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Sample records for abelmoschus esculentus fibres

  1. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. PMID:25401145

  3. Extraction and Physicochemical Characterization of a New Polysaccharide Obtained from the Fresh Fruits of Abelmoschus Esculentus

    PubMed Central

    Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first multi-scale characterization of the fluidize-dried gum extracted from the fresh fruits of the plant Abelmoschus esculentus. It describes the physical, thermal, sorptional and functional properties of this natural gum. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transmittance infra red (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the gum sample. Abelmoschus Esculentus Gum (AEG) had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 70°C and no melting peak. It showed a 14.91% loss in weight at 195°C. X-ray diffractogram showed numerous broad halos for AEG. Elemental analysis showed that AEG contains 39.5, 7.3, 51.8, and 1.4% carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen respectively. The results obtained in this study established the fundamental characteristics of AEG and suggests its potential application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:24250349

  4. Αlpha-2 Adrenergic and Opioids Receptors Participation in Mice Gastroprotection of Abelmoschus esculentus Lectin.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Kátia A; Chaves, Hellíada V; Filho, Samuel Mateus Pereira; Pinto, Isabela Ribeiro; Monteiro, Dina Andressa Martins; Matos, Samuel Oliveira; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Lacerda, José Thalles Jocelino Gomes de; Aguiar, Lissiana M V; Pereira, Karuza M A; Benevides, Norma M B; Pinto, Vicente de Paulo T; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna M; Silva, Antonio A R

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are a heterogeneous group of proteins and glycoproteins with potential role as therapeutic and diagnostic tools to combat various diseases, besides some functions on human organism. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra), a horticultural plant of African origin, is cultivated in northeastern Brazil, and used for different medicinal purposes. This work is aimed to elucidate the action mechanisms of Abelmoschus esculentus lectin (AEL) gastro protective effect on gastropathy induced by ethanol. Fasted mice treated with Ethanol 99.9% (0.2 ml/animal, p.o.) received previously AEL (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 or 50 mg/kg, i.v.), saline (5 ml/kg; i.v.) or ranitidine (80 mg/kg, p.o.) in four experimental series, in which pharmacological tools (yohimbine, naloxone, L-NAME or indomethacin), were administered with the purpose of make clear possible molecular action mechanisms. Mice were euthanized 30 min after ethanol challenge to verify the stomach damages. Establishment of gastric oxidative stress, tissue hemoglobin (Hb) content and microscopic features (H&E) were taken in order to characterize the AEL gastro protective effect. AEL (1 mg/kg) was capable of protect mucosa against ethanol damages in presence of two (L-NAME and indomethacin) of four antagonists/inhibitors used. The AEL effect was reversed by naloxone and yohimbine, showing the involvement of opioids and Αlpha-2 adrenergic receptors on gastric protective effect of this lectin. Evaluation of microscopic features, oxidative stress, and Hb levels pointed the protective effects of AEL. This activity seems to be mediated by alpha-2 adrenergic and opioid receptors activation. Nitric oxide or prostaglandins were not involved. AEL simultaneously showed antioxidant effect that is probably implicated in its intricate defensive mechanism of action.

  5. Spectroscopic and Thermooxidative Analysis of Organic Okra Oil and Seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2°C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption. PMID:22645459

  6. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R.; Ghufran, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum. PMID:26442046

  7. Responses of growth of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaimi, Rana Ibrahim; Ismail, Norli; Ibrahim, Mahamad H

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water) on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). The plants were watered using (WW) raw dairy wastewater, (T1) chemicals treatment, (T2) physical treatment, (T3) dilution method treatment and tap water (TW) in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length) and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter) pos-tharvest. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW) on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2) at 20 mg/L Al2(SO4)3 and pH 6

  8. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids from A. esculentus against UV-B-induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts. UV-B protective activity of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of okra was studied against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, antioxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway. Flavonoid-rich EA fraction depicted a significant antioxidant potential also showing presence of rutin. Pretreatment of cells with EA fraction (10-30 μg/ml) prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Our study demonstrated for the 1(st) time that EA fraction of okra may reduce oxidative stress through Nrf2-ARE pathway as well as through endogenous enzymatic antioxidant system. These results suggested that flavonoids from okra may be considered as potential UV-B protective agents and may also be formulated into herbal sunscreen for topical application. Flavonoid-enriched ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from A. esculentus protected against ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced oxidative DNA damageEA fraction prevented UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, and intracellular reactive oxygen species productionEA fraction could reduce oxidative stress through the Nrf2-ARE

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization of the Synthesis Genes of Bioactive Constituents in Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenghao; Dong, Wenqi; Gen, Wei; Xu, Baoyu; Shen, Chenjia

    2018-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (okra or lady’s fingers) is a vegetable with high nutritional value, as well as having certain medicinal effects. It is widely used as food, in the food industry, and in herbal medicinal products, but also as an ornamental, in animal feed, and in other commercial sectors. Okra is rich in bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, caffeine, and pectin. In the present study, the concentrations of total flavonoids and polysaccharides in five organs of okra were determined and compared. Transcriptome sequencing was used to explore the biosynthesis pathways associated with the active constituents in okra. Transcriptome sequencing of five organs (roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits) of okra enabled us to obtain 293,971 unigenes, of which 232,490 were annotated. Unigenes related to the enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway or in fructose and mannose metabolism were identified, based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. All of the transcriptional datasets were uploaded to Sequence Read Archive (SRA). In summary, our comprehensive analysis provides important information at the molecular level about the flavonoid and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in okra. PMID:29495525

  10. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  11. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Citrus Epicarp-Derived Biochar Reduced Cd Uptake and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Young Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (okra) Under Low Cd Stress.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Clement O; Varun, Mayank; Ogundele, Iyanuoluwa G; Olorunmaiye, Kehinde S; Paul, Manoj S

    2018-06-01

    Due to the important role of biochar (BC) in reducing metal-toxicity in plants, this study was aimed at assessing the potential of citrus epicarp-derived BC in ameliorating Cd toxicity in young Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) under low Cd toxicity. Okra was grown in soil amended with BC at four treatment levels for 49 days as follows: control (A), sole 1.4 mg Cd/kg-spiked soil (B), 1.4 mg Cd/kg-spiked soil + 1% BC (C) and 1.4 mg Cd/kg-spiked soil + 3% BC (D). The results showed a dose-dependent reduction in shoot accumulation of Cd due to the BC application. In addition, compared to control and sole Cd-amended soil, BC treatments (both at 1% and 3% w/w) decreased the oxidative stress, and enhanced activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the young okra. Generally, the application of BC to the soil was effective in ameliorating the Cd-induced oxidative stress in okra with limited shoot bioaccumulation of Cd.

  13. Field efficacy of azadirachtin-A, tetrahydroazadirachtin-A, NeemAzal and endosulfan against key pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus).

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Swaran; Walia, Suresh; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Shivendra; Singh, Gyanendra; Parmar, Balraj S

    2008-11-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike synthetic pesticides, azadirachtin-based neem pesticides are environmentally friendly and are well known for their diverse pest control properties. Their use is, however, limited by the instability of azadirachtin, necessitating application at short intervals. The efficacy of relatively stable tetrahydroazadirachtin-A, therefore, needed to be established under field conditions. Azadirachtin-A (Aza-A), its stable derivative tetrahydroazadirachtin-A (THA) and other neem pesticides have been evaluated for their field efficacy against major insect pests of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench., during summer (kharif) 2003 and 2004. The optimum doses of Aza-A and THA against the fruit borer, Earias vittella F., were also established. Reductions in population of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), and leafhopper (jassid), Amrasca biguttulla biguttulla Ishida, after application of THA or endosulfan was evident up to 10 days after treatment (DAT), whereas with Aza-A and NeemAzal (NZ) the effect was observed up to 7 DAT only. Endosulfan and THA also caused higher reduction in the larvae of shoot and fruit borer E. vittella and E. insulana Boisd., and recorded the highest yields of 4600 and 4180 kg ha(-1). The efficacy of THA (0.05 g L(-1) emulsion) was comparable with that of 0.5 g L(-1) endosulfan emulsion in reducing fruit borer infestation, the reduction over the control being 86.0 and 87.3%, 84.9 and 94.1% and 90.2 and 92.6% at first, second and third picking. THA 0.02 g L(-1) and Aza-A 0.05 g L(-1) were on a par. Laboratory-made neem oil emulsifiable concentrate was the least effective, but was superior to untreated check. Three consecutive sprays of THA, a neem-based biopesticide, and endosulfan have been found to be superior in controlling field pests of okra to Aza-A and NZ, which were on a par. THA thus holds potential as a component of pest management strategies against okra pests. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Oosterhuis, D.M.

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leafmore » water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.« less

  15. Field evaluation of a botanical formulation from the milky mangrove Excoecaria agallocha L. against Helicoverpa armigera Hübner. in Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea).

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Satyan Ramachandran; Egigu, Meseret C

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate a formulation from the milky mangrove tree Excoecaria agallocha L. (E. agallocha) against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (H. armigera). About 3% aqueous ethanolic spray formulation derived from the lipophilic extract of E. agallocha (dry leaf) was evaluated against H. armigera in Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger) and Cajanus cajan (C. cajan) (pigeon pea), under field conditions. On the 9th day of the 4th spray the larval count in the plot treated with 3% E. agallocha formulation drastically came down to 0.23 larva/plant, compared to 1.63 in the ethanol control plot and 1.60 in the unsprayed plot. Blocks sprayed with 3% E. agallocha formulation yielded 35.8 quintals/hectare (q/ha) of healthy pods compared to Ekalux® (pod yield: 60.7 q/ha), 3% Vijay Neem® (60.22 q/ha), yield plot (6 q/ha) and ethanol control (7 q/ha). In C. cajan, 1% E. agallocha, 3% Nimbecidine® and 0.07% indoxacarb were equally potent in reducing the larval population of H. armigera and the non-target pest Spilosoma obliqua to 0%, from the 9th day (3rd spray). Indoxacarb plot recorded the maximum yield of 16.1 q/ha with 2.4% pod damage. Plots sprayed with 1% E. agallocha yielded 14.7 q/ha with 2.32% pod damage. The effect of 3% Nimbecidine® spray (14.35 q/ha) was comparable to E. agallocha formulation. Unsprayed and ethanol control plots yielded 12.41 and 11.2 q/ha of pods with an average pod damage of 4.7%. E. agallocha formulation was found to be promising for the control of H. armigera, under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid and high-performance adsorptive removal of hazardous acridine orange from aqueous environment using Abelmoschus esculentus seed powder: Single- and multi-parameter optimization studies.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ashish Kumar; Pal, Anjali

    2018-07-01

    In this research, the performance of naturally abundant lignocellulosic by-product, Abelmoschus esculentus, and its processed seed powder referred as AESP, as a potential biosorbent for the removal of acridine orange (AO) from the aqueous environment was examined. The AESP biosorbent was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pH ZPC analyses. The average size of the biosorbent according to particle size distribution analysis was found to be ∼132 μm. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted by altering the parameters such as contact time, solution pH, biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, stirring speed and temperature. Sorption of cationic AO dye onto AESP was found to be rapid, and the equilibrium condition reached within 30 min. The isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips), kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intra-particle diffusion, Bangham and modified-Freundlich models) and thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. High values of determination coefficients (R 2 ) and minimal values of non-linear error functions (i.e. HYBRD, RMSE, MPSD, ARE, APE and χ 2 ) indicated that experimental data were best fitted with Sips isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Accordingly, the maximum loading capacity of AESP was found to be 259.4, 284.3 and 346.5 mg/g for the temperatures of 15, 30 and 45 °C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of AO onto the AESP surface was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Besides these, the central composite experimental design (CCD) superimposed with response surface methodology (RSM) modeling was also employed to investigate the effect of four significant parameters (solution pH, contact time, initial AO concentration and AESP dosage) and their interaction-term effects on the

  17. Spreading and germination of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Z P; Buzsáki, K; Béres, I

    2006-01-01

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is a cosmopolitan, tropical, subtropical plant. On the basis of Ujvarosi life-form it is a G2 perennial plant, overwintering with tubers in the soil. It occurs in all continents: along Eastern and Western coastlines of Africa and even in South-Africa, North and South America, Japan, India, Near-Eastern countries, Western, Southern and Eastern Europe. It has been spread since the 70's in Europe, but its remarkable occurrence was between 1980 and 1995 years. Nowadays it occurs in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Portugal, Austria, Croatia, Switzerland, Italy and Hungary among the European countries. The first occurrence of C. esculentus was observed in Hungary in 1993, at the surroundings of Keszthely and H&viz towns in a maize-ecosystem (Dancza 1994). It can be presumed, that its import happened with Gladiolus tubers and seed-grain of maize. At present C. esculentus occurs in four regions and surroundings of 20 habitations of Hungary. Somogy county is the most infected area, where it occurs on 10,000 hectares. C. esculentus took the 16th place in the important order of weeds of the world in the 70's. On the basis of EPPO IAS Panel at present this weed specics is considered as one of the most harmful invasive species of the world, due to its severe economic injury. Most harmful effect of C. esculentus is expressed in spring-sown hoed cultures, mainly in maize. Beside this it also occurs in sunflower, potato and sugarbeet cultures. C. esculentus has a good competitive ability by reducing crop quality and quantity. Vegetative reproduction is dominant in spreading but its propagation by seeds is also presumed in Hungary. Cool, rainy weather favours for the vegetative reproduction, while warm, dry one for the flowering. It has a 1-1.5 mm long fruit with one seed. One clustering can contain 600 seeds. According to Lapham (1985) there are areas in Zimbabwe where one can find 100 million C. esculentus seeds in a hectare. At a 1

  18. A new species of Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae) on okra in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Viviane Rodrigues; Couri, MÁrcia Souto

    2018-04-18

    Liriomyza okrae sp. n. is a new species from Brazil that does not have the yellow thoracic spots usually characteristic of the genus. The specimens were collected in Rondônia state (Brazil), reared from okra-Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (Malvaceae). Detailed descriptions of adult male, larva and puparium are made, and images of the male, male terminalia, larva, puparium and host-plant are given. A key is provided for Neotropical Liriomyza with an entirely dark thorax.

  19. All-male hybrids of a tetrapod Pelophylax esculentus share its origin and genetics of maintenance.

    PubMed

    Doležálková-Kaštánková, Marie; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Plötner, Jörg; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich; Janko, Karel; Choleva, Lukáš

    2018-04-02

    Sexual parasites offer unique insights into the reproduction of unisexual and sexual populations. Because unisexuality is almost exclusively linked to the female sex, most studies addressed host-parasite dynamics in populations where sperm-dependent females dominate. Pelophylax water frogs from Central Europe include hybrids of both sexes, collectively named P. esculentus. They live syntopically with their parental species P. lessonae and/or P. ridibundus. Some hybrid lineages consist of all males providing a chance to understand the origin and perpetuation of a host-parasite (egg-dependent) system compared to sperm-dependent parthenogenesis. We focused on P. ridibundus-P. esculentus populations where P. ridibundus of both sexes lives together with only diploid P. esculentus males. Based on 17 microsatellite markers and six allozyme loci, we analyzed (i) the variability of individual genomes, (ii) the reproductive mode(s) of all-male hybrids, and (iii) the genealogical relationships between the hybrid and parental genomes. Our microsatellite data revealed that P. esculentus males bear Mendelian-inherited ridibundus genomes while the lessonae genome represents a single clone. Our data indicate that this clone did not recently originate from adjacent P. lessonae populations, suggesting an older in situ or ex situ origin. Our results confirm that also males can perpetuate over many generations as the unisexual lineage and successfully compete with P. ridibundus males for eggs provided by P. ridibundus females. Natural persistence of such sex-specific hybrid populations allows to studying the similarities and differences between male and female reproductive parasitism in many biological settings.

  20. Impact of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seed flour on nutrients, functional properties and zinc bioavailability of plantain flour.

    PubMed

    Adetuyi, F O; Adelabu, H A

    2011-12-01

    In Nigeria, nursing mothers are advised to give their infants plantain flour paste 'amala ogede' with 'ewedu' Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning. Over-matured okra is typically discarded resulting in substantial post-harvest waste; the seed could be processed into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of okra seed flour on the nutrients, functional properties, minerals and zinc bioavailability of plantain flour. Okra seed flour was used to fortify plantain flour in the ratio 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30. The addition of okra seed flour to the plantain flour resulted in a significant increase in the protein, fat, fibre and ash content of the fortified plantain flour, while that of moisture and carbohydrate decreased. The mineral levels of Zn, K and Fe increased significantly while the calcium content decreased. The calculated phytate--zinc molar ratio and [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio of the fortified plantain flour were below the critical levels. The study showed that fortifying plantain flour with okra seed flour resulted in an increase in several nutrients, rendering the zinc more bioavailable. This fortified food has potential as a complimentary food in Nigeria.

  1. Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridogenesis (hemiclonal inheritance) is a kind of clonal reproduction in which hybrids between parental species are reproduced by crossing with one of the parental species. European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) represent an appropriate model for studying interspecies hybridization, processes of hemiclonal inheritance and polyploidization. P. esculentus complex consists of two parental species, P. ridibundus (the lake frog) and P. lessonae (the pool frog), and their hybridogenetic hybrid – P. esculentus (the edible frog). Parental and hybrid frogs can reproduce syntopically and form hemiclonal population systems. For studying mechanisms underlying the maintenance of water frog population systems it is required to characterize the karyotypes transmitted in gametes of parental and different hybrid animals of both sexes. Results In order to obtain an instrument for characterization of oocyte karyotypes in hybrid female frogs, we constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of both parental species originating in Eastern Ukraine. We further identified certain molecular components of chromosomal marker structures and mapped coilin-rich spheres and granules, chromosome associated nucleoli and special loops accumulating splicing factors. We recorded the dissimilarities between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes in the length of orthologous chromosomes, number and location of marker structures and interstitial (TTAGGG)n-repeat sites as well as activity of nucleolus organizer. Satellite repeat RrS1 was mapped in centromere regions of lampbrush chromosomes of the both species. Additionally, we discovered transcripts of RrS1 repeat in oocytes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Moreover, G-rich transcripts of telomere repeat were revealed in association with terminal regions of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes. Conclusions The constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of P

  2. Effect of Spent Mushroom Compost of Pleurotus pulmonarius on Growth Performance of Four Nigerian Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Muritala Mobolaji; Oyetunji, Olusola Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus pulmonarius (an edible fungus) was used as soil conditioner for the improvement of growth of four common Nigerian vegetables (Abelmoschus esculentus, Lycopersicum esculentum, Capsicum annum and Capsicum chinense). The results of these investigations showed that the vegetables responded well to the SMC treatment. Each of them attained its best growth and gave the highest number of flowers and fruits when planted on 6 kg of depleted garden soil supplemented with 600 g of SMC. The control experiment that has the seedlings of the vegetables planted on 6 kg of depleted garden soil only, without the application of SMC, showed stunted and poor growth, with few or no flower and fruit production. A. esculentus was the best utilizer of iron utilizing 118.0 mg/kg in the SMC used. Similarly; this vegetable utilized 1.48 mg/kg of nitrogen in the SMC. The highest height in each vegetable was attained with 6 kg of depleted garden soil supplemented with 600 g of SMC. At 9 wk, A. esculentus has the mean height of 85.0 cm while these values significantly increased to 100.00 cm at 14 wk (p ≤ 0.05). At 9 wk, L. esculentum has the highest mean height of 65.00 cm which increased to 71.00 cm after 14 wk. It was also observed that A. esculentus has the highest mean number of fruits (9.00), followed in order by C. chinense (8.00) and L. esculentus (7.00) (p ≤ 0.05) while, C. annum produced the least mean number of fruits (5.00). No fruits production was seen in the control experiments. The results of these findings were discussed in relation to the usage of SMC as possible organic fertilizer for the improvement of growth of vegetables in Nigeria. PMID:22783098

  3. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

  4. Abelmoschus manihot - a traditional Chinese medicine versus losartan potassium for treating IgA nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Chen, Yi-Zhi; Lin, Hong-Li; Ni, Zhao-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Li; Wang, Rong; Yang, Hong-Tao; Fang, Jing-Ai; Wang, Nian-Song; Li, Wen-Ge; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2017-04-11

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases worldwide, but effective therapy remains limited and many patients progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I)/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) show a high level of evidence (1B level) of being of value in the treatment for IgAN according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. However, traditional Chinese medicine has raised attention in kidney disease research. Abelmoschus manihot, a single medicament of traditional Chinese medicine has shown therapeutic effects in primary glomerular disease according to the randomized controlled clinical trial that we have completed. Here, we conduct a new study to assess the efficacy and safety of Abelmoschus manihot in IgAN. Also, this study is currently the largest double-blind, randomized controlled registered clinical research for the treatment of IgAN. We will conduct a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study. The study is designed as a noninferiority clinical trial. Approximately 1600 biopsy-proven IgAN patients will be enrolled at 100 centers in China and followed up for as long as 48 weeks. IgAN patients will be randomized assigned to the Abelmoschus manihot group (in the form of a huangkui capsule, 2.5 g, three times per day) and the losartan potassium group (losartan potassium, 100 mg/d). The primary outcome is the change in 24-h proteinuria from baseline after 48 weeks of treatment. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline after 48 weeks of treatment, the incidence of endpoint events (proteinuria ≥3.5 g/24 h, the doubling of serum creatinine, or receiving blood purification treatment) are the secondary outcomes. Twenty-four-hour proteinuria and eGFR are measured at 0, 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks. This study will be of sufficient size and scope to evaluate the efficacy and safety of

  5. Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

    2010-02-01

    In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Complete nucleotide sequences of okra isolates of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger.

    PubMed

    Shih, S L; Kumar, S; Tsai, W S; Lee, L M; Green, S K

    2009-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a major crop in Niger. In the fall of 2007, okra leaf curl disease was observed in Niger and the begomovirus and DNA-beta satellite were found associated with the disease. The complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A (FJ469626 and FJ469627) and associated DNA-beta satellites (FJ469628 and FJ469629) were determined from two samples. This is the first report of molecular characterization of okra-infecting begomovirus and their associated DNA-beta from Niger. The begomovirus and DNA-beta have been identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus and Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, respectively, which are reported to also infect okra in Egypt, Mali and Sudan.

  7. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium (Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

  8. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  9. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  10. The chemical composition, nutritional value and antimicrobial properties of Abelmoschus esculentus seeds.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ciric, Ana; Sokovic, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-12-13

    Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. The harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers' preferences and the fruit that does not meet market requirements is being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from the setting of the fruit to the harvest stage, the present study evaluates the nutritional value, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product. For this purpose, seeds from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, as well as seeds from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at the maturity stage. A significant variation between the studied okra genotypes was observed for all the evaluated parameters. Okra seeds of cv. "Silver Queen" are a significant source of proteins and minerals, such as Ca, K, Fe and Zn. Seeds of all the genotypes contained significant amounts of gamma-tocopherols, liposoluble pigments, and linoleic and palmitic acid. The total phenol content differed between the studied genotypes and correlated with the EC 50 values of the Reducing Power assay. Seed extracts exhibited significant antibacterial properties, especially against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium, while fungistatic and fungicidal properties were better than ketoconazole in a genotype dependent manner. The antifungal properties of seeds were noticed towards all tested fungi, where Aspergillus versicolor and Caldosporium cladosporioides were the most sensitive species. Moreover, two of the tested genotypes ("Boyati" and "Clemson Spineless") exhibited higher fungistatic and fungicidal properties than ketoconazole. In conclusion, okra seeds could be considered as innovative okra products and could be proposed for alternative end-uses in the food and pharmaceutical industries, especially for functional foods with antimicrobial and bioactive properties.

  11. Biotechnological Advancements and Begomovirus Management in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.): Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Singh, Bijendra; Seth, Tania; Singh, Achuit K.; Halder, Jaydeep; Krishnan, Nagendran; Tiwari, Shailesh K.; Singh, Prabhakar M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of okra, as one of the important vegetable crop, very little attention has been paid to its genetic improvement using advanced biotechnological tools. The exploitation of marker assisted breeding in okra is often limited due to the availability of a few molecular markers, the absence of molecular genetic-map(s), and other molecular tools. Chromosome linkage-groups were not yet constructed for this crop and reports on marker development are very scanty and mostly hovering around cultivar characterization. Besides, very little progress has been observed for transgenic development. However, high throughput biotechnological tools like chromosome engineering, RNA interference (RNAi), marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), genome-wide selection (GWS), targeted gene replacement, next generation sequencing (NGS), and nanobiotechnology can provide a rapid way for okra improvement. Further, the etiology of many deadly viral diseases like the yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) and okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCV) in okra is broadly indistinct and has been shown to be caused by various begomovirus species. These diseases cause systemic infections and have a very effective mode of transmission; thus, preventing their spread has been very complicated. Biotechnological interventions have the potential to enhance okra production even under different viral-stress conditions. In this background, this review deals with the biotechnological advancements in okra per se along with the begomoviruses infecting okra, and special emphasis has been laid on the exploitation of advanced genomic tools for the development of resistant varieties. PMID:28367155

  12. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  13. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on themore » material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.« less

  14. Protective effect of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic against poststroke depression injury in mice and its action mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Jiang, Qiu-Hong; Hao, Ji-Li; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2009-03-01

    Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) is the major active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic. We investigated the protective effect of TFA against poststroke depression (PSD) injury in mice and its action mechanism. A mouse model of PSD was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) 30 min/reperfusion, followed by isolation feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress for 2 weeks. Treatment groups received TFA at three different doses (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (Flu, 2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 24 days. Change in behavior, brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment with TFA (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated mice escape-directed behavioral impairment induced by PSD, markedly reduced MDA levels, and increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px close to normal levels. TFA administration also attenuated PSD-induced neuronal death/losses, upregulated expression of BDNF both at mRNA and protein levels, as well as CREB mRNA levels. TFA had a protective effect against PSD injury in mice. Cardioprotection involves the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and upregulation of BDNF-CREB levels in the hippocampus, which may also be important mechanism of its antidepressants. This potential protection makes TFA a promising therapeutic agent for the PSD. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S.; Akhmetshin, Ural G.; Dvoirin, Vladislav V.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Firstov, Sergei V.

    2009-11-01

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO2 content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications.

  16. The effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to Charpy impact resistance of Oil Palm fibre reinforced composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Muhamad; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2016-11-01

    In this research, the effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to the impact resistance of the composite material have been investigated, The composite material employs oil palm fibre as the reinforcement material whereas the matrix used for the composite materials are polypropylene. The Oil Palm fibres are prepared for two conditions: alkali treated fibres and untreated fibres. The fibre sizes are varied in three sizes: 5mm, 7mm and 10mm. During the composite material preparation, the fibre contents also have been varied into 3 different percentages: 5%, 7% and 10%. The statistical approach is used to optimise the variation of specimen determined by using Taguchi method. The results were analyzed also by the Taguchi method and shows that the Oil Palm fibre content is significantly affect the impact resistance of the polymer matrix composite. However, the fibre size is moderately affecting the impact resistance, whereas the fibre treatment is insignificant to the impact resistance of the oil palm fibre reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  17. Influence of Cellulosic Fibres on the Physical Properties of Fibre Cement Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarova, V.; Stevulova, N.; Vaclavik, V.; Dvorsky, T.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, there are new approaches directing to processing of non-conventional fibre-cement composites for application in the housing construction. Vegetable cellulosic fibres coming from natural resources used as reinforcement in cost-effective and environmental friendly building products are in the spotlight. The applying of natural fibres in cement based composites is narrowly linked to the ecological building sector, where a choice of materials is based on components including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low-resource manufacture techniques. In this paper, two types of cellulosic fibres coming from wood pulp and recycled waste paper with 0.2%; 0.3% and 0.5% of fibre addition into cement mixtures were used. Differences in the physical characteristics (flowability, density, coefficient of thermal conductivity and water absorbability) of 28 days hardened fibre-cement composites are investigated. Addition of cellulosic fibres to cement mixture caused worsening the workability of fresh mixture as well as absorbability of hardened composites due to hydrophilic nature of biomaterial, whereas density and thermal conductivity of manufactured cement based fibre plaster are enhanced. The physical properties of cement plasters based on cellulosic fibres depend on structural, physical characteristics of cellulosic fibres, their nature and processing.

