedral combinatorics approach to democratic recoupling (DR), a property inherent in both the TRI and statistical sampling. Recognition of spin ensemble SIs as being L-GMs over isomorphic algebras is invaluable in many DR-based NMR problems. Various [AX]n model spin systems, including the [AX]3 bis odd-odd parity spin system, are examined as direct applications of these L-GM- and combinatorial-based SI ideas. Hence in place of /SI/=15 (implied by Corio's [Formula: see text] approach), the bis 3-fold spin system cardinality is seen now as constrained to a single invariant on an isomorphic product algebra under L-GMs, in accord with the subspectral analysis of Jones et al. [Canad. J. Chem., 43 (1965) 683]. The group projective ideas cited here for DR (as cf. to graph theoretic views) apply to highly degenerate non-Abelian problems. Over dual tensorial bases, they define models of spin dynamical evolution whose (SR) quasiparticle superboson carrier (sub)spaces are characterised by SIs acting as explicit auxiliary labels [Physica, A198 (1993) 245; J. Math. Chem., 31 (2002) 281]. A deeper [Formula: see text] network-based view of spin-alone space developed in Balasubramanian's work [J. Chem. Phys., 78 (1983) 6358] is especially important, (e.g.) in the study of spin waves [J. Math. Chem., 31 (2002) 363]. Beyond the specific NMR SIs derived here, there are DR applications where a sporadic, still higher, 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Sarma, S.; Nag, Amit; Sau, Jay D.
2016-07-01
We consider a simple conceptual question with respect to Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires: can the measured nonideal values of the zero-bias-conductance-peak in the tunneling experiments be used as a characteristic to predict the underlying topological nature of the proximity induced nanowire superconductivity? In particular, we define and calculate the topological visibility, which is a variation of the topological invariant associated with the scattering matrix of the system as well as the zero-bias-conductance-peak heights in the tunneling measurements, in the presence of dissipative broadening, using precisely the same realistic nanowire parameters to connect the topological invariants with the zero-bias tunneling conductance values. This dissipative broadening is present in both (the existing) tunneling measurements and also (any future) braiding experiments as an inevitable consequence of a finite braiding time. The connection between the topological visibility and the conductance allows us to obtain the visibility of realistic braiding experiments in nanowires, and to conclude that the current experimentally accessible systems with nonideal zero-bias conductance peaks may indeed manifest (with rather low visibility) non-Abelian statistics for the Majorana zero modes. In general, we find that a large (small) superconducting gap (Majorana peak splitting) is essential for the manifestation of the non-Abelian braiding statistics, and in particular, a zero-bias conductance value of around half the ideal quantized Majorana value should be sufficient for the manifestation of non-Abelian statistics in experimental nanowires. Our work also establishes that as a matter of principle the topological transition associated with the emergence of Majorana zero modes in finite nanowires is always a crossover (akin to a quantum phase transition at finite temperature) requiring the presence of dissipative broadening (which must be larger than the Majorana energy
A non-Abelian SO(8) monopole as generalization of Dirac-Yang monopoles for a 9-dimensional space
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son
2011-03-15
We establish an explicit form of a non-Abelian SO(8) monopole in a 9-dimensional space and show that it is indeed a direct generalization of Dirac and Yang monopoles. Using the generalized Hurwitz transformation, we have found a connection between a 16-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a 9-dimensional hydrogenlike atom in the field of the SO(8) monopole (MICZ-Kepler problem). Using the built connection the group of dynamical symmetry of the 9-dimensional MICZ-Kepler problem is found as SO(10, 2).
Bäcklund Transformations and Non-Abelian Nonlinear Evolution Equations: a Novel Bäcklund Chart
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carillo, Sandra; Lo Schiavo, Mauro; Schiebold, Cornelia
2016-08-01
Classes of third order non-Abelian evolution equations linked to that of Korteweg-de Vries-type are investigated and their connections represented in a non-commutative Bäcklund chart, generalizing results in [Fuchssteiner B., Carillo S., Phys. A 154 (1989), 467-510]. The recursion operators are shown to be hereditary, thereby allowing the results to be extended to hierarchies. The present study is devoted to operator nonlinear evolution equations: general results are presented. The implied applications referring to finite-dimensional cases will be considered separately.
From non-Abelian anyons to quantum computation to coin-flipping by telephone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochon, Carlos
Following their divorce, Alice and Bob would like to split some of their possessions by flipping a coin. Unwilling to meet in person, and without a trusted third party, they must figure out a scheme to flip the coin over a telephone that guarantees that neither party can cheat. The preceding scenario is the traditional definition of two-party coin-flipping. In a classical setting, without limits on the available computational power, one player can always guarantee a coin-flipping victory by cheating. However, by employing quantum communication it is possible to guarantee, with only information-theoretic assumptions, that neither party can win by cheating, with a probability greater than two thirds. Along with the description of such a protocol, this thesis derives a tight lower bound on the bias for a large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols, proving such a protocol optimal within the family. The protocol described herein is an improvement and generalization of one examined by Spekkens and Rudolph. The key steps of the analysis involve Kitaev's description of quantum coin-flipping as a semidefinite program whose dual problem provides a certificate that upper bounds the amount of cheating for each party. In order for such quantum protocols to be viable, though, a number of practical obstacles involving the communication and processing of quantum information must be resolved. In the second half of this thesis, a scheme for processing quantum information is presented, which uses non-abelian anyons that are the magnetic and electric excitations of a discrete-group quantum gauge theory. In particular, the connections between group structure and computational power are examined, generalizing previous work by Kitaev, Ogburn and Preskill. Anyon based computation has the advantage of being topological, which exponentially suppresses the rate of decoherence and the errors associated with the elementary quantum gates. Though no physical systems with such
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2013-04-01
We use entanglement entropy signatures to establish non-Abelian topological order in projected Chern-insulator wave functions. The simplest instance is obtained by Gutzwiller projecting a filled band with Chern number C=2, whose wave function may also be viewed as the square of the Slater determinant of a band insulator. We demonstrate that this wave function is captured by the SU(2)2 Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions. This is established most persuasively by calculating the modular S-matrix from the candidate ground-state wave functions, following a recent entanglement-entropy-based approach. This directly demonstrates the peculiar non-Abelian braiding statistics of Majorana fermion quasiparticles in this state. We also provide microscopic evidence for the field theoretic generalization, that the Nth power of a Chern number C Slater determinant realizes the topological order of the SU(N)C Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions, by studying the SU(2)3 (Read-Rezayi-type state) and the SU(3)2 wave functions. An advantage of our projected Chern-insulator wave functions is the relative ease with which physical properties, such as entanglement entropy and modular S-matrix, can be numerically calculated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν=13/5 and 12/5 and Their Non-Abelian Nature.
Zhu, W; Gong, S S; Haldane, F D M; Sheng, D N
2015-09-18
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for the exotic fundamental physics they would exhibit, and for universal quantum computing applications. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at a filling factor of ν=12/5 is a promising candidate; however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν=13/5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12/5 with the Coulomb interaction, and we address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν=13/5 and 12/5 is captured by the k=3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR_{3}), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from the entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR_{3} state at 13/5 and 12/5 filling numbers.
Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν =13 /5 and 12 /5 and Their Non-Abelian Nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2015-09-01
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for the exotic fundamental physics they would exhibit, and for universal quantum computing applications. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at a filling factor of ν =12 /5 is a promising candidate; however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν =13 /5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12 /5 with the Coulomb interaction, and we address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν =13 /5 and 12 /5 is captured by the k =3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR3), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from the entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR3 state at 13 /5 and 12 /5 filling numbers.
The Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν = 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 and their Non-Abelian Nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for their exotic fundamental physics and potential applications in universal quantum computing. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at filling factor ν = 12 / 5 is such a promising candidate, however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν = 13 / 5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12 / 5 with the Coulomb interaction, and address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν = 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 is captured by the k = 3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR3), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR3 state at 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 filling numbers. This work is supported by the DOE Grants No. DE-FG02-06ER46305, DE-SC0002140, and the NSF Grant No. DMR-1408560.
A New Approach to Geoengineering: Manna From Heaven
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellery, Alex
2015-04-01
Geo-engineering, although controversial, has become an emerging factor in coping with climate change. Although most are terrestrial-based technologies, I focus on a space-based approach implemented through a solar shield system. I present several new elements that essentially render the high-cost criticism moot. Of special relevance are two seemingly unrelated technologies - the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) to the Moon in 2018 that shall implement a technology demonstration of simple material resource extraction from lunar regolith, and the emergence of multi-material 3D printing technology that promises unprecedented robotic manufacturing capabilities. My research group has begun theoretical and experimentation work in developing the concept of a 3D printed electric motor system from lunar-type resources. The electric motor underlies every universal mechanical machine. Together with 3D printed electronics, I submit that this would enable self-replicating machines to be realised. A detailed exposition on how this may be achieved will be outlined. Such self-replicating machines could construct the spacecraft required to implement a solar shield and solar power satellites in large numbers from lunar resources with the same underlying technologies at extremely low cost.
Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greschner, S.; Piraud, M.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.; Vekua, T.
2016-12-01
We study the quantum phases of bosons with repulsive contact interactions on a two-leg ladder in the presence of a uniform Abelian gauge field. The model realizes many interesting states, including Meissner phases, vortex fluids, vortex lattices, charge density waves, and the biased-ladder phase. Our work focuses on the subset of these states that breaks a discrete symmetry. We use density matrix renormalization group simulations to demonstrate the existence of three vortex-lattice states at different vortex densities and we characterize the phase transitions from these phases into neighboring states. Furthermore, we provide an intuitive explanation of the chiral-current reversal effect that is tied to some of these vortex lattices. We also study a charge-density-wave state that exists at 1/4 particle filling at large interaction strengths and flux values close to half a flux quantum. By changing the system parameters, this state can transition into a completely gapped vortex-lattice Mott-insulating state. We elucidate the stability of these phases against nearest-neighbor interactions on the rungs of the ladder relevant for experimental realizations with a synthetic lattice dimension. A charge-density-wave state at 1/3 particle filling can be stabilized for flux values close to half a flux quantum and for very strong on-site interactions in the presence of strong repulsion on the rungs. Finally, we analytically describe the emergence of these phases in the low-density regime, and, in particular, we obtain the boundaries of the biased-ladder phase, i.e., the phase that features a density imbalance between the legs. We make contact with recent quantum-gas experiments that realized related models and discuss signatures of these quantum states in experimentally accessible observables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgh, Magnus O.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2016-12-01
We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.
Borgh, Magnus O; Ruostekoski, Janne
2016-12-30
We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.
Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.
2011-11-01
The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Bu, Zhi-Cheng; Peng, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Yi
2015-06-01
By using a general Ginzburg-Landau approach, we study the effects of external magnetic background on color-flavor-locked quark color-superconducting matter. The rotated magnetic field B ˜ is introduced, not only accounting for the unbroken symmetry with the rotated electric charge, but also resulting in new effects for the collective excitations such as the Nambu-Goldstone and Higgs modes. In particular, it is found that the masses of Higgs octet are no longer degenerated and part of them acquire the magnetic-induced contribution. To the leading order in the applied field, we construct an effective Ginzburg-Landau formalism through these B ˜ -related masses. As the application, we investigate magnetic responses of the non-Abelian vortices arising from color-flavor-locked symmetry breaking pattern. The B ˜ -field dependence of their spatial configurations and tension energies are calculated for the first time.
Lu Yuanming; Wang Ziqiang; Wen Xiaogang; Wang Zhenghan
2010-03-15
In the pattern-of-zeros approach to quantum Hall states, a set of data (n;m;S{sub a}|a=1,...,n;n,m,S{sub a} is n element of N) (called the pattern of zeros) is introduced to characterize a quantum Hall wave function. In this paper we find sufficient conditions on the pattern of zeros so that the data correspond to a valid wave function. Some times, a set of data (n;m;S{sub a}) corresponds to a unique quantum Hall state, while other times, a set of data corresponds to several different quantum Hall states. So in the latter cases, the pattern of zeros alone does not completely characterize the quantum Hall states. In this paper, we find that the following expanded set of data (n;m;S{sub a};c|a=1,...,n;n,m,S{sub a} is an element of N;c is an element of R) provides a more complete characterization of quantum Hall states. Each expanded set of data completely characterizes a unique quantum Hall state, at least for the examples discussed in this paper. The result is obtained by combining the pattern of zeros and Z{sub n} simple-current vertex algebra which describes a large class of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states PHI{sub Z{sub n}{sup sc}}. The more complete characterization in terms of (n;m;S{sub a};c) allows us to obtain more topological properties of those states, which include the central charge c of edge states, the scaling dimensions and the statistics of quasiparticle excitations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sandeep
2015-01-01
We extend our previous work [S. Sharma and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124121 (2012)], which described a spin-adapted (SU(2) symmetry) density matrix renormalization group algorithm, to additionally utilize general non-Abelian point group symmetries. A key strength of the present formulation is that the requisite tensor operators are not hard-coded for each symmetry group, but are instead generated on the fly using the appropriate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This allows our single implementation to easily enable (or disable) any non-Abelian point group symmetry (including SU(2) spin symmetry). We use our implementation to compute the ground state potential energy curve of the C2 dimer in the cc-pVQZ basis set (with a frozen-core), corresponding to a Hilbert space dimension of 1012 many-body states. While our calculated energy lies within the 0.3 mEh error bound of previous initiator full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo and correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling calculations, our estimated residual error is only 0.01 mEh, much more accurate than these previous estimates. Due to the additional efficiency afforded by the algorithm, the excitation energies (Te) of eight lowest lying excited states: a3Πu, b 3 Σg - , A1Πu, c 3 Σu + , B1Δg, B ' 1 Σg + , d3Πg, and C1Πg are calculated, which agree with experimentally derived values to better than 0.06 eV. In addition, we also compute the potential energy curves of twelve states: the three lowest levels for each of the irreducible representations 1 Σg + , 1 Σu + , 1 Σg - , and 1 Σu - , to an estimated accuracy of 0.1 mEh of the exact result in this basis.
Assembling Fibonacci anyons from a Z3 parafermion lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoudenmire, E. M.; Clarke, David J.; Mong, Roger S. K.; Alicea, Jason
2015-06-01
Recent concrete proposals suggest it is possible to engineer a two-dimensional bulk phase supporting non-Abelian Fibonacci anyons out of Abelian fractional quantum Hall systems. The low-energy degrees of freedom of such setups can be modeled as Z3 parafermions "hopping" on a two-dimensional lattice. We use the density matrix renormalization group to study a model of this type interpolating between the decoupled-chain, triangular-lattice, and square-lattice limits. The results show clear evidence of the Fibonacci phase over a wide region of the phase diagram, most notably including the isotropic triangular-lattice point. We also study the broader phase diagram of this model and show that elsewhere it supports an Abelian state with semionic excitations.
The Thirring-Wess model revisited: a functional integral approach
Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br
2005-06-01
We consider the Wess-Zumino-Witten theory to obtain the functional integral bosonization of the Thirring-Wess model with an arbitrary regularization parameter. Proceeding a systematic of decomposing the Bose field algebra into gauge-invariant- and gauge-non-invariant field subalgebras, we obtain the local decoupled quantum action. The generalized operator solutions for the equations of motion are reconstructed from the functional integral formalism. The isomorphism between the QED {sub 2} (QCD {sub 2}) with broken gauge symmetry by a regularization prescription and the Abelian (non-Abelian) Thirring-Wess model with a fixed bare mass for the meson field is established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.
2006-11-01
We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger’s treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, ZgZA1/2=1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Zg and of the diagonal gluon field ZA, still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolan, Louise; Sun, Yang
2015-06-01
We compute the partition function of four-dimensional abelian gauge theory on a general four-torus T 4 with flat metric using Dirac quantization. In addition to an symmetry, it possesses symmetry that is electromagnetic S-duality. We show explicitly how this S-duality of the 4 d abelian gauge theory has its origin in symmetries of the 6 d (2 , 0) tensor theory, by computing the partition function of a single fivebrane compactified on T 2 times T 4, which has symmetry. If we identify the couplings of the abelian gauge theory with the complex modulus of the T 2 torus , then in the small T 2 limit, the partition function of the fivebrane tensor field can be factorized, and contains the partition function of the 4 d gauge theory. In this way the symmetry of the 6d tensor partition function is identified with the S-duality symmetry of the 4d gauge partition function. Each partition function is the product of zero mode and oscillator contributions, where the acts suitably. For the 4d gauge theory, which has a Lagrangian, this product redistributes when using path integral quantization.
More on ghosts in the Dvali-Gabadaze-Porrati model
Gorbunov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergei; Koyama, Kazuya
2006-02-15
It is shown by an explicit calculation that the excitations about the self-accelerating cosmological solution of the Dvali-Gabadaze-Porrati model contain a ghost mode. This raises serious doubts about viability of this solution. Our analysis reveals the similarity between the quadratic theory for the perturbations around the self-accelerating universe and an Abelian gauge model with two Stueckelberg fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mayukh; Teo, Jeffrey; Hughes, Taylor
2015-03-01
Non-abelian anyons exhibit exotic braiding statistics which can be utilized to realize a universal topological quantum computer. In this work we focus on Fibonacci anyons which occur in Z3 Read Rezayi fractional quantum hall states. Traditionally they have been constructed using su(2)3 / u (1) coset theories. We introduce conformal field theories(CFTs) of exceptional and non-simply laced Lie Algebras at level 1, for example G2 ,F4 which host Fibonacci anyons. We realize these CFT's concretely on the 1d gapless edge of an anisotropic 2d system built out of coupled, interacting Luttinger wires. Interactions are introduced within a bundle of wires to fractionalize the original chiral bosons into different sectors. Next, we couple these sectors to get the desired topological phase in the bulk. The 2d bulk of the stack is gapped by backscattering terms between counterpropagating modes on different bundles. The emergence of this topological phase can be interpreted using techniques of anyon condensation . We also explicitly construct the Kac Moody algebra on the edge CFT using original bosonic degrees of freedom.We acknowledge support from NSF CAREER DMR-1351895(TH) and Simons Foundation (JT).