  18. Assessment of Plant-Probiotic Performance of Novel Endophytic Bacillus sp. in Talc-Based Formulation.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Jasim; Ravi, Aswani; Mathew, Jyothis; Krishnankutty, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil

    2018-01-25

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days. Plant probiotic performance of the prepared formulation was analyzed on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus). The results showed the formulation treatment to have enhancement effect on seed germination as well as plant growth in both selected plants. The results highlight the potential of CaB5-based formulation for field application to enhance growth of economically important plants.

  19. Development of a fibre size-specific job-exposure matrix for airborne asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Dement, J M; Kuempel, E D; Zumwalde, R D; Smith, R J; Stayner, L T; Loomis, D

    2008-09-01

    To develop a method for estimating fibre size-specific exposures to airborne asbestos dust for use in epidemiological investigations of exposure-response relations. Archived membrane filter samples collected at a Charleston, South Carolina asbestos textile plant during 1964-8 were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres by plant operation. The protocol used for these analyses was based on the direct transfer method published by the International Standards Organization (ISO), modified to enhance fibre size determinations, especially for long fibres. Procedures to adjust standard phase contrast microscopy (PCM) fibre concentration measures using the TEM data in a job-exposure matrix (JEM) were developed in order to estimate fibre size-specific exposures. A total of 84 airborne dust samples were used to measure diameter and length for over 18,000 fibres or fibre bundles. Consistent with previous studies, a small proportion of airborne fibres were longer than >5 microm in length, but the proportion varied considerably by plant operation (range 6.9% to 20.8%). The bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres was expressed as the proportion of fibres in 20 size-specific cells and this distribution demonstrated a relatively high degree of variability by plant operation. PCM adjustment factors also varied substantially across plant operations. These data provide new information concerning the airborne fibre characteristics for a previously studied textile facility. The TEM data demonstrate that the vast majority of airborne fibres inhaled by the workers were shorter than 5 mum in length, and thus not included in the PCM-based fibre counts. The TEM data were used to develop a new fibre size-specific JEM for use in an updated cohort mortality study to investigate the role of fibre dimension in the development of asbestos-related lung diseases.

  20. 'Fibre body': the concept of fibre in eighteenth-century medicine, c.1700-40.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    This paper attempts a comprehensive account of 'fibre medicine' elaborated by iatromechanists from c. 1700 to c. 1740. Fibre medicine, a medical theory informed by the notion of the fibre, has been neglected by medical historians despite the pivotal role played by the fibre in animal economy. Referring to a wide range of medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics and life sciences, this paper elucidates the ways that the fibre serves as an indispensable concept for iatromechanists to establish their medical theories. This paper also highlights the metaphorical dimension of the fibre as an integral part of fibre medicine. In re-evaluating the concept of the fibre, this paper seeks to redress the neuro-centric view of eighteenth-century medicine, and attempts to locate the fibre body amidst the fundamental shift from humoralism to solidism.

  1. Strain development in curing epoxy resin and glass fibre/epoxy composites monitored by fibre Bragg grating sensors in birefringent optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, E.; Skordos, A. A.; Ye, C.-C.; James, S. W.; Partridge, I. K.; Tatam, R. P.

    2005-04-01

    Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) fabricated in linearly birefringent fibres were embedded in glass fibre/epoxy composites and in the corresponding unreinforced resin to monitor the effective transverse strain development during the cure process. The optical fibres containing the FBG sensors were aligned either normal or parallel to the reinforcement fibres in unidirectional glass fibre/epoxy prepregs. The chemical cure kinetics of the epoxy resin system used were studied using differential scanning calorimetry, in order to investigate the correlation between the strain monitoring results and the evolution of the curing reaction. A non-parametric cure kinetics model was developed and validated for this purpose. The effective transverse strain measured by the FBGs demonstrated high sensitivity to the degree of cure as a result of the densification of the resin caused by the curing reaction. The effective compressive transverse strain developed during the reaction, and thus the corresponding sensitivity to chemical changes, was higher in the case of the sensing fibre aligned normal to the reinforcement fibres than in the case of the sensor fibre parallel to the reinforcement fibres. Small but measurable sensitivity to cure induced changes was observed in the case of the unreinforced resin.

  2. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Polarisation reflectometry of anisotropic optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, Yurii A.; Kryukov, Igor'I.; Pervadchuk, Vladimir P.; Toroshin, Andrei Yu

    2009-11-01

    Anisotropic, polarisation-maintaining fibres have been studied using a reflectometer and integrated optic polariser. Linearly polarised pulses were launched into the fibre under test at different angles between their plane of polarisation and the main optical axis of the fibre. A special procedure for the correlation analysis of these reflectograms is developed to enhance the reliability of the information about the longitudinal optical uniformity ofanisotropic fibres.

  3. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  4. Single fibre strength of cellulosic fibre extracted from "Belatlan roots" plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Hanis. A., H.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Fahmi, I.

    2017-12-01

    The tensile strength of a fibre extracted from "Belatlan Root" plant was investigated as potential reinforcement material in polymeric composites. Following retting process, the fibres were manually extracted from "Belatlan" root's plant. The fibres were treated with 5 % 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) wt. % concentration for 24 h. The single fibre tests were then performed in accordance with ASTM D3822-07 standard. The surfaces of the fibres prior and after the treatment were observed with a metallurgical Microscope MT8100 and the physical properties were recorded. Physically, in the post treatment, the fibre showed a decrease in diameter with increase in NaOH concentration The results from the mechanical testing indicates that samples subjected to 5 % NaOH treatment yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus at 89.05 MPa ± 2.75 and 3.81 GPa ± 0.09 respectively compared to untreated fibres. This represents an increase of almost 72 % in tensile strength and 42 % for elastic modulus. The findings support the preliminary information for incorporating the "Belatlan Root" as possible reinforcing materials in composite structures.

  5. Mechanical Property Analysis on Sandwich Structured Hybrid Composite Made from Natural Fibre, Glass Fibre and Ceramic Fibre Wool Reinforced with Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharat, K. R.; Abhishek, S.; Palanikumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Natural fibre composites find wide range of applications and usage in the automobile and manufacturing industries. They find lack in desired properties, which are required for present applications. In current scenario, many developments in composite materials involve the synthesis of Hybrid composite materials to overcome some of the lacking properties. In this present investigation, two sandwich structured hybrid composite materials have been made by reinforcing Aloe Vera-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and Sisal fibre-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and its mechanical properties such as Tensile, Flexural and Impact are tested and analyzed. The test results from the two samples are compared and the results show that sisal fibre reinforced hybrid composite has better mechanical properties than aloe vera reinforced hybrid composite.

  6. Fibre laser based on tellurium-doped active fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Alyshev, S V; Ryumkin, K E; Shubin, A V

    2014-02-28

    We have studied the lasing properties of tellurium-doped germanosilicate fibre, identified its gain and excited-state absorption bands, and assessed the effect of cooling to low temperature (77 K) on the bands. The excitation spectrum of the near-IR luminescence in the fibre has been measured. Lasing at 1.55 mm has been demonstrated for the first time in this gain medium at liquidnitrogen temperature and pump wavelengths of 1.064 and 1.085 mm. The measured Raman spectrum of the fibre provides some insight into the structure of the near-IR luminescence centre. (letters)

  7. Influence of fibre design and curvature on crosstalk in multi-core fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, O. N.; Astapovich, M. S.; Melnikov, L. A.; Salganskii, M. Yu; Mishkin, V. P.; Nishchev, K. N.; Semjonov, S. L.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the influence of cross-sectional structure and bends on optical cross-talk in a multicore fibre. A reduced refractive index layer produced between the cores of such fibre with a small centre-to-centre spacing between neighbouring cores (27 μm) reduces optical cross-talk by 20 dB. The cross-talk level achieved, 30 dB per kilometre of the length of the multicore fibre, is acceptable for a number of applications where relatively small lengths of fibre are needed. Moreover, a significant decrease in optical cross-talk has been ensured by reducing the winding diameter of multicore fibres with identical cores.

  8. Influence of fibre design and curvature on crosstalk in multi-core fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, O N; Astapovich, M S; Semjonov, S L

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the influence of cross-sectional structure and bends on optical cross-talk in a multicore fibre. A reduced refractive index layer produced between the cores of such fibre with a small centre-to-centre spacing between neighbouring cores (27 μm) reduces optical cross-talk by 20 dB. The cross-talk level achieved, 30 dB per kilometre of the length of the multicore fibre, is acceptable for a number of applications where relatively small lengths of fibre are needed. Moreover, a significant decrease in optical cross-talk has been ensured by reducing the winding diameter of multicore fibres with identical cores. (fiber optics)

  9. Fibre Body’: The Concept of Fibre in Eighteenth-century Medicine, c.1700–401

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts a comprehensive account of ‘fibre medicine’ elaborated by iatromechanists from c. 1700 to c. 1740. Fibre medicine, a medical theory informed by the notion of the fibre, has been neglected by medical historians despite the pivotal role played by the fibre in animal economy. Referring to a wide range of medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics and life sciences, this paper elucidates the ways that the fibre serves as an indispensable concept for iatromechanists to establish their medical theories. This paper also highlights the metaphorical dimension of the fibre as an integral part of fibre medicine. In re-evaluating the concept of the fibre, this paper seeks to redress the neuro-centric view of eighteenth-century medicine, and attempts to locate the fibre body amidst the fundamental shift from humoralism to solidism. PMID:23112385

  10. Vibrated and self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete: experimental investigation on the fibre orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, A.; Plizzari, G. A.; Zerbino, R.

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the fibre type and content, the residual properties of fibre reinforced concrete are influenced by fibre orientation. Consequently, the performance fibre reinforced concrete can be affected by its fresh properties (workability, flowing capacity) and by casting and compaction processes adopted. This paper focuses on the study of the orientation of steel or macro-synthetic fibres in two materials characterized by very different fresh properties: vibrated and self-compacting concrete. Four rectangular slabs 1800 mm long, 925 mm wide and 100 mm high were produced changing concrete and fibre type. From each slab, eighteen small prisms (550 mm long) were firstly cut either orthogonal or parallel to casting direction and, secondly, notched and tested in bending according to EN 14651. Experimental results showed that the toughness properties of a thin slab significantly varies both in vibrated and self-compacting concrete, even if in case of self-compacting concrete this variation resulted higher. Steel fibres led to greater variability of results compared to polymer one, underlining a different fibre orientation. A discussion on the relative residual capacity measured on the prisms sawn from the slabs and the parameters obtained from standard specimens is performed.

  11. The ability of Abelmoschus manihot L. leaf extract in scavenging of free radical DPPH and total flavonoid determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudewi, S.; Lolo, W. A.; Warongan, M.; Rifai, Y.; Rante, H.

    2017-11-01

    Abelmoschus manihot L. has reported to have flavonoids content. This study aims were to determine the ability of A. manihot extract in counteracting free radical DPPH and determine the content of total flavonoids. A. manihot leaf was taken from 2 regions in North Sulawesi, namely Tomohon and Kotamobagu. The maceration was carried out to extract the active compound in a 96% ethanol solvent. Free radical scavenging analysis was carried out by DPPH and determination of its total flavonoid in the extract was measured using spectrophotometri method. The results showed that A. manihot extract from Tomohon and Kotamobagu could counteract free radical of DPPH with value of free radical activity of 88.151 and 88.801 %, respectively. A. manihot leaf from Kotamobagu has higher total flavonoids content 61.763 mg/g compare to Tomohon 46.679 mg/g which presented as quercetin. A. manihot has antioxidant activity.

  12. Biological durability and oxidative potential of man-made vitreous fibres as compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Hippeli, S; Dornisch, K; Wiethege, T; Gillissen, A; Müller, K M; Elstner, E F

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated relationships between redox properties and biodurability of crocidolite asbestos fibres and three different man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF): traditional stone wool fibres (MMVF 21), glass fibres (MMVF 11) and refractory ceramic fibres (RCF). Each fibre type was incubated up to 22 weeks in four different incubation media: gamble solution (GS) pH 5.0 and pH 7.4, representing blood plasma without proteins, and surfactant-like solution (SLS) pH 5.0 and pH 7.4. During incubation time aliquots of incubation mixtures were removed and analysed in a biochemical model reaction, mimicking activated phagocytes. In addition, changes of fibre morphology and chemical composition were examined using SEM- and EDX-technology. In the presence of crocidolite asbestos fibres and MMVF 21 the formation of OH*-radicals according to the Haber-Weiss sequence could be demonstrated, whereas MMVF 11 and RCF showed no reactivity. Crocidolite asbestos fibres exhibited a significant higher activity compared with the stone wool fibres at the onset of incubation. The oxidative capacities of these fibre types were shown to depend on both specific surface area and iron content. The oxidative potentials of crocidolite asbestos fibres as well as MMVF 21 were not constant during incubation over several weeks in each incubation medium. The reactivities showed sinoidal curves including reactivities much higher than those at the onset of incubation time. These irregular changes of oxidative capacity may be explained by changes of the redox state of fibre surface-complexed iron. Furthermore our results showed clear differences between incubation of fibres in GS and SLS, respectively, indicating that phospholipids play an important part in fibre dissolution behaviour and oxidative reactivity. In conclusion we suggest, that biodurability testing procedures should not exclusively concentrate on dissolution rates of fibres. They should include fibre characteristics concerning known

  13. Surface analysis of glass fibres using XPS and AFM: case study of glass fibres recovered from the glass fibre reinforced polymer using chemical recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzioka, A. M.; Kim, Y. J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we present the results of an experimental study of the use of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterise the coatings of the recovered E - glass fibres. The recovered E - glass fibres were obtained using chemical recycling process coupled with ultrasound cavitation. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of chemical recycling and the ultrasound cavitation process on the sizing properties of the recovered fibres. We obtained the recovered fibres and sized using 1 wt% 3 - aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS). Part of the sized fibres was washed with acetone and analysed all the sample fibres using AFM and XPS. Results showed the different composition of sizing after extraction using acetone. We compared the results of this study with that of virgin clean glass fibres.

  14. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  15. The relationship between critical flux and fibre movement induced by bubbling in a submerged hollow fibre system.

    PubMed

    Wicaksana, F; Fan, A G; Chen, V

    2005-01-01

    Bubbling has been used to enhance various processes. In this paper we deal with the effect of bubbling on submerged hollow fibre membranes, where bubbling is applied to prevent severe membrane fouling. Previous work with submerged hollow fibres has observed that significant fibre movement can be induced by bubbling and that there is a qualitative relationship between fibre movement and filtration performance. Therefore, the aim of the present research has been to analyse the link between bubbling, fibre movement and critical flux, identified as the flux at which the transmembrane pressure (TMP) starts to rise. Tests were performed on vertical isolated fibres with a model feed of yeast suspension. The fibres were subject to steady bubbling from below. The parameters of interest were the fibre characteristics, such as tightness, diameter and length, as well as feed concentration. The results confirmed that the critical fluxes are affected by the fibre characteristics and feed concentration. Higher critical flux values can be achieved by using loose fibres, smaller diameters and longer fibres. The enhancement is partially linked to fibre movement and this is confirmed by improved performance when fibres are subject to mechanical movement in the absence of bubbling.

  16. A discrete fibre dispersion method for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of fibrous tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, micro-sphere-based methods derived from the angular integration approach have been used for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of soft biological tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that many of the widely used numerical integration schemes over the unit sphere are inaccurate for large deformation problems even without excluding fibres under compression. Thus, in this study, we propose a discrete fibre dispersion model based on a systematic method for discretizing a unit hemisphere into a finite number of elementary areas, such as spherical triangles. Over each elementary area, we define a representative fibre direction and a discrete fibre density. Then, the strain energy of all the fibres distributed over each elementary area is approximated based on the deformation of the representative fibre direction weighted by the corresponding discrete fibre density. A summation of fibre contributions over all elementary areas then yields the resultant fibre strain energy. This treatment allows us to exclude fibres under compression in a discrete manner by evaluating the tension-compression status of the representative fibre directions only. We have implemented this model in a finite-element programme and illustrate it with three representative examples, including simple tension and simple shear of a unit cube, and non-homogeneous uniaxial extension of a rectangular strip. The results of all three examples are consistent and accurate compared with the previously developed continuous fibre dispersion model, and that is achieved with a substantial reduction of computational cost. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Advanced Fibre Based Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Daniel Oliver

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 mum fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed

  18. Human Dietary Fibre: A Review,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    in 1)iets ( Dietary Fibre and Lipid Metabolism 7 Dietary Fibre and Colon Function 8 Epidemiology of Bowel Disease 8 Dietary Fibre and 1)iverticular... Disease 9 Dietary Fibre aiicl Colonic Cancer 10 Fibre and Appendicitis II 1 i1)re and Dental Caries 11 References 1)istr ibution List __________ Access...infective bowel diseases include hlaeiiiorm’hoidl s, appendicitis , di v ert i— cnlar disease , cam icer (If the colon , co litis audi Cu’ohn’s disease . 1 t is

  19. SUNRISE: A SpaceFibre Router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Florit, Albert Ferrer; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    SpaceFibre is a new generation of SpaceWire technology which is able to support the very high data- rates required by sensors like SAR and multi-spectral imagers. Data rates of between 1 and 16 Gbits/s are required to support several sensors currently being planned. In addition a mass-memory unit requires high performance networking to interconnect many memory modules. SpaceFibre runs over both electrical and fibre-optic media and provides and adds quality of service and fault detection, isolation and recovery technology to the network. SpaceFibre is compatible with the widely used SpaceWire protocol at the network level allowing existing SpaceWire devices to be readily incorporated into a SpaceFibre network. SpaceFibre provides 2 to 5 Gbits/s links (2.5 to 6.25 Gbits/s data signalling rate) which can be operated in parallel (multi-laning) to give higher data rates. STAR- Dundee with University of Dundee has designed and tested several SpaceFibre interface devices.The SUNRISE project is a UK Space Agency, Centre for Earth Observation and Space Technology (CEOI- ST) project in which STAR-Dundee and University of Dundee will design and prototype critical SpaceFibre router technology necessary for future on-board data- handling systems. This will lay a vital foundation for future very high data-rate sensor and telecommunications systems.This paper give a brief introduction to SpaceFibre, explains the operation of a SpaceFibre network, and then describes the SUNRISE SpaceFibre Router. The initial results of the SUNRISE project are described.

  20. Fun with Optical Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  1. Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.): Genetic variation, morphology and relationships to micronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Rubiang-Yalambing, Lydia; Arcot, Jayashree; Greenfield, Heather; Holford, Paul

    2016-02-15

    Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.) is believed to be a good source of micronutrients. However, although many varieties of aibika are commonly consumed in Papua New Guinea, their micronutrient content is unknown. Therefore, the mineral (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn & Cu), folate composition and the genetic variation of 23 aibika accessions from the collection at the National Agricultural Research Institute were studied over a 3year period to provide data for nutritional studies and to inform breeding programs. The data showed that aibika is, potentially, a crop of high nutritional value with the potential to boost the micronutrient status of local PNG communities. However, there were substantial differences in the micronutrient concentrations of the accessions from year to year and accessions that had the highest concentration of a particular mineral in 1year did not have the high concentrations in other years. Clusters determined using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) of the micronutrient contents differed in each of the 3years. Genetic analysis made using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and directed amplification of mini satellite region DNA placed the accessions into five groups. There was no correlation between these groups and leaf morphology, nor were there correlations with the clusters determined from the UPGMA analyses. There appears to be considerable interaction between genotype and environmental factors determining micronutrient composition and environmental factors may play a greater role than genotype in influencing micronutrient composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental and numerical study on refractive index sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed in multimode fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipe Kuhne, Jean; Rocha, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Valmir; José Kalinowski, Hypolito; Canute Kamikawachi, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    In this work is reported the experimental and numerical results of the refractive index response of etched fibre Bragg gratings written in a graded index multimode fibre. The responses of the modes coupled by the grating inscribed in a multimode fibre are compared with the mode coupled by a grating inscribed in single mode fibre. The results of this study show that the refractive index sensitivity and the dynamical range of etched fibre Bragg gratings written in multimode fibres are higher than the ones verified in single-mode fibres. The determination of oil-biodiesel blend concentrations are also compared as an example of practical applications. It is shown that a greater core diameter of the multimode fibre enables the Bragg gratings to exhibit enhanced sensitivity without requiring further fibre diameter reduction.

  3. Magnesium coated bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres: investigation of the interface between fibre and polyester matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Grant, David M; Parsons, Andrew J; Harper, Lee T; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2013-01-01

    Bioresorbable phosphate glass fibre reinforced polyester composites have been investigated as replacement for some traditional metallic orthopaedic implants, such as bone fracture fixation plates. However, composites tested revealed loss of the interfacial integrity after immersion within aqueous media which resulted in rapid loss of mechanical properties. Physical modification of fibres to change fibre surface morphology has been shown to be an effective method to improve fibre and matrix adhesion in composites. In this study, biodegradable magnesium which would gradually degrade to Mg(2+) in the human body was deposited via magnetron sputtering onto bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres to obtain roughened fibre surfaces. Fibre surface morphology after coating was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The roughness profile and crystalline texture of the coatings were determined via atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The roughness of the coatings was seen to increase from 40 ± 1 nm to 80 ± 1 nm. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus) of fibre with coatings decreased with increased magnesium coating thickness.

  4. Magnesium Coated Bioresorbable Phosphate Glass Fibres: Investigation of the Interface between Fibre and Polyester Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoling; Grant, David M.; Parsons, Andrew J.; Harper, Lee T.; Rudd, Chris D.; Ahmed, Ifty

    2013-01-01

    Bioresorbable phosphate glass fibre reinforced polyester composites have been investigated as replacement for some traditional metallic orthopaedic implants, such as bone fracture fixation plates. However, composites tested revealed loss of the interfacial integrity after immersion within aqueous media which resulted in rapid loss of mechanical properties. Physical modification of fibres to change fibre surface morphology has been shown to be an effective method to improve fibre and matrix adhesion in composites. In this study, biodegradable magnesium which would gradually degrade to Mg2+ in the human body was deposited via magnetron sputtering onto bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres to obtain roughened fibre surfaces. Fibre surface morphology after coating was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The roughness profile and crystalline texture of the coatings were determined via atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The roughness of the coatings was seen to increase from 40 ± 1 nm to 80 ± 1 nm. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus) of fibre with coatings decreased with increased magnesium coating thickness. PMID:24066297

  5. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  6. Fun with optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-07-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today’s technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student’s curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete implications at the research level also.

  7. Fibre Concrete 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-09-01

    9th international conference on fibre reinforced concretes (FRC), textile reinforced concretes (TRC) and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPC) Preface The Fibre Concrete Conference series is held biennially to provide a platform to share knowledge on fibre reinforced concretes, textile concretes and ultra-high performance concretes regarding material properties and behaviour, technology procedures, topics of long-term behaviour, creep, durability; sustainable aspects of concrete including utilisation of waste materials in concrete production and recycling of concrete. The tradition of Fibre Concrete Conferences started in eighties of the last century. Nowadays the conference is organized by the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The 9th International Conference Fibre Concrete 2017 had 109 participants from 27 countries all over the world. 55 papers were presented including keynote lectures of Professor Bažant, Professor Bartoš and Dr. Broukalová. The conference program covered wide range of topics from scientific research to practical applications. The presented contributions related to performance and behaviour of cement based composites, their long-term behaviour and durability, sustainable aspects, advanced analyses of structures from these composites and successful applications. This conference was organized also to honour Professor Zděnek P. Bažant on the occasion of his jubilee and to appreciate his merits and discoveries in the field of fibre reinforced composites, structural mechanics and engineering.

  8. Modified sensing element of a fibre-optic current sensor based on a low-eigenellipticity spun fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Morshnev, S K; Starostin, N I

    2014-10-31

    We have proposed and investigated a modified sensing element of a spun fibre current sensor for the case when the beat length of the built-in linear birefringence of the fibre is equal to or less than the spin pitch of its helical structure. The proposed configuration makes it possible to restore the interferometer contrast reduced because of the decrease in the ellipticity of the wavelength-averaged polarisation state of radiation propagating in such spun fibre. The modified sensing element contains two polarisation state converters: one, located at the spun fibre input, produces polarisation with ellipticity equal to the eigenellipticity of themore » fibre, and the other ensures conversion of the elliptical polarisation to an orthogonal one through mirror reflection at the fibre output. We have also demonstrated that the magneto-optical sensitivity decreases slightly for the analysed spectrum-averaged parameters of the polarisation state of radiation in the spun fibre. Experimental data lend support to the theoretical predictions. (fibre-optic sensors)« less

  9. Polarisation effects in twin-core fibre: Application for mode locking in a fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lobach, I A; Kablukov, S I; Podivilov, Evgenii V

    2012-09-30

    We report the first measurements of the longitudinal power distribution in a twin-core optical fibre at different input light polarisations. Experimental evidence is presented that, because of the difference in birefringence between the cores, the power in them depends on which core the beam is launched into. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a modified polarisation model for mode coupling in twin-core fibres which takes into account the birefringence of the cores. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the polarisation properties of a twincore fibre for mode locking in a fibre laser. (optical fibres,more » lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)« less

  10. Experimental study of the mutual influence of fibre Faraday elements in a spun-fibre interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gubin, V P; Morshnev, S K; Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V

    2015-08-31

    An all-spun-fibre linear reflective interferometer with two linked Faraday fibre coils is studied. It is found experimentally that there is mutual influence of Faraday fibre coils in this interferometer. It manifests itself as an additional phase shift of the interferometer response, which depends on the circular birefringence induced by the Faraday effect in both coils. In addition, the interferometer contrast and magneto-optical sensitivity of one of the coils change. A probable physical mechanism of the discovered effect is the distributed coupling of orthogonal polarised waves in the fibre medium, which is caused by fibre bend in the coil. (interferometry)

  11. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  12. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  13. High Extinction Ratio In-Fibre Polarisers by Exploiting Tilted Fibre Bragg Grating Structures for Single-Polarisation High-Power Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    maintaining (PM) fibre, utilising polarisation hole-burning ( PHB ) effect to reduce homogeneous linewidth of the EDFL. In our work, we demonstrate a stable...loss filter which will induce some loss to the cavity around its paired attenuation band region, thus imposing PHB effect to the gain medium. The...polarisation-hole-burning ( PHB ) effect to realise multi-wavelength switchable function in proposed fibre ring laser system. In the proposed fibre ring laser

  14. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  15. Fibre optic microarrays.

    PubMed

    Walt, David R

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers.

  16. Calcium activation of frog slow muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Costantin, L. L.; Podolsky, R. J.; Tice, Lois W.

    1967-01-01

    1. Skinned muscle fibres were prepared from the tonus bundle of the frog iliofibularis muscle and the contractile response elicited by applied calcium ions was studied. The fibre type was determined by electron microscopy. 2. Fast fibres shortened many times more rapidly than slow fibres, indicating that the slow contraction of slow fibres is an inherent property of the contractile mechanism. 3. The extent of spread of contraction following local calcium application was much greater in slow than in fast fibres, a difference which is consistent with the relative sparsity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in slow fibres. 4. The ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of slow fibres to accumulate calcium was demonstrated by the in situ immobilization of calcium when oxalate solutions were added to the skinned fibre. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5AB PMID:6030519

  17. Pectin Methylesterase and Pectin Remodelling Differ in the Fibre Walls of Two Gossypium Species with Very Different Fibre Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinxiang; Talbot, Mark; Llewellyn, Danny J.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin, a major component of the primary cell walls of dicot plants, is synthesized in Golgi, secreted into the wall as methylesters and subsequently de-esterified by pectin methylesterase (PME). Pectin remodelling by PMEs is known to be important in regulating cell expansion in plants, but has been poorly studied in cotton. In this study, genome-wide analysis showed that PMEs are a large multi-gene family (81 genes) in diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii), an expansion over the 66 in Arabidopsis and suggests the evolution of new functions in cotton. Relatively few PME genes are expressed highly in fibres based on EST abundance and the five most abundant in fibres were cloned and sequenced from two cotton species. Their significant sequence differences and their stage-specific expression in fibres within a species suggest sub-specialisation during fibre development. We determined the transcript abundance of the five fibre PMEs, total PME enzyme activity, pectin content and extent of de-methylesterification of the pectin in fibre walls of the two cotton species over the first 25–30 days of fibre growth. There was a higher transcript abundance of fibre-PMEs and a higher total PME enzyme activity in G. barbadense (Gb) than in G. hirsutum (Gh) fibres, particularly during late fibre elongation. Total pectin was high, but de-esterified pectin was low during fibre elongation (5–12 dpa) in both Gh and Gb. De-esterified pectin levels rose thereafter when total PME activity increased and this occurred earlier in Gb fibres resulting in a lower degree of esterification in Gb fibres between 17 and 22 dpa. Gb fibres are finer and longer than those of Gh, so differences in pectin remodelling during the transition to wall thickening may be an important factor in influencing final fibre diameter and length, two key quality attributes of cotton fibres. PMID:23755181

  18. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  19. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. St. J.; Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic `space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of `numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  20. End effects in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Dunlop, Colin; Lemke, Ulrike; Murray, Graham

    2013-12-01

    The performance of highly multiplexed spectrographs is limited by focal ratio degradation (FRD) in the optical fibres. It has already been shown that this is caused mainly by processes concentrated around the mounting points at the ends of the fibres. We use the thickness of rings produced in the far-field when a fibre is illuminated by a collimated beam, to estimate the size of the region where the FRD is generated. This requires the development of a new model, using features of existing ray-tracing and wave-based models, which fits existing data very well. The results suggest that the amount of FRD is primarily determined by the length of fibre bonded into the supporting ferrule. We point out the implications for the production of future fibre systems.

  1. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in themore » mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.« less

  2. Fibre reinforced concrete exposed to elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, J.; Kohoutková, A.

    2017-09-01

    Although concrete when subject to fire performs very well, its behaviour and properties change dramatically under high temperature due to damaged microstructure and mesostructure. As fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) represents a complex material composed of various components with different response to high temperature, to determine its behaviour and mechanical properties in fire is a demanding task. The presented paper provides a summary of findings on the fire response of fibre FRC. Namely, the information on steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), synthetic fibre reinforced concrete and hybrid (steel + synthetic) fibre reinforced concrete have been gathered from various contributions published up to date. The mechanical properties including the melting point and ignition point of fibres affect significantly the properties of concrete composites with addition of fibres. The combination of steel and synthetic fibres represents a promising alternative how to ensure good toughness of a concrete composite before heating and improve its residual mechanical behaviour and spalling resistance as well as the ductility after heating. While synthetic fibres increase concrete spalling resistance, steel fibres in a concrete mix leads to an improvement in both mechanical properties and resistance to heating effects.

  3. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic ‘space’, cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of ‘numerical experiments’ based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069771

  4. ABCB1 and ABCC1-like transporters in immune system cells from sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Echinus esculentus and oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Lima-Santos, Leonardo; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2017-11-01

    ABC transporters activity and expression have been associated with the multixenobiotic resistance phenotype (MXR). The activity of these proteins leads to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of several xenobiotics, thus reducing their toxicity. However, little attention has been given to the expression of ABC transporters in marine invertebrates and few studies have investigated their role in immune system cells of sea urchins and shellfish bivalves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of the ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 in immune system cells of sea urchins (coelomocytes) and oysters (hemocytes) from different climatic regions (Brazil and France). Sea urchins and oysters were collected at Paraíba coast; Brazil (Echinometra lucunter and Crassostrea gasar) and Rade of Brest; France (Echinus esculentus and Crassostrea gigas). Coelomocytes and hemocytes were stained with the ABC transporter substrate calcein-AM and dye accumulation analyzed under flow cytometry. Reversin 205 (ABCB1 transporter blocker) and MK571 (ABCC1 transporter blocker) were used as pharmacological tools to investigate ABC transporter activity. A different pattern of calcein accumulation was observed in coelomocytes: phagocytes > colorless spherulocytes > vibrate cells > red spherulocytes. The treatment with MK571 increased calcein fluorescence levels in coelomocytes from both species. However, reversin 205 treatment was not able to increase calcein fluorescence in E. esculentus coelomocytes. These data suggest that ABCC1-like transporter activity is present in both sea urchin species, but ABCB1-like transporter activity might only be present in E. lucunter coelomocytes. The activity of ABCC1-like transporter was observed in all cell types from both bivalve species. However, reversin 205 only increased calcein accumulation in hyalinocytes of the oyster C. gasar, suggesting the absence of ABCB1-like transporter activity in all other cell types

  5. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P < 0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.058 ± 0.006 to 0.090 ± 0.010 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P < 0.05) had increased significantly in response to 24 weeks of resistance exercise training. However, these improvements where mainly driven by differences in baseline type II muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P < 0.05) and satellite cell content (from 0.059 ± 0.009 to 0.102 ± 0.017 satellite cells per muscle fibre, P < 0.05) increased significantly in the HIGH group, no significant changes were observed in LOW group following exercise training. No significant changes in type I and type II muscle fibre capillarization

  6. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H L; Campbell, B J

    2015-07-01

    Application of modern rapid DNA sequencing technology has transformed our understanding of the gut microbiota. Diet, in particular plant-based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) important for intestinal health. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of how long-term and short-term alterations in dietary fibre intake impact on the microbiome and metabolome. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota', 'nutrition', 'diet', 'dietary fibre', 'SCFAs' and 'prebiotic effect' was performed. Studies found evidence of fibre-influenced differences in the microbiome and metabolome as a consequence of habitual diet, and of long-term or short-term intervention (in both animals and humans). Agrarian diets high in fruit/legume fibre are associated with greater microbial diversity and a predominance of Prevotella over Bacteroides. 'Western'-style diets, high in fat/sugar, low in fibre, decrease beneficial Firmicutes that metabolise dietary plant-derived polysaccharides to SCFAs and increase mucosa-associated Proteobacteria (including enteric pathogens). Short-term diets can also have major effects, particularly those exclusively animal-based, and those high-protein, low-fermentable carbohydrate/fibre 'weight-loss' diets, increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and lowering Firmicutes, with long-term adherence to such diets likely increasing risk of colonic disease. Interventions to prevent intestinal inflammation may be achieved with fermentable prebiotic fibres that enhance beneficial Bifidobacteria or with soluble fibres that block bacterial-epithelial adherence (contrabiotics). These mechanisms may explain many of the differences in microbiota associated with long-term ingestion of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable fibre. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of the fibres of MOONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinouard, Isabelle; Lee, David; Schnetler, Hermine; Taylor, William; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Montgomery, David; Oliva, Ernesto

    2014-07-01

    MOONS will exploit the full 500 square arcmin field of view offered by the Nasmyth focus of the Very Large Telescope and will be equipped with two identical triple arm cryogenic spectrographs covering the wavelength range 0.8 - 1.8 μm, with a multiplex capability of approximately 1000 fibres. Each triple arm spectrograph will produce spectra for half of the targets simultaneously. The system will have both a medium resolution (R~4000-6000) mode and a high resolution (R~20000) mode. The fibres are used to pick off each sub field of 1.05 arcseconds and are used to transport the light from the instrument focal plane to the two spectrographs. Each fibre has a microlens to focus the beam into the fibre at a relative fast focal ratio of F/3.65 to reduce the Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD). This paper presents the overall design of the fibre system and describes the specific developments required to optimise its performance. The design of the fibre input optics, the choice of the fibre connector, and the layout of the slit end are described. The results of preliminary tests to measure the effect of twisting on the FRD performance of prototype fibres are also discussed.

  8. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  9. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: moisture/dry matter 9.69-13.33, crude protein 10.25-26.16, crude fat 0.56-2.49, crude fiber 11.97-29.93, crude ash 5.37-11.30, utilizable carbohydrate 36.66-50.97, and gross energy 197.26-245.55 kcal/100 g. The mineral concentrations (mg/100 g) were also significantly (P < 0.05) varied and ranged: calcium (111.11-311.95), Iron (18.30-36.68), potassium (122.59-318.20), zinc (3.83-6.31), phosphorus (25.62-59.72), and sodium (3.33-8.31) on dry weight bases. The Okra Pods of "OPA#6" accession contained significantly higher amounts of crude protein, total ash, crude fat, calcium, iron, and zinc than all other accessions evaluated in this study. The results of antinutrients analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P < 0.05) varied. The range of phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents (mg/100 g) for Okra pod accessions studied were as follows: 0.83-0.87, 4.93-9.90, and 0.04-0.53, respectively. The calculated molar ratios of phytate: calcium, phytate: iron, phytate: zinc, oxalate: calcium and [Phytate][Calcium]/[Zinc] were below the critical value and this indicate that the bioavailability of calcium, iron, and zinc in these accessions could be high. The results of the study revealed that Okra pod contain appreciable amount of vital nutrients like protein, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc and low in antinutrient contents with high mineral bioavailability. Therefore, increase in the production and consumption of these nutrient-rich indigenous Okra pods will help to supplement/formulate the diets and alleviate the problems associated with malnutrition in the country.

  10. Towards the Knittability of Graphene Oxide Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Shayan; Romano, Mark S.; Minett, Andrew I.; Razal, Joselito M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in graphene oxide fibre (GO) processing include exciting demonstrations of hand woven textile structures. However, it is uncertain whether the fibres produced can meet the processing requirements of conventional textile manufacturing. This work reports for the first time the production of highly flexible and tough GO fibres that can be knitted using textile machinery. The GO fibres are made by using a dry-jet wet-spinning method, which allows drawing of the spinning solution (the GO dispersion) in several stages of the fibre spinning process. The coagulation composition and spinning conditions are evaluated in detail, which led to the production of densely packed fibres with near-circular cross-sections and highly ordered GO domains. The results are knittable GO fibres with Young’s modulus of ~7.9 GPa, tensile strength of ~135.8 MPa, breaking strain of ~5.9%, and toughness of ~5.7 MJ m−3. The combination of suitable spinning method, coagulation composition, and spinning conditions led to GO fibres with remarkable toughness; the key factor in their successful knitting. This work highlights important progress in realising the full potential of GO fibres as a new class of textile. PMID:26459866

  11. Metal-coated Bragg grating reflecting fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorovskiy, Yu. K.; Butov, O. V.; Kolosovskiy, A. O.; Popov, S. M.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Vyatkin, M. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    High-temperature optical fibres (OF) with fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) arrays written over a long length and in-line metal coating have been made for the first time. The optical parameters of the FBG arrays were tested by the optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) method in a wide temperature range, demonstrating no degradation in reflection at heating up to 600 °C for a fibre with Al coating. The mechanical strength of the developed fibre was practically the same as "ordinary" OF with similar coating, showing the absence of the influence of FBG writing process on fibre strength. Further experiments are necessary to evaluate the possibility of further increases in the operational temperature range.

  12. [Analysis and utilization value discussion of multiple chemical composition in different tissues of Abelmoschus manihot].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-Wei; Tang, Hai-Tao; Tang, Ren-Mao

    2016-10-01

    This research is to analyze the resourceful chemical composition in different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Abelmoschus manihot and evaluate their utilizing value. The flavonoids, soluble polysaccharides, cellulose, nucleosides and amino acids in the different tissues of A. manihot were determined by HPLC coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotpmetry, and UPLC-TQ/MS. The flowers are rich in the resourceful chemical compositions of flavonoids which mainly consist of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, cotton-8-O-glucuronide, myricetin, quercetin-3'-O-glucoside, rutin and quercetin. The total content of these flavonoids is 25.450 mg•g-1 in the flowers, while they are trace in the other tissues.Different tissues of A. manihot are rich in soluble polysaccharides and celluloses and the stems have the highest content(19.76%) of soluble polysaccharides, while the roots have the highest content (29.88%) of cellulose. Total of 21 amino acids and 9 nucleosides were detected in this plant, and the flowers have the highest content of amino acids(4.737 mg•g⁻¹), while the leaves have the highest content of nucleosides (1.474 mg•g⁻¹). A. manihot is rich in the resourceful chemical compositions, and its constituents and contents are various in different tissues of this plant.The results provided a scientific basis for the utilization and industrial development of A. manihot plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Influence of Embedding SMA Fibres and SMA Fibre Surface Modification on the Mechanical Performance of BFRP Composite Laminates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Zhenqing; Li, Hao; Sun, Min; Wang, Fangxin; Chen, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new shape memory alloy (SMA) hybrid basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) composite laminate was fabricated and a new surface modification method with both silane coupling agent KH550 and Al2O3 nanoparticles was conducted to enhance the interface performance. The mechanical performance of BFRP composite laminates with and without SMA fibres and the influence of SMA surface modification were studied in this paper. Different SMA fibre surface treatment methods, including etching with both H2SO4 and NaOH, modification with the silane coupling agent KH550 and new modification method with both KH550 and Al2O3 nanoparticles, were conducted to enhance the bonding between the SMA fibres and polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micromorphology of the SMA fibre surfaces exposed to different treatments and the damage morphology of composite laminates. The mechanical performance of the composites was investigated with tensile, three-point bending and low-velocity impact tests to study the influence of embedded SMA fibres and the different surface modifications of the SMA fibres. The results demonstrated that the embedded Ni-Ti SMA fibres can significantly enhance the mechanical performance of BFRP composite laminates. SMA fibres modified with both the silane coupling agent KH550 and Al2O3 nanoparticles illustrate the best mechanical performance among all samples. PMID:29300321

  14. FRD in optical fibres at low temperatures: investigations for Gemini's Wide-field Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, A. C.; de Oliveira, L. S.; Dos Santos, J. B.; Arruda, M. V.; Dos Santos, L. G. C.; Rodrigues, F.; de Castro, F. L. F.

    2011-06-01

    While there is no direct evidence for the deterioration in Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) of optical fibres in severe temperature gradients, the fibre ends inserted into metallic containment devices such as steel ferrules can be a source of stress, and hence increased FRD at low temperatures. In such conditions, instruments using optical fibres may suffer some increase in FRD and consequent loss of system throughput when they are working in environments with significant thermal gradients, a common characteristic of ground-based observatories. In this paper we present results of experiments with optical fibres inserted in different materials as a part of our prototyping study for Gemini's Wide-field Multi-Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) project. Thermal effects and the use of new holding techniques will be discussed in the context of Integral Field Units and multi-fibres systems. In this work, we have used careful methodologies that give absolute measurements of FRD to quantify the advantages of using epoxy-based composites rather than metals as support structures for the fibre ends. This is shown to be especially important in minimizing thermally induced stresses in the fibre terminations. Not only is this important for optimizing fibre spectrograph performance but the benefits of using such materials are demonstrated in the minimization of positional variations and the avoidance of metal-to-glass delamination. Furthermore, by impregnating the composites with small zirconium oxide particles the composite materials supply their own fine polishing grit which aids significantly to the optical quality of the finished product.

  15. Smooth light extraction in lighting optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; Garcia-Botella, A.; Martinez-Anton, J. C.; Bernabeu, E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in LED technology have relegated the use of optical fibre for general lighting, but there are several applications where it can be used as scanners lighting systems, daylight, cultural heritage lighting, sensors, explosion risky spaces, etc. Nowadays the use of high intensity LED to inject light in optical fibre increases the possibility of conjugate fibre + LED for lighting applications. New optical fibres of plastic materials, high core diameter up to 12.6 mm transmit light with little attenuation in the visible spectrum but there is no an efficient and controlled way to extract the light during the fibre path. Side extracting fibres extracts all the light on 2π angle so is not well suited for controlled lighting. In this paper we present an extraction system for mono-filament optical fibre which provides efficient and controlled light distribution. These lighting parameters can be controlled with an algorithm that set the position, depth and shape of the optical extraction system. The extraction system works by total internal reflection in the core of the fibre with high efficiency and low cost. A 10 m length prototype is made with 45° sectional cuts in the fibre core as extraction system. The system is tested with a 1W white LED illuminator in one side.

  16. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive plant ( Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10\\overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ \\bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }}. The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  17. Fibrogenesis by mineral fibres: an in-vitro study of the roles of the macrophage and fibre length.

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, M.; Heppleston, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence on the mechanism by which inhaled mineral fibres lead to pulmonary fibrosis has not been forthcoming. As with silica, a biphasic cell culture system was required to distinguish phagocytosis from collagen formation. Synthesis of total protein and collagen by rat fibroblasts was estimated by incorporation of labelled proline after treatment with the medium from rat peritoneal macrophages that had been cultured in the presence of different types of mineral fibre. The influence of fibre length was also examined. All the main varieties of asbestos reacted with macrophages to produce or release a fibrogenic factor. However, chrysotile and the longer amosite fibres evoked the response only after prolonging the period of incubation with macrophages, presumably by permitting more complete phagocytosis of curled or longer fibres. Short amosite fibres proved to be more active than longer ones and under certain conditions were as potent as quartz. Fibrous glass also possessed stimulatory properties and again a sample having a short length gave a stronger response than a long one. Collagen formation by asbestos thus appears to be mediated by a macrophage factor, so operating in a manner similar to that previously demonstrated for quartz. The conventional view that short fibres are comparatively insignificant in asbestos fibrogenesis cannot, on the present evidence, be sustained. Furthermore, it should not be assumed than man-made mineral fibres of respirable diameter are innocuous or that short ones can be ignored. PMID:6696832

  18. Compaction in optical fibres and fibre Bragg gratings under nuclear reactor high neutron and gamma fluence

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, L.; Cheymol, G.; Gusarov, A.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the development by CEA and SCK.CEN of a Fabry Perot Sensor (FPS) able to measure dimensional changes in Material Testing Reactor (MTR), the first goal of the SAKE 1 (Smirnof extention - Additional Key-tests on Elongation of glass fibres) irradiation was to measure the linear compaction of single mode fibres under high fast neutron fluence. Indeed, the compaction of the fibre which forms one side of the Fabry Perot cavity, may in particular cause a noticeable measurement error. An accurate quantification of this effect is then required to predict the radiation-induced drift and optimize the sensormore » design. To achieve this, an innovative approach was used. Approximately seventy uncoated fibre tips (length: 30 to 50 mm) have been prepared from several different fibre samples and were installed in the SCK.CEN BR2 reactor (Mol Belgium). After 22 days of irradiation a total fast (E > 1 MeV) fluence of 3 to 5x10{sup 19} n{sub fast}/cm{sup 2}, depending on the sample location, was accumulated. The temperature during irradiation was 291 deg. C, which is not far from the condition of the intended FPS use. A precise measurement of each fibre tip length was made before the irradiation and compared to the post irradiation measurement highlighting a decrease of the fibres' length corresponding to about 0.25% of linear compaction. The amplitude of the changes is independent of the capsule, which could mean that the compaction effect saturates even at the lowest considered fluence. In the prospect of performing distributed temperature measurement in MTR, several fibre Bragg gratings written using a femtosecond laser have been also irradiated. All the gratings were written in radiation hardened fibres, and underwent an additional treatment with a procedure enhancing their resistance to ionizing radiations. A special mounting made it possible to test the reflection and the transmission of the gratings on fibre samples cut down to 30 to 50 mm. The

  19. Fibre Bragg grating encapted with no-core fibre sensors for SRI and temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, S.; Amiri, I. S.; Noorden, A. F. A.; Ali, J.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) encapted with no-core fibre (NCF) as surrounding refractive index (SRI) and temperature sensors are practically demonstrated. A FBG with 1550 nm wavelength was attached with 5 cm length of no-core fibre (NCF) is used as SRI and temperature sensing probe. The change of temperature and SRI induced the wavelength shift in FBG. The wavelength shift in FBG reacts directly proportional to the temperature with a sensitivity of while the sensitivity of NCF was measured as 13.13 pm °C-1.

  20. A comparison of clinic based dosimeters based on silica optical fibre and plastic optical fibre for in vivo dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingxia; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Woulfe, Peter; Lewis, Elfed

    2017-04-01

    Four sensors based on silica optical fibre and plastic optical fibre for clinical in-vivo dosimetry have been fabricated and tested on site at Galway Clinic. The initial comparison results have been attained for the four sensors when they have been irradiated with beam energies of 6 MV and 15 MV at different dose rates using a modern clinical linear accelerator (Linac) as the radiation source. According to the experimental test results, the sensors based on silica optical fibre exhibit greater sensitivity to the incident radiation beam than the sensors based on plastic optical fibre when they are exposed to identical irradiation conditions. The output intensity from the sensor based on silica fibre is 5 times higher than the sensor based on plastic optical fibre.

  1. Simulation of complex phenomena in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Murray, Graham; Lemke, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    Optical fibres are essential for many types of highly multiplexed and precision spectroscopy. The success of the new generation of multifibre instruments under construction to investigate fundamental problems in cosmology, such as the nature of dark energy, requires accurate modellization of the fibre system to achieve their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goals. Despite their simple construction, fibres exhibit unexpected behaviour including non-conservation of etendue (focal ratio degradation, FRD) and modal noise. Furthermore, new fibre geometries (non-circular or tapered) have become available to improve the scrambling properties that, together with modal noise, limit the achievable SNR in precision spectroscopy. These issues have often been addressed by extensive tests on candidate fibres and their terminations, but these are difficult and time-consuming. Modelling by ray tracing and wave analysis is possible with commercial software packages, but these do not address the more complex features, in particular FRD. We use a phase-tracking ray-tracing method to provide a practical description of FRD derived from our previous experimental work on circular fibres and apply it to non-standard fibres. This allows the relationship between scrambling and FRD to be quantified for the first time. We find that scrambling primarily affects the shape of the near-field pattern but has negligible effect on the barycentre. FRD helps to homogenize the near-field pattern but does not make it completely uniform. Fibres with polygonal cross-section improve scrambling without amplifying the FRD. Elliptical fibres, in conjunction with tapering, may offer an efficient means of image slicing to improve the product of resolving power and throughput, but the result is sensitive to the details of illumination. We also investigated the performance of fibres close to the limiting numerical aperture since this may affect the uniformity of the SNR for some prime focus fibre instrumentation.

  2. Functionalised Silk Fibres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-30

    rubber moulds (14 x 5 x 6 mm; RL060, ProSciTech, QLD), frozen at -20ºC overnight, and placed in a freeze - dryer (FD355DMP, FTS Systems) for 24 hours...surface area, low volume materials: electrospun fibres and freeze -dried sponges (Figure 9). Each new material type is described in detail below...surface area materials generated from recombinant honeybee silk proteins. (A) Electrospun fibres, scale bar is 200 nm. (B) Freeze dried sponges

  3. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  4. Estimating the duration of intracellular action potentials in muscle fibres from single-fibre extracellular potentials.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Javier; Navallas, Javier; Gila, Luis; Dimitrova, Nonna Alexandrovna; Malanda, Armando

    2011-04-30

    In situ recording of the intracellular action potential (IAP) of human muscle fibres is not yet possible, and consequently, knowledge concerning certain IAP characteristics is still limited. According to the core-conductor theory, close to a fibre, a single fibre action potential (SFAP) can be assumed to be proportional to the IAP second derivative. Thus, we might expect to be able to derive some characteristics of the IAP, such as the duration of its spike, from the SFAP waveform. However, SFAP properties not only depend on the IAP shape but also on the fibre-to-electrode (radial) distance and other physiological properties of the fibre. In this paper we, first, propose an SFAP parameter (the negative phase duration, NPD) appropriate for estimating the IAP spike duration and, second, show that this parameter is largely independent of changes in radial distance and muscle fibre propagation velocity. Estimation of the IAP spike duration from a direct measurement taken from the SFAP waveform provides a possible way to enhance the accuracy of SFAP models. Because IAP spike duration is known to be sensitive to the effects of fatigue and calcium accumulation, the proposed SFAP parameter, the NPD, has potential value in electrodiagnosis and as an indicator of IAP profile changes due to peripheral fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-fibre reinforcement of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, F; Gallagher, L; Jack, V; Dunne, N

    2007-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form hydroxyapatite, a major component of mineral bone, and is gaining increasing interest in bone repair applications. However, concerns regarding its brittleness and tendency to fragment have limited its widespread use. In the present study, short-fibre reinforcement of an apatitic calcium phosphate has been investigated to improve the fracture behaviour. The fibres used were polypropylene (PP) fibres, 50 microm in diameter and reduced in length by cryogenic grinding. The compressive strength and fracture behaviour were examined. Fibre addition of up to 10 wt % had a significant effect on composite properties, with the energy absorbed during failure being significantly increased, although this tended to be accompanied with a slight drop in compressive strength. The fibre reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack bridging and fibre pull-out. The setting time of the CPC with fibre reinforcement was also investigated and was found to increase with fibre volume fraction.

  6. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  7. Ultralong fibre-optic distributed Raman temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Kharenko, D. S.; Babin, S. A.; Tsydenzhapov, I. B.; Shelemba, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    We have demonstrated an ultralong (up to 85 km in length) all-fibre Raman temperature sensor which utilises SMF-28 standard single-mode telecom fibre and a 1.63-μm probe signal source. The probe signal from the laser diode is amplified by a Raman fibre amplifier. The temperature along a 85-km-long fibre line has been measured with an accuracy of 8°C and spatial resolution of 800 m or better.

  8. All-fibre Q-switching YDFL operation with bismuth-doped fibre as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A. R.; Haris, H.; Arof, H.; Tan, S. J.; Ahmad, M. T.; Harun, S. W.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser (YDFL) using a bismuth-doped fibre (BDF) as a solid-state fibre saturable absorber (FSA) in a ring cavity. The BDF used has a wide and low absorption band of 5 dB/m at the 1.0 μm region due to the ion transition of ? that occurs around the region. When introduced into a YDFL laser cavity, a stable Q-switched pulse operation was observed and the pulse repetition rate was proportional to the input pump power. It was limited to 72.99 kHz by the maximum power that the laser diode could supply. Meanwhile, the pulse width decreased from 12.22 to 4.85 μs as the pump power was increased from 215.6 to 475.6 mW. The finding suggests that BDF could be used as a potential SA for the development of robust, compact, efficient and low cost Q-switched fibre lasers operating at 1 micron region.

  9. A target fibre study on seats in public houses.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E; Griffin, R M

    1998-01-01

    A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.

  10. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  11. Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D. J.; Fini, J. M.; Nelson, L. E.

    2013-05-01

    Optical communication technology has been advancing rapidly for several decades, supporting our increasingly information-driven society and economy. Much of this progress has been in finding innovative ways to increase the data-carrying capacity of a single optical fibre. To achieve this, researchers have explored and attempted to optimize multiplexing in time, wavelength, polarization and phase. Commercial systems now utilize all four dimensions to send more information through a single fibre than ever before. The spatial dimension has, however, remained untapped in single fibres, despite it being possible to manufacture fibres supporting hundreds of spatial modes or containing multiple cores, which could be exploited as parallel channels for independent signals.

  12. Dietary fibre intakes of individuals with different eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Davies, G J; Crowder, M; Dickerson, J W

    1985-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide evidence of the variation in the diet necessary to incorporate a high fibre content. Food intakes were measured for seven days by 51 subjects who were either omnivores, vegetarians or vegans. Omnivores consumed the least fibre (23 g), vegetarians significantly more (37 g) and vegans the most (47 g). Men had higher intakes (44 g) than women (30.5 g). Vegans ate the most cereal fibre, but high intake of fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to their preference for unrefined foods, particularly bread. Higher intakes of vegetable fibre by both vegetarian groups were due to high consumption of pulses. Total dietary fibre was significantly related to cereal fibre. As the percentage of fibre increased, the percentage of energy derived from protein decreased. Fat contributed less energy (34 per cent) to the vegan than to the omnivore diet (41 per cent). This study showed that high fibre intake can be achieved on an omnivorous diet and the observation that high fibre diets are possible when the energy content is low, is of relevance to slimming regimes.

  13. Multicore fibre photonic lanterns for precision radial velocity Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui; Haynes, Dionne M.; Ehrlich, Katjana; Haynes, Roger; Birks, Tim A.

    2018-04-01

    Incomplete fibre scrambling and fibre modal noise can degrade high-precision spectroscopic applications (typically high spectral resolution and high signal to noise). For example, it can be the dominating error source for exoplanet finding spectrographs, limiting the maximum measurement precision possible with such facilities. This limitation is exacerbated in the next generation of infra-red based systems, as the number of modes supported by the fibre scales inversely with the wavelength squared and more modes typically equates to better scrambling. Substantial effort has been made by major research groups in this area to improve the fibre link performance by employing non-circular fibres, double scramblers, fibre shakers, and fibre stretchers. We present an original design of a multicore fibre (MCF) terminated with multimode photonic lantern ports. It is designed to act as a relay fibre with the coupling efficiency of a multimode fibre (MMF), modal stability similar to a single-mode fibre and low loss in a wide range of wavelengths (380 nm to 860 nm). It provides phase and amplitude scrambling to achieve a stable near field and far-field output illumination pattern despite input coupling variations, and low modal noise for increased stability for high signal-to-noise applications such as precision radial velocity (PRV) science. Preliminary results are presented for a 511-core MCF and compared with current state of the art octagonal fibre.