Non-Abelian Dynamics and Heavy Multiquarks. Steiner-Tree Confinement in Hadron Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Jean-Marc
2011-05-01
A brief review is first presented of attempts to predict stable multiquark states within current models of hadron spectroscopy. Then a model combining flip-flop and connected Steiner trees is introduced and shown to lead to stable multiquarks, in particular for some configurations involving several heavy quarks and bearing exotic quantum numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pareek, Tribhuvan Prasad
2015-09-01
In this article, we develop an exact (nonadiabatic, nonperturbative) density matrix scattering theory for a two component quantum liquid which interacts or scatters off from a generic spin-dependent quantum potential. The generic spin dependent quantum potential [Eq. (1)] is a matrix potential, hence, adiabaticity criterion is ill-defined. Therefore the full matrix potential should be treated nonadiabatically. We succeed in doing so using the notion of vectorial matrices which allows us to obtain an exact analytical expression for the scattered density matrix (SDM), ϱsc [Eq. (30)]. We find that the number or charge density in scattered fluid, Tr(ϱsc), expressions in Eqs. (32) depends on nontrivial quantum interference coefficients, Qα β 0ijk, which arises due to quantum interference between spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering amplitudes and among spin-dependent scattering amplitudes. Further it is shown that Tr(ϱsc) can be expressed in a compact form [Eq. (39)] where the effect of quantum interference coefficients can be included using a vector Qαβ, which allows us to define a vector order parameterQ. Since the number density is obtained using an exact scattered density matrix, therefore, we do not need to prove that Q is non-zero. However, for sake of completeness, we make detailed mathematical analysis for the conditions under which the vector order parameterQ would be zero or nonzero. We find that in presence of spin-dependent interaction the vector order parameterQ is necessarily nonzero and is related to the commutator and anti-commutator of scattering matrix S with its dagger S† [Eq. (78)]. It is further shown that Q≠0, implies four physically equivalent conditions,i.e., spin-orbital entanglement is nonzero, non-Abelian scattering phase, i.e., matrices, scattering matrix is nonunitary and the broken time reversal symmetry for SDM. This also implies that quasi particle excitation are anyonic in nature, hence, charge fractionalization is a
Confinement Driven by Scalar Field in 4d Non Abelian Gauge Theories
Chabab, Mohamed
2007-01-12
We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of tmechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Finite energy monopoles in non-Abelian gauge theories on odd-dimensional spaces
Kihara, Hironobu
2009-02-15
In higher-dimensional gauge theory, we need energies with higher power terms of field strength in order to realize pointwise monopoles. We consider new models with higher power terms of field strength and extraordinary kinetic terms of the scalar field. Monopole charges are computed as integrals over spheres and they are related to mapping class degree. Hedgehog solutions are investigated in these models. Every differential equation for these solutions is Abel's differential equation. A condition for the existence of a finite energy solution is shown. The spaces of 1-jets of these equations are defined as sets of zeros of polynomials. Those spaces can be interpreted as singular quartic surfaces in three-dimensional complex projective spa0008.
Mass spectrum and correlation functions of non-Abelian quantum magnetic monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, E. C.; Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The method of quantization of magnetic monopoles based on the order-disorder duality existing between the monopole operator and the Lagrangian fields is applied to the description of the quantum magnetic monopoles of 't Hooft and Polyakov in the SO(3) Georgi-Glashow model. The commutator of the monopole operator with the magnetic charge is computed explicitly, indicating that indeed the quantum monopole carries 4π/g units of magnetic charge. An explicit expression for the asymptotic behavior of the monopole correlation function is derived. From this, the mass of the quantum monopole is obtained. The tree-level result for the quantum monopole mass is shown to satisfy the Bogomol'nyi bound (Mmon>=4πM/g2) and to be within the range of values found for the energy of the classical monopole solution.
Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma
Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-04-26
The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of largemore » Nc Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.« less
Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma
Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-04-26
The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of large N_{c} Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.
Projective ribbon permutation statistics: A remnant of non-Abelian braiding in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Michael; Hastings, Matthew B.; Nayak, Chetan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Walker, Kevin; Wang, Zhenghan
2011-03-01
In a recent paper, Teo and Kane [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.046401 104, 046401 (2010)] proposed a three-dimensional (3D) model in which the defects support Majorana fermion zero modes. They argued that exchanging and twisting these defects would implement a set R of unitary transformations on the zero-mode Hilbert space which is a “ghostly” recollection of the action of the braid group on Ising anyons in two dimensions. In this paper, we find the group T2n, which governs the statistics of these defects by analyzing the topology of the space K2n of configurations of 2n defects in a slowly spatially varying gapped free-fermion Hamiltonian: T2n≡π1(K2n). We find that the group T2n=Z×T2nr, where the “ribbon permutation group” T2nr is a mild enhancement of the permutation group S2n: T2nr≡Z2×E((Z2)2n⋊S2n). Here, E((Z2)2n⋊S2n) is the “even part” of (Z2)2n⋊S2n, namely, those elements for which the total parity of the element in (Z2)2n added to the parity of the permutation is even. Surprisingly, R is only a projective representation of T2n, a possibility proposed by Wilczek [e-print arXiv:hep-th/9806228]. Thus, Teo and Kane’s defects realize projective ribbon permutation statistics,” which we show to be consistent with locality. We extend this phenomenon to other dimensions, codimensions, and symmetry classes. We note that our analysis applies to 3D networks of quantum wires supporting Majorana fermions; thus, these networks are not required to be planar. Because it is an essential input for our calculation, we review the topological classification of gapped free-fermion systems and its relation to Bott periodicity.
Exploring center strings in S U (2 ) and S U (3 ) relativistic Yang-Mills-Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oxman, L. E.; Vercauteren, D.
2017-01-01
We develop numerical tools and apply them to solve the relativistic Yang-Mills-Higgs equations in a model where the S U (N ) symmetry is spontaneously broken to its center. In S U (2 ) and S U (3 ), we obtain the different field profiles for infinite and finite center strings, with end points at external monopole sources. Exploration of parameter space permits the detection of a region where the equations get Abelianized. Finally, a general parametrization of the color structure of S U (2 ) fields leads us to a reference point where an Abelian-like Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommereld (BPS) bound is reconciled with N -ality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kohl, Timothy
2012-01-01
A pair of elementary exercises, one from topology, the other from group theory are such that if one replaces three words in the topology problem, you get the group theory problem and vice-versa. This suggests connections between the two that are explored here.
Chiral models: Geometrical aspects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perelomov, A. M.
1987-02-01
Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.
Fixed-energy sandpiles belong generically to directed percolation.
Basu, Mahashweta; Basu, Urna; Bondyopadhyay, Sourish; Mohanty, P K; Hinrichsen, Haye
2012-07-06
Fixed-energy sandpiles with stochastic update rules are known to exhibit a nonequilibrium phase transition from an active phase into infinitely many absorbing states. Examples include the conserved Manna model, the conserved lattice gas, and the conserved threshold transfer process. It is believed that the transitions in these models belong to an autonomous universality class of nonequilibrium phase transitions, the so-called Manna class. Contrarily, the present numerical study of selected (1+1)-dimensional models in this class suggests that their critical behavior converges to directed percolation after very long time, questioning the existence of an independent Manna class.
Leptonic color models from Z{sub 8} orbifolded AdS/CFT
Babu, K. S.; Kephart, Thomas W.; Paes, Heinrich
2008-06-01
We study orbifold compactifications of the type IIB superstring on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the Abelian group Z{sub 8}, which can lead to non-supersymmetric three and four family models based on quartification. In particular, we focus on two models, one fully quartified model and one a model with two trinification families and one quartification family, which reduces to the standard model with a minimal leptonic color sector.
Urrestilla, Jon; Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@physics.unige.ch
2011-12-01
We present a significant update of the constraints on the Abelian Higgs cosmic string tension by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, enabled both by the use of new high-resolution CMB data from suborbital experiments as well as the latest results of the WMAP satellite, and by improved predictions for the impact of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings on the CMB power spectra. The new cosmic string spectra [1] were improved especially for small angular scales, through the use of larger Abelian Higgs string simulations and careful extrapolation. If Abelian Higgs strings are present then we find improved bounds on their contribution to the CMB anisotropies, fd{sup AH} < 0.095, and on their tension, Gμ{sub AH} < 0.57 × 10{sup −6}, both at 95% confidence level using WMAP7 data; and fd{sup AH} < 0.048 and Gμ{sub AH} < 0.42 × 10{sup −6} using all the CMB data. We also find that using all the CMB data, a scale invariant initial perturbation spectrum, n{sub s} = 1, is now disfavoured at 2.4σ even if strings are present. A Bayesian model selection analysis no longer indicates a preference for strings.
Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus
2016-12-01
We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.
Model Fractional Chern Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J.
2016-05-01
We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators—Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Zk parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν =k /(C +1 ) and (ii) nematic states at ν =k /2 , where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k +1 ) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesando, Igor
2016-09-01
We consider the simplest possible setting of non-abelian twist fields which corresponds to SU (2) monodromies. We first review the theory of hypergeometric function and of the solutions of the most general Fuchsian second order equation with three singularities. Then we solve the problem of writing the general solution with prescribed U (2) monodromies. We use this result to compute the classical string solution corresponding to three D2 branes in R4. Despite the fact that the configuration is supersymmetric the classical string solution is not holomorphic. Using the equation of motion and not the KLT approach we give a very simple expression for the classical action of the string. We find that the classical action is not proportional to the area of the triangle determined by the branes intersection points since the solution is not holomorphic. Phenomenologically this means that the Yukawa couplings for these supersymmetric configurations on non-factorized tori are suppressed with respect to the factorized case.
Brane-inspired models in gravitation and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gal'tsov, Dmitri
We discuss some recent development in gravitation and cosmology related to the concept of branes. These lectures include: a brief review of braneworld scenarios with an emphasis on the black hole problem, soliton and black hole solutions of the gravitating non-Abelian Born-Infeld (NBI) model, NBI homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, brane NBI cosmology, the issue of Yang-Mills chaos in the context of the NBI dynamics.
Model Fractional Quantum Hall States and Jack Polynomials
Bernevig, B. Andrei; Haldane, F. D. M.
2008-06-20
We describe an occupation-number-like picture of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of polynomial wave functions characterized by a dominant occupation-number configuration. The bosonic variants of single-component Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states are modeled by Jack symmetric polynomials (Jacks), characterized by dominant occupation-number configurations satisfying a generalized Pauli principle. In a series of well-known quantum Hall states, including the Laughlin, Read-Moore, and Read-Rezayi, the Jack polynomials naturally implement a ''squeezing rule'' that constrains allowed configurations to be restricted to those obtained by squeezing the dominant configuration. The Jacks presented in this Letter describe new trial uniform states, but it is yet to be determined to which actual experimental fractional quantum Hall effect states they apply.
Tapparo, Andrea; Di Marco, Valerio B; Bombi, G Giorgio; Paganelli, Arturo
2002-03-01
A sample of oil coming from the case containing the relics of St. Nicholas the Great, preserved in the church of "San Nicolò al Lido" (Venice, Italy), has been characterised by the determination of its chemical composition, its age (radiocarbon dating) and the presence of particles of biological origin. Experimental results show that the sample is a vegetal oil, with a fatty acids composition modified by natural oxidation processes, containing pollen grains of plants from Northern Italy, and dating around 1300 A.D. These results together with an historical and artistic evaluation of the ceramic jar containing the oil, allow us to hypothesise that the jar was introduced into the case after the arrival of the relics in Venice (1100 A.D.) during one of the official inquisitions prior to that documented in 1399 A.D.
Haze aerosols in the atmosphere of early Earth: manna from heaven.
Trainer, Melissa G; Pavlov, Alexander A; Curtis, Daniel B; McKay, Christopher P; Worsnop, Douglas R; Delia, Alice E; Toohey, Darin W; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A
2004-01-01
An organic haze layer in the upper atmosphere of Titan plays a crucial role in the atmospheric composition and climate of that moon. Such a haze layer may also have existed on the early Earth, providing an ultraviolet shield for greenhouse gases needed to warm the planet enough for life to arise and evolve. Despite the implications of such a haze layer, little is known about the organic material produced under early Earth conditions when both CO(2) and CH(4) may have been abundant in the atmosphere. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate that organic haze can be generated in different CH(4)/CO(2) ratios. Here, we show that haze aerosols are able to form at CH(4) mixing ratios of 1,000 ppmv, a level likely to be present on early Earth. In addition, we find that organic hazes will form at C/O ratios as low as 0.6, which is lower than the predicted value of unity. We also show that as the C/O ratio decreases, the organic particles produced are more oxidized and contain biologically labile compounds. After life arose, the haze may thus have provided food for biota.
Covariance in models of loop quantum gravity: Spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Reyes, Juan D.
2015-08-01
Spherically symmetric models of loop quantum gravity have been studied recently by different methods that aim to deal with structure functions in the usual constraint algebra of gravitational systems. As noticed by Gambini and Pullin, a linear redefinition of the constraints (with phase-space dependent coefficients) can be used to eliminate structure functions, even Abelianizing the more difficult part of the constraint algebra. The Abelianized constraints can then easily be quantized or modified by putative quantum effects. As pointed out here, however, the method does not automatically provide a covariant quantization, defined as an anomaly-free quantum theory with a classical limit in which the usual (off-shell) gauge structure of hypersurface deformations in space-time appears. The holonomy-modified vacuum theory based on Abelianization is covariant in this sense, but matter theories with local degrees of freedom are not. Detailed demonstrations of these statements show complete agreement with results of canonical effective methods applied earlier to the same systems (including signature change).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandran, A.; Schulz, Marc D.; Burnell, F. J.
2016-12-01
Many phases of matter, including superconductors, fractional quantum Hall fluids, and spin liquids, are described by gauge theories with constrained Hilbert spaces. However, thermalization and the applicability of quantum statistical mechanics has primarily been studied in unconstrained Hilbert spaces. In this paper, we investigate whether constrained Hilbert spaces permit local thermalization. Specifically, we explore whether the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) holds in a pinned Fibonacci anyon chain, which serves as a representative case study. We first establish that the constrained Hilbert space admits a notion of locality by showing that the influence of a measurement decays exponentially in space. This suggests that the constraints are no impediment to thermalization. We then provide numerical evidence that ETH holds for the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of various local observables in a generic disorder-free nonintegrable model. We also find that certain nonlocal observables obey ETH.
Cao Qinghong; Khalil, Shaaban; Ma, Ernest; Okada, Hiroshi
2011-10-01
We discuss how {theta}{sub 13}{ne}0 is accommodated in a recently proposed renormalizable model of neutrino mixing using the non-Abelian discrete symmetry T{sub 7} in the context of a supersymmetric extension of the standard model with gauged U(1){sub B-L}. We predict a correlation between {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 23}, as well as the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} in neutrinoless double beta decay.
Specific Heat Anomalies in Solids Described by a Multilevel Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, Mariano de; Paupitz, Ricardo; Seridonio, Antonio; Lagos, Roberto E.
2016-04-01
In the field of condensed matter physics, specific heat measurements can be considered as a pivotal experimental technique for characterizing the fundamental excitations involved in a certain phase transition. Indeed, phase transitions involving spin (de Souza et al. Phys. B Condens. Matter 404, 494 (2009) and Manna et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 016403 (2010)), charge (Pregelj et al. Phys. Rev. B 82, 144438 (2010)), lattice (Jesche et al. Phys. Rev. B 81, 134525 (2010)) (phonons) and orbital degrees of freedom, the interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity (Jesche et al. Phys. Rev. B 86, 020501 (2012)), Schottky-like anomalies in doped compounds (Lagos et al. Phys. C Supercond. 309, 170 (1998)), electronic levels in finite correlated systems (Macedo and Lagos J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 226, 105 (2001)), among other features, can be captured by means of high-resolution calorimetry. Furthermore, the entropy change associated with a first-order phase transition, no matter its nature, can be directly obtained upon integrating the specific heat over T, i.e., C( T)/ T, in the temperature range of interest. Here, we report on a detailed analysis of the two-peak specific heat anomalies observed in several materials. Employing a simple multilevel model, varying the spacing between the energy levels Δ i = ( E i - E 0) and the degeneracy of each energy level g i , we derive the required conditions for the appearance of such anomalies. Our findings indicate that a ratio of {Δ }2/{Δ }1thickapprox 10 between the energy levels and a high degeneracy of one of the energy levels define the two-peaks regime in the specific heat. Our approach accurately matches recent experimental results. Furthermore, using a mean-field approach, we calculate the specific heat of a degenerate Schottky-like system undergoing a ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition. Our results reveal that as the degeneracy is increased the Schottky maximum in the specific heat becomes narrow while the peak
G4-flux and standard model vacua in F-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ling; Weigand, Timo
2016-12-01
We study the geometry of gauge fluxes in four-dimensional F-theory vacua with gauge group SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) × U (1) and its implications for phenomenology. The models are defined by a previously introduced class of elliptic fibrations whose fibre is given as a cubic hypersurface in Bl2P2, with the non-abelian gauge group factors SU (3) × SU (2) engineered torically via the top construction. To describe gauge fluxes on these fibrations we provide a classification of the primary vertical middle cohomology group in a fashion valid for any choice of base space. Using the ideal theoretic technique of primary decomposition we compute the cohomology classes of the matter surfaces associated with states charged under the non-abelian gauge group. These expressions allow us to interpret the cancellation of the pure and mixed non-abelian anomalies geometrically as a result of the general form of the matter surfaces, without reference to a specific type of gauge flux. Explicit results for the chiral indices of all matter states are obtained in terms of intersection numbers of the base and can be directly applied to any choice of base consistent with the fibration. As a demonstration we scan for globally consistent F-theory vacua on P3, Bl1P3 and Bl2P3, and find a globally consistent flux configuration with the chiral Standard Model spectrum plus an extra triplet pair, which may be lifted by a recombination process.
Towards realistic standard model from D-brane configurations
Leontaris, G. K.; Tracas, N. D.; Korakianitis, O.; Vlachos, N. D.
2007-12-01
Effective low energy models arising in the context of D-brane configurations with standard model (SM) gauge symmetry extended by several gauged Abelian factors are discussed. The models are classified according to their hypercharge embeddings consistent with the SM spectrum hypercharge assignment. Particular cases are analyzed according to their perspectives and viability as low energy effective field theory candidates. The resulting string scale is determined by means of a two-loop renormalization group calculation. Their implications in Yukawa couplings, neutrinos and flavor changing processes are also presented.
On the sigma-model of deformed special geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro
2013-07-01
We discuss the deformed sigma-model that arises when considering four-dimensional N=2 abelian vector multiplets in the presence of an arbitrary chiral background field. In addition, we allow for a class of deformations of special geometry by non-holomorphic terms. We analyze the geometry of the sigma-model in terms of intrinsic torsion classes. We show that, generically, the deformed geometry is non-Kähler. We illustrate our findings with an example. We also express the deformed sigma-model in terms of the Hesse potential that underlies the real formulation of special geometry.