  14. TRPV1 receptors on unmyelinated C-fibres mediate colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent nerve fibres in rats

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, H U; De Winter, B Y; Van Nassauw, L; Timmermans, J-P; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A; De Man, J G

    2008-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from gastrointestinal motility and sensitivity disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the pathophysiology of colitis-induced pelvic afferent nerve sensitization. Trinitrobenzene sulphate (TNBS) colitis (7.5 mg, 30% ethanol) was induced in Wistar rats 72 h prior to the experiment. Single-fibre recordings were made from pelvic nerve afferents in the decentralized S1 dorsal root. Fibres responding to colorectal distension (CRD) were identified in controls and rats with TNBS colitis. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonist N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chlorophyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)carboxamide (BCTC; 0.25–5 mg kg−1) or its vehicle (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) was tested on the afferent response to repetitive distensions (60 mmHg). Immunocytochemical staining of TRPV1 and NF200, a marker for A-fibre neurons, was performed in the dorsal root ganglia L6–S1. TNBS colitis significantly increased the response to colorectal distension of pelvic afferent C-fibres. BCTC did not significantly affect the C-fibre response in controls, but normalized the sensitized response in rats with colitis. TNBS colitis increased the spontaneous activity of C-fibres, an effect which was insensitive to administration of BCTC. TNBS colitis had no effect on Aδ-fibres, nor was their activity modulated by BCTC. TNBS colitis caused an immunocytochemical up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in the cell bodies of pelvic afferent NF200 negative neurons. TRPV1 signalling mediates the colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent C-fibres to CRD, while Aδ-fibres are neither sensitized by colitis nor affected by TRPV1 inhibition. PMID:18755744

  15. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merati, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  16. Monitoring the fabrication of tapered optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaney, K.; Correia, R.; Staines, S. E.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2017-04-01

    A variety of optical methods to enhance the process of making optical fibre tapers are explored. A thermal camera was used to both refine the alignment of the optical components and optimize the laser power profile during the tapering process. The fibre transmission was measured to verify that the tapers had the requisite optical characteristics while the strain experienced by the fibre while tapering was assessed using an optical fibre Bragg grating. Using these techniques, adiabatic tapers were fabricated with a 2% insertion loss.

  17. Laser-To-Fibre Couplers In Optical Recording Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophey, W. G.; Benschop, J. P. H.

    1988-02-01

    In optical recording, the use of single-mode fibres can considerably increase the coupling efficiency of the laser light into the light path. Important here is the performance of the laser-to-fibre coupler used. A mathematical treatment of different kinds of laser-to-fibre couplers is presented using scalar diffraction theory in order to obtain the field incident on the front end of the fibre. In this case the coupling efficiency of a laser-to-fibre coupler, using an aberrated light source (astigmatism) with an asymmetric far-field pattern, can easily be calculated.

  18. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Fibreoptic distributed temperature sensor with spectral filtration by directional fibre couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Babin, Sergei A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a Raman-based all-fibre temperature sensor utilising a pulsed erbium fibre laser. The sensor is made of a standard single-mode telecom fibre, SMF-28, and includes a number of directional couplers as band-pass filters. The temperature profile along a 7-km fibreoptic line is measured with an accuracy of 2oC and a spatial resolution of 10 m. In data processing, we take into account the difference in attenuation between the spectral components of the backscatter signal.

  19. Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations in an optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Gorshkov, B G

    2015-10-31

    Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is studied for the first time. An expression is derived for an average power of a useful signal at the interferometer output under external harmonic perturbations in a signal fibre of the interferometer. It is shown that the maximum sensitivity of the scattered-light interferometer depends on the dispersion of the interferogram intensity. An average signal-to-noise ratio is determined theoretically and experimentally at the output of the interferometer at different amplitudes of external perturbations. Using the measured dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio, the threshold sensitivity of the fibre scattered-light interferometer tomore » external phase perturbations is found. The results obtained can be used to optimise characteristics of optical time-domain reflectometers and to design individual phase-sensitive fibre-optic sensors. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  20. Potential of chicken feather fibre in wood MDF composites

    Treesearch

    Jerold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Micales; Ashok Raina; Walter Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    We made a series of aspen fibre medium density fibreboard panels adding various levels of chicken feather fibre to determine the relative effect of the feather fibre-wood fibre mixtures on composite panel properties. Chicken feathers are a waste product left over after processing chickens for meat. The feather fibre amounts used ranged from 20% to 95% and a 5%...

  1. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  2. Self-assembled fibre optoelectronics with discrete translational symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Michael; Levy, Etgar; Gumennik, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Joannopoulos, John; Fink, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Fibres with electronic and photonic properties are essential building blocks for functional fabrics with system level attributes. The scalability of thermal fibre drawing approach offers access to large device quantities, while constraining the devices to be translational symmetric. Lifting this symmetry to create discrete devices in fibres will increase their utility. Here, we draw, from a macroscopic preform, fibres that have three parallel internal non-contacting continuous domains; a semiconducting glass between two conductors. We then heat the fibre and generate a capillary fluid instability, resulting in the selective transformation of the cylindrical semiconducting domain into discrete spheres while keeping the conductive domains unchanged. The cylindrical-to-spherical expansion bridges the continuous conducting domains to create ∼104 self-assembled, electrically contacted and entirely packaged discrete spherical devices per metre of fibre. The photodetection and Mie resonance dependent response are measured by illuminating the fibre while connecting its ends to an electrical readout. PMID:27698454

  3. Self-assembled fibre optoelectronics with discrete translational symmetry.

    PubMed

    Rein, Michael; Levy, Etgar; Gumennik, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Joannopoulos, John; Fink, Yoel

    2016-10-04

    Fibres with electronic and photonic properties are essential building blocks for functional fabrics with system level attributes. The scalability of thermal fibre drawing approach offers access to large device quantities, while constraining the devices to be translational symmetric. Lifting this symmetry to create discrete devices in fibres will increase their utility. Here, we draw, from a macroscopic preform, fibres that have three parallel internal non-contacting continuous domains; a semiconducting glass between two conductors. We then heat the fibre and generate a capillary fluid instability, resulting in the selective transformation of the cylindrical semiconducting domain into discrete spheres while keeping the conductive domains unchanged. The cylindrical-to-spherical expansion bridges the continuous conducting domains to create ∼10 4 self-assembled, electrically contacted and entirely packaged discrete spherical devices per metre of fibre. The photodetection and Mie resonance dependent response are measured by illuminating the fibre while connecting its ends to an electrical readout.

  4. Fibre inflation and α-attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander; Yamada, Yusuke

    2018-02-01

    Fibre inflation is a specific string theory construction based on the Large Volume Scenario that produces an inflationary plateau. We outline its relation to α-attractor models for inflation, with the cosmological sector originating from certain string theory corrections leading to α = 2 and α = 1/2. Above a certain field range, the steepening effect of higher-order corrections leads first to the breakdown of single-field slow-roll and after that to the onset of 2-field dynamics: the overall volume of the extra dimensions starts to participate in the effective dynamics. Finally, we propose effective supergravity models of fibre inflation based on an \\overline{D3} uplift term with a nilpotent superfield. Specific moduli dependent \\overline{D3} induced geometries lead to cosmological fibre models but have in addition a de Sitter minimum exit. These supergravity models motivated by fibre inflation are relatively simple, stabilize the axions and disentangle the Hubble parameter from supersymmetry breaking.

  5. Nonlinear Optics and Solitons in Photonic Crystal Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skryabin, Dmitry V.; Wadsworth, William J.

    The fibre optics revolution in communication technologies followed the 1950's demonstration of the glass fibres with dielectric cladding [1]. Transmission applications of fibre optics have become a dominant modern day technology not least because nonlinearities present in - or introduced into - glass and enhanced by the tight focusing of the fibre modes allow for numerous light processing techniques, such as amplification, frequency conversion, pulse shaping, and many others. For these reasons, and because of the rich fundamental physics behind it, nonlinear fibre optics has become a blossoming discipline in its own right [1]. The 1990's witnessed another important development in fibre optics. Once again it came from a new approach to the fibre cladding, comprising a periodic pattern of air holes separated by glass membranes forming a photonic crystal structure [2, 3]. This prompted the name Photonic Crystal Fibres (PCFs). The fascinating story behind the invention of PCF and research into various fibre designs can be found, e.g., in [4]. Our aim here is to review the role played by PCFs in nonlinear and quantum optics, which is becoming the mainstream of the PCF related research and applications. Our focus will be on the areas where PCFs have brought to life effects and applications which were previously difficult, impossible to observe or simply not thought about.

  6. Realisation de composants tout-fibre passifs bases sur des fibres optiques a deux coeurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob Poulin, Anne C.

    2002-01-01

    Les composants passifs tout-optique sont des elements de choix dans les systemes de communications optiques. Cette these presente l'utilisation experimentale de fibres a deux coeurs dissimilaires pour la realisation de filtres passe-bande. Les fibres a deux coeurs ont la particularite de favoriser un couplage d'un coeur a l'autre a intervalles reguliers lorsque les coeurs sont exactement identiques. Dans le cas ou une legere difference apparait, ce couplage est rapidement reduit a zero. La premiere partie de la these montre comment, par l'emploi d'une geometrie de fibre appropriee, il est possible de compenser cette desyntonisation et de fabriquer des coupleurs 100%. Les filtres obtenus ayant toutefois une largeur de bande trop grande pour les besoins du marche des communications optiques, il est montre dans la deuxieme partie de la these comment, en alliant la technologie des reseaux de Bragg avec celle des coupleurs, il est possible de realiser des filtres operant en transmission et possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques spectrales, toujours avec ces memes fibres a deux coeurs.

  7. Fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composite fabrication by electrophoretic infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kooner, S.; Campaniello, J.J.; Pickering, S.

    Electrophoretic infiltration is a novel technique for the fabrication of fibre reinforced composites. The fibres are arranged as one of the electrodes such that deposition of the colloidal ceramic occurs in the fibre preform. This method has been investigated for the composite system of carbon fibre reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and has produced green composite microstructures with good infiltration uniformity and fibre distribution and few macro defects.

  8. EDITORIAL: Optical Fibre Sensors 18 (OFS-18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Julian D. C.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2007-10-01

    The International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-18) was held in October 2006 in Cancún, Mexico, under the general chairmanship of Dr Alexis Mendez (MCH Engineering LLC, USA) and Dr Fernando Mendoza (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico). 'OFS', as it has become known, is firmly established as the leading international conference for the optical fibre sensor community. Since its inception, in London in 1983, and under the leadership of an international steering committee independent of any learned society or professional institution, it has been held approximately every eighteen months. The venue nominally rotates from Europe, to the Americas, and thence to Asia and the Pacific. OFS-18 demonstrated the continuing vigour of the community, with some 250 papers presented, plus two workshops, with attendance as international as ever. In recent years, it has become a tradition to publish a post-conference special issue in the journal Measurement Science and Technology, and these special issues offer a representative sample of the current status of the field. In the nearly 25 years since OFS began, many of the early ideas and laboratory-based proof-of-principle experiments have led to highly developed instrumentation systems, and to successful commercial products. Perhaps the most mature of all of these technologies is the optical fibre gyroscope, with the fibre hydrophone a close second—originally developed for defence applications for which it is now established, but with increasing relevance to the oil and gas industry; electromagnetic sensors based on the Faraday and electro-optic effects are of growing significance in the power generation and distribution industry; whilst in-fibre grating-based sensors occupy an expanding niche in structural monitoring, especially in civil engineering. It is therefore appropriate that the first day of OFS was devoted to workshops on structural health monitoring, and to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the

  9. Single and low order mode interrogation of a multimode sapphire fibre Bragg grating sensor with tapered fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobnic, D.; Mihailov, S. J.; Ding, H.; Bilodeau, F.; Smelser, C. W.

    2006-05-01

    Multimode sapphire fibre Bragg gratings (SFBG) made with an ultrafast Ti:sapphire 800 nm laser and a phase mask were probed using a tapered single mode fibre of different taper diameters to produce single and low order mode reflection/transmission responses. A configuration made of an input single mode tapered fibre and multimode silica fibre used for output coupling was also tested and has delivered a filtered multimode transmission spectrum. The tapered coupling improved the spectral resolution of the SFBG. Such improvements facilitate the utilization of the SFBG as a high temperature sensor. Wavelength shifts of the single mode response were monitored as a function of temperature up to 1500 °C with no detectable degradation in the grating strength or hysteresis in the Bragg resonance.

  10. Human skeletal muscle: transition between fast and slow fibre types.

    PubMed

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Zebedin, Michaela; Obermoser, Magdalena; Moser, Gerhard; Tauber, Mark; Niebauer, Josef; Resch, Herbert; Galler, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Human skeletal muscles consist of different fibre types: slow fibres (slow twitch or type I) containing the myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC)-I and fast fibres (fast twitch or type II) containing MHC-IIa (type IIA) or MHC-IId (type IID). The following order of decreasing kinetics is known: type IID > type IIA > type I. This order is especially based on the kinetics of stretch activation, which is the most discriminative property among fibre types. In this study we tested if hybrid fibres containing both MHC-IIa and MHC-I (type C fibres) provide a transition in kinetics between fast (type IIA) and slow fibres (type I). Our data of stretch activation kinetics suggest that type C fibres, with different ratios of MHC-IIa and MHC-I, do not provide a continuous transition. Instead, a specialized group of slow fibres, which we called "transition fibres", seems to provide a transition. Apart of their kinetics of stretch activation, which is most close to that of type IIA, the transition fibres are characterized by large cross-sectional areas and low maximal tensions. The molecular cause for the mechanical properties of the transition fibres is unknown. It is possible that the transition fibres contain an unknown slow MHC isoform, which cannot be separated by biochemical methods. Alternatively, or in addition, isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, other than MHC, and posttranslational modifications of myofibrillar proteins could play a role regarding the characteristics of the transition fibres.

  11. Natural fibre reinforced non-asbestos organic non-metallic friction composites: effect of abaca fibre on mechanical and tribological behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yucheng; Ma, Yunhai; Che, Junjian; Duanmu, Lingjian; Zhuang, Jian; Tong, Jin

    2018-05-01

    To obtain a natural fibre reinforced non-asbestos organic non-metallic friction composite with good wear resistance and environmental-friendly performances, friction composites reinforced with different lengths of abaca fibre were fabricated by a compression molder equipment and evaluated by using a constant-speed friction test machine. The worn surface morphologies were observed and analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Experimental results show that the length of abaca fibre had no significant effect on the density and hardness, but was obvious on impact strength. The impact strength increased and then decreased with the increasing of length of abaca fibres. Abaca fibres, especially short fibre (lengths of 5 mm, 10 mm), could improve the wear resistance of the friction composites. Meanwhile, the increase of test temperature could result in the increasing of wear rates of the friction composites. A large amount of secondary plateaux presented on the worn surface of specimens FC1 and FC2 which showe relatively smooth worn surfaces and yield the better wear resistance performance.

  12. How to make auxetic fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderson, K. L.; Simkins, V. R.; Coenen, V. L.; Davies, P. J.; Alderson, A.; Evans, K. E.

    2005-03-01

    Auxetic composite materials can be produced either from conventional components via specially designed configurations or from auxetic components. This paper reviews manufacturing methods for both these scenarios. It then looks at the possibility of property enhancements in both low velocity impact and fibre pull out due to the negative Poisson's ratio. Tests revealed that auxetic carbon fibre composites made from commercially available prepreg show evidence of increased resistance to low velocity impact and static indentation with a smaller area of damage. Also, using auxetic fibres in composite materials is shown to produce a higher resistance to fibre pullout.

  13. A passive optical fibre hydrophone array utilising fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Andrew R.; Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Cook, Peter R.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Many current high performance hydrophones use piezo-electric technology to measure sound pressure in water. These hydrophones are sensitive enough to detect any sound above the lowest ambient ocean acoustic noise, however cost of manufacture, weight and storage volume of the array as well as deployment and maintenance costs can limit their largescale application. Piezo-electric systems also have issues with electro-magnetic interference and the signature of the electrical cabling required in a large array. A fibre optic hydrophone array has advantages over the piezo-electric technology in these areas. This paper presents the operating principle of a passive optical fibre hydrophone array utilising Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs). The multiple FBG sensors are interrogated using a single solid state spectrometer which further reduces the cost of the deployed system. A noise equivalent power (NEP) comparison of the developed FBG hydrophone versus an existing piezo-electric hydrophone is presented as well as a comparison to the lowest ambient ocean acoustic noise (sea state zero). This research provides an important first step towards a cost effective multi sensor hydrophone array using FBGs.

  14. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  15. Radioluminescence response of germanosilicate optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanlary, M. R.; Townsend, P. D.; Townsend, J. E.

    1993-07-01

    X-ray irradiation of germanosilicate optical fibres simultaneously produces signals from both the core and substrate and so the radioluminescence spectra record the defect structure of both regions. The data provide evidence for the presence of dopants and trace impurities, as well as intrinsic defects formed by thermal and radiation processing. Examples of the changes in spectra or luminescence sensitivity with radiation dose, the influence of fibre pulling conditions and post irradiation heating are noted. The temperature dependence of the radioluminescence is reported. Whilst most of the intrinsic defects produce broad emission bands, rare earth dopants show line features. However, line features have also been noted for Al doped fibres. Such studies of fibre luminescence offer a sensitive monitor of changes in the structure of the glass network.

  16. Design of dual-mode optical fibres for the FTTH applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Yang; Li, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Yin; Zhu, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present in this article a proposal and design for dual-mode optical fibres for fibre-to-the-home applications. High-order modes in the fibre can be effectively suppressed by the connection of the fibre with standard single-mode optical fibres at the two ends of the fibre. The alignment tolerance at the splicing process is presented. In particular, a low bending loss operation with low splice loss is demonstrated using the proposed technique.

  17. Optical fibres in the radiation environment of CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermain, E.

    2017-11-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (in Geneva, Switzerland), is home to a complex scientific instrument: the 27-kilometre Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collides beams of high-energy particles at close to the speed of light. Optical fibres are widely used at CERN, both in surface areas (e.g. for inter-building IT networks) and in the accelerator complex underground (e.g. for cryogenics, vacuum, safety systems). Optical fibres in the accelerator are exposed to mixed radiation fields (mainly composed of protons, pions, neutrons and other hadrons, gamma rays and electrons), with dose rates depending on the particular installation zone, and with radiation levels often significantly higher than those encountered in space. In the LHC and its injector chain radiation levels range from relatively low annual doses of a few Gy up to hundreds of kGy. Optical fibres suffer from Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA, expressed in dB per unit length) that affect light transmission and which depends on the irradiation conditions (e.g. dose rate, total dose, temperature). In the CERN accelerator complex, the failure of an optical link can affect the proper functionality of control or monitoring systems and induce the interruption of the accelerator operation. The qualification of optical fibres for installation in critical radiation areas is therefore crucial. Thus, all optical fibre types installed in radiation areas at CERN are subject to laboratory irradiation tests, in order to evaluate their RIA at different total dose and dose rates. This allows the selection of the appropriate optical fibre type (conventional or radiation resistant) compliant with the requirements of each installation. Irradiation tests are performed in collaboration with Fraunhofer INT (irradiation facilities and expert team in Euskirchen, Germany). Conventional off-the-shelf optical fibres can be installed for optical links exposed to low radiation levels (i.e. annual dose typically below few

  18. Femtosecond laser processing of optical fibres for novel sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalli, Kyriacos; Theodosiou, Antreas; Ioannou, Andreas; Lacraz, Amedee

    2017-04-01

    We present results of recent research where we have utilized a femtosecond laser to micro-structure silica and polymer optical fibres in order to realize versatile optical components such as diffractive optical elements on the fibre end face, the inscription of integrated waveguide circuits in the fibre cladding and novel optical fibre sensors designs based on Bragg gratings in the core. A major hurdle in tailoring or modifying the properties of optical fibres is the development of an inscription method that can prove to be a flexible and reliable process that is generally applicable to all optical fibre types; this requires careful matching of the laser parameters and optics in order to examine the spatial limits of direct laser writing, whether the application is structuring at the surface of the optical fibre or inscription in the core and cladding of the fibre. We demonstrate a variety of optical components such as two-dimensional grating structures, Bessel, Airy and vortex beam generators; moreover, optical bridging waveguides inscribed in the cladding of single-mode fibre as a means to selectively couple light from single-core to multi-core optical fibres, and demonstrate a grating based sensor; finally, we have developed a novel femtosecond laser inscription method for the precise inscription of tailored Bragg grating sensors in silica and polymer optical fibres. We also show that this novel fibre Bragg grating inscription technique can be used to modify and add versatility to an existing, encapsulated optical fibre pressure sensor.

  19. Production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytic cells after exposure to glass wool and stone wool fibres - effect of fibre preincubation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zoller, T; Zeller, W J

    2000-04-03

    The potential of four man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) (glass wool Code A, stone wool Code G, HT-N and MMVF 21) and of two natural mineral fibres (crocidolite, erionite) to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by differentiated HL-60 cells (HL-60-M cells) was investigated by determination of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL). Quartz served as positive control. The same system was used to uncover possible influences of fibre preincubation in aqueous solutions on the ROS-generating potential. Following preincubation in unbuffered saline over about 4 weeks, Code A and G fibres showed decreased ROS-generating potential as compared to freshly suspended fibres. On the other hand, MMVF 21 and HT-N fibres as well as crocidolite and erionite showed no decreased CL after incubation in aqueous solutions. The observed decrease of the ROS-generating potential of Code A and G fibres after preincubation may be an expression of fibre surface alterations (leaching, initiation of dissolution) that influences the response of exposed phagocytic cells. After incubation of both fibres in buffered solutions at different pH values (5.0, 7.4) a reduced ROS-generating potential was still discernible as compared to freshly suspended fibres.

  20. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Gu, M

    2007-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  1. Microstructured fibres: a positive impact on defence technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, E. J.; Watson, M. A.; Delmonte, T.; Petrovich, M. N.; Feng, X.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Richardson, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we seek to assess the potential impact of microstructured fibres for security and defence applications. Recent literature has presented results on using microstructured fibre for delivery of high power, high quality radiation and also on the use of microstructured fibre for broadband source generation. Whilst these two applications may appear contradictory to one another the inherent design flexibility of microstructured fibres allows fibres to be fabricated for the specific application requirements, either minimising (for delivery) or maximising (for broadband source generation) the nonlinear effects. In platform based laser applications such as infrared counter measures, remote sensing and laser directed-energy weapons, a suitable delivery fibre providing high power, high quality light delivery would allow a laser to be sited remotely from the sensor/device head. This opens up the possibility of several sensor/device types sharing the same multi-functional laser, thus reducing the complexity and hence the cost of such systems. For applications requiring broadband source characteristics, microstructured fibres can also offer advantages over conventional sources. By exploiting the nonlinear effects it is possible to realise a multifunctional source for applications such as active hyperspectral imaging, countermeasures, and biochemical sensing. These recent results suggest enormous potential for these novel fibre types to influence the next generation of photonic systems for security and defence applications. However, it is important to establish where the fibres can offer the greatest advantages and what research still needs to be done to drive the technology towards real platform solutions.

  2. Meatballs with 3% and 6% dietary fibre from rye bran or pea fibre - Effects on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations.

    PubMed

    Kehlet, Ursula; Pagter, Mette; Aaslyng, Margit D; Raben, Anne

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated dose-response effects of rye bran and pea fibre added to meatballs on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations. Pea fibre or rye bran was added to meatballs in doses ranging from 3g to 6g dietary fibre per 100g. In a sensory profile, a trained panel (n=9) evaluated the meatballs in terms of odour, appearance, texture and flavour attributes. In a cross-over appetite study, 27 healthy men were served five test meals. Subjective appetite sensations were assessed over a 4-hour period. The addition of rye bran to the meatballs increased the grainy odour, texture and flavour. Pea fibre resulted in a more crumbly, firm and gritty texture with increasing doses of fibre. The sensory changes followed a dose-response relationship. Subjective appetite sensations were not affected by the addition of fibre. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    2011-06-01

    During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

  4. A study of Acoustics Performance on Natural Fibre Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizam Yahya, Musli; Sambu, Mathan; Latif, Hanif Abdul; Junaid, Thuwaibah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Natural fibres are fibre that can be directly obtained from an animal, mineral, or vegetable sources. Recently natural materials are becoming good alternatives for synthetic material as they provide good health to greener environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the acoustic characteristics of natural fibres; Kenaf fibre, Ijuk fibre, coconut coir and palm Oil frond. During the processing stage, each fibre is reinforced with 60:40 weight ratio of natural rubber (NR) separately. The fibres are then compressed after the natural rubber (NR) treatment into circular samples, of 28 mm and 100 mm diameters respectively. The thickness of each sample is fixed at 50mm. The acoustical performances were evaluated by using an impedance tube instrument. The frequency peak value of Kenaf is obtained in a range of 700 Hz - 800 Hz, while for coconut coir is at 1000 Hz - 1075 Hz frequency range. Palm oil frond gives high frequency at 850 Hz - 1200 Hz. However, Only Ijuk has obtained the highest frequency range of 3200 Hz - 3400 Hz. The results demonstrate that these fibres are a promising light and environment-friendly sound absorption material as they are ready to replace the common synthetic fibre.

  5. Optimisation of mechanical properties of bamboo fibre reinforced-PLA biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurnadia M., J.; Fazita, M. R. Nurul; Abdul Khalil H. P., S.; Mohamad Haafiz M., K.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the raw materials that have been widely used in industries are petroleum-based. Growing environmental awareness, the depletion of fossil fuels, and climate change are the key drivers to seek more ecologically friendly materials, such as natural fibres to replace synthetic fibres in polymeric composite. Among the natural fibres available, bamboo fibre has relatively high strength. Poly (lactic) acid (PLA), one of the well-known biopolymers, has been used as a matrix in order to produce totally biodegradable biocomposites. In this study, bamboo fibres were compounded with PLA by a twin screw extruder. The bamboo fibre reinforced PLA composites were then manufactured via the compression moulding method. The influences of screw speed and die temperature during extrusion on the mechanical properties, the tensile and flexural of the biocomposites, were studied. The effects of fibre content and fibre length were also investigated. Taguchi experimental design approach was adopted to determine the optimum set of conditions to achieve the "best" mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties were characterised based on the D638-10 and D790-10 standards, respectively. It was observed that the fibre aspect ratio and fibre content significantly affected the mechanical performance of bamboo fibres reinforced PLA composites.

  6. Simplifying the design of microstructured optical fibre pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Osório, Jonas H; Chesini, Giancarlo; Serrão, Valdir A; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a way to simplify the design of microstructured optical fibres with high sensitivity to applied pressure. The use of a capillary fibre with an embedded core allows the exploration of the pressure-induced material birefringence due to the capillary wall displacements and the photoelastic effect. An analytical description of pressure-induced material birefringence is provided, and fibre modal characteristics are explored through numerical simulations. Moreover, a capillary fibre with an embedded core is fabricated and used to probe pressure variations. Even though the embedded-core fibre has a non-optimized structure, measurements showed a pressure sensitivity of (1.04 ± 0.01) nm/bar, which compares well with more complex, specially designed fibre geometries reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that this geometry enables a novel route towards the simplification of microstructured fibre-based pressure sensors.

  7. SpaceFibre: The Standard and the Multi-Lane Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Florit, Albert Ferrer; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    SpaceFibre is a new standard for spacecraft on-board data-handling networks, initially designed to deliver multi-Gbit/s data rates for synthetic aperture radar and high-resolution, multi-spectral imaging instruments, The addition of quality of service (QoS) and fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) capabilities to SpaceFibre has resulted in a unified network technology. SpaceFibre provides high bandwidth, low latency, fault isolation and recovery suitable for space applications, and novel QoS that combines priority, bandwidth reservation and scheduling and which provides babbling node protection. SpaceFibre is backwards compatible with the widely used SpaceWire standard at the network level allowing simple interconnection of existing SpaceWire equipment to a SpaceFibre link or network.Developed by STAR-Dundee and the University of Dundee for the European Space Agency (ESA) SpaceFibre is able to operate over fibre-optic and electrical cable. A single lane of SpaceFibre comprises four signals (TX+/- and RX+/-) and supports data rates of 2 Gbits/s (2.5 Gbits/s data signalling rate) with data rates up to 5 Gbits/s already planned.Several lanes can operate together to provide a multi- lane link. Multi-laning increases the data-rate to well over 20 Gbits/s.This paper details the current state of SpaceFibre which is now in the process of formal standardisation by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS). The multi-lane layer of SpaceFibre is then described.

  8. Tensile properties of compressed moulded Napier/glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatinah, T. S.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Hong, T. W.; Amin, N. A. M.; Afendi, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of compressed moulded Napier grass fibres reinforced epoxy composites. The effect of treatment 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrated solution and hybridization of Napier with CSM E-glass fibres on tensile properties was also studied. The untreated and treated Napier fibres with 25% fibre loading were fabricated with epoxy resin by a cold press process. 7% fibre loading of CSM glass fibre was hybrid as the skin layer for 18% fibre loading of untreated Napier grass fibre. The tensile tests were conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance with ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the untreated Napier/epoxy composites were compared with treated Napier/epoxy and untreated Napier/CSM/epoxy composites. The results demonstrated that the tensile performance of untreated Napier fibre composites was significantly improved by both of the modification; alkali treatment and glass fibre hybridization. Napier grass fibres showed promising potentials to be used as reinforcement in the polymer based composites.

  9. Wavelength-switchable C-band erbium-doped fibre laser incorporating all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer fabricated by chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Zhu, Lianqing; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping; Luo, Fei

    2018-04-01

    A switchable and stable triple-wavelength, ring-cavity, erbium-doped fibre laser incorporating an all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is designed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed fibre laser, the all-fibre FPI is fabricated using the chemical etching method and is used to generate the filter effect. The laser threshold is 88 mW. Switchable single-wavelength lasing at 1529.9, 1545.1 and 1560.2 nm can be realized with a power fluctuation less than 0.64 dB under 20 min of scanning time at room temperature. In addition, the wavelength-switchable dual-wavelength lasers can be tuned by changing the polarization state in the experiment, and the maximum power fluctuations for the 1545.1 and 1560.2 nm lasers are less than 1.19 and 1.57 dB at 26 °C, respectively. Furthermore, a triple-wavelength laser is obtained by adjusting the polarization controller. The results demonstrate that switchable single-, dual-, or triple-wavelength lasers can be generated through the proposed fibre laser.

  10. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  11. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  12. Collagen fibre arrangement in the skin of the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, W; Neurand, K; Radke, B

    1982-01-01

    The arrangement and proportion of collagen fibres and fibre bundles in the dermis of the pig have been investigated with light microscopical (Nomarski's interference contrast, polarization optics) and scanning electron microscopical methods. Skin samples were obtained from different body regions of wild boars, domestic pigs and miniature pigs. All the methods used have demonstrated that the bulk of the dermis is dominated by a massive three dimensional network of collagen fibres and fibre bundles, which cross each other in two main directions. Several smaller fibre bundles pass through the network in various other directions, constructing a densely interwoven fibre pattern. Differences were obvious between the body regions and the animals investigated. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 Figs. 9-11 PMID:7076540

  13. Distributed ultrafast fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming; Cui, Yudong; Han, Dongdong; Yao, Xiankun; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    A traditional ultrafast fibre laser has a constant cavity length that is independent of the pulse wavelength. The investigation of distributed ultrafast (DUF) lasers is conceptually and technically challenging and of great interest because the laser cavity length and fundamental cavity frequency are changeable based on the wavelength. Here, we propose and demonstrate a DUF fibre laser based on a linearly chirped fibre Bragg grating, where the total cavity length is linearly changeable as a function of the pulse wavelength. The spectral sidebands in DUF lasers are enhanced greatly, including the continuous-wave (CW) and pulse components. We observe that all sidebands of the pulse experience the same round-trip time although they have different round-trip distances and refractive indices. The pulse-shaping of the DUF laser is dominated by the dissipative processes in addition to the phase modulations, which makes our ultrafast laser simple and stable. This laser provides a simple, stable, low-cost, ultrafast-pulsed source with controllable and changeable cavity frequency. PMID:25765454

  14. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  15. Fibre positioning algorithms for the WEAVE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrett, David L.; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin; Abrams, Don Carlos; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-07-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres, similar in concept to the Australian Astronomical Observatory's 2dF1 instrument with two observing plates, one of which is observing the sky while other is being reconfigured by a robotic fibre positioner. It will be capable of acquiring more than 10000 star or galaxy spectra a night. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction). This presents additional constraints and complications for the software that determines the optimal path from one configuration to the next, particularly given the large number of fibre crossings implied by the 1000 fibre multiplex. This paper describes the algorithms and programming techniques used in the prototype implementations of the field configuration tool and the fibre positioner robot controller developed to support the detailed design of WEAVE.

  16. SpaceFibre: The Standard, Simulation, IP Cores and Test Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Ferrer Florit, Albert; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    SpaceFibre is an emerging new standard for spacecraft on-board data-handling networks. Initially targeted to deliver multi-Gbit/s data rates for synthetic aperture radar and high-resolution, multi-spectral imaging instruments, SpaceFibre has developed into a unified network technology that integrates high bandwidth, with low latency, quality of service (QoS) and fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR). Furthermore SpaceFibre is backwards compatible with the widely used SpaceWire standard at the network level allowing simple interconnection of existing SpaceWire equipment to a SpaceFibre link or network. Developed by the University of Dundee for the European Space Agency (ESA) SpaceFibre is able to operate over fibre-optic and electrical cable and supports data rates of 2 Gbit/s in the near future and up to 5 Gbit/s long-term. Multi-laning improves the data-rate further to well over 20 Gbits/s. This paper details the current state of SpaceFibre which is now in the process of formal standardisation by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS). It describes the SpaceFibre IP core being developed for ESA. The design of a SpaceFibre demonstration board is introduced and available SpaceFibre test and development equipment is described. The way in which several SpaceWire links can be concentrated over a single SpaceFibre link will be explained.

  17. Narrow-band erbium-doped fibre linear–ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kolegov, A A; Sofienko, G S; Minashina, L A

    2014-01-31

    We have demonstrated a narrow-band linear – ring fibre laser with an output power of 15 mW at a wavelength of 1.55 μm and an emission bandwidth less than 5 kHz. The laser frequency is stabilised by an unpumped active fibre section and fibre Bragg grating. The fibre laser operates in a travelling wave mode, which allows the spatial hole burning effect to be avoided. At a certain pump power level, the laser switches from continuous mode to repetitivepulse operation, corresponding to relaxation oscillations. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  18. Threshold temperature optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Musial, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to manufacture a threshold temperature sensor based on a biconical optical fibre taper. The presented sensor employs the influence of variable state of concentration of some isotropic materials like wax or paraffin. Application of the above- mentioned materials is an attempt to prove that there is a possibility to obtain a low-cost, repeatable and smart sensor working as an in-line element. Optical fibre taper was obtained from a standard single mode fibre (SMF28®) by using a low pressure gas burner technique. The diameter of the manufactured tapers was 6.0 ± 0.5 μm with the length of elongation equal to 30.50 ± 0.16 mm. The applied technology allowed to produce tapers with the losses of 0.183 ± 0.015 dB. Application of materials with different temperature transition points made it possible to obtain the threshold work at the temperatures connected directly with their conversion temperature. External materials at the temperatures above their melting points do not influence the propagation losses. For each of them two types of the protection area and position of the optical fibre taper were applied.

  19. Rigid polyurethane/oil palm fibre biocomposite foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, Adilah; Majid, Rohah A.; Nasir, Izzah Athirah Ahmad; Mustaffa, Nor Syatika; Hassan, Wan Hasamuddin Wan

    2017-07-01

    Rigid polyurethane (PU) biocomposite foam had been successfully prepared by reacting palm oil-derived polyol (PO-p) with polymeric 4, 4-diphenylmethane diisocynate (p-MDI). Two types of alkali-treated oil palm fibres namely, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fibre (PPF) were used as fillers to be incorporated into PU foam at 2.5 wt%, 5 wt% and 7.5 wt% fibre loadings. The effects of these fibres on surface morphology, compressive strength and thermal transition behaviours of biocomposite foams were investigated. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of urethane linkages (-NHCOO) in all samples at 1530-1540 cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the average melting peak temperature (Tm) of biocomposite foams (132°C) were lower Tm than that of pure PU foam (161.67°C) and the increase amount of fibres did not give significant effect on the Tm of both biocomposite systems. Meanwhile, the microscopic images of PU-PPF foams exhibited smaller and uniform cell size morphologies compared with the PU-EFB foams that had coarse and irregular cell sizes, especially at 7.5wt% EFB. These findings were manifested with the gradually increase of compressive strength of PU-PPF at all PPF ratios while for PU-EFB system, the compressive strength increased up to 5 wt% before reduced at 7.5 wt% loading. It was thought due to the residual oil in PPF fibre had plasticized the PU matrix to a little extent, thus helping the dispersion of PPF fibre across the matrix.

  20. Hepatoprotective evaluation of the total flavonoids extracted from flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guo; Liu, Qingchuan; Hua, Wei; Huang, Zhengming; Wang, Dewen

    2013-04-19

    The decoction of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic is traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice and various types of chronic and acute hepatitis in Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces of China. Phytochemical studies have indicated that total flavonoids extracted from flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic (TFA) were the major constituents of the flowers. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the plant extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and liver injury in vivo. In the in vitro studies, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were exposed to CCl4 (1%) along with/without various concentrations of TFA (4.5-72mg/L). Cell damage was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the medium were analyzed. In the in vivo studies, the hepatoprotective activity of TFA (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) were investigated on CCl4-induced liver damages in mice. The levels of ALT, AST and ALP, gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined in serum. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione transferase (GST) were measured in the liver homogenates. Cytokine transcript levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver tissues of mice were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Livers were dissected out and evaluated for histomorphological changes. A concentration-dependent increase in the percentage viability was observed when CCl4-exposed hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of TFA. Levels of ALT, AST and ALP in the medium were significantly decreased. In the animal studies, TFA showed significant protection with the depletion of ALT

  1. Fibre-reinforced hydrogels for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Sarah; Byrne, Helen; Chen, Mike; Dias Castilho, Miguel; Kimpton, Laura; Please, Colin; Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Tissue engineers aim to grow replacement tissues in vitro to replace those in the body that have been damaged through age, trauma or disease. One approach is to seed cells within a scaffold consisting of an interconnected 3D-printed lattice of polymer fibres, cast in a hydrogel, and subject the construct (cell-seeded scaffold) to an applied load in a bioreactor. A key question is to understand how this applied load is distributed throughout the construct to the mechanosensitive cells. To address this, we exploit the disparate length scales (small inter-fibre spacing compared with construct dimensions). The fibres are treated as a linear elastic material and the hydrogel as a poroelastic material. We employ homogenisation theory to derive equations governing the material properties of a periodic, elastic-poroelastic composite. To validate the mobel, model solutions are compared to experimental data describing the unconfined compression of the fibre-reinforced hydrogels. The model is used to derive the bulk mechanical properties of a cylindrical construct of the composite material for a range of fibre spacings, and the local mechanical environment experienced by cells embedded within the construct is determined. Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013).

  2. Tie-fibre structure and organization in the knee menisci

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Stephen H J; Rattner, Jerome B; Abusara, Ziad; Adesida, Adetola; Shrive, Nigel G; Ronsky, Janet L

    2014-01-01

    The collagenous structure of the knee menisci is integral to the mechanical integrity of the tissue and the knee joint. The tie-fibre structure of the tissue has largely been neglected, despite previous studies demonstrating its correlation with radial stiffness. This study has evaluated the structure of the tie-fibres of bovine menisci using 2D and 3D microscopy techniques. Standard collagen and proteoglycan (PG) staining and 2D light microscopy techniques were conducted. For the first time, the collagenous structure of the menisci was evaluated using 3D, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. This technique facilitated the imaging of collagen structure in thick sections (50–100 μm). Imaging identified that tie-fibres of the menisci arborize from the outer margin of the meniscus toward the inner tip. This arborization is associated with the structural arrangement of the circumferential fibres. SHG microscopy has definitively demonstrated the 3D organization of tie-fibres in both sheets and bundles. The hierarchy of the structure is related to the organization of circumferential fascicles. Large tie-fibre sheets bifurcate into smaller sheets to surround circumferential fascicles of decreasing size. The tie-fibres emanate from the lamellar layer that appears to surround the entire meniscus. At the tibial and femoral surfaces these tie-fibre sheets branch perpendicularly into the meniscal body. The relationship between tie-fibres and blood vessels in the menisci was also observed in this study. Tie-fibre sheets surround the blood vessels and an associated PG-rich region. This subunit of the menisci has not previously been described. The size of tie-fibre sheets surrounding the vessels appeared to be associated with the size of blood vessel. These structural findings have implications in understanding the mechanics of the menisci. Further, refinement of the complex structure of the tie-fibres is important in understanding the consequences of injury and

  3. Myoxinol (Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract) in the Cure of Chronic Anal Fissure: Early Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Adolfo; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; D'Aniello, Francesco; Ziccardi, Stefania; Paladino, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the early results of the topical application of Hydrolyzed Hibiscus esculentus Extract 3% ointment (Myoxinol 3%), a novel local product with Botox-like activity, in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure (CAF). Methods. Among all patients with CAF observed during the study period, 31 subjects met the inclusion criteria and underwent medical therapy with Myoxinol 3% ointment every 12 hours for 6 weeks. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Clinical and manometric follow-up was carried out eight weeks after treatment. Results. At follow-up the success rate was 72.4% (21/29); median VAS score and mean anal resting pressure were significantly lower if compared with respective baseline data. The only one adverse effect of the topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment was perianal itch, which was reported by 3,4% (1/29) of the patients available for the analysis. However, in this case this symptom did not cause interruption of the treatment. Conclusions. The topical application of Myoxinol 3% ointment in the cure of CAF shows encouraging early results. Further researches with a larger series and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25861259

  4. Rheological characteristics of pulp-fibre-reinforced polyamide composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherizol, Robenson

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in utilizing pulp-fibre-reinforced, higher-melting-temperature engineering thermoplastics, such as polyamide 11 and polyamide 6 in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries. Moreover, the rheological characteristics of those composites were not fully investigated in relation to processing approaches and pulp-fibre aspect ratio. Two processing approaches were used in this thesis: the extrusion compounding process and the Brabender mixer technique using inorganic salt lithium chloride (LiCl). The fibre-length distribution and content, and the densities of the PA11 and modified bio-based PA11 after compounding, were investigated and found to coincide with the final properties of the resultant composites. The effects of fibre content, fibre aspect ratio, and fibre length on rheological properties were studied. The rheological properties of high-yield-pulp (HYP) -reinforced bio-based Polyamide 11 (PA11) composite (HYP/PA11) were experimentally investigated using a capillary rheometer. Experimental test results showed a steep decrease in shear viscosity with increasing shear rate; this melt-flow characteristic corresponds to shear-thinning behavior in HYP/PA11. The morphological properties of HYP/PA11 composite were examined using SEM: no fibre pullout was observed. This was due to the presence of the hydrogen bond, which created excellent compatibility between high-yield pulp fibre and bio-based Nylon 11. The viscoelastic characteristics of biocomposites derived from natural-fibre-reinforced thermoplastic polymers and of predictive models were reviewed to understand their rheological behavior. Novel predicted multiphase rheological-model-based polymer, fibre, and interphasial phases were developed. Rheological characteristics of the composite components influenced the development of resultant microstructures; this in turn affected the mechanical characteristics of a multiphase composite. Experimental and

  5. FRD and scrambling properties of recent non-circular fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Gerardo

    2012-09-01

    Optical fibres with octagonal, square and rectangular core shapes have been proposed as alternative to the circular fibres to link the telescopes to spectrographs in order to increase the accuracy of radial velocity measurements. Theoretically they offer better scrambling properties than their circular counterparts. First commercial octagonal fibres provided good near field scrambling gains. Unfortunately the far field scrambling did not show important figures. This article shows test results on new fibres from CeramOptec. The measurements show substantial improvements of the far field scrambling gains. In addition, evaluation of their focal ratio degradation (FRD) shows much better performances than previous fibres.

  6. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Herráez, M.; Fernández, A.; Lopes, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242306

  8. EDITORIAL: The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20 The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian; Ecke, Wolfgang; Jones, Julian; Tatam, Ralph; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2010-09-01

    Welcome to our special issue on fibre optic sensors. Fibre optic sensors were first suggested in the patent literature in the mid 1960s as an innovative means for making measurements. This proposed a surface finish measurement tool with high precision and resulted in an instrument that remains available today. Much has happened since, with significant innovation in the techniques through which light propagating whilst guided in a fibre can be unambiguously, repeatedly and predictably modulated in response to an external phenomenon. The technique offers not only the precision mentioned earlier but also inherent electromagnetic immunity, the capability to sense at long distances, light weight, small size and a multiplicity of network architectures, all of which can be interrogated from a single point. Even so, fibre sensors is a niche technology, attractive only when its very special features offer substantial user benefit. There are, however, many such niches exemplified in the electrical power supply industry, in gyroscopes for navigational instruments, in hydrophones and geophones. Then there are the distributed sensing architectures that enable useful measurements of pressure, strain and temperature fields affecting the optical properties of the fibre itself to map these parameter fields as a function of position along lengths of fibre to many tens of kilometres. The fibre sensing concept spawned its own research community, and the international conference on Optical Fibre Sensors first appeared in 1983 in London then emerged into a series travelling from Europe to the Americas and into the Asia-Pacific region. The 20th in the series took place in Edinburgh at the end of 2009 and this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents extended versions of some of the papers that first appeared at the conference. The science and technology of fibre sensing have evolved significantly over the history of the conference, drawing on developments in optical

  9. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photothermal modeling of thulium fibre laser-tissue interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnaby, Catherine E.; Coleman, Daniel J.; King, Terence A.

    2003-10-01

    A one-dimensional finite difference model has been used to investigate the temperature distribution within thulium fibre laser-irradiated tissue. Temperature-time and temperature-depth profiles are presented for various laser stimulus parameters in the 2 micron region. These current calculations are aimed at determining theoretical temperature distributions in the application of relatively low power fibre lasers for thermal stimulation of cutaneous nerves in human pain processing. Theoretical skin surface temperatures are compared with those from thermal camera measurements during thulium fibre laser irradiation. The effectiveness of the thulium fibre laser for thermally stimulating cutaneous nerves is confirmed.

  11. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  12. Can supplementary dietary fibre suppress breast cancer growth?

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    Case-control studies in diverse populations around the world have reported a lower risk of breast cancer in association with higher intake of dietary fibre and complex carbohydrates. Although this has not been confirmed in prospective studies in the USA, the observations have prompted the hypothesis that prolonged use of dietary fibre supplements might reduce breast cancer risk in high-incidence populations. Several possible mechanisms of action have been suggested, all involving a reduction of bioactive oestrogen levels in the blood. The various mechanisms are not necessarily mutually exclusive. First, a high-fibre diet might reduce circulating oestrogen levels by reducing the enterohepatic recirculation of oestrogen. Second, many plants and vegetables contain isoflavones and lignans capable of conversion in the bowel into weak oestrogens that may compete with oestradiol for target binding-sites. Third, a high-fibre diet is less often associated with obesity, which tends to increase availability of the biologically active 16-alpha metabolites of oestrone. Fourth, a high-fibre diet usually has a lower content of fat and a higher content of antioxidant vitamins, which may protect against breast cancer risk. Finally, diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrates have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, with an associated reduction in circulating oestrogen levels. Synergism between these effects offers a possible mechanism by which a high fibre intake might suppress breast cancer growth in women. PMID:8605086

  13. Distributions of nerve and muscle fibre types in locust jumping muscle.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, G

    1978-04-01

    Muscle fibres of the locust extensor tibiae (jumping muscle) were examined by interference microscopy and by electron microscopy. The electrical responses of single fibres and the mechanical responses of bundles or selected regions to the nerve fibres were examined. Four axons innervate the muscle: fast (FETi), slow (SETi), common inhibitor (CI) and dorsal unpaired median (DUMETi). Their distributions were examined by combined electrophysiological tracing and EM sectioning. The mean diameter of muscle fibres in different regions varies from 40 to 140 micrometer and is related to the local leg thickness rather than muscle fibre type. The fine structure of a fibre is related to its innervation. Fibres innervated by FETi but not SETi are of fast type ultrastructurally. Fibres innervated by SETi but not by FETi are of slow type ultrastructurally. Fibres innervated by both axons are generally intermediate between the extremes though more nearly of fast type than slow. Distal slow muscle fibres have much slower relaxation rates than do proximal ones. The most proximal bundles are of mixed muscle fibre type. There is an abrupt transition from a mixed population to homogeneous fast type, in the muscle units immediately distal to the most proximal bundles. This transition is associated with the presence of DUMETi terminals on some of the fibres distal to the transition point. There are no SETi endings on these same fibres. Fibres innervated by both SETi and FETi are scattered throughout the leg, but are commonest in the dorsal bundles. The percentage of these increases progressively passing distally. The most distal muscle fibres are innervated by SETi but not by FETi. It is concluded that different regions of the muscle will play different roles functionally since they are differentially sensitive to the pattern of SETi discharge.

  14. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  15. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  16. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Optical fibres in pre-detector signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinn, A. R.

    The basic form of conventional electro-optic sensors is described. The main drawback of these sensors is their inability to deal with the background radiation which usually accompanies the signal. This 'clutter' limits the sensors performance long before other noise such as 'shot' noise. Pre-detector signal processing using the complex amplitude of the light is introduced as a means to discriminate between the signal and 'clutter'. Further improvements to predetector signal processors can be made by the inclusion of optical fibres allowing radiation to be used with greater efficiency and enabling certain signal processing tasks to be carried out with an ease unequalled by any other method. The theory of optical waveguides and their application in sensors, interferometers, and signal processors is reviewed. Geometrical aspects of the formation of linear and circular interference fringes are described along with temporal and spatial coherence theory and their relationship to Michelson's visibility function. The requirements for efficient coupling of a source into singlemode and multimode fibres are given. We describe interference experiments between beams of light emitted from a few metres of two or more, singlemode or multimode, optical fibres. Fresnel's equation is used to obtain expressions for Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which enable electro-optic (E-0) sensors to be analysed by Fourier optics. Image formation is considered when the aperture plane of an E-0 sensor is illuminated with partially coherent light. This allows sensors to be designed using optical transfer functions which are sensitive to the spatial coherence of the illuminating light. Spatial coherence sensors which use gratings as aperture plane reticles are discussed. By using fibre arrays, spatial coherence processing enables E-0 sensors to discriminate between a spatially coherent source and an incoherent background. The sensors enable the position and wavelength of the source to

  18. SFN-SIQ, SFNSL and skin biopsy of 55 cases with small fibre involvement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Li, Yifan; Liu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Yang, Fei; Liu, Jiexiao; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xusheng

    2018-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: To date, there are no validated screening scales for small fibre neuropathy. This study investigated the small-fibre neuropathy and the symptom inventory questionnaire as well as the small fibre neuropathy screening list for small fibre neuropathy diagnosis. Fifty-five patients were divided into small fibre neuropathy and mixed fibre damage groups. Relevant scales, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies were performed. Relationships between the intraepidermal nerve fibre density and different scales as well as the diagnostic and cut-off values (score at which Youden's index is largest) were determined. Compared with healthy Chinese participants, 20 patients were diagnosed with small fibre neuropathy. Intraepidermal nerve fibre density was moderately and highly correlated with the small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire and small fibre neuropathy screening list, respectively. The diagnostic values were moderate and high for the small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire (cut-off value = 5, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 81.8%) and small fibre neuropathy screening list (cut-off value = 8, sensitivity = 94.1%, specificity = 90.9%), respectively. There were no significant differences in the visual analogue scale between the small fibre neuropathy group, mixed small and large fibre neuropathy group, pure large fibre neuropathy group and the normal group. Small fibre neuropathy-symptom inventory questionnaire and small fibre neuropathy screening list represent potential small fibre neuropathy screening tools. Abbreviations EMG electromyography ENA anti-extractable nuclear antigens ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate IENFD intraepidermal nerve fibre density IGT impaired glucose tolerance NCS nerve conduction studies NDS neuropathy disability score OGTT oral glucose tolerance test PGP protein gene product PN peripheral neuropathy ROC receiver operating characteristic curve ROC-AUC area under the ROC curve SFN small

  19. Modelling of wicking and moisture interactions of flax and viscose fibres.

    PubMed

    Stuart, T; McCall, R D; Sharma, H S S; Lyons, G

    2015-06-05

    Methods for assessing the wicking properties of individual fibre bundles have been developed from models based on the original Washburn equation (WE) and the modified Washburn equation (MWE), which also accounts for swelling. Both models gave indication of differences in wicking properties of flax and the viscose fibres, though MWE gave additional information that could be interpreted in terms of the physical model. Wicking of the viscose fibres is mainly via inter-fibre capillaries while that of flax is a combination of inter-fibre capillaries and lumen present in some elementary fibres. The degree of swelling and associated rotation of flax fibre in a vapour pressure range of 1-6torr were monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Viscose fibre exhibited swelling under the same conditions but did not rotate. The two techniques highlighted different mechanisms of wicking which can be used for monitoring moisture uptake/swelling of treated fibres for fabrication of composites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A 24mm diameter fibre positioner for spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörler, Philipp; Kronig, Luzius; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    One of the big research topics in modern cosmology is the mystery of dark Energy. To unveil the secret, cosmologists want to measure precisely the evolution of large scale structures in the universe. One way of doing so is to measure the 3D location of a high number of galaxies. By measuring the redshift of a galaxy, it is possible to find its distance. In order to measure a high number of galaxies in a practical amount of time, we need to observe multiple objects in parallel. Instead of a spectrograph, thousands of optical fibres are placed in the focal plane of a telescope. They will transmit the light of many objects to a spectrograph. Each fibre has to be positioned to several μm precision in the focal plane of a telescope for each exposure. Each fibre is positioned by a 2-axis fibre positioner. In this paper such a fibre positioner with 24-mm diameter is presented. It is driven by two brushless DC motors in combination with a backlash free gearbox. The positioner has an optimal central fibre path and improved angular alignment. The fibre runs through the centre of the positioner and is only bent at the top to reach its target position. In this way, the flexion and torsion of the fibre are minimal. In addition to the high positioning accuracy, the design is optimized to allow a minimal tilt error of the fibre. This is demonstrated using a novel optical tilt measurement system.

  1. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  2. Mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete using soft - drink can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilya, J.; Cheow Chea, C.

    2017-11-01

    This research was carried out to study the behaviour of concrete, specifically compressive and flexural strength, by incorporating recycled soft drink aluminium can as fibre reinforcement in the concrete. Another aim of the research is to determine the maximum proportion of fibres to be added in the concrete. By following standard mix design, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete was made to have a target mean strength of 30 N/mm2 with not more than 30 mm of slump. Having the same workability, OPC concrete with 0%, 1% and 2% of soft drink can aluminium fibre was prepared based on weight of cement. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength. Laboratory test results based on short term investigation reveals that the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete containing fibre are higher than of normal OPC concrete. Among two volume fractions, concrete with 1% of soft drink can fibre have performed better result in compressive strength and flexural strength compared with 2% amount of soft drink can fibre. The optimum proportion of aluminium fibre to be added in the concrete as fibre reinforcement is 1% fibre content by weight of cement which gave all the positive response from all the tests conducted.

  3. Longitudinal fibre splitting in muscular dystrophy: a serial cinematographic study

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Edward R.; Bradley, Walter G.; Henderson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    A technique of block surface-staining and serial cinematography was modified to review serial sections of normal and dystrophic muscle from the Bar Harbor 129 Re strain of mice as a preliminary study of fibre splitting in dystrophic muscle. Using this technique, muscle fibres were reconstructed for up to 1·5 mm of their length without difficulty. Split fibres were identified only when the actual separation of fibres was observed. Splitting was seen to be a significant cause of the variations in fibre diameter and was at times responsible for the formation of groups of small atrophic fibres which resembled those seen in denervation atrophy. Complex multiple splitting and recombination of daughter and parent fibres was also observed and reconstructed to scale. These results may have considerable significance for the interpretation of physiological data on both human and murine dystrophic muscle. Images PMID:4753877

  4. Sensitive Fibre-Based Thermoluminescence Detectors for High Resolution In-Vivo Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Mahdiraji, G. Amouzad; Adikan, F. R. Mahamd; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    With interest in the potential of optical fibres as the basis of next-generation thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), the development of suitable forms of material and their fabrication has become a fast-growing endeavour. Present study focuses on three types of Ge-doped optical fibres with different structural arrangements and/or shapes, namely conventional cylindrical fibre, capillary fibre, and flat fibre, all fabricated using the same optical fibre preform. For doses from 0.5 to 8 Gy, obtained at electron and photon energies, standard thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of the optical fibres have been the subject of detailed investigation. The results show that in collapsing the capillary fibre into a flat shape, the TL yield is increased by a factor of 5.5, the yield being also some 3.2 times greater than that of the conventional cylindrical fibre fabricated from the same perform. This suggests a means of production of suitably sensitive TLD for in-vivo dosimeter applications. Addressing the associated defects generating luminescence from each of the optical fibres, the study encompasses analysis of the TL glow curves, with computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) and 2nd order kinetics.