Jackiw-Pi model: A superfield approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Saurabh
2014-12-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) as well as anti-BRST transformations s ( a) b corresponding to the Yang-Mills gauge transformations of 3D Jackiw-Pi model by exploiting the "augmented" super-field formalism. We also show that the Curci-Ferrari restriction, which is a hallmark of any non-Abelian 1-form gauge theories, emerges naturally within this formalism and plays an instrumental role in providing the proof of absolute anticommutativity of s ( a) b .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worman, A.; Kjellin, J. P.; Lindahl, A.; Johansson, H.
2005-05-01
To throw light on coupled hydrological, chemical and microbiological processes in treatment wetlands, this study uses both radioactive water and reactive tracers. A tracer mixture consisting of tritiated water, P-32 in the form of PO4- and N-15 in the form of N2O was injected to the 2.6 hectare large Ekeby wetland, Sweden. From the breakthrough curves of tritium, the mean residence time of water in pond 1 can be estimated to be about 3 to 3.5 days. The total injected activity of phosphorus was 17.98 GBq and about 13.73 GBq was recovered at the outlet during the investigation period ending 10 days and 16 hours after the start of the injection. This implies that 24% of the phosphate solution was removed in the November - December period in which the experiment was performed. The total injected amount of N-15 was 42.1 grams and 29.6 grams was retained at the effluent. This means that 30% of the nitrogen was either retained in the wetland or removed due to denitrification. An analysis of regular monitoring data shows that the annual removal rate in the entire wetland (each flow line passes two ponds in series) is about 50% for total phosphorus and 25% for total nitrogen. Probably, the most important mechanism for this removal is adsorption onto particulate matter and deposition. Analyses of vegetation material indicate that a certain (minor) fraction was adsorbed to submersed and emerging macrophytes, like Elodera Canadensis, Thypa sp. (Cattail) and Glyceria sp. (Manna grass). A 2D mathematical model for both water flow and solute transport could explain the N-transport through the wetland. The model accounts for the rate-limited exchange with bed sediments and denitrification in the water and bed sediment. Independent batch tests indicate a particularly high microbiological activity in the bed sediments. The rate-limited exchange with the bed limits also the denitrification capacity of the wetland.
Large Deviations for the Stochastic Shell Model of Turbulence
2009-05-27
University, Baton Rouge , USA. e-mail: sundar@math.lsu.edu Received: 6 February 2008 . Accepted: 18 March 2009. ...Ladyzhenskaya, O.A.: The Mathematical Theory of Viscous Incompressible Flow. Gordon and Breach, New York (1969) [24] L’vov, V.S., Podivilov, E...Anal., 22, World Science, Hackensack ( 2008 ) [26] Manna, U., Menaldi, J.L., Sritharan, S.S.: Stochastic 2-D Navier–Stokes equation with artificial
Beta Functions in Chirally Deformed Supersymmetric Sigma Models in Two Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainshtein, Arkady
We study two-dimensional sigma models where the chiral deformation diminished the original 𝒩 =(2, 2) supersymmetry to the chiral one, 𝒩 =(0, 2). Such heterotic models were discovered previously on the world sheet of non-Abelian stringy solitons supported by certain four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 theories. We study geometric aspects and holomorphic properties of these models, and derive a number of exact expressions for the β functions in terms of the anomalous dimensions analogous to the NSVZ β function in four-dimensional Yang-Mills. Instanton calculus provides a straightforward method for the derivation.
Beta functions in Chirally deformed supersymmetric sigma models in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainshtein, Arkady
2016-10-01
We study two-dimensional sigma models where the chiral deformation diminished the original 𝒩 = (2, 2) supersymmetry to the chiral one, 𝒩 = (0, 2). Such heterotic models were discovered previously on the world sheet of non-Abelian stringy solitons supported by certain four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 theories. We study geometric aspects and holomorphic properties of these models, and derive a number of exact expressions for the β functions in terms of the anomalous dimensions analogous to the NSVZ β function in four-dimensional Yang-Mills. Instanton calculus provides a straightforward method for the derivation.
Liu, Ying
2015-11-30
This project deals with odd-parity superconductor Sr_{2}RuO_{4} and related material systems, aiming at understanding the unconventional nature of superconductivity in this material. An odd-parity superconductor is expected to feature a novel topological object, the half-flux-quantum vortex that hosts a Majorana anyons. Majorana anyons carry non-Abelian statistics that can be used as the building block for constructing a fault-tolerated topological quantum computer. Half-flux-quantum vortices form in an odd-parity superconductor because of the availability of charge neutral spin supercurrent in addition to the normal supercurrent. Half-height magnetization steps were found in a cantilever magnetometry measurement of doubly connected mesoscopic samples of Sr_{2}RuO_{4} in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field (J. Jang, D. G. Ferguson, V. Vakaryuk, R. Budakian, S. B. Chung, P. M. Goldbart, and Y. Maeno, Science 331, 186 (2011)), which suggests the presence of a half-flux-quantum (Φ_{0}/2 = h/4e) state. Evidence for half flux quantum states, which can be viewed as coreless half vortices, was obtained in mesoscopic samples of Sr_{2}RuO_{4} in the torque magnetomitry measurements. However, the existence of such an important property has not been confirmed by any other independent measurement.
Geometry in transition in four dimensions: A model of emergent geometry in the early universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ydri, Badis; Khaled, Ramda; Ahlam, Rouag
2016-10-01
We study a six matrix model with global S O (3 )×S O (3 ) symmetry containing at most quartic powers of the matrices. This theory exhibits a phase transition from a geometrical phase at low temperature to a Yang-Mills matrix phase with no background geometrical structure at high temperature. This is an exotic phase transition in the same universality class as the three matrix model but with important differences. The geometrical phase is determined dynamically, as the system cools, and is given by a fuzzy sphere background SN2×SN2, with an Abelian gauge field which is very weakly coupled to two normal scalar fields.
Topics in the phenomenology of two non-minimal models of supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garon, Todd S.
In this thesis we look at two non-minimal models of supersymmetry breaking. In the first model, we study the phenomenology of deflected mirage mediation, a scenario where gravity, anomaly, and gauge mediation contribute to the soft masses, in light of the 7 and 8 TeV runs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the dark matter direct detection results from XENON and LUX. We find that the parameter space admits models with both simplified and compressed spectra, which should be visible in the next run of the LHC. We also look at the parameter space from the bottom up, using the electroweak fine-tuning measure and find that there are large regions of parameter space which are not fine-tuned. In the second, we look at models of flavored gauge mediation and explore models with a non-abelian flavor symmetry. In these models the MSSM messenger Yukawa couplings are connected by the non-abelian symmetry, forcing us to model them simultaneously. We comment on the spectra and model building challengers in this paradigm.
Dual pairs of gauged linear sigma models and derived equivalences of Calabi-Yau threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhardus, Andreas; Jockers, Hans
2017-04-01
In this work we study the phase structure of skew symplectic sigma models, which are a certain class of two-dimensional N =(2 , 2) non-Abelian gauged linear sigma models. At low energies some of them flow to non-linear sigma models with Calabi-Yau target spaces, which emerge from non-Abelian strong coupling dynamics. The observed phase structure results in a non-trivial duality proposal among skew symplectic sigma models and connects non-complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds-that are non-birational among another-in a common quantum Kähler moduli space. As a consequence we find non-trivial identifications of spectra of topological B-branes, which from a modern algebraic geometry perspective imply derived equivalences among Calabi-Yau varieties. To further support our proposals, we calculate the two sphere partition function of skew symplectic sigma models to determine geometric invariants, which confirm the anticipated Calabi-Yau threefold phases. We show that the two sphere partition functions of a pair of dual skew symplectic sigma models agree in a non-trivial fashion. To carry out these calculations, we develop a systematic approach to study higher-dimensional Mellin-Barnes type integrals. In particular, these techniques admit the evaluation of two sphere partition functions for gauged linear sigma models with higher rank gauge groups, but are applicable in other contexts as well.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; ...
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore » point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less
The standard model coupled to quantum gravitodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldabe, Fermin
2017-01-01
We show that the renormalizable SO(4)× U(1)× SU(2)× SU(3) Yang-Mills coupled to matter and the Higgs field fits all the experimentally observed differential cross sections known in nature. This extended Standard Model reproduces the experimental gravitational differential cross sections without resorting to the graviton field and instead by exchanging SO(4) gauge fields. By construction, each SO(4) generator in quantum gravitodynamics does not commute with the Dirac gamma matrices. This produces additional interactions absent to non-Abelian gauge fields in the Standard Model. The contributions from these new terms yield differential cross sections consistent with the Newtonian and post-Newtonian interactions derived from General Relativity. Dimensional analysis of the Lagrangian shows that all its terms have total dimensionality four or less and therefore that all physical quantities in the theory renormalize by finite amounts. These properties make QGD the only renormalizable four-dimensional theory describing gravitational interactions.
A four-dimensional model with the fermionic determinant exactly evaluated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignaco, J. A.; Rego Monteiro, M. A.
1986-07-01
A method is presented to compute the fermion determinant of some class of field theories. By this method the following results of the fermion determinant in two dimensions are easily recovered: (i) Schwinger model without reference to a particular gauge. (ii) QCD in the light-cone gauge. (iii) Gauge invariant result of QCD. The method is finally applied to give an analytical solution of the fermion determinant of a four-dimensional, non-abelian, Dirac-like theory with massless fermions interacting with an external vector field through a pseudo-vectorial coupling. Fellow of the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazil.
Dark Matter in the Heavens and at Colliders: Models and Constraints
Primulando, Reinard
2012-08-01
In this dissertation, we investigate various aspects of dark matter detection and model building. Motivated by the cosmic ray positron excess observed by PAMELA, we construct models of decaying dark matter to explain the excess. Specifically we present an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. Alternatively, the decaying operator can arise as a Planck suppressed correction in a model with an Abelian discrete symmetry and vector-like states at an intermediate scale that are responsible for generating lepton Yukawa couplings. A flavor-nonconserving dark matter decay is also considered in the case of fermionic dark matter. Assuming a general Dirac structure for the four-fermion contact interactions of interest, the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra were studied. We show that good fits to the current data can be obtained for both charged-leptonflavor- conserving and flavor-violating decay channels. Motivated by a possible excess of gamma rays in the galactic center, we constructed a supersymmetric leptophilic higgs model to explain the excess. Finally, we consider an improvement on dark matter collider searches using the Razor analysis, which was originally utilized for supersymmetry searches by the CMS collaboration.
Cogenerating and pre-annihilating dark matter by a new gauge interaction in a unified model
Barr, S.M.; Scherrer, Robert J.
2016-05-31
Grand unified theories based on large groups (with rank ≥6) are a natural context for dark matter models. They contain Standard-Model-singlet fermions that could be dark matter candidates, and can contain new non-abelian interactions whose sphalerons convert baryons, leptons, and dark matter into each other, “cogenerating' a dark matter asymmetry comparable to the baryon asymmetry. In this paper it is shown that the same non-abelian interactions can “pre-annihilate' the symmetric component of heavy dark matter particles χ, which then decay late into light stable dark matter particles ζ that inherit their asymmetry. We derive cosmological constraints on the parameters of such models. The mass of χ must be <3000 TeV and their decays must happen when 2×10{sup −7}
Proposals for quantum simulating simple lattice gauge theory models using optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jin; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah; Bazavov, Alexei; Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen
We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian for the (1 +1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the strongly coupled region by integrating out the link variables. With finite spin truncations, the Hamiltonian can be matched with a 1-dimensional two-species Bose Hubbard model in the strong-coupling limit that can be implemented with cold atoms on an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram of the original Abelian Higgs model with Monte Carlo simulation and Tensor Renormalization Group methods. The results show a crossover line which terminates near the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point. The effective quantum Hamiltonian is also studied with the DMRG method, and we find that they have a similar behavior. We discuss practical experimental implementations for our quantum simulator. Species-dependent optical lattices and ladder systems with double-well potentials are considered. We show how to obtain each of the interaction parameters required in the Bose-Hubbard model that we obtained, and confirm the possibility of tuning these interactions to the region in which our mapping is valid. We emphasize that this proposal for quantum simulating a gauge theory uses a manifestly gauge-invariant formulation and Gauss's Law is therefore automatically satisfied. Supported by DoD ARO under Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0119 and by the NSF under Grants No. DMR-1411345.
Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius
2014-03-01
the BTW and the Zhang sandpile models, other variations of toppling rules exist. One possibility is a stochastic sandpile model proposed by Manna (1991b), which was intensively studied as it is solvable analytically. Toppling rules can be divided into Abelian vs. non-Abelian, deterministic vs. stochastic and directed vs. undirected (Milshtein et al., 1998). Modifications of the toppling rules employed often results in a change of the universality class to which the model belongs (Ben-Hur and Biham, 1996; Giacometti and Díaz-Guilera, 1998).Hitherto we described the critical height model, where the start of a toppling process solely depends on the height h. Alternatively, in the critical slope model the avalanche initiation depends on the first derivative of the height function h, or in the critical Laplacian model on the second derivative of the height function. These alternative stability criteria lead either to a different universality class, or to a complete absence of SOC behavior (Manna, 1991a).
Exactly soluble model of boundary degeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeshan, Sriram; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Gurarie, Victor; Galitski, Victor M.
2017-01-01
We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.075118]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.
The spherically symmetric Standard Model with gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasin, H.; Böhmer, C. G.; Grumiller, D.
2005-08-01
Spherical reduction of generic four-dimensional theories is revisited. Three different notions of "spherical symmetry" are defined. The following sectors are investigated: Einstein-Cartan theory, spinors, (non-)abelian gauge fields and scalar fields. In each sector a different formalism seems to be most convenient: the Cartan formulation of gravity works best in the purely gravitational sector, the Einstein formulation is convenient for the Yang-Mills sector and for reducing scalar fields, and the Newman-Penrose formalism seems to be the most transparent one in the fermionic sector. Combining them the spherically reduced Standard Model of particle physics together with the usually omitted gravity part can be presented as a two-dimensional (dilaton gravity) theory.
Tool for physics beyond the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newby, Christopher A.
The standard model (SM) of particle physics is a well studied theory, but there are hints that the SM is not the final story. What the full picture is, no one knows, but this thesis looks into three methods useful for exploring a few of the possibilities. To begin I present a paper by Spencer Chang, Nirmal Raj, Chaowaroj Wanotayaroj, and me, that studies the Higgs boson. The scalar particle first seen in 2012 may be the vanilla SM version, but there is some evidence that its couplings are different than predicted. By means of increasing the Higgs' coupling to vector bosons and fermions, we can be more consistent with the data. Next, in a paper by Spencer Chang, Gabriel Barello, and me, we elaborate on a tool created to study dark matter (DM) direct detection. The original work by Anand. et al. focused on elastic dark matter, whereas we extended this work to include the in elastic case, where different DM mass states enter and leave the collision. We also examine several direct detection experiments with our new framework to see if DAMA's modulation can be explained while avoiding the strong constraints imposed by the other experiments. We find that there are several operators that can do this. Finally, in a paper by Spencer Chang, Gabriel Barello, and me, we study an interesting phenomenon know as kinetic mixing, where two gauge bosons can share interactions with particles even though these particles aren't charged under both gauge groups. This, in and of itself, is not new, but we discuss a different method of obtaining this mixing where instead of mixing between two Abelian groups one of the groups is Nonabelian. Using this we then see that there is an inherent mass scale in the mixing strength; something that is absent in the Abelian-Abelian case. Furthermore, if the Nonabelian symmetry is the SU(2)L of the SM then the mass scale of the physics responsible for the mixing is about 1 TeV, right around the sweet spot for detection at the LHC. This dissertation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-22
...: 1. ESB Financial Corporation Employee Stock Ownership Plan, Ellwood City, Pennsylvania; Mario John Manna, Trustee; Mario John Manna's IRA Account; Claudia Brown Moore; Claudia Brown Moore's IRA...
Spin jumping in the context of a QCD effective model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gracia, G. B.
2017-03-01
The tensor formulation for the effective theory of QCD vector resonances, whose model we denote by TEVR, is given by an antisymmetric tensor field and describes spin 1 particles. Our goal is to show, by different approaches, that the Abelian version of this model presents the so-called “spin jumping” when we consider its massless limit. Classically we find, by the use of the equations of motion and the Hamiltonian constraint analysis, that the massive phase of the model describes spin 1 particles while its massless phase describes spin 0 particles. From the quantum point of view, we derive these conclusions via tree-level unitarity analysis and the master action approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2005-01-01
We construct solutions of an Einstein Yang Mills system including a cosmological constant in 4 + n spacetime dimensions, where the n-dimensional manifold associated with the extra dimensions is taken to be Ricci flat. Assuming the matter and metric fields to be independent of the n extra coordinates, a spherical symmetric ansatz for the fields leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. We find that for n > 1 only solutions with either one non-zero Higgs field or with all Higgs fields constant and zero gauge field function (corresponding to a Wu Yang-type ansatz) exist. We give the analytic solutions available in this model. These are 'embedded' Abelian solutions with a diverging size of the manifold associated with the extra n dimensions. Depending on the choice of parameters, these latter solutions either represent naked singularities or they possess a single horizon. We also present solutions of the effective four-dimensional Einstein Yang Mills Higgs-dilaton model, where the higher-dimensional cosmological constant induces a Liouville-type potential. The solutions are non-Abelian solutions with diverging Higgs fields, which exist only up to a maximal value of the cosmological constant.
Superfield Approach to Nilpotent Symmetries of the Freedman-Townsend Model: Novel Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, R. P.
2012-09-01
We perform the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) analysis of the Freedman-Townsend (FT) model of topologically massive non-Abelian theory by exploiting its (1-form) Yang-Mills (YM) gauge transformations to show the existence of some novel features that are totally different from the results obtained in such a kind of consideration carried out for the dynamical non-Abelian 2-form theory. We tap here the potential and power of the augmented version of Bonora-Tonin's superfield approach to BRST formalism to derive the full set of off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations where, in addition to the horizontality condition (HC), we are theoretically compelled to exploit the appropriate gauge-invariant restrictions (GIRs) on the (super)fields for the derivation of the appropriate symmetry transformations for all the relevant fields. We compare our key results with that of the other such attempt for the discussion of the present model within the framework of BRST formalism.