  5. Sensitive Fibre-Based Thermoluminescence Detectors for High Resolution In-Vivo Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Mahdiraji, G Amouzad; Adikan, F R Mahamd; Ung, N M; Bradley, D A

    2015-08-28

    With interest in the potential of optical fibres as the basis of next-generation thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), the development of suitable forms of material and their fabrication has become a fast-growing endeavour. Present study focuses on three types of Ge-doped optical fibres with different structural arrangements and/or shapes, namely conventional cylindrical fibre, capillary fibre, and flat fibre, all fabricated using the same optical fibre preform. For doses from 0.5 to 8 Gy, obtained at electron and photon energies, standard thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of the optical fibres have been the subject of detailed investigation. The results show that in collapsing the capillary fibre into a flat shape, the TL yield is increased by a factor of 5.5, the yield being also some 3.2 times greater than that of the conventional cylindrical fibre fabricated from the same perform. This suggests a means of production of suitably sensitive TLD for in-vivo dosimeter applications. Addressing the associated defects generating luminescence from each of the optical fibres, the study encompasses analysis of the TL glow curves, with computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) and 2(nd) order kinetics.

  6. Elastic fibre organization in the intervertebral discs of the bovine tail

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Peter, C; Roberts, Sally; Urban, Jill PG

    2002-01-01

    Elastic fibres have been revealed by both elastin immunostaining and conventional histological orcein-staining in the intervertebral discs of the bovine tail. These fibres are distributed in all regions of the disc but their organization varies from region to region. In the centre of the nucleus, long (>150 μm) elastic fibres are orientated radially. In the transitional region between nucleus and annulus, the orientation of the elastic fibres changes, producing a criss-cross pattern. In the annulus itself, elastic fibres appear densely distributed in the region between the lamellae and also in ‘bridges’ across the lamellae, particularly in the adult. Elastic fibres are apparent within the lamellae, orientated parallel to the collagen fibres of each lamella, particularly in the young (12-day-old) discs. In the region between the disc and the cartilaginous endplate, elastic fibres appear to anchor into the plate and terminate there. The results of this study suggest that elastic fibres contribute to the mechanical functioning of the intervertebral disc. The varying organization of the elastic fibres in the different regions of the disc is likely to relate to the different regional loading patterns PMID:12489758

  7. Sensitive Fibre-Based Thermoluminescence Detectors for High Resolution In-Vivo Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Mahdiraji, G. Amouzad; Adikan, F. R. Mahamd; Ung, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    With interest in the potential of optical fibres as the basis of next-generation thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), the development of suitable forms of material and their fabrication has become a fast-growing endeavour. Present study focuses on three types of Ge-doped optical fibres with different structural arrangements and/or shapes, namely conventional cylindrical fibre, capillary fibre, and flat fibre, all fabricated using the same optical fibre preform. For doses from 0.5 to 8 Gy, obtained at electron and photon energies, standard thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of the optical fibres have been the subject of detailed investigation. The results show that in collapsing the capillary fibre into a flat shape, the TL yield is increased by a factor of 5.5, the yield being also some 3.2 times greater than that of the conventional cylindrical fibre fabricated from the same perform. This suggests a means of production of suitably sensitive TLD for in-vivo dosimeter applications. Addressing the associated defects generating luminescence from each of the optical fibres, the study encompasses analysis of the TL glow curves, with computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) and 2nd order kinetics. PMID:26314683

  8. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dosemore » response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.« less

  9. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): Its fibres, polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Ishak, M R; Sapuan, S M; Leman, Z; Rahman, M Z A; Anwar, U M K; Siregar, J P

    2013-01-16

    Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.

  11. Capillary droplet propulsion on a fibre.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Sabrina; Bäumchen, Oliver; Jacobs, Karin

    2015-09-21

    A viscous liquid film coating a fibre becomes unstable and decays into droplets due to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability (RPI). Here, we report on the generation of uniform droplets on a hydrophobized fibre by taking advantage of this effect. In the late stages of liquid column breakup, a three-phase contact line can be formed at one side of the droplet by spontaneous rupture of the thinning film. The resulting capillary imbalance leads to droplet propulsion along the fibre. We study the dynamics and the dewetting speed of the droplet as a function of molecular weight as well as temperature and compare to a force balance model based on purely viscous dissipation.

  12. Multifunctional non-woven fabrics of interfused graphene fibres

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Yingjun; Wang, Ran; Gao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based fibres hold promise for preparing multifunctional fabrics with electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, permeability, flexibility and lightweight. However, these fabrics are of limited performance mainly because of the weak interaction between fibres. Here we report non-woven graphene fibre fabrics composed of randomly oriented and interfused graphene fibres with strong interfibre bonding. The all-graphene fabrics obtained through a wet-fusing assembly approach are porous and lightweight, showing high in-plane electrical conductivity up to ∼2.8 × 104 S m−1 and prominent thermal conductivity of ∼301.5 W m−1 K−1. Given the low density (0.22 g cm−3), their specific electrical and thermal conductivities set new records for carbon-based papers/fabrics and even surpass those of individual graphene fibres. The as-prepared fabrics are further used as ultrafast responding electrothermal heaters and durable oil-adsorbing felts, demonstrating their great potential as high-performance and multifunctional fabrics in real-world applications. PMID:27901022

  13. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating "smart" electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  14. The dependence of the properties of optical fibres on length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppett, C. L.; Allington-Smith, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the dependence on length of optical fibres used in astronomy, especially the focal ratio degradation (FRD) which places constraints on the performance of fibre-fed spectrographs used for multiplexed spectroscopy. To this end, we present a modified version of the FRD model proposed by Carrasco & Parry to quantify the number of scattering defects within an optical fibre using a single parameter. The model predicts many trends which are seen experimentally, for example, a decrease in FRD as core diameter increases, and also as wavelength increases. However, the model also predicts a strong dependence on FRD with length that is not seen experimentally. By adapting the single fibre model to include a second fibre, we can quantify the amount of FRD due to stress caused by the method of termination. By fitting the model to experimental data, we find that polishing the fibre causes more stress to be induced in the end of the fibre compared to a simple cleave technique. We estimate that the number of scattering defects caused by polishing is approximately double that produced by cleaving. By placing limits on the end effect, the model can be used to estimate the residual-length dependence in very long fibres, such as those required for Extremely Large Telescopes, without having to carry out costly experiments. We also use our data to compare different methods of fibre termination.

  15. Fibre amplifier based on an ytterbium-doped active tapered fibre for the generation of megawatt peak power ultrashort optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Koptev, M Yu; Anashkina, E A; Lipatov, D S

    2015-05-31

    We report a new ytterbium-doped active tapered fibre used in the output amplifier stage of a fibre laser system for the generation of megawatt peak power ultrashort pulses in the microjoule energy range. The tapered fibre is single-mode at its input end (core and cladding diameters of 10 and 80 μm) and multimode at its output end (diameters of 45 and 430 μm), but ultrashort pulses are amplified in a quasi-single-mode regime. Using a hybrid Er/Yb fibre system comprising an erbium master oscillator and amplifier at a wavelength near 1.5 μm, a nonlinear wavelength converter to the 1 μm rangemore » and a three-stage ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier, we obtained pulses of 1 μJ energy and 7 ps duration, which were then compressed by a grating-pair dispersion compressor with 60% efficiency to a 130 fs duration, approaching the transform-limited pulse duration. The present experimental data agree well with numerical simulation results for pulse amplification in the threestage amplifier. (extreme light fields and their applications)« less

  16. Interferometric fibre-optic curvature sensing for structural, directional vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Thomas; Chehura, Edmon; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic fibre-optic curvature sensing using fibre segment interferometry is demonstrated using a cost-effective rangeresolved interferometry interrogation system. Differential strain measurements from four fibre strings, each containing four fibre segments of gauge length 20 cm, allow the inference of lateral vibrations as well as the direction of the vibration of a cantilever test object. Dynamic tip displacement resolutions in the micrometre range over a 21 kHz interferometric bandwidth demonstrate the suitability of this approach for highly sensitive fibre-optic directional vibration measurements, complementing existing laser vibrometry techniques by removing the need for side access to the structure under test.

  17. First results of tests on the WEAVE fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayède, Frédéric; Younes, Youssef; Fasola, Gilles; Dorent, Stéphane; Abrams, Don Carlos; Aguerri, J. Alphonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Carrasco, Esperanza; Dalton, Gavin; Dee, Kevin; Laporte, Philippe; Lewis, Ian; Lhome, Emilie; Middleton, Kevin; Pragt, Johan H.; Rey, Juerg; Stuik, Remko; Trager, Scott C.; Vallenari, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    WEAVE is a new wide-field spectroscopy facility proposed for the prime focus of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. The facility comprises a new 2-degree field of view prime focus corrector with a 1000-multiplex fibre positioner, a small number of individually deployable integral field units, and a large single integral field unit. The IFUs (Integral Field Units) and the MOS (Multi Object Spectrograph) fibres can be used to feed a dual-beam spectrograph that will provide full coverage of the majority of the visible spectrum in a single exposure at a spectral resolution of 5000 or modest wavelength coverage in both arms at a resolution 20000. The instrument is expected to be on-sky by the first quarter of 2018 to provide spectroscopic sampling of the fainter end of the Gaia astrometric catalogue, chemical labeling of stars to V 17, and dedicated follow up of substantial numbers of sources from the medium deep LOFAR surveys. After a brief description of the Fibre System, we describe the fibre test bench, its calibration, and some test results. We have to verify 1920 fibres from the MOS bundles and 740 fibres from the mini-IFU bundles with the test bench. In particular, we present the Focal Ratio Degradation of a cable.

  18. Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Franco, Marcos A. R.; Chesini, Giancarlo; Barretto, Elaine C. S.; Lwin, Richard; Brito Cruz, C. H.; Large, Maryanne C. J.

    2006-12-01

    The development of microstructured fibres offers the prospect of improved fibre sensing for low refractive index materials such as liquids and gases. A number of approaches are possible. Here we present a new approach to evanescent field sensing, in which both core and cladding are microstructured. The fibre was fabricated and tested, and simulations and experimental results are shown in the visible region to demonstrate the utility of this approach for sensing.

  19. A bioinspired study on the compressive resistance of helicoidal fibre structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting; Ribbans, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Helicoidal fibre structures are widely observed in natural materials. In this paper, an integrated experimental and analytical approach was used to investigate the compressive resistance of helicoidal fibre structures. First, helicoidal fibre-reinforced composites were created using three-dimensionally printed helicoids and polymeric matrices, including plain, ring-reinforced and helix-reinforced helicoids. Then, load-displacement curves under monotonic compression tests were collected to measure the compressive strengths of helicoidal fibre composites. Fractographic characterization was performed using an X-ray microtomographer and scanning electron microscope, through which crack propagations in helicoidal structures were illustrated. Finally, mathematical modelling was performed to reveal the essential fibre architectures in the compressive resistance of helicoidal fibre structures. This work reveals that fibre-matrix ratios, helix pitch angles and interlayer rotary angles are critical to the compressive resistance of helicoidal structures.

  20. Fibre systems for future astronomy: anomalous wavelength-temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppett, C. L.; Allington-Smith, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    Focal ratio degradation is an important property of optical fibres that determines the design and cost of instruments using fibres. Motivated by the importance of fibres in feeding instruments on Extremely Large Telescopes, the need for cryogenic-cooling to reduce thermal background and the desire for broad-band performance, we have studied the dependency of focal ratio degradation (FRD) on both temperature and wavelength. This shows a small but significant reduction in performance when cooled as expected from previous work. We also find an increase in FRD with wavelength broadly consistent with theory at room temperature but this dependency reverses in sign when the fibres are cooled to 77K, contrary to existing theory. We parameterize the wavelength dependency by an ad hoc extension to an existing model but it is clear that existing theory does not provide a good description of the operation of fibres in astronomical systems. This unexpected behaviour, which may relate to frozen-in stress from the manufacturing process, will need to be taken into account when designing future fibre systems.

  1. Optimization of process parameters during carbonization for improved carbon fibre strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, T.; Pursche, F.; Burscheidt, P.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Based on their extraordinary properties, carbon fibres nowadays play a significant role in modern industries. In the last years carbon fibres are increasingly used for lightweight constructions in the energy or the transportation industry. However, a bigger market penetration of carbon fibres is still hindered by high prices (~ 22 /kg) [3]. One crucial step in carbon fibre production is the process of carbonization of stabilized fibres. However, the cause effect relationships of carbonization are nowadays not fully understood. Therefore, the main goal of this research work is the quantification of the cause-effect relationships of process parameters like temperature and residence time on carbon fibre strength.

  2. Investigation on the biodurability of chemically different stone wool fibres.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Kamstrup, O; Draeger, U F

    1995-05-01

    The biodurability is one of the essential factors for a carcinogenic potential of mineral fibres. The in vivo solubility of commercial fibre products can be influenced by modifications of the chemical composition. Two types of experimental stone wool samples with new chemical composition were compared to a commercial stone wool sample. Sized fractions of these samples with median lengths of 7.1, 9.3 and 6.7 microns, respectively, and median diameters of 0.76, 1.02 and 0.63 microns, respectively, were intratracheally instilled into female Wistar rats with a single dose of 2 mg in 0.3 ml. 5 animals per group were sacrificed after 2 days, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. After low-temperature ashing of the lungs about 1,000 fibres per group and sacrifice date were analysed in SEM for length and diameter. The number of fibres in the total lung was calculated. An analysis of fibre number of different length and diameter fractions was used to estimate whether dissolution, breakage or mechanical clearance is responsible for the elimination of fibres from the lung. Results indicate that the breakage of fibres with length above 20 microns and the dissolution of fibres was faster in the experimental stone wool samples compared to the commercial sample.

  3. High sensitivity flat SiO2 fibres for medical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sani, Siti. F.; Alalawi, Amani I.; Azhar, Hairul A. R.; Amouzad Mahdiraji, Ghafour; Tamchek, Nizam; Nisbet, A.; Maah, M. J.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    We describe investigation of a novel undoped flat fibre fabricated for medical radiation dosimetry. Using high energy X-ray beams generated at a potential of 6 MV, comparison has been made of the TL yield of silica flat fibres, TLD-100 chips and Ge-doped silica fibres. The flat fibres provide competitive TL yield to that of TLD-100 chips, being some 100 times that of the Ge-doped fibres. Pt-coated flat fibres have then been used to increase photoelectron production and hence local dose deposition, obtaining significant increase in dose sensitivity over that of undoped flat fibres. Using 250 kVp X-ray beams, the TL yield reveals a progressive linear increase in dose for Pt thicknesses from 20 nm up to 80 nm. The dose enhancement factor (DEF) of (0.0150±0.0003) nm-1 Pt is comparable to that obtained using gold, agreeing at the 1% level with the value expected on the basis of photoelectron generation. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been employed to characterize the surface oxidation state of the fibre medium. The charge state of Si2p was found to lie on 103.86 eV of binding energy and the atomic percentage obtained from the XPS analysis is 22.41%.

  4. Filter media properties of mineral fibres produced by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Prasauskas, Tadas; Matulevicius, Jonas; Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Valincius, Vitas; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of fibrous gas filtration media produced from mineral zeolite. Fibres were generated by direct current plasma spray. The paper characterizes morphology, chemical composition, geometrical structure of elementary fibres, and thermal resistance, as well as the filtration properties of fibre media. The diameter of the produced elementary fibres ranged from 0.17 to 0.90 μm and the length ranged from 0.025 to 5.1 mm. The release of fibres from the media in the air stream was noticed, but it was minimized by hot-pressing the formed fibre mats. The fibres kept their properties up to the temperature of 956°C, while further increase in temperature resulted in the filter media becoming shrunk and brittle. The filtration efficiency of the prepared filter mats ranged from 95.34% to 99.99% for aerosol particles ranging in a size between 0.03 and 10.0 μm. Unprocessed fibre media showed the highest filtration efficiency when filtering aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 µm. Hot-pressed filters were characterized by the highest quality factor values, ranging from 0.021 to 0.064 Pa(-1) (average value 0.034 Pa(-1)).

  5. Embedding Carbon Fibre Structures in Metal Matrixes for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostevarg, Jan; Robertson, Stephanie; Benavides, Vicente; Soldatov, Alexander

    It is possible to reinforce structures and components using carbon fibres for applications in electronics and medicine, but most commonly used in reinforcing resin fibre composites for personal protection equipment and light weight constructions. Carbon fibres act as stress redistributors while having increased electrical and thermal conductivities. These properties could also be utilized in metal matrixes, if the fibres are properly fused to the metal and the structure remains intact. Another recently developed high potential carbon structure, carbon nanotube- (CNT) yarns, has similar but even greater mechanical properties than common carbon fibres. Via laser cladding, these reinforcing materials could be used in a plethora of applications, either locally (or globally) as surface treatments or as structural reinforcements using multi-layer laser cladding (additive manufacturing). The challenges of embedding carbon fibres or CNT-yarns in a CuAl mixture and SnPb solder wire using lasers are here investigated using high speed imaging and SEM. It is revealed that the carbon fibres have very high buoyancy in the molten metal and quickly degrades when irradiated by the laser. Wetting of the fibres is shown to be improved by a Tungsten coating and embedding of the structures after processing are evaluated using SEM and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Fibre Tract Mapping of the Human Brain – Registration of Polarised Light Images and Reorientation of Fibre Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Christoph; Axer, Markus; Gräßel, David; Dammers, Jürgen; Lindemeyer, Johannes; Zilles, Karl; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Amunts, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Polarised light imaging (PLI) utilises the birefringence of the myelin sheaths in order to visualise the orientation of nerve fibres in microtome sections of adult human post-mortem brains at ultra-high spatial resolution. The preparation of post-mortem brains for PLI involves fixation, freezing and cutting into 100-μm-thick sections. Hence, geometrical distortions of histological sections are inevitable and have to be removed for 3D reconstruction and subsequent fibre tracking. We here present a processing pipeline for 3D reconstruction of these sections using PLI derived multimodal images of post-mortem brains. Blockface images of the brains were obtained during cutting; they serve as reference data for alignment and elimination of distortion artefacts. In addition to the spatial image transformation, fibre orientation vectors were reoriented using the transformation fields, which consider both affine and subsequent non-linear registration. The application of this registration and reorientation approach results in a smooth fibre vector field, which reflects brain morphology. PLI combined with 3D reconstruction and fibre tracking is a powerful tool for human brain mapping. It can also serve as an independent method for evaluating in vivo fibre tractography. PMID:20461231

  7. Geometrical frustration yields fibre formation in self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Martin; Witten, Thomas A.

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of supramolecular structures is vital for living cells, and a central challenge for engineering at the nano- and microscales. Nevertheless, even particles without optimized shapes can robustly form well-defined morphologies. This is the case in numerous medical conditions where normally soluble proteins aggregate into fibres. Beyond the diversity of molecular mechanisms involved, we propose that fibres generically arise from the aggregation of irregular particles with short-range interactions. Using a minimal model of ill-fitting, sticky particles, we demonstrate robust fibre formation for a variety of particle shapes and aggregation conditions. Geometrical frustration plays a crucial role in this process, and accounts for the range of parameters in which fibres form as well as for their metastable character.

  8. Propagation of polarised light in bent hi-bi spun fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Morshnev, S K; Starostin, N I

    The evolution of polarisation states (PS's) of broadband light propagating through a bent optical fibre with a helical structure of its refractive index anisotropy (hi-bi spun fibre) has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that there exists a coordinate system of PS's in which the differential Jones matrix can be replaced by a diagonal matrix, which allows the polarisation parameters of the output broadband light to be readily calculated with sufficient accuracy. We have derived a formula for evaluating the magneto-optical sensitivity of a bent spun fibre. An approach has been proposed for restoring the degree ofmore » polarisation of light in a bent hi-bi spun fibre and, as a consequence, the visibility (contrast) of the interferometer in a current sensor with a sensing element based on the fibre under consideration. (optical fibres)« less

  9. Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture Incorporating Kenaf Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.; Yaro, N. S. A.; Hussein, S. O. A. E.; Warid, M. N. M.; Mohamed, A.; Naqibah, S. N.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Kenaf fibre has been recognised to increase the strength of concrete, but its application in asphalt concrete is still unanswered. This research investigated the performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) incorporated with different percentages of kenaf fibre (0.1 %, 0.2% and 0.3% by weight of dry aggregate) in term of resilient modulus, rutting performance using Asphalt Pavement analyser (APA) and moisture damage using the Modified Lottman test (AASHTO-T283). The fibre was interweaved to a diameter of about 5-10 mm and length of 30 mm which is three times the nominal maximum aggregate size used in the mix. Asphaltic mixtures of asphalt concrete (AC) 10 were prepared and compacted using Marshall compactor which were subsequently tested to evaluate the resilient modulus and moisture susceptibility. Twelve cylindrical specimens (150mm diameter) from AC10, two control samples with two modified ones for each percentage of kenaf fibres compacted using Gyratory compactor were used for rutting test using APA. The laboratory results reveal that the addition of kenaf fibres slightly reduce the resilient modulus of the mixes and that asphaltic mix with 0.3% kenaf fibre can mitigate both rutting and moisture damage which makes the pavement more sustain to the loads applied even in the presence of water. 0.3% kenaf fibre content is considered to be the optimal content which had the least rut depth and the highest TSR of 81.07%. Based on grid analysis, addition of 0.3% kenaf fibre in asphaltic concrete was recommended in modifying the samples.

  10. A high-efficiency fibre double-scrambler prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Stuart I.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2010-07-01

    Results for a high efficiency fibre double-scrambler are reported. The scrambler is based on the concept first presented by Casse and Vieira (1997) but with a substantial improvement in performance. The design uses a simple finite conjugate relay with large magnification followed by a combined scrambler/focal reducer singlet. This approach allows flexibility in the coupling of fibres with various focal ratios and diameters, and can be used to minimize loss of throughput due to focal ratio degradation. A prototype has been constructed using simple off-the-shelf optics which is shown to be capable of coupling a 15m long 300 μm fibre to a 5m long 320 μm fibre with an absolute efficiency of 75%. The focal ratio degradation (FRD) of the prototype is 7% when operated at f/3.65. A fully optimized version with both improved efficiency (>85%) and FRD is intended to be deployed as part of the Hobby Eberly Telescope HRS upgrade.

  11. Preparation of dietary fibre-enriched materials from preharvest dropped apples and their utilisation as a high-fibre flour substitute.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yujeong; Kim, Yongwook; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2013-06-01

    Preharvest dropped apples from a weather disaster are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to reduced market value. In this study, they were utilised to produce dietary fibre-enriched materials (DFEMs) and their baking performance in a food system was then evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute. Hydrothermal treatment and fractionation of preharvest dropped apple powder produced fibre-rich fractions (856.2 g kg(-1)). The use of DFEMs increased the pasting properties of wheat flour and improved dough mixing stability. When DFEMs were incorporated in the cookie formulation (2, 4 and 6 g dietary fibre per serving), the cookie dough exhibited increased elongational viscosity and solid-like behaviour which became more pronounced with increasing levels of DEFMs. After baking, reduced spread was observed in DFEM cookies which could be readily attributed to their rheological characteristics. However, greater moisture retention by DFEMs produced cookie samples with softer texture. DFEMs prepared from preharvest dropped apples could be successfully evaluated in a cookie model system as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. This study suggests a new value-added application of preharvest dropped fruits, positively extending their use for better healthful diets. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Filter-Based Dispersion-Managed Versatile Ultrafast Fibre Laser

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Junsong; Boscolo, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    We present the operation of an ultrafast passively mode-locked fibre laser, in which flexible control of the pulse formation mechanism is readily realised by an in-cavity programmable filter the dispersion and bandwidth of which can be software configured. We show that conventional soliton, dispersion-managed (DM) soliton (stretched-pulse) and dissipative soliton mode-locking regimes can be reliably targeted by changing the filter’s dispersion and bandwidth only, while no changes are made to the physical layout of the laser cavity. Numerical simulations are presented which confirm the different nonlinear pulse evolutions inside the laser cavity. The proposed technique holds great potential for achieving a high degree of control over the dynamics and output of ultrafast fibre lasers, in contrast to the traditional method to control the pulse formation mechanism in a DM fibre laser, which involves manual optimisation of the relative length of fibres with opposite-sign dispersion in the cavity. Our versatile ultrafast fibre laser will be attractive for applications requiring different pulse profiles such as in optical signal processing and optical communications. PMID:27183882

  13. Stress strain modelling and analysis of a piezo-coated optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Raweshidy, H.; Ali, H.; Obayya, S. S. A.; Langley, R.; Batchelor, J.

    2005-02-01

    A finite element model, using commercially available software, is presented to simulate the piezoelectrically induced stresses and strains in an optical fibre to be used as antenna. These stresses and strains are generated by a layer of piezoelectric polymer deposited on the cladding of a short fibre sample. The theoretical basis for the work is briefly explained and the modelling process is emphasised. Two types of fibre are investigated - circular fibre and D-fibre, and the results compared, analysed and discussed. It is shown that in the D-fibre, the stress and displacement increased by 1.46 and 115 times, respectively, in comparison with the circular fibre.

  14. Dimensional stability of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced phenolic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Ishak, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this research, pineapple leaves fibre (PALF)/phenolic resin (PF) composites were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) of PALF reinforced phenolic resin composites. Long-term water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) behaviours of the PALF/PF composites were investigated at several water immersion times. The effects of different fibre loading on WA and TS of PALF/PF composites were also analyzed. Obtained results indicated that the WA and TS of PALF/PF composites vary with fibres content and water immersion time before reaching to equilibrium. WA and TS of PALF/PF composites were increased by increasing fibre loading. Results obtained in this study will be used for further study on hybridization of PALF and Kenaf fibre based phenolic composites.

  15. Indirect myosin immunocytochemistry for the identification of fibre types in equine skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rose, R. J.; Pozgaj, I.; Hoh, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The histochemical ATPase method for muscle fibre typing was first described by Brooke and Kaiser in 1970. However, problems have been found with the subdivision of type II fibres using this technique. To determine whether indirect myosin immunocytochemistry using anti-slow (5-4D), anti-fast (1A10) and anti-fast red (5-2B) monoclonal antibodies with cross reactivity for type I, II and IIa fibres, respectively, in a number of species, could identify three fibre types in equine skeletal muscle, data on fibre type composition and fibre size obtained using the two different techniques were compared. Results indicate that different myosin heavy chains can coexist in single equine muscle fibres. Type I and type II fibres were identified by immunocytochemistry, but subdivision of type II fibres was not possible. Although the percentage of type I and type II fibres was not significantly different for the two techniques, a few fibres reacted with both the 1A10 and 5-4D antibodies.