Abelian Ashtekar formulation from the ADM action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras, Ernesto; Leal, Lorenzo
2014-03-01
We study the Ashtekar formulation of linear gravity starting from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) first-order action of the exact theory, linearizing it, and performing a canonical transformation that coordinatizes the phase-space in terms of the already linearized Ashtekar variables. A quantum geometrical representation, based on the realization of the transverse-traceless part of the linear canonical variables, is presented, and its relationship with previous attempts is discussed. A related geometric representation that realizes directly the observables of the Fierz-Pauli theory, without resorting to deal with the linearized Ashtekar variables, is also discussed.
Bell diagonal states with maximal Abelian symmetry
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2010-12-15
We provide a simple class of 2-qudit states for which one is able to formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for separability. As a by-product, we generalize the well-known construction provided by Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1056 (1999)] for d=3. It is hoped that these states with known separability and entanglement properties may be used to test various notions in entanglement theory.
Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model confronts the LHC 750 GeV diphoton anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2016-08-01
In light of the recent 750 GeV diphoton anomaly observed at the LHC, we study the possibility of accommodating the deviation from the standard model prediction based on the recently proposed Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model. The model embeds two Higgs doublets into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group SU(2)H, while the standard model SU(2)L right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form SU(2)H doublets, and SU(2)L left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under SU(2)H. An SU(2)H scalar doublet, which provides masses to the new heavy fermions as well as the SU(2)H gauge bosons, can be produced via gluon fusion and subsequently decays into two photons with the new fermions circulating the triangle loops to account for the deviation from the standard model prediction.
Decorated tensor network renormalization for lattice gauge theories and spin foam models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, Bianca; Mizera, Sebastian; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2016-05-01
Tensor network techniques have proved to be powerful tools that can be employed to explore the large scale dynamics of lattice systems. Nonetheless, the redundancy of degrees of freedom in lattice gauge theories (and related models) poses a challenge for standard tensor network algorithms. We accommodate for such systems by introducing an additional structure decorating the tensor network. This allows to explicitly preserve the gauge symmetry of the system under coarse graining and straightforwardly interpret the fixed point tensors. We propose and test (for models with finite Abelian groups) a coarse graining algorithm for lattice gauge theories based on decorated tensor networks. We also point out that decorated tensor networks are applicable to other models as well, where they provide the advantage to give immediate access to certain expectation values and correlation functions.
A guide to flat direction analysis in anomalous U(1) models
Irges, N.; Lavignac, S. |
1997-12-01
The authors suggest a systematic procedure to study D- and F-flat directions in a large class of models with an anomalous U(1). This class of models is characterized by the existence of a vacuum that breaks all Abelian gauge symmetries connecting the observable sector to the hidden sector. They show that, under some conditions, there is no other stable vacuum that breaks these symmetries. As a consequence, the model yields definite (order of magnitude) predictions for low-energy mass hierarchies. Then they study generic flat directions and identify the ones that may lead to undesirable vacua. They give necessary conditions for those to be lifted, and show that supersymmetry breaking only slightly affects the conclusions from the flat direction analysis.
Fractal frontiers of bursts and cracks in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc; Herrmann, Hans J.
2015-12-01
We investigate the geometrical structure of breaking bursts generated during the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. Using a fiber bundle model with localized load sharing we show that bursts are compact geometrical objects; however, their external frontiers have a fractal structure which reflects their growth dynamics. The perimeter fractal dimension of bursts proved to have the universal value 1.25 independent of the external load and of the amount of disorder in the system. We conjecture that according to their geometrical features, breaking bursts fall in the universality class of loop-erased self-avoiding random walks with perimeter fractal dimension 5/4 similar to the avalanches of Abelian sand pile models. The fractal dimension of the growing crack front along which bursts occur proved to increase from 1 to 1.25 as bursts gradually cover the entire front.
Partial SUSY breaking for asymmetric Gepner models and non-geometric flux vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Fuchs, Michael; Plauschinn, Erik
2017-01-01
Using the method of simple current extensions, asymmetric Gepner models of Type IIB with N = 1 space-time supersymmetry are constructed. The combinatorics of the massless vector fields suggests that these classical Minkowski string vacua provide fully backreacted solutions corresponding to N = 1 minima of N = 2 gauged supergravity. The latter contain abelian gaugings along the axionic isometries in the hypermultiplet moduli space, and can be considered as Type IIB flux compactifications on Calabi-Yau manifolds equipped with (non-)geometric fluxes. For a particular class of asymmetric Gepner models, we are able to explicitly specify the underlying CICYs and to check necessary conditions for a GSUGRA interpretation. If this conjecture is correct, there exists a large class of exactly solvable non-geometric flux compactifications on CY threefolds.
Ko, P.; Tang, Yong
2015-01-16
We show that hidden sector dark matter (DM) models with local dark gauge symmetries make a natural playground for the possible γ-ray excess from the galactic center (GC). We first discuss in detail the GC γ-ray excess in a scalar dark matter (DM) model with local Z{sub 3} symmetry which was recently proposed by the present authors. Within this model, scalar DM with mass 30–70 GeV is allowed due to the newly-opened (semi-)annihilation channels of a DM pair into dark Higgs ϕ and/or dark photon Z′ pair, and the γ-ray spectrum from the GC can be fit within this model. Then we argue that the GC gamma ray excess can be easily accommodated within hidden sector dark matter models where DM is stabilized by local gauge symmetries, due to the presence of dark Higgs (and also dark photon for Abelian dark gauge symmetry)
Ko, P.; Tang, Yong E-mail: ytang@kias.re.kr
2015-01-01
We show that hidden sector dark matter (DM) models with local dark gauge symmetries make a natural playground for the possible γ-ray excess from the galactic center (GC). We first discuss in detail the GC γ-ray excess in a scalar dark matter (DM) model with local Z{sub 3} symmetry which was recently proposed by the present authors. Within this model, scalar DM with mass 30–70 GeV is allowed due to the newly-opened (semi-)annihilation channels of a DM pair into dark Higgs φ and/or dark photon Z' pair, and the γ-ray spectrum from the GC can be fit within this model. Then we argue that the GC gamma ray excess can be easily accommodated within hidden sector dark matter models where DM is stabilized by local gauge symmetries, due to the presence of dark Higgs (and also dark photon for Abelian dark gauge symmetry)
Charge quantization and the Standard Model from the CP2 and CP3 nonlinear σ-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellerman, Simeon; Kehayias, John; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2014-04-01
We investigate charge quantization in the Standard Model (SM) through a CP2 nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), SU(3/(SU(2×U(1), and a CP3 model, SU(4/(SU(3×U(1). We also generalize to any CPk model. Charge quantization follows from the consistency and dynamics of the NLSM, without a monopole or Grand Unified Theory, as shown in our earlier work on the CP1 model (arXiv:1309.0692). We find that representations of the matter fields under the unbroken non-abelian subgroup dictate their charge quantization under the U(1 factor. In the CP2 model the unbroken group is identified with the weak and hypercharge groups of the SM, and the Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB) has the quantum numbers of a SM Higgs. There is the intriguing possibility of a connection with the vanishing of the Higgs self-coupling at the Planck scale. Interestingly, with some minor assumptions (no vector-like matter and minimal representations) and starting with a single quark doublet, anomaly cancellation requires the matter structure of a generation in the SM. Similar analysis holds in the CP3 model, with the unbroken group identified with QCD and hypercharge, and the NGB having the up quark as a partner in a supersymmetric model. This can motivate solving the strong CP problem with a vanishing up quark mass.
Six-dimensional (1,0) superconformal models and higher gauge theory
Palmer, Sam; Sämann, Christian
2013-11-15
We analyze the gauge structure of a recently proposed superconformal field theory in six dimensions. We find that this structure amounts to a weak Courant-Dorfman algebra, which, in turn, can be interpreted as a strong homotopy Lie algebra. This suggests that the superconformal field theory is closely related to higher gauge theory, describing the parallel transport of extended objects. Indeed we find that, under certain restrictions, the field content and gauge transformations reduce to those of higher gauge theory. We also present a number of interesting examples of admissible gauge structures such as the structure Lie 2-algebra of an abelian gerbe, differential crossed modules, the 3-algebras of M2-brane models, and string Lie 2-algebras.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinto, A. G.; Ferrari, A. F.; Lehum, A. C.
2016-06-01
In this work, we investigate the consequences of the Renormalization Group Equation (RGE) in the determination of the effective superpotential and the study of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) in an N = 1 supersymmetric theory including an Abelian Chern-Simons superfield coupled to N scalar superfields in (2 + 1) dimensional spacetime. The classical Lagrangian presents scale invariance, which is broken by radiative corrections to the effective superpotential. We calculate the effective superpotential up to two-loops by using the RGE and the beta functions and anomalous dimensions known in the literature. We then show how the RGE can be used to improve this calculation, by summing up properly defined series of leading logs (LL), next-to-leading logs (NLL) contributions, and so on... We conclude that even if the RGE improvement procedure can indeed be applied in a supersymmetric model, the effects of the consideration of the RGE are not so dramatic as it happens in the non-supersymmetric case.
Cole, William S; Zhang, Shizhong; Paramekanti, Arun; Trivedi, Nandini
2012-08-24
Motivated by the experimental realization of synthetic spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms, we investigate the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model in a non-Abelian gauge field in two dimensions. Using a strong coupling expansion in the combined presence of spin-orbit coupling and tunable interactions, we find a variety of interesting magnetic Hamiltonians in the Mott insulator (MI), which support magnetic textures such as spin spirals and vortex and Skyrmion crystals. An inhomogeneous mean-field treatment shows that the superfluid (SF) phases inherit these exotic magnetic orders from the MI and display, in addition, unusual modulated current patterns. We present a slave-boson theory which gives insight into such intertwined spin-charge orders in the SF, and discuss signatures of these orders in Bragg scattering, in situ microscopy, and dynamic quench experiments.
Kubo, Jisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi
2016-12-01
We assume that the origin of the electroweak (EW) scale is a gauge-invariant scalar-bilinear condensation in a strongly interacting non-abelian gauge sector, which is connected to the standard model via a Higgs portal coupling. The dynamical scale genesis appears as a phase transition at finite temperature, and it can produce a gravitational wave (GW) background in the early Universe. We find that the critical temperature of the scale phase transition lies above that of the EW phase transition and below few O(100) GeV and it is strongly first-order. We calculate the spectrum of the GW background and find the scale phase transition is strong enough that the GW background can be observed by DECIGO.
Instanton-mediated baryon number violation in non-universal gauge extended models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuentes-Martín, J.; Portolés, J.; Ruiz-Femenía, P.
2015-01-01
Instanton solutions of non-abelian Yang-Mills theories generate an effective action that may induce lepton and baryon number violations, namely Δ B = Δ L = n f , being n f the number of families coupled to the gauge group. In this article we study instanton mediated processes in a SU(2) ℓ ⊗SU(2) h ⊗U(1) extension of the Standard Model that breaks universality by singularizing the third family. In the construction of the instanton Green functions we account systematically for the inter-family mixing. This allows us to use the experimental bounds on proton decay in order to constrain the gauge coupling of SU(2) h . Tau lepton non-leptonic and radiative decays with Δ B = Δ L = 1 are also analysed.
Comments on interactions in the SUSY models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Reshetnyak, Alexander; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-07-01
We consider special supersymmetry (SUSY) transformations with m generators overleftarrow{s}_α , for some class of models and study the physical consequences when making the Grassmann-odd transformations to form an Abelian supergroup with finite parameters and a set of group-like elements with finite parameters being functionals of the field variables. The SUSY-invariant path integral measure within conventional quantization scheme leads to the appearance of the Jacobian under a change of variables generated by such SUSY transformations, which is explicitly calculated. The Jacobian implies, first of all, the appearance of trivial interactions in the transformed action, and, second, the presence of a modified Ward identity which reduces to the standard Ward identities in the case of constant parameters. We examine the case of the {N}=1 and N=2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators to illustrate the general concept by a simple free model with (1, 1) physical degrees of freedom. It is shown that the interaction terms U_{tr} have a corresponding SUSY-exact form: U_{tr}= big (V_{(1)}overleftarrow{s}; V_{(2)}overleftarrow{bar{s}} overleftarrow{s}big ) generated naturally under such generalized formulation. We argue that the case of a non-trivial interaction cannot be obtained in such a way.
Ising anyons in frustration-free Majorana-dimer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, Brayden; Son, Jun Ho; Cheng, Meng; Mishmash, Ryan V.; Alicea, Jason; Bauer, Bela
2016-09-01
Dimer models have long been a fruitful playground for understanding topological physics. Here, we introduce a class, termed Majorana-dimer models, wherein bosonic dimers are decorated with pairs of Majorana modes. We find that the simplest examples of such systems realize an intriguing, intrinsically fermionic phase of matter that can be viewed as the product of a chiral Ising theory, which hosts deconfined non-Abelian quasiparticles, and a topological px-i py superconductor. While the bulk anyons are described by a single copy of the Ising theory, the edge remains fully gapped. Consequently, this phase can arise in exactly solvable, frustration-free models. We describe two parent Hamiltonians: one generalizes the well-known dimer model on the triangular lattice, while the other is most naturally understood as a model of decorated fluctuating loops on a honeycomb lattice. Using modular transformations, we show that the ground-state manifold of the latter model unambiguously exhibits all properties of the Ising×(px-i py) theory. We also discuss generalizations with more than one Majorana mode per site, which realize phases related to Kitaev's 16-fold way in a similar fashion.
M5-branes on S 2 × M 4: Nahm's equations and 4d topological sigma-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assel, Benjamin; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Wong, Jin-Mann
2016-09-01
We study the 6d N = (0 , 2) superconformal field theory, which describes multiple M5-branes, on the product space S 2 × M 4, and suggest a correspondence between a 2d N = (0 , 2) half-twisted gauge theory on S 2 and a topological sigma-model on the four-manifold M 4. To set up this correspondence, we determine in this paper the dimensional reduction of the 6d N = (0 , 2) theory on a two-sphere and derive that the four-dimensional theory is a sigma-model into the moduli space of solutions to Nahm's equations, or equivalently the moduli space of k-centered SU(2) monopoles, where k is the number of M5-branes. We proceed in three steps: we reduce the 6d abelian theory to a 5d Super-Yang-Mills theory on I × M 4, with I an interval, then non-abelianize the 5d theory and finally reduce this to 4d. In the special case, when M 4 is a Hyper-Kähler manifold, we show that the dimensional reduction gives rise to a topological sigma-model based on tri-holomorphic maps. Deriving the theory on a general M 4 requires knowledge of the metric of the target space. For k = 2 the target space is the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold and we twist the theory to obtain a topological sigma-model, which has both scalar fields and self-dual two-forms.
Models of neutrino mass, mixing and CP violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Stephen F.
2015-12-01
In this topical review we argue that neutrino mass and mixing data motivates extending the Standard Model (SM) to include a non-Abelian discrete flavour symmetry in order to accurately predict the large leptonic mixing angles and {C}{P} violation. We begin with an overview of the SM puzzles, followed by a description of some classic lepton mixing patterns. Lepton mixing may be regarded as a deviation from tri-bimaximal mixing, with charged lepton corrections leading to solar mixing sum rules, or tri-maximal lepton mixing leading to atmospheric mixing rules. We survey neutrino mass models, using a roadmap based on the open questions in neutrino physics. We then focus on the seesaw mechanism with right-handed neutrinos, where sequential dominance (SD) can account for large lepton mixing angles and {C}{P} violation, with precise predictions emerging from constrained SD (CSD). We define the flavour problem and discuss progress towards a theory of favour using GUTs and discrete family symmetry. We classify models as direct, semidirect or indirect, according to the relation between the Klein symmetry of the mass matrices and the discrete family symmetry, in all cases focussing on spontaneous {C}{P} violation. Finally we give two examples of realistic and highly predictive indirect models with CSD, namely an A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam and a fairly complete A 4 × SU(5) SUSY GUT of flavour, where both models have interesting implications for leptogenesis.
Goldstone models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick
2017-02-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different from its Λ -CDM counterpart while cosmological perturbations crucially depend on whether the coupling function is convex or concave. For concave functions, growth is hindered by the repulsiveness of the fifth force while it is enhanced in the convex case. In both cases, the departures from the Λ -CDM cosmology increase on smaller scales and peak for galactic structures. For concave functions, the formation of structure is largely altered below some characteristic mass, as smaller structures are delayed and would form later through fragmentation, as in some warm dark matter scenarios. For convex models, small structures form more easily than in the Λ -CDM scenario. This could lead to an over-abundance of small clumps. We use a thermodynamic analysis and show that although convex models have a phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous phases, on cosmological scales the system does not enter the inhomogeneous phase. On the other hand, for galactic
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The nucleon-nucleon potential in the chromodielectric soliton model
Koepf, W.; Wilets, L.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.
1993-12-31
The short- and medium-range parts of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are being studied in the framework of the chromodielectric soliton model. The model consists of current quarks, gluons in the abelian approximation, and a scalar {sigma} field which simulates the nonabelian interactions of the gluons and governs the medium through the dielectric function {kappa}({sigma}). Absolute color confinement is effected by the vanishing of the dielectric in vacuum; this also removes the troublesome van der Waals problem. The authors distinguish between spatial confinement, which arises from the self energy of the quarks in medium (excluding MFA contributions), and color confinement which is effected through OGE in the MFA (including the corresponding self energy contributions). The static (adiabatic) energies are computed as a function of deformation (generalized bag separation) in a constrained MFA. Six quark molecular-type wave functions in all important space-spin-isospin-color configurations are included. The gluon propagator is solved in the deformed dielectric medium. The resultant Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized. Dynamics are handled in the Generator Coordinate Method, which leads to the Hill-Wheeler integral equation. In the present case, this yields a set of coupled equations corresponding to the various configurations. Although this can be approximated by a set of differential equations, they propose to solve the integral equations with some regularization scheme.
Effective Lagrangian Models for gauge theories of fundamental interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sannino, Francesco
The non abelian gauge theory which describes, in the perturbative regime, the strong interactions is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks and gluons are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the theory. A key feature of the theory (due to quantum corrections) is asymptotic freedom, i.e. the strong coupling constant increases as the energy scale of interest decreases. The perturbative approach becomes unreliable below a characteristic scale of the theory (Λ). Quarks and gluons confine themselves into colorless particles called hadrons (pions, protons,/...). The latter are the true physical states of the theory. We need to investigate alternative ways to describe strong interactions, and in general any asymptotically free theory, in the non perturbative regime. This is the fundamental motivation of the present thesis. Although the underlying gauge theory cannot be easily treated in the non perturbative regime we can still use its global symmetries as a guide to build Effective Lagrangian Models. These models will be written directly in terms of the colorless physical states of the theory, i.e. hadrons.
A heterotic standard model with B - L symmetry and a stable proton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Constantin, Andrei; Lukas, Andre
2014-06-01
We consider heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications with S(U(4) × U(1)) background gauge fields. These models lead to gauge groups with an additional U(1) factor which, under certain conditions, can combine with hypercharge to a B - L symmetry. The associated gauge boson is automatically super-massive and, hence, does not constitute a phenomenological problem. We illustrate this class of compactifications with a model based on the monad construction, which leads to a supersymmetric standard model with three families of quarks and leptons, one pair of Higgs doublets, three right-handed neutrinos and no exotics charged under the standard model group. The presence of the B - L symmetry means that the model is safe from proton decay induced by dimension four operators. Due to the presence of a special locus in moduli space where the bundle structure group is Abelian and the low-energy symmetry enhances we can also show the absence of dimension five proton-decay inducing operators.
Gaugessence: a dark energy model with early time radiation-like equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrabi, Ahmad; Maleknejad, Azade; Kamali, Vahid
2017-03-01
In this work, we study a new quintessence model associated with non-Abelian gauge fields, minimally coupled to Einstein gravity. This gauge theory has been recently introduced and studied as an inflationary model, called gauge-flation. Here, however, we are interested in the late time cosmology of the model in the presence of matter and radiation to explain the present time accelerating Universe. During the radiation and matter eras, the gauge field tracks radiation and basically acts like a dark radiation sector. As we approach lower redshifts, the dark component takes the form of a dark energy source which eventually becomes the dominate part of the energy budget of the Universe. Due to the tracking feature of our model, solutions with different initial values are attracted to a common trajectory. The existence of early dark radiation is a robust prediction of our model which contributes to the effective number of relativistic species, N_{eff} and has its own interesting observational features.
Chaos in Non-Abelian Gauge Fields, Gravity and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matinyan, S. G.
2002-12-01
This talk describes the evolution of studies of chaos in Yang-Mills fields, gravity, and cosmology. The main subject is a BKL regime near the singularity t = 0 and its survival in higher dimensions and in string theory. We also describe the recent progress in the search for particle-like solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system (monopoles and dyons), colored black holes and the problem of their stability.
Almost abelian twists and AdS/CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2017-02-01
A large class of the recently found unimodular nonabelian homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS5 ×S5 superstring can be realized as sequences of noncommuting TsT transformations. I show that many of them are duals to various noncommutative versions of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, structurally determined directly in terms of the associated r matrices, in line with previous expectations in the literature.
Holographic phase transitions from higgsed, non abelian charged black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Gastón L.; Lugo, Adrián R.
2015-07-01
We find solutions of a gravity-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in four dimensions that represent asymptotic anti-de Sitter charged black holes with partial/full gauge symme-try breaking. We then apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the strong coupling regime of a 2 + 1 quantum field theory at temperature T and finite chemical potential, which undergoes transitions to phases exhibiting the condensation of a composite charged vector operator below a critical temperature T c , presumably describing p + ip/p-wave su-perconductors. In the case of p + ip-wave superconductors the transitions are always of second order. But for p-wave superconductors we determine the existence of a critical value αc of the gravitational coupling (for fixed Higgs v.e.v. parameter ) beyond which the transitions become of first order. As a by-product, we show that the p-wave phase is energetically favored over the p + ip one, for any values of the parameters. We also find the ground state solutions corresponding to zero temperature. Such states are described by domain wall geometries that interpolate between AdS 4 spaces with different light veloc-ities, and for a given , they exist below a critical value of the coupling. The behavior of the order parameter as function of the gravitational coupling near the critical coupling suggests the presence of second order quantum phase transitions. We finally study the dependence of the solution on the Higgs coupling, and find the existence of a critical value beyond which no condensed solution is present.
Quantum walks and non-Abelian discrete gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnault, Pablo; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Brachet, Marc; Debbasch, Fabrice
2016-07-01
A family of discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) on the line with an exact discrete U(N ) gauge invariance is introduced. It is shown that the continuous limit of these DTQWs, when it exists, coincides with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to usual U(N ) gauge fields in two-dimensional spacetime. A discrete generalization of the usual U(N ) curvature is also constructed. An alternate interpretation of these results in terms of superimposed U(1 ) Maxwell fields and SU(N ) gauge fields is discussed in the Appendix. Numerical simulations are also presented, which explore the convergence of the DTQWs towards their continuous limit and which also compare the DTQWs with classical (i.e., nonquantum) motions in classical SU(2 ) fields. The results presented in this paper constitute a first step towards quantum simulations of generic Yang-Mills gauge theories through DTQWs.
Generalized Proca action for an Abelian vector field
Allys, Erwan; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon E-mail: peter@iap.fr
2016-02-01
We revisit the most general theory for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, extending previous works on the subject to account for terms having trivial total derivative interactions for the longitudinal mode. In the flat spacetime (Minkowski) case, we obtain all the possible terms containing products of up to five first-order derivatives of the vector field, and provide a conjecture about higher-order terms. Rendering the metric dynamical, we covariantize the results and add all possible terms implying curvature.
Non Abelian structures and the geometric phase of entangled qudits
Oxman, L.E. Khoury, A.Z.
2014-12-15
In this work, we address some important topological and algebraic aspects of two-qudit states evolving under local unitary operations. The projective invariant subspaces and evolutions are connected with the common elements characterizing the su(d) Lie algebra and their representations. In particular, the roots and weights turn out to be natural quantities to parametrize cyclic evolutions and fractional phases. This framework is then used to recast the coset contribution to the geometric phase in a form that generalizes the usual monopole-like formula for a single qubit.
Pauli-Villars Regularization of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiller, J. R.
2016-07-01
As an extension of earlier work on QED, we construct a BRST-invariant Lagrangian for SU(N) Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter, regulated by the inclusion of massive Pauli-Villars (PV) gluons and PV quarks. The underlying gauge symmetry for massless PV gluons is generalized to accommodate the PV-index-changing currents that are required by the regularization. Auxiliary adjoint scalars are used, in a mechanism due to Stueckelberg, to attribute mass to the PV gluons and the PV quarks. The addition of Faddeev-Popov ghosts then establishes a residual BRST symmetry. Although there are drawbacks to the approach, in particular the computational load of a large number of PV fields and a nonlocal interaction of the ghost fields, this formulation could provide a foundation for renormalizable nonperturbative solutions of light-front QCD in an arbitrary covariant gauge.
Non-Abelian gravitating solitons with negative cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitenlohner, Peter; Maison, Dieter; Lavrelashvili, George
2004-03-01
Static, spherically symmetric solutions with regular origin are investigated of the Einstein Yang Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant Λ. A combination of numerical and analytical methods leads to a clear picture of the 'moduli space' of the solutions. Some issues discussed in the existing literature on the subject are reconsidered and clarified. In particular the stability of the asymptotically AdS solutions is studied. Like for the Bartnik McKinnon (BK) solutions obtained for Λ = 0 there are two different types of instabilities—'topological' and 'gravitational'. Regions with any number of these instabilities are identified in the moduli space. While for BK solutions there is always a non-vanishing equal number of instabilities of both types, this degeneracy is lifted and there exist stable solutions, genuine sphalerons with exactly one unstable mode and so on. The boundaries of these regions are determined.
Topological sigma models & dissipative hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haehl, Felix M.; Loganayagam, R.; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-04-01
We outline a universal Schwinger-Keldysh effective theory which describes macroscopic thermal fluctuations of a relativistic field theory. The basic ingredients of our construction are three: a doubling of degrees of freedom, an emergent abelian symmetry associated with entropy, and a topological (BRST) supersymmetry imposing fluctuationdissipation theorem. We illustrate these ideas for a non-linear viscous fluid, and demonstrate that the resulting effective action obeys a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which guarantees a local form of the second law.
Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Newton; Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani
2017-03-01
We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to ˜ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet S are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, m ν , depends on the Dirac neutrino mass matrix ( M D ), Majorana neutrino mass matrix ( M R ) and the mass matrix ( M S ) coupling the right handed neutrinos and the singlet. The model predicts one of the light neutrino masses to vanish. We systematically investigate the zero textures in M D and observe that maximum five zeros in M D can lead to viable zero textures in m ν . For this study we consider four different forms for M R (one diagonal and three off diagonal) and two different forms of ( M S ) containing one zero. Remarkably we obtain only two allowed forms of m ν ( m eτ = 0 and m ττ = 0) having inverted hierarchical mass spectrum. We re-analyze the phenomenological implications of these two allowed textures of m ν in the light of recent neutrino oscillation data. In the context of the MES model, we also express the low energy mass matrix, the mass of the sterile neutrino and the active-sterile mixing in terms of the parameters of the allowed Yukawa matrices. The MES model leads to some extra correlations which disallow some of the Yukawa textures obtained earlier, even though they give allowed one-zero forms of m ν . We show that the allowed textures in our study can be realized in a simple way in a model based on MES mechanism with a discrete Abelian flavor symmetry group Z 8 × Z 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, A.; Krishna, S.; Malik, R. P.
2014-12-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the (1-form) Yang-Mills (YM) and (2-form) tensorial gauge symmetries of the four (3+1)-dimensional (4D) Freedman-Townsend (FT) model, by exploiting the augmented version of Bonora-Tonin's (BT) superfield approach to BRST formalism where the 4D flat Minkowskian theory is generalized onto the (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. One of the novel observations is the fact that we are theoretically compelled to go beyond the horizontality condition (HC) to invoke an additional set of gauge-invariant restrictions (GIRs) for the derivation of the full set of proper (anti-)BRST symmetries. To obtain the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the tensorial (2-form) gauge symmetries within the framework of augmented version of BT-superfield approach, we are logically forced to modify the FT-model to incorporate an auxiliary 1-form field and the kinetic term for the antisymmetric (2-form) gauge field. This is also a new observation in our present investigation. We point out some of the key differences between the modified FT-model and Lahiri-model (LM) of the dynamical non-Abelian 2-form gauge theories. We also briefly mention a few similarities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goertzen, S. L.; Tanaka, K.; Nagai, Yuki
2017-02-01
We perform self-consistent studies of two-dimensional (2D) s -wave topological superconductivity (TSC) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. In particular, we examine the effects of a nonmagnetic impurity in detail and show that the nature of the spin-polarized midgap bound state varies significantly depending on the material parameters. Most notably, a nonmagnetic impurity in a 2D s -wave topological superconductor can act like a magnetic impurity in a conventional s -wave superconductor, leading to phase transitions of the ground state as the impurity potential is varied. Furthermore, by solving for the spin-dependent Hartree potential self-consistently along with the superconducting order parameter, we demonstrate that topological charge density waves can coexist with TSC at half filling just as in a conventional s -wave superconductor.
Nonminimal Isotropic Cosmological Model with Yang-Mills and Higgs Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakin, Alexander B.; Dehnen, Heinz; Zayats, Alexei E.
We establish a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs model, which contains six coupling parameters. The first three parameters relate to the nonminimal coupling of a non-Abelian gauge field and a gravity field, the next two parameters describe the so-called derivative nonminimal coupling of a scalar multiplet with a gravity field, and the sixth parameter introduces the standard coupling of a scalar field with a Ricci scalar. The formulated six-parameter nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs model is applied to cosmology. We show that there exists a unique exact cosmological solution of the de Sitter type for a special choice of the coupling parameters. The nonminimally extended Yang-Mills and Higgs equations are satisfied for arbitrary gauge and scalar fields, when the coupling parameters are specifically related to the curvature constant of the isotropic space-time. Based on this special exact solution, we discuss the problem of a hidden anisotropy of the Yang-Mills field, and give an explicit example, when the nonminimal coupling effectively screens the anisotropy induced by the Yang-Mills field and thus restores the isotropy of the model.
Quantum Simulation of a Lattice Schwinger Model in a Chain of Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauke, P.; Marcos, D.; Dalmonte, M.; Zoller, P.
2013-10-01
We discuss how a lattice Schwinger model can be realized in a linear ion trap, allowing a detailed study of the physics of Abelian lattice gauge theories related to one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. Relying on the rich quantum-simulation toolbox available in state-of-the-art trapped-ion experiments, we show how one can engineer an effectively gauge-invariant dynamics by imposing energetic constraints, provided by strong Ising-like interactions. Applying exact diagonalization to ground-state and time-dependent properties, we study the underlying microscopic model and discuss undesired interaction terms and other imperfections. As our analysis shows, the proposed scheme allows for the observation in realistic setups of spontaneous parity- and charge-symmetry breaking, as well as false-vacuum decay. Besides an implementation aimed at larger ion chains, we also discuss a minimal setting, consisting of only four ions in a simpler experimental setup, which enables us to probe basic physical phenomena related to the full many-body problem. The proposal opens a new route for analog quantum simulation of high-energy and condensed-matter models where gauge symmetries play a prominent role.
Z ', Higgses and heavy neutrinos in U(1)' models: from the LHC to the GUT scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomando, Elena; Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Fiaschi, Juri; Marzo, Carlo; Moretti, Stefano
2016-07-01
We study a class of non-exotic minimal U(1)' extensions of the Standard Model, which includes all scenarios that are anomaly-free with the ordinary fermion content augmented by one Right-Handed neutrino per generation, wherein the new Abelian gauge group is spontaneously broken by the non-zero Vacuum Expectation Value of an additional Higgs singlet field, in turn providing mass to a Z ' state. By adopting the B - L example, whose results can be recast into those pertaining to the whole aforementioned class, and allowing for both scalar and gauge mixing, we first extract the surviving parameter space in presence of up-to-date theoretical and experimental constraints. Over the corresponding parameter configurations, we then delineate the high energy behaviour of such constructs in terms of their stability and perturbativity. Finally, we highlight key production and decay channels of the new states entering the spectra of this class of models, i.e., heavy neutrinos, a second Higgs state and the Z ', which are amenable to experimental investigation at the Large Hadron Collider. We therefore set the stage to establish a direct link between measurements obtainable at the Electro-Weak scale and the dynamics of the underlying model up to those where a Grand Unification Theory embedding a U(1)' can be realised.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavares, Gustavo Marques
The Standard Model of particle physics describes all known elementary particles and their interactions. Despite its great experimental success, we know that the Standard Model is not a complete description of Nature and therefore new phenomena should be observed at higher energies. In the coming years the Large Hadron Collider will test the Standard Model by colliding protons with center of mass energies of up to 14 TeV providing some of the most stringent tests on the Standard Model. Experimental searches for Dark Matter provide a complementary program to test physics at the weak scale. In the near future new experimental data coming from direct detection experiments, and from satellites and telescopes will drastically improve our sensitivity to weak scale dark matter. This could lead to the first direct observation of dark matter, and thus of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis I propose different extensions of the Standard Model and discuss their experimental consequences. I first discuss models for Axigluons, which are spin one particles in the adjoint representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. These models were motivated by the measurement of higher than predicted forward-backward asymmetry in top quark pair production at the Tevatron. I study different scenarios for Axigluon models that can explain the Tevatron result and explore their signatures at the Large Hadron Collider. Second I discuss the implications of ultraviolet scale invariance for the Standard Model, which has been advocated as a solution to the hierarchy problem. I show that in order to solve the hierarchy problem with scale invariance, new physics is required not far from the weak scale. In the last part of this thesis I propose a new model for dark matter, in which dark matter is charged under a hidden non-Abelian gauge group. This leads to modifications in the sensitivity of the usual experimental searches for dark matter in addition to distinct signatures in the Cosmic
Deconfined Quantum Criticality, Scaling Violations, and Classical Loop Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J. T.; Serna, P.; Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.
2015-10-01
Numerical studies of the transition between Néel and valence bond solid phases in two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets give strong evidence for the remarkable scenario of deconfined criticality, but display strong violations of finite-size scaling that are not yet understood. We show how to realize the universal physics of the Néel-valence-bond-solid (VBS) transition in a three-dimensional classical loop model (this model includes the subtle interference effect that suppresses hedgehog defects in the Néel order parameter). We use the loop model for simulations of unprecedentedly large systems (up to linear size L =512 ). Our results are compatible with a continuous transition at which both Néel and VBS order parameters are critical, and we do not see conventional signs of first-order behavior. However, we show that the scaling violations are stronger than previously realized and are incompatible with conventional finite-size scaling, even if allowance is made for a weakly or marginally irrelevant scaling variable. In particular, different approaches to determining the anomalous dimensions ηVBS and ηN é el yield very different results. The assumption of conventional finite-size scaling leads to estimates that drift to negative values at large sizes, in violation of the unitarity bounds. In contrast, the decay with distance of critical correlators on scales much smaller than system size is consistent with large positive anomalous dimensions. Barring an unexpected reversal in behavior at still larger sizes, this implies that the transition, if continuous, must show unconventional finite-size scaling, for example, from an additional dangerously irrelevant scaling variable. Another possibility is an anomalously weak first-order transition. By analyzing the renormalization group flows for the noncompact CP n -1 field theory (the n -component Abelian Higgs model) between two and four dimensions, we give the simplest scenario by which an anomalously weak first
Quantum gates with topological phases
Ionicioiu, Radu
2003-09-01
We investigate two models for performing topological quantum gates with the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effects. Topological one- and two-qubit Abelian phases can be enacted with the AB effect using charge qubits, whereas the AC effect can be used to perform all single-qubit gates (Abelian and non-Abelian) for spin qubits. Possible experimental setups suitable for a solid-state implementation are briefly discussed.
Comparing the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge for the standard model: An example
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan
2017-01-01
For gauge theory, the matrix element for any physical process is independent of the gauge used. However, since this is a formal statement, it does not guarantee this gauge independence in every case. An example is given here where, for a physical process in the standard model, the matrix elements calculated with two different gauge - the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge - are explicitly verified to be different. This is accomplished by subtracting one matrix element from the other. This non-zero difference turns out to have a subtle origin. Two simple operators are found not to commute with each other: in one gauge these two operations are carried out in one order, while in the other gauge these same two operations are carried out in the opposite order. Because of this result, a series of question are raised such that the answers to these question may lead to a deeper understanding of the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory in general and the standard model in particular.