  16. The diagnostic challenge of small fibre neuropathy: clinical presentations, evaluations, and causes.

    PubMed

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Karlsson, Páll; Lauria, Giuseppe; Freeman, Roy; Finnerup, Nanna B; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-11-01

    Small fibre neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting thinly myelinated Aδ-fibres and unmyelinated C-fibres. Although multiple causes of small nerve fibre degeneration have been reported, including via genetic mutations, the cause of small fibre neuropathy remains unknown in up to 50% of cases. The typical clinical presentation of small fibre neuropathy is that of a symmetrical, length-dependent polyneuropathy associated with sensory or autonomic symptoms. More rarely, the clinical presentation is characterised by non-length-dependent, focal, or multifocal symptoms. The diagnostic tests to identify small fibre neuropathy include skin biopsy, quantitative sensory, and autonomic testing. Additional tests, such as those measuring small fibre-related evoked potentials and corneal confocal microscopy, might contribute to a better understanding of these neuropathies. Biochemical markers can also help in screening patients for the presence of small fibre neuropathy and to assess disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of sugar palm yarn/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Khalina, A.; Sapuan, S. Mohd; Rahmah, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of fibre hybridization for sugar palm yarn fibre with glass fibre reinforced with unsaturated polyester composites. In this work, unsaturated polyester resin are reinforced with fibre at a ratio of 70:30 wt% and 60:40 wt%. The hybrid composites were characterized in terms of physical (density and water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural and compression) and thermal properties through thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). Density determination showed that density increased with higher wt% of glass fibre. The inherently higher density of glass fibre increased the density of hybrid composite. Resistance to water absorption is improved upon the incorporation of glass fibre and the hybrid composites were found to reach equilibrium absorption at days 4 and 5. As for mechanical performance, the highest tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and compression strength were obtained from 40 wt% of fibres reinforcement with ratio of 50:50 wt% of sugar palm yarn fibre and glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The increase of glass fibre loading had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties to the composites structure due to its superior strength and modulus. The thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved by the increase of onset temperature and the reduction of residues upon increase in temperature.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: its Generation and Applications in Optical Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culverhouse, David

    1992-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In the work presented in this thesis, the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and its applications in optical fibres is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The study pursues three special cases: (i) Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering in long fibre lengths; (ii) Backward stimulated Brillouin scattering in high finesse all fibre ring resonators; (iii) Forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in dual moded single core fibres. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) occurs for relatively low input powers in monomode optical fibres, as the power density is very high because of the relatively small core size. For applications such as optical communications, SBS is seen as a potentially deleterious effect because it can limit the maximum optical power transmitted by the fibre and hence decrease the distance between repeaters. SBS, however, can also be used to advantage in optical fibres, for example to produce amplification. In this thesis the comprehensive study of SBS in relation to other non-linear scattering mechanisms in optical fibres leads to the derivation of explicit definitions for the Brillouin gain and the Brillouin threshold. The study of SBS in high finesse all fibre ring resonators also demonstrates how threshold powers can be reduced, typically, from milliwatts observed in long fibre lengths to microwatts. Because Brillouin scattering is primarily a result of the interaction of the incident optical beam with spontaneously generated (thermal) fluctuations in the density of the medium, the spectral features show a considerable variation with temperature thus providing a mechanism with sufficient sensitivity to realise tunable microwave generation and frequency shifting devices. Finally, the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a forward direction (FSBS) in dual moded single-core fibre is also reported. Frequency shifts in the order of 17MHz are observed in

  19. Recycling of woven carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites using supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Chase C; Zeng, Changchun; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been great deal of interest in recycling carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer composites. One method that has shown promising results involves the use of supercritical fluids to achieve separation between matrix and fibres by effectively degrading the resin into lower molecular weight compounds. In addition, the solvents used are environmentally benign and can also be recovered and reused. In this study, supercritical water with 0.05 M KOH as the catalyst was used for the recycling of an aerospace-grade high-performance epoxy carbon fibre composite (Hexcel 8552/IM7). The morphology of the reclaimed fibres was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the tensile properties of the fibres were measured by single filament testing. The effects of processing time on the resin elimination efficiency and fibre property retention were investigated. With the process developed in this research, as much as 99.2 wt% resin elimination was achieved, resulting in the recovery of clean, undamaged fibres. The reclaimed fibres retained the original tensile strength. The feasibility of recycling multiple layer composites was also explored.

  20. On the topology of chromatin fibres

    PubMed Central

    Barbi, Maria; Mozziconacci, Julien; Victor, Jean-Marc; Wong, Hua; Lavelle, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The ability of cells to pack, use and duplicate DNA remains one of the most fascinating questions in biology. To understand DNA organization and dynamics, it is important to consider the physical and topological constraints acting on it. In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, DNA is organized by proteins acting as spools on which DNA can be wrapped. These proteins can subsequently interact and form a structure called the chromatin fibre. Using a simple geometric model, we propose a general method for computing topological properties (twist, writhe and linking number) of the DNA embedded in those fibres. The relevance of the method is reviewed through the analysis of magnetic tweezers single molecule experiments that revealed unexpected properties of the chromatin fibre. Possible biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24098838

  1. Birefringence in anisotropic optical fibres studied by polarised light Brillouin reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A S; Burdin, V V; Konstantinov, Yu A

    2015-01-31

    Modal birefringence (the difference between the effective refractive indices of orthogonal polarisation modes) is one of the key parameters of anisotropic single-mode fibres, characterising their ability to preserve a linearly polarised state of input light. This parameter is commonly measured using short pieces of fibre, but such procedures are destructive and allow the birefringence to be determined only at the ends of long fibres. In this study, polarised light Brillouin reflectometry is used to assess birefringence uniformity throughout the length of an anisotropic fibre. (optical fibres)

  2. FT Raman microscopy of untreated natural plant fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Webster, D.

    1997-11-01

    The application of FT-Raman microscopy to the non-destructive analysis of natural plant fibres is demonstrated with samples of flax, jute, ramie, cotton, kapok, sisal and coconut fibre. Vibrational assignments are proposed and characteristic features of each material are presented. Samples were not pre-treated chemically before analysis and were used directly from their respective storage collection; the adaptation of the Raman microscopic technique to the identification of specimens of natural fibres in archaeological burial sites is explored for its forensic potential.

  3. Effect of collagen fibre orientation on intervertebral disc torsion mechanics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; O'Connell, Grace D

    2017-12-01

    The intervertebral disc is a complex fibro-cartilaginous material, consisting of a pressurized nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, which has an angle-ply structure. Disc injury and degeneration are noted by significant changes in tissue structure and function, which significantly alters stress distribution and disc joint stiffness. Differences in fibre orientation are thought to contribute to changes in disc torsion mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibre orientation on internal disc mechanics under compression combined with axial rotation. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) to delineate changes in disc mechanics due to fibre orientation from differences in material properties. FEM simulations were performed with fibres oriented at [Formula: see text] throughout the disc (uniform by region and fibre layer). The initial model was validated by published experimental results for two load conditions, including [Formula: see text] axial compression and [Formula: see text] axial rotation. Once validated, fibre orientation was rotated by [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] towards the horizontal plane, resulting in a decrease in disc joint torsional stiffness. Furthermore, we observed that axial rotation caused a sinusoidal change in disc height and radial bulge, which may be beneficial for nutrient transport. In conclusion, including anatomically relevant fibre angles in disc joint FEMs is important for understanding stress distribution throughout the disc and will be important for understanding potential causes for disc injury. Future models will include regional differences in fibre orientation to better represent the fibre architecture of the native disc.

  4. Nouvelles morphologies de fibres electrofilees de polymere thermosensible =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sta, Marwa

    Ce memoire presente une etude sur la possibilite d'obtenir des membranes a base de polymeres thermosensibles avec differentes morphologies pour des applications d'administration de medicaments. Ces membranes ont ete obtenues par electrofilage du Poly (N vinylcaprolactame) (PNVCL), un polymere thermosensible, soit seul ou en melange avec du Polycaprolactone (PCL), un polymere biodegradable. Les parametres de procede ainsi que les proprietes de la solution a electrofiler ont ete optimises dans le but de creer des fibres de PNVCL lisses, continues et sans perles. Des solutions du melange (PNVCL) / (PCL) ont ete ensuite preparees en suivant quatre methodes differentes de preparation. Ces methodes se basent sur l'emploi de solvants distincts, eau distillee et chloroforme, avec differentes concentrations de polymere, 42wt% et 30wt% respectivement. Ces solutions ont ete electrofilees en utilisant les parametres de procede qui correspondaient aux meilleures conditions pour l'electrofilage du PNVCL. Ensuite, le ketophofene, un medicament hydrophobe, a ete ajoute au PNVCL et au melange PNVCL/PCL avant l'electrofilage afin d'etudier la capacite des fibres de PNVCL et de melanges de retenir le medicament hydrophobe et a en faire sa liberation. Enfin, des fibres noyau-enveloppes ont ete obtenues par electrofilage coaxial, en utilisant une solution aqueuse du melange PNVCL/PCL (42 wt%) pour l'enveloppe et une solution aqueuse du PEG (30 wt%) pour le noyau. Les morphologies des membranes resultantes et de leurs fibres ont ete caracterisees par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). La temperature de solution critique inferieure (LCST) de ces fibres, qui est la temperature en dessous de laquelle le polymere est soluble dans l'eau et au-dessus duquel il precipite, a ete evaluee par calorimetrie differentielle a balayage (DSC). L'efficacite d'encapsulation (EE) et la liberation du medicament ont ete evaluees en utilisant la technique de spectrophotometrie UV-visible. Des coupes

  5. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. R.; Leman, Z.; Sapuan, S. M.; Edeerozey, A. M. M.; Othman, I. S.

    2010-05-01

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  6. Study of the structural and thermal properties of plasma treated jute fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, E.; Rout, S. K.; Barhai, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    Jute fibres ( Corchorus olitorius), were treated with argon cold plasma for 5, 10 and 15 min. Structural macromolecular parameters of untreated and plasma treated fibres were investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the crystallinity parameters of the same fibres were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal behavior of the untreated and treated fibres. Comparison and analysis of the results confirmed the changes in the macromolecular structure after plasma treatment. This is due to the swelling of cellulosic particles constituting the fibres, caused by the bombardment of high energetic ions onto the fibre surface. Differential scanning calorimetry data demonstrated the thermal instability of the fibre after cold plasma treatment, as the thermal degradation temperature of hemicelluloses and cellulose was found lowered than that of raw fibre after plasma treatment.

  7. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of high-fibre rye milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Piotr; Makowska, Agnieszka; Pospieszna, Barbara; Michniewicz, Jan; Paschke, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of consuming more high-fibre cereal-based food products. Therefore, there is a need to discover new ways to improve the overall nutritional balance of refined cereal products and focus on increasing their dietary fibre content, at the expense of readily digestible carbohydrates. Lab-scale milling and sieving of whole rye grain was used to obtain two fractions rich in dietary fibre. The fractions were analysed and compared, in terms of microstructure, chemical com- position and nutritional quality. The two fractions significantly obtained differed in their particle size and contents of minerals, available saccharides, and nutritional fractions of starch and dietary fibre and its major components. The total dietary fibre concentrations in the coarse and fine fractions were 50.0 and 36.0 g/100 g, respectively, i.e. three and 2.2 times higher than that of wholegrain rye flour. Both fractions also differed in their relative proportions of major fibre components. In the fine fraction, the levels of soluble fibre, as well as soluble arabinoxylans and fructans, were significantly higher than those in the coarse fraction. It was shown that the application of a simple dry-fractionation method to wholemeal rye flour allows the preparation of two rye products which can serve as concentrated sources of dietary fibre low in available saccharides.

  8. SpaceFibre Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the future use of SpaceFibre, a high speed optical extension to the SpaceWire, for NASA and DOD missions. NASA, and US industries would like to work with the European developers currently working on this standard.

  9. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view. PMID:29117126

  10. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Swolfs, Yentl

    2017-11-08

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view.

  11. Potential Benefits of Dietary Fibre Intervention in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Celestine; Harris, Philip J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-06-14

    Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD. Postulated mechanisms include direct interactions with the gut mucosa through immunomodulation, or indirectly through the microbiome. Component species of the microbiome may degrade dietary-fibre polysaccharides and ferment the products to form short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Prebiotic dietary fibres may also act more directly by altering the composition of the microbiome. Longer term benefits in reducing the risk of more aggressive disease or colorectal cancer may require other dietary fibre sources such as wheat bran or psyllium. By critically examining clinical trials that have used dietary fibre supplements or dietary patterns containing specific types or amounts of dietary fibres, it may be possible to assess whether varying the intake of specific dietary fibres may offer an efficient treatment for IBD patients.

  12. Fibre-optic sensors in health care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Mignani, Anna; Baldini, Francesco

    1997-05-01

    Biomedical fibre-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of physical, chemical and biochemical parameters and for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fibre-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention paid to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different application fields such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology and dentistry.

  13. Glass Fibre/Epoxy Resin Interface Life-Time Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    RD-Ai32 26 GLASS FIBRE /POXY RESIN INTERFACE LIFE-TIME PREDICTION 1/1 (U) BRISTOL UNIV (ENGLAND) H H WILLS PHYSICS LAB K H RSHBEE ET AL. APR 83...D 3005-MS GLASS FIBRE /EPOXY RESIN INTERFACE LIFE-TIME PREDICTION - Final Report by K H G Ashbee, Principal Investigator R Ho~l J P Sargent Elizabeth...REPORT h PERIOD COVERED. Glass Fibre /Epoxy Resin Interface Life-time F-inal Technical 11’ port PreictonApril 1981 - A:’ril 1983 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  14. All-fibre ytterbium laser tunable within 45 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullina, S R; Babin, S A; Vlasov, A A

    2007-12-31

    A tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser is fabricated. The laser is tuned by using a tunable fibre Bragg grating (FBG) as a selecting intracavity element. The laser is tunable within 45 nm (from 1063 to 1108 nm) and emits {approx}6 W in the line of width {approx}0.15 nm, the output power and linewidth being virtually invariable within the tuning range. The method is proposed for synchronous tuning the highly reflecting and output FBGs, and a tunable ytterbium all-fibre laser is built. (lasers)

  15. Dietary fibre: challenges in production and use of food composition data.

    PubMed

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Brunt, Kommer; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem

    2013-10-01

    Dietary fibre is a heterogeneous group of components for which several definitions and analytical methods were developed over the past decades, causing confusion among users and producers of dietary fibre data in food composition databases. An overview is given of current definitions and analytical methods. Some of the issues related to maintaining dietary fibre values in food composition databases are discussed. Newly developed AOAC methods (2009.01 or modifications) yield higher dietary fibre values, due to the inclusion of low molecular weight dietary fibre and resistant starch. For food composition databases procedures need to be developed to combine 'classic' and 'new' dietary fibre values since re-analysing all foods on short notice is impossible due to financial restrictions. Standardised value documentation procedures are important to evaluate dietary fibre values from several sources before exchanging and using the data, e.g. for dietary intake research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Randomised clinical trial: mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, A; Rao, S S C; Thiruvaiyaru, D; Lee, Y Y; Coss Adame, E; Valestin, J; O'Banion, M

    2016-07-01

    Fibre supplements are useful, but whether a plum-derived mixed fibre that contains both soluble and insoluble fibre improves constipation is unknown. To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium in a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Constipated patients (Rome III) received mixed fibre or psyllium, 5 g b.d., for 4 weeks. Daily symptoms and stool habit were assessed using stool diary. Subjects with ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement/week above baseline for ≥2/4 weeks were considered responders. Secondary outcome measures included stool consistency, bowel satisfaction, straining, gas, bloating, taste, dissolvability and quality of life (QoL). Seventy-two subjects (mixed fibre = 40; psyllium = 32) were enrolled and two from psyllium group withdrew. The mean complete spontaneous bowel movement/week increased with both mixed fibre (P < 0.0001) and psyllium (P = 0.0002) without group difference. There were 30 (75%) responders with mixed fibre and 24 (75%) with psyllium (P = 0.9). Stool consistency increased (P = 0.04), straining (P = 0.006) and bloating scores decreased (P = 0.02) without group differences. Significantly more patients reported improvement in flatulence (53% vs. 25%, P = 0.01) and felt that mixed fibre dissolved better (P = 0.02) compared to psyllium. QoL improved (P = 0.0125) with both treatments without group differences. Mixed fibre and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QoL. Mixed fibre was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better. Mixed fibre is effective and well tolerated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  18. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  19. Slow and fast fatigable frog muscle fibres: electrophysiological and histochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vydevska-Chichova, M; Mileva, K; Todorova, R; Dimitrova, M; Radicheva, N

    2005-12-01

    Continuous activity of isolated frog gastrocnemius muscle fibres provoked by repetitive stimulation of 5 Hz was used as an experimental model for fatigue development in different fibre types. Parameter changes of the elicited intracellular action potentials and mechanical twitches during the period of uninterrupted activity were used as criteria for fatigue evaluation. Slow fatigable muscle fibre (SMF) and fast fatigable muscle fibre (FMF) types were distinguished depending on the duration of their uninterrupted activity, which was significantly longer in SMFs than in FMFs. The normalized changes of action potential amplitude and duration were significantly smaller in FMFs than in SMFs. The average twitch force and velocity of contraction and relaxation were significantly higher in FMFs than in SMFs. Myosin ATPase (mATPase) and succinate dehydrogenase activity were studied by histochemical assessment in order to validate the fibre type classification based on their electrophysiological characteristics. Based on the relative mATPase reactivity, the fibres of the studied muscle were classified as one of five different types (1-2, 2, 2-3, 3 and tonic). Smaller sized fibres (tonic and type 3) expressed higher succinate dehydrogenase activity than larger sized fibres (type 1-2, 2), which is related to the fatigue resistance. The differences between fatigue development in SMFs and FMFs during continuous activity were associated with fibre-type specific mATPase and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  20. Bismuth-doped optical fibres: A new breakthrough in near-IR lasing media

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    Recent results demonstrate that bismuth-doped optical fibres have considerable potential as near-IR active lasing media. This paper examines bismuth-doped fibres intended for the fabrication of fibre lasers and optical amplifiers and reviews recent results on the luminescence properties of various types of bismuth-doped fibres and the performance of bismuth-doped fibre lasers and optical amplifiers for the spectral range 1150 - 1550 nm. Problems are discussed that have yet to be solved in order to improve the efficiency of the bismuth lasers and optical amplifiers. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  1. Influence of fibre reinforcement on selected mechanical properties of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Niewczas, Agata M; Zamościńska, Jolanta; Krzyżak, Aneta; Pieniak, Daniel; Walczak, Agata; Bartnik, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    For splinting or designing adhesive bridges, reconstructive composite structures with increased mechanical properties owing to embedded reinforcement fibres are used. The aim of this article was to determine the influence of glass and aramid fibres on the mechanical strength of composites reinforced with these fibres. Two polymer-ceramic microhybrid materials: Boston and Herculite were tested. Three types of reinforcement fibres were used: aramid (Podwiązka) with a single layer weave, a single layer weave glass fibre (FSO) and triple layer weave glass fibre (FSO evo). Tests were conducted in accordance with the requirements of ISO 4049:2009. The following material types were chosen for research: Boston, Boston + Podwiązka, Herculite, Herculite + Podwiązka, Herculite + FSO and Herculite + FSO evo. The scope of research included: flexural strength B, bending modulus of elasticity εB and work to failure of the reinforced composite Wfb. Additionally, microscopic observations of fracture occurring in samples were made. In comparison: the Herculite (97.7 MPa) type with the Herculite + FSO evo (177.5 MPa) type was characterized by the highest strength. Fibre reinforcement resulted in decreasing the elasticity modulus: Herculite + reinforcement (6.86 GPa; 6.33 GPa; 6.11 GPa) in comparison with the Herculite (9.84 GPa) and respectively Boston + reinforcement (10.08 GPa) as compared with the Boston (11.81 GPa). Using glass fibres increases flexural strength of the test composites. Using aramid fibres does not change their strength. The elasticity modulus of the reinforced reconstructive structures decreases after application of either type of fibres. However, their resistance to the crack initiation increases.

  2. The expression of NFATc1 in adult rat skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Gabriel

    2008-03-01

    Although numerous studies have recently implicated the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Cn-NFAT) signalling pathway in the regulation of activity-dependent fibre type switching in adult mammalian skeletal muscles, little is known about the endogenous expression of NFAT proteins in the various fibre types present in these muscles. In this study, the immunolocalization of NFATc1 (also known as NFATc or NFAT2) in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL; a mainly fast-twitch muscle) and the soleus (a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) muscles of adult ( approximately 90-day-old) Wistar rats was investigated. The results show that NFATc1 is expressed only in oxidative fibres (i.e. type I and type IIA fibres) that stain intensely for succinate dehydrogenase activity irrespective of whether they are from the fast- or slow-twitch muscle. Thus, 99 +/- 4% (n = 7 rats) of the muscle fibres in the soleus and 42 +/- 2% (n = 7 rats) of those in the EDL expressed NFATc1. In the soleus muscle fibres, NFATc1 was localized mainly in the fibre nuclei, whereas in the EDL fibres it was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei. However, no difference in its localization was observed between type I and type IIA fibres in both muscles. Western blot experiments showed that the soleus expressed more NFATc1 proteins than the EDL. From these results, we suggest that NFATc1 controls the number and distribution of both type I and type IIA fibres, as well as the oxidative capacity of adult mammalian skeletal muscles.

  3. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with chrysotile asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, J A; Miller, A; Gordon, R E; Fischbein, A; Kleinerman, J; Langer, A M

    1991-01-01

    The drywall construction trade has in the past been associated with exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. This paper reports a drywall construction worker with 32 years of dust exposure who developed dyspnoea and diminished diffusing capacity, and showed diffuse irregular opacities on chest radiography. He did not respond to treatment with corticosteroids. Open lung biopsy examination showed desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Only a single ferruginous body was seen on frozen section, but tissue examination by electron microscopy showed an extraordinary pulmonary burden of mineral dust with especially high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos fibres. This report emphasises the need to consider asbestos fibre as an agent in the aetiology of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The coexistent slight interstitial fibrosis present in this case is also considered to have resulted from exposure to mineral dust, particularly ultramicroscopic asbestos fibres. Images PMID:1645584

  4. Carbon laminates with RE doped optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miluski, Piotr; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Żmojda, Jacek; Silva, AbíLio P.; Reis, Paulo N. B.; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    A new type of luminescent optical fibre sensor for structural health monitoring of composite laminates (CFRP) is proposed. The Nd3+ doped multi-core doubleclad fibre incorporated in composite structure was used as a distributed temperature sensor. The change of luminescence intensity (Nd3+ ions) at the wavelength of 880 nm (4F3/2 → 4I9/2) and 1060 nm (4F3/2 → 4I11/2) was used for internal temperature monitoring. The special construction of optical fibre was used as it assures an efficient pumping mechanism and, at same time, it increases the measuring sensitivity. The linear response with relative sensitivity 0.015 K-1 was obtained for temperature range from 30 up to 75ºC. The manufacturing process of CFRP with embedded optical fibre sensor is also discussed.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Fibre-Reinforced Composites Tested under Superposed Hydrostatic Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    The carbon fibres were Harwell Type II surface treated with a smn strength of 2240 K1v-2 and a noen diameter of 9.08 Pa. The glans fibres were Owens ... Corning type 810C. The fibres were pulled by means of a slteel cord cast, via a brasum scro, into the end of the 4 fibre b6ndles. The rods produced

  6. Design, development, and performance of the fibres of MOONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinouard, Isabelle; Avila, Gerardo; Lee, David; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Rees, Phil; Taylor, William; Oliva, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph (MOONS) will exploit the full 500 square arcmin field of view offered by the Nasmyth focus of the Very Large Telescope and will be equipped with two identical triple arm cryogenic spectrographs covering the wavelength range 0.64μm-1.8μm, with a multiplex capability of over 1000 fibres. Each spectrograph will produce spectra for 500 targets simultaneously, each with its own dedicated sky fibre for optimal sky subtraction. The system will have both a medium resolution (R 4000-6000) mode and a high resolution (R 20000) mode. The fibres are used to pick off each sub field of 1" and are used to transport the light from the instrument focal plane to the two spectrographs. Each fibre has a microlens to focus the beam into the fibre at a relative fast focal ratio of F/3.65 to reduce the Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD).

  7. Novel shape memory alloy optical fibre connection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillard, G.; Zivojinovic, P.; Cerutti, R.; Godmaire, X. Pruneau; Weynant, E.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the capacity and quality of a shape memory alloy device is demonstrated for installation and connection of 125-μm to 1000-μm optical fibres. The new mechanical splice has the particularity of using a very simple tool for aligning and holding the cladding of fibres itself without the need of glue. Optimend main characteristics are its small dimensions (few millimetres), reusability, glueless, ruggedness, low temperature variation, heat dissipation and ease of use. These properties are very suitable for many optical fibre applications where both quick and reliable connections are desirable.

  8. Q-switched and mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped fibre laser using a single-multi-single fibre filter and piezoelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Wang; Yunjun Zhang; Aotuo Dong

    2014-04-28

    The active Q-switched and passive mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped all-fibre laser is presented. The fibre laser centre wavelength is located at 1563 nm and determined by the homemade singlemulti- single (SMS) in-line fibre filter. The laser spectrum width is nearly 0.1 nm. The active Q-switched mechanism relies on the polarisation state control using a piezoelectric to press a segment of passive fibre on the circular cavity. The nonlinear polarisation rotation technology is used to realise the passive self-started modelocked operation. In the passive mode-locked regimes, the output average power is 2.1 mW, repetition frequency is 11.96 MHz, and single pulse energymore » is 0.18 nJ. With the 100-Hz Q-switched regimes running, the output average power is 1.5 mW. The total Q-switched pulse width is 15 μs, and every Q-switched pulse is made up by several tens of mode-locked peak pulses. The calculated output pulse energy of the Q-switched fibre laser is about 15 μJ, and the energy of every mode-locked pulse is about 64–68 nJ during a Q-switched pulse taking into account the power fraction propagating between pulses. (lasers)« less

  9. Multiplexing curvature sensors using fibre segment interferometry for lateral vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Thomas; Chehura, Edmon; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic fibre-optic curvature sensing is demonstrated by interrogating chains of fibre segments, separated by broadband Bragg grating reflectors, using range-resolved interferometry (RRI). Four fibre strings, containing four fibre segments each of gauge length 20 cm, are attached to the opposing sides of a support structure and the resulting differential strain measurements allow inference of lateral displacements of a cantilever test object. Dynamic tip displacement resolutions in the micrometre range at an interferometric bandwidth of 21 kHz demonstrate the suitability of this approach for highly sensitive and cost-effective fibre-optic directional vibration measurements of smart structures.

  10. Elastic fibres are broadly distributed in tendon and highly localized around tenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Tyler M; Thompson, Mark S; Urban, Jill; Yu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Elastic fibres have the unique ability to withstand large deformations and are found in numerous tissues, but their organization and structure have not been well defined in tendon. The objective of this study was to characterize the organization of elastic fibres in tendon to understand their function. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize elastic fibres in bovine flexor tendon with fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2 and elastin antibodies. Elastic fibres were broadly distributed throughout tendon, and highly localized longitudinally around groups of cells and transversely between collagen fascicles. The close interaction of elastic fibres and cells suggests that elastic fibres are part of the pericellular matrix and therefore affect the mechanical environment of tenocytes. Fibres present between fascicles are likely part of the endotenon sheath, which enhances sliding between adjacent collagen bundles. These results demonstrate that elastic fibres are highly localized in tendon and may play an important role in cellular function and contribute to the tissue mechanics of the endotenon sheath. PMID:23587025

  11. What holds paper together: Nanometre scale exploration of bonding between paper fibres

    PubMed Central

    Schmied, Franz J.; Teichert, Christian; Kappel, Lisbeth; Hirn, Ulrich; Bauer, Wolfgang; Schennach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Paper, a man-made material that has been used for hundreds of years, is a network of natural cellulosic fibres. To a large extent, it is the strength of bonding between these individual fibres that controls the strength of paper. Using atomic force microscopy, we explore here the mechanical properties of individual fibre-fibre bonds on the nanometre scale. A single fibre-fibre bond is loaded with a calibrated cantilever statically and dynamically until the bond breaks. Besides the calculation of the total energy input, time dependent processes such as creep and relaxation are studied. Through the nanometre scale investigation of the formerly bonded area, we show that fibrils or fibril bundles play a crucial role in fibre-fibre bonding because they act as bridging elements. With this knowledge, new fabrication routes can be deduced to increase the strength of an ancient product that is in fact an overlooked high-tech material. PMID:23969946

  12. Enhancement of Spartium junceum L. fibres properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Z.; Bischof, S.; Antonović, A.

    2017-10-01

    Properties of lignocellulosic Spartium junceum L. (SJL) fibres were investigated in order to use them as reinforcement in composite material production. The fibres were obtained by microwave maceration process and additionally modified with NaOH, nanoclay and citric acid with the aim to improve their mechanical, thermal and other physical-chemical properties. Tensile and thermal properties of these natural fibres were enhanced by the different modification treatment which is investigated by the Vibrodyn/Vibroskop method and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), whilst determination of chemical composition and fibre’s surface properties were explored using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elektrokinetic analyser. All the results show great improvement of nanoclay/citric acid modified SJL properties.

  13. TAIPAN fibre feed and spectrograph: engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, Nicholas F.; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Content, Robert; Churilov, Vladimir; Case, Scott; Brown, Rebecca; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuehn, Kyler; Pai, Naveen; Klauser, Urs; Nichani, Vijay; Waller, Lew

    2016-07-01

    TAIPAN will conduct a stellar and galaxy survey of the Southern sky. The TAIPAN positioner is being developed as a prototype for the MANIFEST instrument on the GMT. The TAIPAN Spectrograph is an AAO designed all-refractive 2-arm design that delivers a spectral resolution of R>2000 over the wavelength range 370-870 nm. It is fed by a custom fibre cable from the TAIPAN Starbugs positioner. The design for TAIPAN incorporates 150 optical fibres (with an upgrade path to 300). Presented is an engineering overview of the UKST Fibre Cable design used to support Starbugs, the custom slit design, and the overall design and build plan for the TAIPAN Spectrograph.