Tribimaximal mixing and Cabibbo angle in S{sub 4} flavor model with supersymmetry
Ishimori, Hajime; Saga, Kouta; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2010-06-01
We present a flavor model of quarks and leptons with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry S{sub 4} in the framework of the SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory. Three generations of 5-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 3 of S{sub 4} while the first and second generations of 10-plets in SU(5) are assigned to 2 of S{sub 4}, and the third generation of 10-plet is assigned to 1 of S{sub 4}. Right-handed neutrinos are also assigned to 2 for the first and second generations and 1{sup '} for the third generation. We predict the Cabibbo angle as well as the tribimaximal mixing of neutrino flavors. We also predict the nonvanishing U{sub e3} of the neutrino flavor mixing due to higher dimensional mass operators. Our predicted Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles and the CP violation are consistent with experimental values. We also study supersymmetry breaking terms in the slepton sector. Our model leads to smaller values of flavor changing neutral currents than the present experimental bounds.
Azaria, P.; Konik, R. M.; Lecheminant, P.; ...
2016-08-03
In our paper we study a (1+1)-dimensional version of the famous Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD2) both at zero and at finite baryon density. We use nonperturbative techniques (non-Abelian bosonization and the truncated conformal spectrum approach). When the baryon chemical potential, μ, is zero, we describe the formation of fermion three-quark (nucleons and Δ baryons) and boson (two-quark mesons, six-quark deuterons) bound states. We also study at μ=0 the formation of a topologically nontrivial phase. When the chemical potential exceeds the critical value and a finite baryon density appears, the model has a rich phase diagram which includes phasesmore » with a density wave and superfluid quasi-long-range (QLR) order, as well as a phase of a baryon Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (strange metal). Finally, the QLR order results in either a condensation of scalar mesons (the density wave) or six-quark bound states (deuterons).« less
Azaria, P.; Konik, R. M.; Lecheminant, P.; Pálmai, T.; Takács, G.; Tsvelik, A. M.
2016-08-03
In our paper we study a (1+1)-dimensional version of the famous Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD2) both at zero and at finite baryon density. We use nonperturbative techniques (non-Abelian bosonization and the truncated conformal spectrum approach). When the baryon chemical potential, μ, is zero, we describe the formation of fermion three-quark (nucleons and Δ baryons) and boson (two-quark mesons, six-quark deuterons) bound states. We also study at μ=0 the formation of a topologically nontrivial phase. When the chemical potential exceeds the critical value and a finite baryon density appears, the model has a rich phase diagram which includes phases with a density wave and superfluid quasi-long-range (QLR) order, as well as a phase of a baryon Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (strange metal). Finally, the QLR order results in either a condensation of scalar mesons (the density wave) or six-quark bound states (deuterons).
The neutralino sector in the U(1)-extended supersymmetric Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S. Y.; Haber, H. E.; Kalinowski, J.; Zerwas, P. M.
2007-08-01
Motivated by grand unified theories and string theories we analyze the general structure of the neutralino sector in the USSM, an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model that involves a broken extra U(1) gauge symmetry. This supersymmetric U(1)-extended model includes an Abelian gauge superfield and a Higgs singlet superfield in addition to the standard gauge and Higgs superfields of the MSSM. The interactions between the MSSM fields and the new fields are in general weak and the mixing is small, so that the coupling of the two subsystems can be treated perturbatively. As a result, the mass spectrum and mixing matrix in the neutralino sector can be analyzed analytically and the structure of this 6-state system is under good theoretical control. We describe the decay modes of the new states and the impact of this extension on decays of the original MSSM neutralinos, including radiative transitions in cross-over zones. Production channels in cascade decays at the LHC and pair production at ee colliders are also discussed.
New simple A{sub 4} neutrino model for nonzero {theta}{sub 13} and large {delta}{sub CP}
Ishimori, Hajime
2013-05-23
In a new simple application of the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A{sub 4} to charged-lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we show that for the current experimental central value of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1, leptonic CP violation is necessarily large, i.e. Double-Vertical-Line tan{delta}{sub CP} Double-Vertical-Line > 1.3. We also consider T{sub 7} model with one parameter to be complex, thus allowing for one Dirac CP phase {delta}{sub CP} and two Majorana CP phases {alpha}{sub 1,2}. We find a slight modification to this correlation as a function of {delta}{sub CP}. For a given set of input values of {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 21}, {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 12}, and {theta}{sub 13}, we obtain sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} and m{sub ee} (the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay) as functions of tan {delta}{sub CP}. We find that the structure of this model always yields small Double-Vertical-Line tan {delta}{sub CP} Double-Vertical-Line .
Gaussian effective potential for the standard model SU(2)xU(1) electroweak theory
Siringo, Fabio; Marotta, Luca
2008-07-01
The Gaussian effective potential is derived for the non-Abelian SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory of electroweak interactions. At variance with naive derivations, the Gaussian effective potential is proven to be a genuine variational tool in any gauge. The role of ghosts is discussed and the unitarity gauge is shown to be the only choice which allows calculability without insertion of further approximations. The full non-Abelian calculation confirms the existence of a light Higgs boson in the nonperturbative strong coupling regime of the Higgs sector.
Fuentes-Martín, J.
2016-01-22
It is well known that non-abelian Yang-Mills theories present non-trivial minima of the action, the so-called instantons. In the context of electroweak theories these instanton solutions may induce violations of baryon and lepton number of the form ΔB = ΔL = n{sub f}, with n{sub f} being the number of families coupled to the gauge group. An interesting feature of these violations is that the flavor structure of the gauge couplings is inherited by the instanton transitions. This effect is generally neglected in the literature. We will show that the inclusion of flavor interactions in the instanton solutions may be interesting in certain theoretical frameworks and will provide an approach to include these effects. In particular we will perform this implementation in the non-universal SU (2){sub l} ⊗SU (2){sub h} ⊗U (1){sub Y} model that singularizes the third family. Within this framework, we will use the instanton transitions to set a bound on the SU (2){sub h} gauge coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecile, D. J.
In Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the pions are the lightest bound states. Current lattice QCD calculations are not able to study pions at realistic masses due to algorithmic difficulties. Instead, lattice studies are limited to unphysically large pion masses, and Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) is often relied upon to extrapolate lattice results to the phenomenological regime and to the chiral limit, where quarks are massless. One of the outstanding problems in the field is to determine the range of quark masses where ChPT is valid and to understand the nonperturbative physics that may cause ChPT to break down. Given the difficulty of studying QCD, it is interesting and useful to construct a lattice field theory model of pions, which would allow a direct lattice calculation without the need for chiral extrapolations. This model can be used to evaluate the reliability of chiral extrapolations as applied to lattice data in the context of a lattice field theory that is exactly solvable numerically even at small quark masses and in the chiral limit. In this light, to create a model of pions of two-flavor Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a lattice field theory involving two flavors of staggered quarks interacting strongly with Abelian gauge fields is constructed. In the chiral limit, this theory exhibits a SUL(2) x SU R(2) x UA(1) symmetry. The UA(1) symmetry can be broken by introducing a four-fermion term into the action, thereby incorporating the physics of the QCD anomaly. To qualify as a meaningful model of QCD, this lattice model must exhibit spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and confinement and must have a continuum limit. An interesting mechanism is introduced to address the continuum limit. In particular, an extra dimension allows one to tune a fictitious temperature in order to access a phase of broken symmetry and to find a range where the pion decay constant is much smaller than the lattice cutoff, i.e. Fpi ≪1a . Unlike lattice QCD, a major advantage of
The Dualized Standard Model and its Applications — AN Interim Report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsou, Sheung Tsun
Based on a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality, the Dualized Standard Model (DSM) suggests a natural explanation for exactly three generations of fermions as the "dual colour" widetilde SU (3) symmetry broken in a particular manner. The resulting scheme then offers on the one hand a fermion mass hierarchy and a perturbative method for calculating the mass and mixing parameters of the Standard Model fermions, and on the other hand testable predictions for new phenomena ranging from rare meson decays to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Calculations to one-loop order gives, at the cost of adjusting only three real parameters, values for the following quantities all (except one) in very good agreement with experiment: the quark CKM matrix elements dvbr Vrsdvbr , the lepton CKM matrix elements dvbr Ursdvbr, and the second generation masses mc, ms, mμ. This means, in particular, that it gives near maximal mixing Uμ3 between νμ and ντ as observed by SuperKamiokande, Kamiokande and Soudan, while keeping small the corresponding quark angles Vcb, Vts. In addition, the scheme gives (i) rough order-of-magnitude estimates for the masses of the lowest generation, (ii) predictions for low energy FCNC effects such as KL→ eμ, and (iii) a possible explanation for the long-standing puzzle of air showers beyond the GZK cut-off. All these together, however, still represent but a portion of the possible physical consequences derivable from the DSM scheme, the majority of which are yet to be explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu. Moshin, Pavel; Reshetnyak, Alexander A.
2016-07-01
We continue our research1-4 and extend the class of finite BRST-anti-BRST transformations with odd-valued parameters λa, a = 1, 2, introduced in these works. In doing so, we evaluate the Jacobians induced by finite BRST-anti-BRST transformations linear in functionally-dependent parameters, as well as those induced by finite BRST-anti-BRST transformations with arbitrary functional parameters. The calculations cover the cases of gauge theories with a closed algebra, dynamical systems with first-class constraints, and general gauge theories. The resulting Jacobians in the case of linearized transformations are different from those in the case of polynomial dependence on the parameters. Finite BRST-anti-BRST transformations with arbitrary parameters induce an extra contribution to the quantum action, which cannot be absorbed into a change of the gauge. These transformations include an extended case of functionally-dependent parameters that implies a modified compensation equation, which admits nontrivial solutions leading to a Jacobian equal to unity. Finite BRST-anti-BRST transformations with functionally-dependent parameters are applied to the Standard Model, and an explicit form of functionally-dependent parameters λa is obtained, providing the equivalence of path integrals in any 3-parameter Rξ-like gauges. The Gribov-Zwanziger theory is extended to the case of the Standard Model, and a form of the Gribov horizon functional is suggested in the Landau gauge, as well as in Rξ-like gauges, in a gauge-independent way using field-dependent BRST-anti-BRST transformations, and in Rξ-like gauges using transverse-like non-Abelian gauge fields.
Self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons solitons from a Lorentz-violating model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Sourrouille, Lucas
2013-10-01
Self-dual abelian Higgs system, involving both the Maxwell and Chern-Simons terms are obtained from Carroll-Field-Jackiw theory by dimensional reduction. Bogomol'nyi-type equations are studied from theoretical and numerical point of view. In particular, we show that the solutions of these equations are Nielsen-Olesen vortices with electric charge.
Cosmology of bifundamental fields
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-01-15
If a field theory contains gauged, non-Abelian, bifundamental fields, i.e. fields that are charged under two separate non-Abelian gauge groups, the transition from a deconfined phase to a hadronic phase may be frustrated. Similar frustration may occur in non-Abelian gauge models containing matter only in higher dimensional representations, e.g. models with pure glue, or if ordinary quarks are confined by two flux tubes, as implied in the triangular configuration of baryons within QCD. In a cosmological setting, such models can lead to the formation of a web of confining electric flux tubes that can potentially have observational signatures.
ten Cate, Jacob M
2015-01-01
Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers.
Models, Fiction, and Fictional Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chuang
2014-03-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Most Models in Science Are Not Fictional * Typically Fictional Models in Science * Modeling the Unobservable * Fictional Models for the Unobservable? * References
Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greca, Ileana Maria; Moreira, Marco Antonio
2000-01-01
Reviews science education research into representations constructed by students in their interactions with the world, its phenomena, and artefacts. Features discussions of mental models, conceptual models, and the activity of modeling. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/WRM)
Two-dimensional SU( N) Higgs theory . An instanton approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, H.
1980-08-01
The two-dimensional non-abelian Higgs model is studied by employing a dilute gas of Z N vortices. The results obtained are similar to the corresponding results of the abelian model, studied by Callan, Dashen and Gross, and Raby and Ukawa. The most interesting conclusion is that in the presence of some number, NF, of massless fermion flavors, the theory behaves differently for N > Ncrit or N < Ncrit where Ncrit = NF/( NF-2).
On Pauli's Invention of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory in 1953
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straumann, N.
2002-12-01
There are documents which show that Wolfgang Pauli developed in 1953 the first consistent generalization of the five-dimensional theory of Kaluza, Klein, Fock and others to a higher dimensional internal space. Because he saw no way to give masses to the gauge bosons, he refrained from publishing his results formally.
Analytic approach to phase transitions and observables in Abelian gauge theories
Di Bartolo, C.; Gambini, R.; Trias, A.
1989-05-15
The Hamiltonian formulation of the /ital Z/(2) gauge theory at spatial dimension 2 is analyzed in gauge-invariant geometric terms by working in the loop-labeled basis of the /ital C/ representation. A consistent behavior of physical quantities near the critical point and a reasonable estimation of the transition point and the critical exponents are obtained by using a set of variables that improves the collective description proposed in previous related work.
N=4, 3D supersymmetric quantum mechanics in a non-Abelian monopole background
Ivanov, Evgeny; Konyushikhin, Maxim
2010-10-15
Using the harmonic superspace approach, we construct the 3D N=4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics of the supermultiplet (3,4,1) coupled to an external SU(2) gauge field. The off-shell N=4 supersymmetry requires the gauge field to be a static form of the 't Hooft ansatz for the 4D self-dual SU(2) gauge fields, that is a particular solution of Bogomolny equations for Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfeld monopoles. We present the explicit form of the corresponding superfield and component actions, as well as of the quantum Hamiltonian and N=4 supercharges. The latter can be used to describe a more general N=4 mechanics system, with an arbitrary Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfeld monopole background and on-shell N=4 supersymmetry. The essential feature of our construction is the use of semidynamical spin (4,4,0) multiplet with the Wess-Zumino type action.
On the 4D generalized Proca action for an Abelian vector field
Allys, Erwan; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrán; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon
2016-09-19
We summarize previous results on the most general Proca theory in 4 dimensions containing only first-order derivatives in the vector field (second-order at most in the associated StÃ¼ckelberg scalar) and having only three propagating degrees of freedom with dynamics controlled by second-order equations of motion. Discussing the Hessian condition used in previous works, we conjecture that, as in the scalar galileon case, the most complete action contains only a finite number of terms with second-order derivatives of the StÃ¼ckelberg field describing the longitudinal mode, which is in agreement with the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2014/05/015 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2016.04.017 and complements those of http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2016/02/004. We also correct and complete the parity violating sector, obtaining an extra term on top of the arbitrary function of the field A{sub μ}, the Faraday tensor F{sub μν} and its Hodge dual F-tilde{sub μν}.
SL(2, z) Action on Three-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories with Abelian Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witten, Edward
On the space of three-dimensional conformal field theories with U(1) symmetry and a chosen coupling to a background gauge field, there is a natural action of the group SL(2, Z). The generator S of SL(2, Z) acts by letting the background gauge field become dynamical, an operation considered recently by Kapustin and Strassler in explaining three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The other generator T acts by shifting the Chern-Simons coupling of the background field. This SL(2, Z) action in three dimensions is related by the AdS/CFT correspondence to SL(2, Z) duality of low energy U(1) gauge fields in four dimensions.
An Introduction to Non-Abelian Discrete Symmetries for Particle Physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimori, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Okada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tanimoto, Morimitsu
Cichy, Agnieszka; Polak, Tomasz P.
2015-03-15
The ground state of ultracold fermions in the presence of effects of orbital and Zeeman magnetic fields is analyzed. Five different states are found: unpolarized superconducting state, partially and fully polarized normal states and phase separated regions, partially or fully polarized. The system, in the presence of orbital synthetic magnetic field effects, shows non-monotonous changes of the phase boundaries when electron concentration is varied. We observe not only reentrant phenomena, but also density dependent oscillations of different areas of the phase diagram. Moreover the chemical potential shows oscillatory behavior and discontinuities with respect to changes in the number of fermions.
Fermionic vacuum polarization by an Abelian magnetic tube in the cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maior de Sousa, M. S.; Ribeiro, R. F.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.
2017-02-01
In this paper, we consider a charged massive fermionic quantum field in the idealized cosmic string spacetime and in the presence of a magnetic field confined in a cylindrical tube of finite radius. Three distinct configurations for the magnetic fields are taken into account: (i) a cylindrical shell of radius a , (ii) a magnetic field proportional to 1 /r , and (iii) a constant magnetic field. In these three cases, the axis of the infinitely long tube of radius a coincides with the cosmic string. Our main objectives in this paper are to analyze the fermionic condensate (FC) and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the fermionic energy-momentum tensor. In order to do that, we explicitly construct the complete set of normalized wave functions for each configuration of the magnetic field. We show that in the region outside the tube, the FC and the VEV of the energy-momentum tensor are decomposed into two parts: The first ones correspond to the zero-thickness magnetic flux contributions, and the second ones are induced by the nontrivial structure of the magnetic field, named core-induced contributions. The latter present specific forms depending on the magnetic field configuration considered. We also show that the VEV of the energy-momentum tensor is diagonal and obeys the conservation condition, and its trace is expressed in terms of the fermionic condensate. The zero-thickness contributions to the FC and VEV of the energy-momentum tensor depend only on the fractional part of the ration of the magnetic flux inside the tube by the quantum one. As to the core-induced contributions, they depend on the total magnetic flux inside the tube and, consequently, in general, are not a periodic function of the magnetic flux.
Calculation of the Mass Spectrum and Deconfining Temperature in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vohwinkel, Claus
1989-03-01
Using a small volume expansion the mass spectrum and deconfining temperature of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory are evaluated. Including non-perturbative features by restoring symmetries which were broken in perturbation theory we obtain results which are valid up to intermediate volumes. The mass spectrum obtained is in good agreement with Luscher's small volume expansion in the small-volume limit and with Monte Carlo Data in medium sized volumes. Using asymmetric volumes we are able to derive the deconfining temperature and find a reasonable agreement with Monte Carlo calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsapalis, Antonios S.
This thesis deals with two topics in lattice field theories. In the first part we discuss aspects of renormalization group flow and non-perturbative improvement of actions for scalar theories regularized on a lattice. We construct a perfect action, an action which is free of lattice artifacts, for a given theory. It is shown how a good approximation to the perfect action-referred to as classically perfect-can be constructed based on a well-defined blocking scheme for the O(3) non-linear σ-model. We study the O(N) non- linear σ-model in the large-N limit and derive analytically its perfect action. This action is applied to the O(3) model on a square lattice. The Wolff cluster algorithm is used to simulate numerically the system. We perform scaling tests and discuss the scaling properties of the large- N inspired perfect action as opposed to the standard and the classically perfect action. In the second part we present a new formulation for a quantum field theory with Abelian gauge symmetry. A Hamiltonian is constructed on a four-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice which is invariant under local transformations. The model is formulated as a 5- dimensional path integral of discrete variables. We argue that dimensional reduction will allow us to study the behavior of the standard compact U(1) gauge theory in 4-d. Based on the idea of the loop- cluster algorithm for quantum spins, we present the construction of a flux-cluster algorithm for the U(1) quantum link model for the spin-1/2 quantization of the electric flux. It is shown how improved estimators for Wilson loop expectation values can be defined. This is important because the Wilson loops are traditionally used to identify confining and Coulomb phases in gauge theories. Our study indicates that the spin-1/2 U(1) quantum link model is strongly coupled for all bare coupling values we examined. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Definition of magnetic monopole numbers for SU(N) lattice gauge-Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollands, S.; Müller-Preussker, M.
2001-05-01
A geometric definition for a magnetic charge of Abelian monopoles in SU(N) lattice gauge theories with Higgs fields is presented. The corresponding local monopole number defined for almost all field configurations does not require gauge fixing and is stable against small perturbations. Its topological content is that of a three-cochain. A detailed prescription for calculating the local monopole number is worked out. Our method generalizes a magnetic charge definition previously invented by Phillips and Stone for SU(2).
Model for QCD ground state with magnetic disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Matevosyan, Hrayr H.
2010-05-01
We explore an ansatz for the QCD vacuum in the Coulomb gauge that describes gauge field fluctuations in the presence of a weakly interacting gas of Abelian monopoles. Such magnetic disorder leads to long-range correlations which are manifested through the area law for the Wilson loop. In particular we focus on the role of the residual monopole-monopole interactions in providing the mechanism for suppression of the gluon propagator at low momenta which also leads to low-momentum enhancement in the ghost propagator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study the rotated ferromagnetic Heisenberg model (RFHM) in two different transverse fields, hx and hz, which can be intuitively visualized as studying spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects in two-dimensional (2D) Ising or anisotropic X Y model in a transverse field. At a special SOC class, it was found in our previous work [Phys. Rev. A 92, 043609 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.043609] that the RFHM at a zero field owns an exact spin-orbit coupled ground state called the Y -x state. It supports not only the commensurate magnons (called C -C0 and C -Cπ ), but also the incommensurate magnons (called C-IC). These magnons are nonrelativistic, not embedded in the exact ground state, so need to be thermally excited or generated by various external probes. Their dramatic response under a longitudinal hy field was recently worked out by Sun et al. [arXiv:1502.05338]. Here we find they respond very differently under the two transverse fields. Any hx (hz) introduces quantum fluctuations to the ground state and changes the collinear Y -x state to a canted coplanar Y X -x (Y Z -x ) state. The C -C0,C -Cπ , and C-IC magnons become relativistic and sneak into the quantum ground state. We determine the competing boundaries among the C -C0,C -Cπ , and C-IC magnons, especially the detailed dispersions of the C-IC magnons inside the canted phases, which can be mapped out by the transverse spin structure factors. As hx (hz) increases further, the C -C0 magnons always win the competition and emerge as the seeds to drive a transition from the Y X -x (or Y Z -x ) to the ferromagnetic along the X (orZ ) direction called the X -FM (or Z -FM) phase. We show that the transition is in the 3D Ising universality class and it becomes the 3D X Y transition at the two Abelian points. We evaluate these magnons' contributions to magnetization and specific heat at low temperatures which can be measured by various established experimental techniques. The nature of the finite
Yost, S.A.
1991-05-01
Radom matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described.
This presentation presented information on entrainment models. Entrainment models use entrainment hypotheses to express the continuity equation. The advantage is that plume boundaries are known. A major disadvantage is that the problems that can be solved are rather simple. The ...
Continuous and discontinuous absorbing-state phase transitions on Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Marcelo M.; Alves, Sidiney G.; Ferreira, Silvio C.
2016-01-01
We study absorbing-state phase transitions (APTs) in two-dimensional Voronoi-Delaunay (VD) random lattices with quenched coordination disorder. Quenched randomness usually changes the criticality and destroys discontinuous transitions in low-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. We performed extensive simulations of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model, and verified that the VD disorder does not change the nature of its discontinuous transition. Our results corroborate recent findings of Barghathi and Vojta [H. Barghathi and T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120602], stating the irrelevance of topological disorder in a class of random lattices that includes VD, and raise the interesting possibility that disorder in nonequilibrium APT may, under certain conditions, be irrelevant for the phase coexistence. We also verify that the VD disorder is irrelevant for the critical behavior of models belonging to the directed percolation and Manna universality classes.
Computational studies of model disordered and strongly correlated electronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johri, Sonika
cannot be achieved perfectly in experiments. A chapter of this thesis is devoted to studying signatures of incomplete localization in a disordered system with interacting particles which is coupled to a bath. . Strongly interacting particles can also give rise to topological phases of matter that have exotic emergent properties, such as quasiparticles with fractional charges and anyonic, or perhaps even non-Abelian statistics. In addition to their intrinsic novelty, these particles (e.g. Majorana fermions) may be the building blocks of future quantum computers. The third part of my thesis focuses on the best experimentally known realizations of such systems - the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) which occurs in two-dimensional electron gases in a strong perpendicular magnetic field. It has been observed in systems such as semiconductor heterostructures and, more recently, graphene. I have developed software for exact diagonalization of the many-body FQHE problem on the surface of a cylinder, a hitherto unstudied type of geometry. This geometry turns out to be optimal for the DMRG algorithm. Using this new geometry, I have studied properties of various fractionally-filled states, computing the overlap between exact ground states and model wavefunctions, their edge excitations, and entanglement spectra. I have calculated the sizes and tunneling amplitudes of quasiparticles, information which is needed to design the interferometers used to experimentally measure their Aharanov-Bohm phase. I have also designed numerical probes of the recently discovered geometric degree of freedom of FQHE states.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, W. G. G.
1970-01-01
Discusses the historical development of both the wave and the corpuscular photon model of light. Suggests that students should be informed that the two models are complementary and that each model successfully describes a wide range of radiation phenomena. Cites 19 references which might be of interest to physics teachers and students. (LC)
Hydrological models are mediating models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.
2013-08-01
Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting
Model Experiments and Model Descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian
1999-01-01
The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Druyan, Leonard M.
2012-01-01
Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.
Braby, L.A.
1990-09-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.
V. Chipman
2002-10-05
The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post
Model Selection for Geostatistical Models
Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.
2006-02-01
We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin
2013-01-01
Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budiansky, Stephen
1980-01-01
This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)
Forbus, Kenneth D
2011-07-01
Qualitative modeling concerns the representations and reasoning that people use to understand continuous aspects of the world. Qualitative models formalize everyday notions of causality and provide accounts of how to ground symbolic, relational representations in perceptual processes. This article surveys the basic ideas of qualitative modeling and their applications from a cognitive science perspective. It describes the basic principles of qualitative modeling, and a variety of qualitative representations that have been developed for quantities and for relationships between them, providing a kind of qualitative mathematics. Three ontological frameworks for organizing modeling knowledge (processes, components, and field) are summarized, along with research on automatically assembling models for particular tasks from such knowledge. Qualitative simulation and how it carves up time into meaningful units is discussed. We discuss several accounts of causal reasoning about dynamical systems, based on different choices of qualitative mathematics and ontology. Qualitative spatial reasoning is explored, both in terms of relational systems and visual reasoning. Applications of qualitative models of particular interest to cognitive scientists are described, including how they have been used to capture the expertise of scientists and engineers and how they have been used in education. Open questions and frontiers are also discussed, focusing on relationships between ideas developed in the qualitative modeling community and other areas of cognitive science. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 374-391 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.115 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
Climate models and model evaluation
Gates, W.L.
1994-12-31
This brief overview addresses aspects of the nature, uses, evaluation and limitations of climate models. A comprehensive global modeling capability has been achieved only for the physical climate system, which is characterized by processes that serve to transport and exchange momentum, heat and moisture within and between the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. The fundamental aim of climate modeling, and the justification for the use of climate models, is the need to achieve a quantitative understanding of the operation of the climate system and to exploit any potential predictability that may exist.
Veronica J. Rutledge
2013-01-01
The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to
Mitchell, W.D.
1972-01-01
Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimaldi, P.
2012-07-01
These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan
2016-01-01
Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia
Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.
Daniel, David J; Mc Pherson, Allen; Thorp, John R; Barrett, Richard; Clay, Robert; De Supinski, Bronis; Dube, Evi; Heroux, Mike; Janssen, Curtis; Langer, Steve; Laros, Jim
2011-01-14
A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Emma
1991-01-01
A cheap and simple model that can be made and used by pupils to study the human breathing mechanism is presented. A list of needed materials, procedures for construction, possible refinements, and method of use are included. (KR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guillet, J. E.
1984-01-01
A reaction kinetics based model of the photodegradation process, which measures all important rate constants, and a computerized model capable of predicting the photodegradation rate and failure modes of a 30 year period, were developed. It is shown that the computerized photodegradation model for polyethylene correctly predicts failure of ELVAX 15 and cross linked ELVAX 150 on outdoor exposure. It is indicated that cross linking ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) does not significantly change its degradation rate. It is shown that the effect of the stabilizer package is approximately equivalent on both polymers. The computerized model indicates that peroxide decomposers and UV absorbers are the most effective stabilizers. It is found that a combination of UV absorbers and a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) is the most effective stabilizer system.
EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.
Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...
Ray, R.M. )
1986-12-01
PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1) chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2) carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3) in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4) polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5) steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.
Model selection for geostatistical models.
Hoeting, Jennifer A; Davis, Richard A; Merton, Andrew A; Thompson, Sandra E
2006-02-01
We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is often ignored in the selection of explanatory variables, and this can influence model selection results. For example, the importance of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often-used traditional approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also apply the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored. R software to implement the geostatistical model selection methods described in this paper is available in the Supplement.
Scalable Models Using Model Transformation
2008-07-13
huge number of web documents. We have created a simplified demo using 5 worker machines in the Ptolemy II modeling and simulation environment [3], as...the pattern of the transformation rule matches any subgraph of the input model. When the TransformationRule actor is opened in the Ptolemy II GUI...tool developed in the Ptolemy II frame- work, existing tools include AGG [14], PROGRES [15], AToM3 [16], FUJABA [17], VIATRA2 [18], and GReAT [19
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.
1990-01-01
Although powerful computers have allowed complex physical and manmade hardware systems to be modeled successfully, we have encountered persistent problems with the reliability of computer models for systems involving human learning, human action, and human organizations. This is not a misfortune; unlike physical and manmade systems, human systems do not operate under a fixed set of laws. The rules governing the actions allowable in the system can be changed without warning at any moment, and can evolve over time. That the governing laws are inherently unpredictable raises serious questions about the reliability of models when applied to human situations. In these domains, computers are better used, not for prediction and planning, but for aiding humans. Examples are systems that help humans speculate about possible futures, offer advice about possible actions in a domain, systems that gather information from the networks, and systems that track and support work flows in organizations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator)
1985-01-01
The overall goal of this work has been to develop a set of computational tools and media abstractions for the terrain bidirectional reflectance problem. The modeling of soil and vegetation surfaces has been emphasized with a gradual increase in the complexity of the media geometries treated. Pragmatic problems involved in the combined modeling of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric effects have been of interest and one of the objectives has been to describe the canopy reflectance problem in a classical radiative transfer sense permitting easier inclusion of our work by other workers in the radiative transfer field.
Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.
1980-01-01
Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the /sup 56/Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed.
Ensemble forecasting has been used for operational numerical weather prediction in the United States and Europe since the early 1990s. An ensemble of weather or climate forecasts is used to characterize the two main sources of uncertainty in computer models of physical systems: ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebert, James R.; Elliott, Nancy A.; Hurteau, Laura; Schulz, Amanda
2004-01-01
Students must understand the fundamental process of convection before they can grasp a wide variety of Earth processes, many of which may seem abstract because of the scales on which they operate. Presentation of a very visual, concrete model prior to instruction on these topics may facilitate students' understanding of processes that are largely…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.
2015-12-01
The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.
This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…
Wolkenhauer, Olaf
2014-01-01
Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah
2007-01-01
Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…
Although air quality models have been applied historically to address issues specific to ambient air quality standards (i.e., one criteria pollutant at a time) or welfare (e.g.. acid deposition or visibility impairment). they are inherently multipollutant based. Therefore. in pri...
A. Alsaed
2004-09-14
The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.
1980-02-01
three-dimensional gas turbine combustion chamber flows. ASME 23rd Int. Gas Turbine Conference. London (1978) 10). R.S. Reynolds, T.E. Kuhn & H.C. Mongia ... combustion data. 2 4 The concept of this global model approach is to trantform the TJI region in a physically compatible way that can be computationally...is also addressed.- ee a ot s um FUEL EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION : Fuel characteristics which are most likely to, affect the design- of future
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fossión, Rubén
2010-09-01
The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, David L.
1995-01-01
Automatic formal verification methods for finite-state systems, also known as model-checking, successfully reduce labor costs since they are mostly automatic. Model checkers explicitly or implicitly enumerate the reachable state space of a system, whose behavior is described implicitly, perhaps by a program or a collection of finite automata. Simple properties, such as mutual exclusion or absence of deadlock, can be checked by inspecting individual states. More complex properties, such as lack of starvation, require search for cycles in the state graph with particular properties. Specifications to be checked may consist of built-in properties, such as deadlock or 'unspecified receptions' of messages, another program or implicit description, to be compared with a simulation, bisimulation, or language inclusion relation, or an assertion in one of several temporal logics. Finite-state verification tools are beginning to have a significant impact in commercial designs. There are many success stories of verification tools finding bugs in protocols or hardware controllers. In some cases, these tools have been incorporated into design methodology. Research in finite-state verification has been advancing rapidly, and is showing no signs of slowing down. Recent results include probabilistic algorithms for verification, exploitation of symmetry and independent events, and the use symbolic representations for Boolean functions and systems of linear inequalities. One of the most exciting areas for further research is the combination of model-checking with theorem-proving methods.
Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas
2005-11-01
Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.
Visible and hidden sectors in a model with Maxwell and Chern-Simons gauge dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireson, Edwin; Schaposnik, Fidel A.; Tallarita, Gianni
2016-11-01
We study a U(1) × U(1) gauge theory discussing its vortex solutions and supersymmetric extension. In our set-up, the dynamics of one of two Abelian gauge fields is governed by a Maxwell term, the other by a Chern-Simons term. The two sectors interact via a BF gauge field mixing and a Higgs portal term that connects the two complex scalars. We also consider the supersymmetric version of this system which allows to find for the bosonic sector BPS equations in which an additional real scalar field enters into play. We study numerically the field equations finding vortex solutions with both magnetic flux and electric charge.
(Super)symmetries of semiclassical models in theoretical and condensed matter physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngome, J.-P.
2011-03-01
Van Holten's covariant algorithm for deriving conserved quantities is presented, with particular attention paid to Runge-Lenz-type vectors. The classical dynamics of isospin-carrying particles is reviewed. Physical applications including non-Abelian monopole-type systems in diatoms, introduced by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek, are considered. Applied to curved space, the formalism of van Holten allows us to describe the dynamical symmetries of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles. The framework is extended to supersymmetry and applied to the SUSY of the monopoles. Yet another application concerns the three-dimensional non-commutative oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Jon L.
1999-06-01
Molecular modeling has trickled down from the realm of pharmaceutical and research laboratories into the realm of undergraduate chemistry instruction. It has opened avenues for the visualization of chemical concepts that previously were difficult or impossible to convey. I am sure that many of you have developed exercises using the various molecular modeling tools. It is the desire of this Journal to become an avenue for you to share these exercises among your colleagues. It is to this end that Ron Starkey has agreed to edit such a column and to publish not only the description of such exercises, but also the software documents they use. The WWW is the obvious medium to distribute this combination and so accepted submissions will appear online as a feature of JCE Internet. Typical molecular modeling exercise: finding conformation energies. Molecular Modeling Exercises and Experiments is the latest feature column of JCE Internet, joining Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Hal's Picks, and Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum. JCE Internet continues to seek submissions in these areas of interest and submissions of general interest. If you have developed materials and would like to submit them, please see our Guide to Submissions for more information. The Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Equipment Buyers Guide, and WWW Site Review would also like to hear about chemistry textbooks and software, equipment, and WWW sites, respectively. Please consult JCE Internet Features to learn more about these resources at JCE Online. Email Announcements Would you like to be informed by email when the latest issue of the Journal is available online? when a new JCE Software title is shipping? when a new JCE Internet article has been published or is available for Open Review? when your subscription is about to expire? A new feature of JCE Online makes this possible. Visit our Guestbook to learn how. When
10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: ...
10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 400' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL), AND GREENVILLE BRIDGE MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 360' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS
Students' Models of Curve Fitting: A Models and Modeling Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gupta, Shweta
2010-01-01
The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…
Vincent, Julian F V
2003-01-01
Biomimetics is seen as a path from biology to engineering. The only path from engineering to biology in current use is the application of engineering concepts and models to biological systems. However, there is another pathway: the verification of biological mechanisms by manufacture, leading to an iterative process between biology and engineering in which the new understanding that the engineering implementation of a biological system can bring is fed back into biology, allowing a more complete and certain understanding and the possibility of further revelations for application in engineering. This is a pathway as yet unformalized, and one that offers the possibility that engineers can also be scientists. PMID:14561351
Anyonic braiding in optical lattices
Zhang, Chuanwei; Scarola, V. W.; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.
2007-01-01
Topological quantum states of matter, both Abelian and non-Abelian, are characterized by excitations whose wavefunctions undergo nontrivial statistical transformations as one excitation is moved (braided) around another. Topological quantum computation proposes to use the topological protection and the braiding statistics of a non-Abelian topological state to perform quantum computation. The enormous technological prospect of topological quantum computation provides new motivation for experimentally observing a topological state. Here, we explicitly work out a realistic experimental scheme to create and braid the Abelian topological excitations in the Kitaev model built on a tunable robust system, a cold atom optical lattice. We also demonstrate how to detect the key feature of these excitations: their braiding statistics. Observation of this statistics would directly establish the existence of anyons, quantum particles that are neither fermions nor bosons. In addition to establishing topological matter, the experimental scheme we develop here can also be adapted to a non-Abelian topological state, supported by the same Kitaev model but in a different parameter regime, to eventually build topologically protected quantum gates. PMID:18000038
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr
2016-04-01
larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state
Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gow, George
2010-01-01
Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…
Cold-atom quantum simulator for SU(2) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2013-03-22
Non-Abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this Letter, we suggest a realization of a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory-SU(2) Yang-Mills in (1 + 1) dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher-dimensional realizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makagon, A.; Weron, A.
1976-01-01
Salehi and Scheidt have derived several Wold-Cramer concordance theorems for q-variate stationary processes over discrete groups. This paper characterizes the concordance of the Wold decomposition with respect to families arising in the interpolation problem and the Cramer decomposition for non-full-rank q-variate stationary processes over certain…
Non-abelian Z-theory: Berends-Giele recursion for the α '-expansion of disk integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver
2017-01-01
We present a recursive method to calculate the α ' -expansion of disk integrals arising in tree-level scattering of open strings which resembles the approach of Berends and Giele to gluon amplitudes. Following an earlier interpretation of disk integrals as doubly partial amplitudes of an effective theory of scalars dubbed as Z-theory, we pinpoint the equation of motion of Z-theory from the Berends-Giele recursion for its tree amplitudes. A computer implementation of this method including explicit results for the recursion up to order α '7 is made available on the website http://repo.or.cz/BGap.git.
Nuttall's Abelian integral on the Riemann surface of the cube root of a polynomial of degree 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aptekarev, A. I.; Tulyakov, D. N.
2016-12-01
We study the field of orthogonal trajectories of a quadratic differential on the three-sheeted Riemann surface of the cube root of a polynomial of degree 3. These trajectories coincide globally with the level lines of the velocity potential of an incompressible fluid flowing to the surface through the infinitely remote point on one sheet and flowing out through the infinitely remote point on another. The statement of the problem is motivated by the task of finding the distribution of the poles of the Hermite– Padé approximants for two analytic functions with three common branch points, which is in its turn related to Nuttall's general conjecture.
Modeling metrology for calibration of OPC models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Chris A.; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Sturtevant, John; Deng, Yunfei; Zuniga, Christian; Adam, Kostas
2016-03-01
Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has continually improved in accuracy over the years by adding more physically based models. Here, we further extend OPC modeling by adding the Analytical Linescan Model (ALM) to account for systematic biases in CD-SEM metrology. The ALM was added to a conventional OPC model calibration flow and the accuracy of the calibrated model with the ALM was compared to the standard model without the ALM using validation data. Without using any adjustable parameters in the ALM, OPC validation accuracy was improved by 5%. While very preliminary, these results give hope that modeling metrology could be an important next step in OPC model improvement.
Massive neutrinos in the standard model and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalapillil, Arun Madhav
The generation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of particle physics is a long-standing puzzle. The recent discoveries from neutrino physics suggests that the mixing in the lepton sector is large compared to the quark mixings. To understand this asymmetry between the quark and lepton mixings is an important aim for particle physics. In this regard, two promising approaches from the theoretical side are grand unified theories and family symmetries. In the first part of my thesis we try to understand certain general features of grand unified theories with Abelian family symmetries by taking the simplest SU(5) grand unified theory as a prototype. We construct an SU(5) toy model with U(1) F ⊗Z'2 ⊗Z'' 2⊗Z''' 2 family symmetry that, in a natural way, duplicates the observed mass hierarchy and mixing matrices to lowest approximation. The system for generating the mass hierarchy is through a Froggatt-Nielsen type mechanism. One idea that we use in the model is that the quark and charged lepton sectors are hierarchical with small mixing angles while the light neutrino sector is democratic with larger mixing angles. We also discuss some of the difficulties in incorporating finer details into the model without making further assumptions or adding a large scalar sector. In the second part of my thesis, the interaction of high energy neutrinos with weak gravitational fields is explored. The form of the graviton-neutrino vertex is motivated from Lorentz and gauge invariance and the non-relativistic interpretations of the neutrino gravitational form factors are obtained. We comment on the renormalization conditions, the preservation of the weak equivalence principle and the definition of the neutrino mass radius. We associate the neutrino gravitational form factors with specific angular momentum states. Based on Feynman diagrams, spin-statistics, CP invariance and symmetries of the angular momentum states in the neutrino-graviton vertex, we deduce
Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Srivastava, Anveshna
2016-01-01
When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…
John A. Schroeder
2012-06-01
The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models for the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants currently have very limited instrumentation and control (I&C) modeling [1]. Most of the I&C components in the operating plant SPAR models are related to the reactor protection system. This was identified as a finding during the industry peer review of SPAR models. While the Emergency Safeguard Features (ESF) actuation and control system was incorporated into the Peach Bottom Unit 2 SPAR model in a recent effort [2], various approaches to expend resources for detailed I&C modeling in other SPAR models are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydov, E. A.
2012-06-01
Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant FμνF~μν, one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the `electric' and `magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.
Integrability of classical strings dual for noncommutative gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-06-01
We derive the gravity duals of noncommutative gauge theories from the Yang-Baxter sigma model description of the AdS5 × S5 superstring with classical r-matrices. The corresponding classical r-matrices are 1) solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation (CYBE), 2) skew-symmetric, 3) nilpotent and 4) abelian. Hence these should be called abelian Jordanian deformations. As a result, the gravity duals are shown to be integrable deformations of AdS5 × S5. Then, abelian twists of AdS5 are also investigated. These results provide a support for the gravity/CYBE correspondence proposed in arXiv:1404.1838.
On the causal structure of spinning Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, R.
1998-06-01
It is claimed that it will be exceedingly unlikely to obtain CTC's in the spacetime of a spinning EYMH-string. It is conjectured that the pathological problems concerning the induced angular momentum and helical structure of time that afflict the U(1)-gauge string, will be solved in the non-abelian YM string model. In the pure YM case one finds regular solutions, which resembles the abelian counterpart solution but without causality violating regions. Just as in the spherical symmetric case, there will be probably critical behavior of the field equations at the threshold of black hole masses.
Lattice calculation of the decay of primordial Higgs condensate
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav; Weir, David J. E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi E-mail: david.weir@uis.no
2016-02-01
We study the resonant decay of the primordial Standard Model Higgs condensate after inflation into SU(2) gauge bosons on the lattice. We find that the non-Abelian interactions between the gauge bosons quickly extend the momentum distribution towards high values, efficiently destroying the condensate after the onset of backreaction. For the inflationary scale H = 10{sup 8} GeV, we find that 90% of the Higgs condensate has decayed after n∼ 10 oscillation cycles. This differs significantly from the Abelian case where, given the same coupling strengths, most of the condensate would persist after the resonance.
Bosonic condensates in realistic supersymmetric GUT cosmic strings
Allys, Erwan
2016-04-01
We study the realistic structure of F-term Nambu-Goto cosmic strings forming in a general supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory implementation, assuming standard hybrid inflation. Examining the symmetry breaking of the unification gauge group down to the Standard Model, we discuss the minimal field content necessary to describe abelian cosmic strings appearing at the end of inflation. We find that several fields will condense in most theories, questioning the plausible occurrence of associated currents (bosonic and fermionic). We perturbatively evaluate the modification of their energy per unit length due to the condensates. We provide a criterion for comparing the usual abelian Higgs approximation used in cosmology to realistic situations.
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac systems from the discretized Kaluza-Klein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wali, Kameshwar; Viet, Nguyen Ali
2017-01-01
A unified theory of the non-Abelian gauge interactions with gravity in the framework of a discretized Kaluza-Klein theory is constructed with a modified Dirac operator and wedge product. All the couplings of chiral spinors to the non-Abelian gauge fields emerge naturally as components of the coupling of the chiral spinors in the generalized gravity together with some new interactions. In particular, the currently prevailing gravity-QCD quark and gravity-electroweak-quark and lepton models are shown to follow as special cases of the general framework.
Engineering Structurally Configurable Models with Model Transformation
2008-12-15
model in the case of Simulink, and a dataflow model in the case of LabVIEW). Research modeling tools such as Ptolemy II [14], ForSyDe [21], SPEX [30...functionality of our model transformation tool built in the Ptolemy II framework, and its application to large models of distributed and parallel embedded...in Ptolemy II, the same idea can be applied to other modeling tools such as Simulink, LabVIEW, ForSyDe, SPEX and ModHel’X. Moreover, the recent OMG
Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn
2014-01-01
Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687
Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models
Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.
Uncertainty Modeling Via Frequency Domain Model Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waszak, Martin R.; Andrisani, Dominick, II
1999-01-01
Abstract The majority of literature on robust control assumes that a design model is available and that the uncertainty model bounds the actual variations about the nominal model. However, methods for generating accurate design models have not received as much attention in the literature. The influence of the level of accuracy of the uncertainty model on closed loop performance has received even less attention. The research reported herein is an initial step in applying and extending the concept of model validation to the problem of obtaining practical uncertainty models for robust control analysis and design applications. An extension of model validation called 'sequential validation' is presented and applied to a simple spring-mass-damper system to establish the feasibility of the approach and demonstrate the benefits of the new developments.
Record-breaking avalanches in driven threshold systems.
Shcherbakov, Robert; Davidsen, Jörn; Tiampo, Kristy F
2013-05-01
Record-breaking avalanches generated by the dynamics of several driven nonlinear threshold models are studied. Such systems are characterized by intermittent behavior, where a slow buildup of energy is punctuated by an abrupt release of energy through avalanche events, which usually follow scale-invariant statistics. From the simulations of these systems it is possible to extract sequences of record-breaking avalanches, where each subsequent record-breaking event is larger in magnitude than all previous events. In the present work, several cellular automata are analyzed, among them the sandpile model, the Manna model, the Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model, and the forest-fire model to investigate the record-breaking statistics of model avalanches that exhibit temporal and spatial correlations. Several statistical measures of record-breaking events are derived analytically and confirmed through numerical simulations. The statistics of record-breaking avalanches for the four models are compared to those of record-breaking events extracted from the sequences of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. It is found that the statistics of record-breaking avalanches for the above cellular automata exhibit behavior different from that observed for i.i.d. random variables, which in turn can be used to characterize complex spatiotemporal dynamics. The most pronounced deviations are observed in the case of the OFC model with a strong dependence on the conservation parameter of the model. This indicates that avalanches in the OFC model are not independent and exhibit spatiotemporal correlations.
Model selection for logistic regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duller, Christine
2012-09-01
Model selection for logistic regression models decides which of some given potential regressors have an effect and hence should be included in the final model. The second interesting question is whether a certain factor is heterogeneous among some subsets, i.e. whether the model should include a random intercept or not. In this paper these questions will be answered with classical as well as with Bayesian methods. The application show some results of recent research projects in medicine and business administration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Willden, Jeff
2001-01-01
"Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…
Bohr model as an algebraic collective model
Rowe, D. J.; Welsh, T. A.; Caprio, M. A.
2009-05-15
Developments and applications are presented of an algebraic version of Bohr's collective model. Illustrative examples show that fully converged calculations can be performed quickly and easily for a large range of Hamiltonians. As a result, the Bohr model becomes an effective tool in the analysis of experimental data. The examples are chosen both to confirm the reliability of the algebraic collective model and to show the diversity of results that can be obtained by its use. The focus of the paper is to facilitate identification of the limitations of the Bohr model with a view to developing more realistic, computationally tractable models.
Electromagnetic couplings of elementary vector particles
Napsuciale, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Delgado-Acosta, E. G.; Kirchbach, M.
2008-01-01
On the basis of the three fundamental principles of (i) Poincare symmetry of space-time, (ii) electromagnetic gauge symmetry, and (iii) unitarity, we construct an universal Lagrangian for the electromagnetic interactions of elementary vector particles, i.e., massive spin-1 particles transforming in the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation space of the homogeneous Lorentz group. We make the point that the first two symmetries alone do not fix the electromagnetic couplings uniquely but solely prescribe a general Lagrangian depending on two free parameters, here denoted by {xi} and g. The first one defines the electric-dipole and the magnetic-quadrupole moments of the vector particle, while the second determines its magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole moments. In order to fix the parameters one needs an additional physical input suited for the implementation of the third principle. As such, one chooses Compton scattering off a vector target and requires the cross section to respect the unitarity bounds in the high-energy limit. As a result, we obtain the universal g=2 and {xi}=0 values which completely characterize the electromagnetic couplings of the considered elementary vector field at tree level. The nature of this vector particle, Abelian versus non-Abelian, does not affect this structure. Merely, a partition of the g=2 value into non-Abelian, g{sub na}, and Abelian, g{sub a}=2-g{sub na}, contributions occurs for non-Abelian fields with the size of g{sub na} being determined by the specific non-Abelian group appearing in the theory of interest, be it the standard model or any other theory.
Building mental models by dissecting physical models.
Srivastava, Anveshna
2016-01-01
When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to ensure focused learning; models that are too constrained require less supervision, but can be constructed mechanically, with little to no conceptual engagement. We propose "model-dissection" as an alternative to "model-building," whereby instructors could make efficient use of supervisory resources, while simultaneously promoting focused learning. We report empirical results from a study conducted with biology undergraduate students, where we demonstrate that asking them to "dissect" out specific conceptual structures from an already built 3D physical model leads to a significant improvement in performance than asking them to build the 3D model from simpler components. Using questionnaires to measure understanding both before and after model-based interventions for two cohorts of students, we find that both the "builders" and the "dissectors" improve in the post-test, but it is the latter group who show statistically significant improvement. These results, in addition to the intrinsic time-efficiency of "model dissection," suggest that it could be a valuable pedagogical tool.
Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report
R. Clayton
2000-12-19
The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the
Photochemical Modeling Applications
Provides access to modeling applications involving photochemical models, including modeling of ozone, particulate matter (PM), and mercury for national and regional EPA regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule
Educating with Aircraft Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Hobie
1976-01-01
Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, J. C.
2012-01-01
Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cellier, Francois E.
1991-01-01
A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.
Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.
Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J
A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.
Cvetic, M.; Richter, R.; Weigand, T.
2007-11-20
D-brane instantons can generate open string couplings in the superpotential which violate global abelian symmetries and are therefore perturbatively forbidden. After discussing the main ingredients, focussing for concretenes on Type IIA orientifold compactifications, we exemplify the generation of perturbatively forbidden Yukawa couplings as well as Majorana mass terms for right-handed neutrinos in SU(5) GUT-like models.
Field Theoretical Approach to the Formation of Junctions of Cosmic Strings
Salmi, Petja
2007-11-20
Superstring theory predicts the potential formation of string networks with junctions. Kinematic constraints for junction formation were derived in [1], based on Nambu-Goto action. Here we test these constraints numerically within the framework of Abelian-Higgs model and report on good agreement with the analytical predictions.
Two-loop effective Kähler potential in three-dimensional N = 2 SQED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merzlikin, B. S.
2017-03-01
We consider three-dimensional Abelian N = 2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter model with two chiral superfields and study local superspace contributions to low-energy effective action in the matter superfields sector of the theory. Using supergraph technique we compute the effective Kähler potential in the explicit form up to the two-loop approximation.
Consistent quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics in four dimensions
Andrianov, A. ); Bassetto, A.; Soldati, R.
1989-10-09
We discuss the quantization of a four-dimensional model in which a massive Abelian vector field interacts with chiral massless fermions. We show that, by introducing extra scalar fields, a renormalizable unitary {ital S} matrix can be obtained in a suitably defined Hilbert space of physical states.
Towards pair production near threshold with unstable particle effective theory
Beneke, M.; Kauer, N.; Signer, A.; Zanderighi, G.; /Fermilab
2004-10-01
We illustrate the use of effective theory techniques to describe processes involving unstable particles close to resonance. First, we present the main ideas in the context of a scalar resonance in an Abelian gauge-Yukawa model. We then outline the necessary modifications to describe W-pair production close to threshold in electron-positron collisions.
Off-shell {N} = 2 linear multiplets in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozkan, Mehmet
2016-11-01
We present a superconformal tensor calculus for an arbitrary number of five dimensional {N} = 2 linear multiplets. We also demonstrate how to construct higher derivative invariants, and produce higher order supersymmetric off-diagonal models. Finally, we show the procedure required for the derivation of the supersymmetric completion of the non-Abelian F 4 action.
ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT
Clinton Lum
2002-02-04
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4
Model Reduction of Viscoelastic Finite Element Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, C. H.; Inman, D. J.; Lam, M. J.
1999-01-01
This paper examines a method of adding viscoelastic properties to finite element models by using additional co-ordinates to account for the frequency dependence usually associated with such damping materials. Several such methods exist and all suffer from an increase in order of the final finite model which is undesirable in many applications. Here we propose to combine one of these methods, the GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method, with model reduction techniques to remove the objection of increased model order. The result of combining several methods is an ability to add the effects of visoelastic components to finite element or other analytical models without increasing the order of the system. The procedure is illustrated by a numerical example. The method proposed here results in a viscoelastic finite element of a structure without increasing the order of the original model.
Neurometric Modeling: Computational Modeling of Individual Brains
2011-05-16
Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neural networks, computational neuroscience, fMRI ...obtained using functional MRI. Algorithmic processing of these measurements can exploit a variety of statistical machine learning methods to... statistical machine learning methods to synthesize a new kind of neuro-cognitive model, which we call neurometric models. These executable models could be
Better models are more effectively connected models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John
2016-04-01
The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity
M. A. Wasiolek
2003-10-27
The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).
D. W. Wu
2003-07-16
The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clancey, William J.
The concept of a qualitative model is used as the focus of this review of qualitative student models in order to compare alternative computational models and to contrast domain requirements. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) Origins and Goals (adaptive instruction, qualitative models of processes, components of an artificial…
Models for Ammunition Management
1977-08-01
Analysis Operations Research Management Models Mobilization Planning Computer Programming Ammunition Management Economic Analysis Production Planning...ammunition managers on a unique set of nine modern computer models specifically developed to support the conventional ammunition management decision...DECISION MODELS DIRECTORATE ROCK ISLAND, ILLINOIS 61201 r ABSTRACT This special management report presents a unique set of nine computer models
Generative Models of Disfluency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Timothy A.
2010-01-01
This thesis describes a generative model for representing disfluent phenomena in human speech. This model makes use of observed syntactic structure present in disfluent speech, and uses a right-corner transform on syntax trees to model this structure in a very natural way. Specifically, the phenomenon of speech repair is modeled by explicitly…
Multimodeling and Model Abstraction
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The multiplicity of models of the same process or phenomenon is the commonplace in environmental modeling. Last 10 years brought marked interest to making use of the variety of conceptual approaches instead of attempting to find the best model or using a single preferred model. Two systematic approa...
2015-09-01
The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeates, Devin Rodney
2011-01-01
The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar
2010-11-01
The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].