  14. Neonatal myosin in bovine and pig tensor tympani muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Scapolo, P A; Rowlerson, A; Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A

    1991-01-01

    In previous studies of middle ear muscles, the classification of fibre types by histochemical methods was particularly difficult in the bovine and porcine tensor tympani muscle, suggesting the presence of immature fibres. We therefore reexamined the tensor tympani from pigs and cattle of various ages immunohistochemically, using a panel of antimyosin antibodies, including one (anti-NE) specific for neonatal and embryonic myosins. Fibres positive to anti-NE were found in tensor tympani in both species in all ages examined; only a few of these fibres reacted exclusively with this antibody; some also contained slow myosin and the majority also contained adult fast (type IIA) myosin. Furthermore, although the remaining fibres included some of the classical types I and IIA, the majority of them showed a mismatch between their histochemical and immunohistochemical profiles. The morphological appearance of the muscle, the widespread presence of neonatal myosin (often together with another myosin in the same fibre) and the persistence of this composition from birth to adulthood, could be explained by an incomplete development of the muscle fibres, resulting in a 'muscle' much better suited to the role of a ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1810932

  15. CARMENES in SPIE 2014. Building a fibre link for CARMENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürmer, J.; Stahl, O.; Schwab, C.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Optical fibres have successfully been used to couple high-resolution spectrographs to telescopes for many years. As they allow the instrument to be placed in a stable and isolated location, they decouple the spectrograph from environmental influences. Fibres also provide a substantial increase in stability of the input illumination of the spectrograph, which makes them a key optical element of the two high-resolution spectrographs of CARMENES. The optical properties of appropriate fibres are investigated, especially their scrambling and focal ratio degradation (FRD) behaviour. In the laboratory the output illumination of various fibres is characterized and different methods to increase the scrambling of the fibre link are tested and compared. In particular, a combination of fibres with different core shapes shows a very good scrambling performance. The near-field (NF) shows an extremely low sensitivity to the exact coupling conditions of the fibre. However, small changes in the far-field (FF) can still be seen. Related optical simulations of the stability performance of the two spectrographs are presented. The simulations focus on the influence of the non-perfect illumination stabilization in the far-field of the fibre on the radial velocity stability of the spectrographs. We use ZEMAX models of the spectrographs to simulate how the barycentres of the spots move depending on the FF illumination pattern and therefore how the radial velocity is affected by a variation of the spectrograph illumination. This method allows to establish a quantitative link between the results of the measurements of the optical properties of fibres on the one hand and the radial velocity precision on the other. The results provide a strong indication that 1ms?1 precision can be reached using a circular-octagonal fibre link even without the use of an optical double scrambler, which has successfully been used in other high-resolution spectrographs. Given the typical throughput of an optical

  16. Photonic bandgap single-mode optical fibre with ytterbium-doped silica glass core

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, O N; Semenov, S L; Vel'miskin, V V

    2011-01-24

    A photonic bandgap fibre with an ytterbium-doped silica glass core is fabricated and investigated. The possibility of implementing single-mode operation of such fibres in a wide spectral range at a large (above 20 {mu}m) mode field diameter makes them promising for fibre lasers and amplifiers. To ensure a high quality of the beam emerging from the fibre, particular attention is paid to increasing the optical homogeneity of the ytterbium-doped core glass. (optical fibres)

  17. On-Line Laser Measurements of the Tension in Thin Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew R. T.; Wiederick, H. D.; Sherritt, S.

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a non-contact method for measuring the tension in a moving nylon fibre. Experiments have been conducted primarily with thin, nylon fibres used in the industrial production of airbags, for which non-destructive tension measurements are critical for ensuring safety standards. The system relies on the standing waves produced as the nylon passes rapidly over a set of two rollers; a laser/photo- diode combination is used to monitor the vibrations between them. A Fourier analysis of the signal generated by a scan of 0.2 sec yields the fundamental frequency of vibration of the fibre. The tension in the fibre is proportional to the square of this fundamental frequency. The present system provides accurate, non-contact measurements of the tension in a moving fibre, and shows promise for industrial application.

  18. Coir fibre toxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R P; Dogra, R K; Bhattacherjee, J W

    1982-03-01

    The biological activity of coir fibre, coir ash and their components were investigated in vitro by measuring the haemolytic activity and macrophage cytotoxicity. In vivo studies carried out by injecting guinea pigs intratracheally with coir fibres resulted in resolving granulomas. The observed haemolytic activity and macrophage cytotoxicity was more marked with coir ash compared with coir fibres. Chemical analysis of coir ash revealed the presence of toxic chemical constituents in appreciable amounts.

  19. Separate influence of dietary carbohydrate and fibre on the metabolic control in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A; Pacioni, D; Genovese, S; Mastranzo, P; Mancini, M

    1984-02-01

    To clarify the separate influences of digestible carbohydrate and of dietary fibre on blood glucose control and serum lipoproteins, 14 diabetic patients (six Type 1 and eight Type 2) were submitted to three weight-maintaining diets for 10 days each: (1) low carbohydrate/low fibre diet with 42% carbohydrate and 20 g fibre; (2) high carbohydrate/low fibre diet (carbohydrate 53%, fibre 16 g); (3) high carbohydrate/ high fibre diet (carbohydrate 53%, fibre 54 g). In comparison with the low carbohydrate/low fibre diet, the 2-h post-prandial blood glucose and the daily blood glucose profile decreased significantly on the high carbohydrate/high fibre diet, without significant changes during the high carbohydrate/low fibre diet. The diet-induced modifications of blood glucose control were similar in both types of diabetic patients (two-way analysis of variance: F = 5.86, p less than 0.02 for dietary treatment and F = 2.09, NS for type of diabetes). Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also decreased after the high carbohydrate/high fibre diet in comparison with the low carbohydrate/low fibre diet (p less than 0.001 for both), while they were not significantly modified after the high carbohydrate/low fibre diet. Again the modifications of low density lipoprotein cholesterol induced by diet were similar in both types of diabetic patients (F = 10.02, p less than 0.005 for dietary treatment and F = 0.14 for type of diabetes, NS). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower after the two test diets than after the low carbohydrate/low fibre diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Advances in laser technology and fibre-optic delivery systems in lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Fried, Nathaniel M; Irby, Pierce B

    2018-06-08

    The flashlamp-pumped, solid-state holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser has been the laser of choice for use in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the past 20 years. However, although the holmium laser works well on all stone compositions and is cost-effective, this technology still has several fundamental limitations. Newer laser technologies, including the frequency-doubled, double-pulse YAG (FREDDY), erbium:YAG, femtosecond, and thulium fibre lasers, have all been explored as potential alternatives to the holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. Each of these laser technologies is associated with technical advantages and disadvantages, and the search continues for the next generation of laser lithotripsy systems that can provide rapid, safe, and efficient stone ablation. New fibre-optic approaches for safer and more efficient delivery of the laser energy inside the urinary tract include the use of smaller-core fibres and fibres that are tapered, spherical, detachable or hollow steel, or have muzzle brake distal fibre-optic tips. These specialty fibres might provide advantages, including improved flexibility for maximal ureteroscope deflection, reduced cross section for increased saline irrigation rates through the working channel of the ureteroscope, reduced stone retropulsion for improved stone ablation efficiency, and reduced fibre degradation and burnback for longer fibre life.

  1. Photonic crystal fibres in biomedical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Skibina, Yu S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Beloglazov, V I

    2011-04-30

    The state of the art in the field of design and study of photonic crystal fibres for biomedical applications is considered and some original results recently obtained by the authors are presented. Optical properties of the fibres that offer prospects of their wide application as biological sensors, 'labs-on-a-chip', and facilities of electromagnetic radiation control in a wide range of wavelengths aimed at designing novel biomedical instrumentation are considered (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  2. PRAXIS: low thermal emission high efficiency OH suppressed fibre spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon; Gers, Luke; Haynes, Roger; Horton, Anthony; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Shortridge, Keith; Staszak, Nick; Trinh, Christopher; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelem, Ross

    2014-07-01

    PRAXIS is a second generation instrument that follows on from GNOSIS, which was the first instrument using fibre Bragg gratings for OH suppression to be deployed on a telescope. The Bragg gratings reflect the NIR OH lines while being transparent to the light between the lines. This gives in principle a much higher signal-noise ratio at low resolution spectroscopy but also at higher resolutions by removing the scattered wings of the OH lines. The specifications call for high throughput and very low thermal and detector noise so that PRAXIS will remain sky noise limited even with the low sky background levels remaining after OH suppression. The optical and mechanical designs are presented. The optical train starts with fore-optics that image the telescope focal plane on an IFU which has 19 hexagonal microlenses each feeding a multi-mode fibre. Seven of these fibres are attached to a fibre Bragg grating OH suppression system while the others are reference/acquisition fibres. The light from each of the seven OH suppression fibres is then split by a photonic lantern into many single mode fibres where the Bragg gratings are imprinted. Another lantern recombines the light from the single mode fibres into a multi-mode fibre. A trade-off was made in the design of the IFU between field of view and transmission to maximize the signal-noise ratio for observations of faint, compact objects under typical seeing. GNOSIS used the pre-existing IRIS2 spectrograph while PRAXIS will use a new spectrograph specifically designed for the fibre Bragg grating OH suppression and optimised for 1.47 μm to 1.7 μm (it can also be used in the 1.09 μm to 1.26 μm band by changing the grating and refocussing). This results in a significantly higher transmission due to high efficiency coatings, a VPH grating at low incident angle and optimized for our small bandwidth, and low absorption glasses. The detector noise will also be lower thanks to the use of a current generation HAWAII-2RG detector

  3. Flexural properties of reinforced date palm fibres concrete in Sahara climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abani, S.; Kriker, A.; Khenfer, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical characteristics of fibres reinforced concrete depend on many factors which are; the conditions of the work, the dosage, the distance between fibres and their orientation and distribution in the concrete. There are also other factors concerns the fibres themselves such as: the proportion of the length of the fibres to their diameter, their nature, the mechanical characteristics and the geometrical form. The main objective of our work is to contribute in the estimation of the vegetable fibres of the palm-trees that exist too much in our region and to introduce them scientifically in the domain of construction with taking into consideration the climatic conditions of the use. In this work, we will study the effect of the palm fibres on the mechanical characteristics of the concrete, such as: the strength of tensile by flexion.

  4. Prediction of Elastic Constants of the Fuzzy Fibre Reinforced Polymer Using Computational Micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Marzena; Lu, Yiling

    2018-05-01

    Computational micromechanics is a useful tool to predict properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers. In this paper, a representative volume element (RVE) is used to investigate a fuzzy fibre reinforced polymer. The fuzzy fibre results from the introduction of nanofillers in the fibre surface. The composite being studied contains three phases, namely: the T650 carbon fibre, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced interphase and the epoxy resin EPIKOTE 862. CNTs are radially grown on the surface of the carbon fibre, and thus resultant interphase composed of nanotubes and matrix is transversely isotropic. Transversely isotropic properties of the interphase are numerically implemented in the ANSYS FEM software using element orientation command. Obtained numerical predictions are compared with the available analytical models. It is found that the CNTs interphase significantly increased the transverse mechanical properties of the fuzzy fibre reinforced polymer. This extent of enhancement changes monotonically with the carbon fibre volume fraction. This RVE model enables to investigate different orientation of CNTs in the fuzzy fibre model.

  5. The potential of natural fibres for automotive sector - review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogorasi, MS; Barbu, I.

    2017-10-01

    Due to environment and sustainability regulation in the last decades considerable performance in green technology in the field of materials science through the development of biocomposites could be noticed. Thus, the development of high-performance materials produced from natural resources expands worldwide. This can be attributed mainly due to their assets compared to their synthetic contourparts like low cost, low weight, less damage to processing equipment, improved surface finish of moulded parts composite, good mechanical properties, biodegradability, abundant and renewable resources. Natural fibres are valuable and versatile resources with multiple advantages. Nowadays all the more, the automotive industry is under increasing pressure to fulfill environmental and performance demands and higher fuel efficiency at competitive costs. Automakers recognize potential in biocomposites if these materials can offer the same performance as traditional composites but with lower weight. Additional they exhibit non-brittle fracture on impact, which is another significant requirement for automotive sector. Other drivers that scores for use of natural fibres reinforced polymer composites (NFRPC) in automotive applications imply reduced waste disposal, reduction of greenhouse gas emission and Life Cycle Consideration. In spite of their benefits, the significant challenge for producers and supplier to handle with natural fiber reinforced polymer composites resides in large inconsistency of their properties. The chemical composition of vegetal fibres relies on several factors comprising fiber variety, time of harvesting, climatic history, soil characteristics and fibre processing technology. All these factors exert an influence on their final properties when used as reinforcements in biocomposite materials. In this review a wide range of issues is addressed with special reference to mechanical properties of fibres, interface adhesion and environmental implication of NFRPC. The

  6. An optimal method for producing low-stress fibre optic cables for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Graham; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ekpenyong, Paul; Jenkins, Daniel; Leeson, Kim; Trezise, Shaun; Butterley, Timothy; Gunn, James; Ferreira, Decio; Oliveira, Ligia; Sodre, Laerte

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of astronomical spectrographs employ optical fibres to collect and deliver light. For integral-field and high multiplex multi-object survey instruments, fibres offer unique flexibility in instrument design by enabling spectrographs to be located remotely from the telescope focal plane where the fibre inputs are deployed. Photon-starved astronomical observations demand optimum efficiency from the fibre system. In addition to intrinsic absorption loss in optical fibres, another loss mechanism, so-called focal ratio degradation (FRD) must be considered. A fundamental cause of FRD is stress, therefore low stress fibre cables that impart minimum FRD are essential. The FMOS fibre instrument for Subaru Telescope employed a highly effective cable solution developed at Durham University. The method has been applied again for the PFS project, this time in collaboration with a company, PPC Broadband Ltd. The process, planetary stranding, is adapted from the manufacture of large fibre-count, large diameter marine telecommunications cables. Fibre bundles describe helical paths through the cable, incorporating additional fibre per unit length. As a consequence fibre stress from tension and bend-induced `race-tracking' is minimised. In this paper stranding principles are explained, covering the fundamentals of stranded cable design. The authors describe the evolution of the stranding production line and the numerous steps in the manufacture of the PFS prototype cable. The results of optical verification tests are presented for each stage of cable production, confirming that the PFS prototype performs exceptionally well. The paper concludes with an outline of future on-telescope test plans.

  7. Meniscus on a shaped fibre: singularities and hodograph formulation.

    PubMed

    Alimov, Mars M; Kornev, Konstantin G

    2014-08-08

    Using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the problem of the capillary rise of a meniscus on the complex-shaped fibres was reduced to a nonlinear problem of determination of a minimal surface. This surface has to satisfy a special boundary condition at infinity. The proposed formulation allows one to interpret the meniscus problem as a problem of flow of a fictitious non-Newtonian fluid through a porous medium. As an example, the shape of a meniscus on a fibre of an oval cross section was analysed employing Chaplygin's hodograph transformation. It was discovered that the contact line may form singularities even if the fibre has a smooth profile: this statement was illustrated with an oval fibre profile having infinite curvature at two endpoints.

  8. Meniscus on a shaped fibre: singularities and hodograph formulation

    PubMed Central

    Alimov, Mars M.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2014-01-01

    Using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the problem of the capillary rise of a meniscus on the complex-shaped fibres was reduced to a nonlinear problem of determination of a minimal surface. This surface has to satisfy a special boundary condition at infinity. The proposed formulation allows one to interpret the meniscus problem as a problem of flow of a fictitious non-Newtonian fluid through a porous medium. As an example, the shape of a meniscus on a fibre of an oval cross section was analysed employing Chaplygin's hodograph transformation. It was discovered that the contact line may form singularities even if the fibre has a smooth profile: this statement was illustrated with an oval fibre profile having infinite curvature at two endpoints. PMID:25104910

  9. Understanding and Improving the Elastic Compressive Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Soy-Based Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sadakat

    Soy-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) were reinforced with fibres of different aspect ratios to improve the compressive modulus. Each of the three fibre types reinforced PUF differently. Shorter micro-crystalline cellulose fibres were found embedded inside the cell struts of PUF and reinforced them. The reinforcement was attributed to be stress transfer from the matrix to the fibre by comparing the experimental results to those predicted by micro-mechanical models for short fibre reinforced composites. The reinforced cell struts increased the overall compressive modulus of the foam. Longer glass fibres (470 microns, length) provided the best reinforcement. These fibres were found to be larger than the cell diameters. The micro-mechanical models could not predict the reinforcement provided by the longer glass fibres. The models predicted negligible reinforcement because the very low modulus PUF should not transfer load to the higher modulus fibres. However, using a finite element model, it was determined that the fibres were providing reinforcement through direct fibre interaction with each other. Intermediate length glass fibres (260 microns, length) were found to poorly reinforce the PUF and should be avoided. These fibres were too short to interact with each other and were on average too large to embed and reinforce cell struts. In order to produce natural fibre reinforced PUFs in the future, a novel device was invented. The purpose of the device is to deliver natural fibres at a constant mass flow rate. The device was found to consistently meter individual loose natural fibre tufts at a mass flow rate of 2 grams per second. However, the device is not robust and requires further development to deliver a fine stream of natural fibre that can mix and interact with the curing polymeric components of PUF. A design plan was proposed to address the remaining issues with the device.

  10. Phase noise cancellation in polarisation-maintaining fibre links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, B.; Vélez López, M. C.; Thoumany, P.; Pizzocaro, M.; Calonico, D.

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of ultra-narrow linewidth laser radiation is an integral part of many challenging metrological applications. Changes in the optical pathlength induced by environmental disturbances compromise the stability and accuracy of optical fibre networks distributing the laser light and call for active phase noise cancellation. Here we present a laboratory scale optical (at 578 nm) fibre network featuring all polarisation maintaining fibres in a setup with low optical powers available and tracking voltage-controlled oscillators implemented. The stability and accuracy of this system reach performance levels below 1 × 10-19 after 10 000 s of averaging.

  11. Development of the fibre positioning unit of MOONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David; Atkinson, David; Beard, Stephen; Cochrane, William; Drass, Holger; Guinouard, Isabelle; Lee, David; Taylor, William; Rees, Phil; Watson, Steve

    2016-08-01

    The Multi-Object Optical and Near-Infrared Spectrograph (MOONS) will exploit the full 500 square arcmin field of view offered by the Nasmyth focus of the Very Large Telescope and will be equipped with two identical triple arm cryogenic spectrographs covering the wavelength range 0.64μm-1.8μm, with a multiplex capability of over 1000 fibres. This can be configured to produce spectra for chosen targets and have close proximity sky subtraction if required. The system will have both a medium resolution (R 4000-6000) mode and a high resolution (R 20000) mode. The fibre positioning units are used to position each fibre independently in order to pick off each sub field of 1.0" within a circular patrol area of 85" on sky (50mm physical diameter). The nominal physical separation between FPUs is 25mm allowing a 100% overlap in coverage between adjacent units. The design of the fibre positioning units allows parallel and rapid reconfiguration between observations. The kinematic geometry is such that pupil alignment is maintained over the patrol area. This paper presents the design of the Fibre Positioning Units at the preliminary design review and the results of verification testing of the advanced prototypes.

  12. Propagation of polarised light in bent hi-bi spun fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V.; Morshnev, S. K.; Starostin, N. I.; Gubin, V. P.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of polarisation states (PS's) of broadband light propagating through a bent optical fibre with a helical structure of its refractive index anisotropy (hi-bi spun fibre) has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that there exists a coordinate system of PS's in which the differential Jones matrix can be replaced by a diagonal matrix, which allows the polarisation parameters of the output broadband light to be readily calculated with sufficient accuracy. We have derived a formula for evaluating the magneto-optical sensitivity of a bent spun fibre. An approach has been proposed for restoring the degree of polarisation of light in a bent hi-bi spun fibre and, as a consequence, the visibility (contrast) of the interferometer in a current sensor with a sensing element based on the fibre under consideration.

  13. The effect of the length of macro synthetic fibres on their performance in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhász, K. P.; Kis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays macro synthetic fibres are able to compete with steel fibres despite their low Youngs Modulus. This is due to their different pull-out mechanism and a larger number of individual fibres per kilo compared to steel fibres. Macro synthetic fibres bond to the concrete along their full length, usually with an embossed surface, while steel fibres are mostly anchored by their hooked ends. If the bond is defined by the length of the embossed surface, logically the longer the synthetic fibre the higher post-crack capacity. In this paper the same type of macro synthetic fibre was researched with different lengths but at the same dosage. The consistency of the fresh concrete together with the quality of the distribution of the fibres have been analysed and compared with the residual strength. After analysing these data the optimum fibre length was able to be determined.

  14. Surface, interphase and tensile properties of unsized, sized and heat treated basalt fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, T.; Sommer, G. S.; Mäder, E.; Scheffler, C.

    2016-07-01

    Recycling of fibre reinforced polymers is in the focus of several investigations. Chemical and thermal treatments of composites are the common ways to separate the reinforcing fibres from the polymer matrices. However, most sizings on glass and basalt fibre are not designed to resist high temperatures. Hence, a heat treatment might also lead to a sizing removal, a decrease of mechanical performance and deterioration in fibre-matrix adhesion. Different basalt fibres were investigated using surface analysis methods as well as single fibre tensile tests and single fibre pull-out tests in order to reveal the possible causes of these issues. Heat treatment in air reduced the fibre tensile strength in the same level like heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere, but it influenced the wetting capability. Re-sizing by a coupling agent slightly increased the adhesion strength and reflected a decreased post-debonding friction.

  15. Self-Sensing Composites: In-Situ Detection of Fibre Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Shoaib A.; Wang, Liwei; Curtis, Paul T.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    2016-01-01

    The primary load-bearing component in a composite material is the reinforcing fibres. This paper reports on a technique to study the fracture of individual reinforcing fibres or filaments in real-time. Custom-made small-diameter optical fibres with a diameter of 12 (±2) micrometres were used to detect the fracture of individual filaments during tensile loading of unreinforced bundles and composites. The unimpregnated bundles were end-tabbed and tensile tested to failure. A simple technique based on resin-infusion was developed to manufacture composites with a negligible void content. In both cases, optical fibre connectors were attached to the ends of the small-diameter optical fibre bundles to enable light to be coupled into the bundle via one end whilst the opposite end was photographed using a high-speed camera. The feasibility of detecting the fracture of each of the filaments in the bundle and composite was demonstrated. The in-situ damage detection technique was also applied to E-glass bundles and composites; this will be reported in a subsequent publication. PMID:27136555

  16. Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, G; Pagé, M; Dumas, L

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers. PMID:6331497

  17. [Consumer knowledge about dietary fibre -- Results of a national questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Harangozó, Júlia; Guiné, Raquel P F

    2016-02-21

    Dietary fibres are key elements of healthy and balanced diet. The aim of the present study was to explore consumers' knowledge considering fibre, their role in the purchasing decisions, and the cognition of the currently used as well as the possible information sources to encourage the fibre consumption. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 303 respondents. Knowledge about the fibre sources has showed a kind of uncertainty of the respondents, while knowledge about their possible health effects was relatively profound. Internet appeared as a remarkable information source in the topic; however, results pointed out the importance of education, too. Participants more often consuming foodstuffs rich in fibre, women and respondents over 45 years old showed conscious attitudes regarding fibres. Guidelines and education containing authentic information and practical elements are essential, and as a result, consumers' latent knowledge will appear in their conscious food choice decisions.

  18. Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Chirality and liquid crystals are both widely expressed in nature and biology. Helical assembly of mesophasic molecules and colloids may produce intriguing chiral liquid crystals. To date, chiral liquid crystals of 2D colloids have not been explored. As a typical 2D colloid, graphene is now receiving unprecedented attention. However, making macroscopic graphene fibres is hindered by the poor dispersibility of graphene and by the lack of an assembly method. Here we report that soluble, chemically oxidized graphene or graphene oxide sheets can form chiral liquid crystals in a twist-grain-boundary phase-like model with simultaneous lamellar ordering and long-range helical frustrations. Aqueous graphene oxide liquid crystals were continuously spun into metres of macroscopic graphene oxide fibres; subsequent chemical reduction gave the first macroscopic neat graphene fibres with high conductivity and good mechanical performance. The flexible, strong graphene fibres were knitted into designed patterns and into directionally conductive textiles. PMID:22146390

  19. Natural fibres actuators for smart bio-inspired hygromorph biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duigou, Antoine; Requile, Samuel; Beaugrand, Johnny; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Castro, Mickael

    2017-12-01

    Hygromorph biocomposite (HBC) actuators make use of the transport properties of plant fibres to generate an out-of-plane displacement when a moisture gradient is present. HBC actuators possess a design based on the bilayer configuration of natural hygromorph actuators (like pine cone, wheat awn, Selaginella lepidophyll). In this work we present a series of design guidelines for HBCs with improved performance, low environmental footprints and high durability in severe environments. We develop a theoretical actuating response (curvature) formulation of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP)/plant fibres based on bimetallic actuators theory. The actuation response is evaluated as a function of the fibre type (flax, jute, kenaf and coir). We demonstrate that the actuation is directly related to the fibre microstructure and its biochemical composition. The jute and flax fibres appear to be the best candidates for use in HBCs. Flax/MAPP and jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit similar actuating behaviours during the sorption phase (amplitude and speed), but different desorption characteristics due to the combined effect of the lumen size, fibre division and biochemical composition on the desorption mechanism. During hygromechanical fatigue tests the jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit a drastic improvement in durability compared to their flax counterparts. We also provide a demonstration on how HBCs can be used to trigger deployment of more complex structures based on Origami and Kirigami designs.

  20. Effect of the doped fibre length on soliton pulses of a bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Alwi Kutty, N A; Zulkifli, M Z

    A passively bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fibre (EDF) as a gain medium. To accomplish mode-locked operation in a short cavity, use is made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber. Soliton pulses are obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm with a repetition rate ranging from 43.92 MHz to 46.97 MHz and pulse width stretching from 0.56 ps to 0.41 ps as the EDF length is reduced from 60 cm to 30 cm. (lasers)

  1. Linkage and association mapping reveals the genetic basis of brown fibre (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Wen, Tianwang; Wu, Mi; Shen, Chao; Gao, Bin; Zhu, De; Zhang, Xianlong; You, Chunyuan; Lin, Zhongxu

    2018-02-24

    Brown fibre cotton is an environmental-friendly resource that plays a key role in the textile industry. However, the fibre quality and yield of natural brown cotton are poor, and fundamental research on brown cotton is relatively scarce. To understand the genetic basis of brown fibre cotton, we constructed linkage and association populations to systematically examine brown fibre accessions. We fine-mapped the brown fibre region, Lc 1 , and dissected it into 2 loci, qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. The qBF-A07-1 locus mediates the initiation of brown fibre production, whereas the shade of the brown fibre is affected by the interaction between qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. Gh_A07G2341 and Gh_A07G0100 were identified as candidate genes for qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2, respectively. Haploid analysis of the signals significantly associated with these two loci showed that most tetraploid modern brown cotton accessions exhibit the introgression signature of Gossypium barbadense. We identified 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre yield and 19 QTLs for fibre quality through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and found that qBF-A07-2 negatively affects fibre yield and quality through an epistatic interaction with qBF-A07-1. This study sheds light on the genetics of fibre colour and lint-related traits in brown fibre cotton, which will guide the elite cultivars breeding of brown fibre cotton. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cellulose Fibre-Reinforced Biofoam for Structural Applications

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Jasmina; Voutilainen, Mikko; Virtanen, Pasi; Lassila, Lippo; Fardim, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable material for foam production. In this study, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and variable amounts of cellulose fibres were used in the production of bio-based foam. The developed macroporous bio-based architectures were characterised by several techniques, including porosity measurements, nanoindentation testing, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the introduction of cellulose fibres during the foaming process was necessary to create the three-dimensional polymer foams. Using cellulose fibres has potential as a foam stabiliser because it obstructs the drainage of liquid from the film region in these gas-oil interfaces while simultaneously acting as a reinforcing agent in the polymer foam. The resulting foams possessed a porosity of approximately 56%, and the incorporation of cellulose fibres did not affect thermal behaviour. Scanning electron micrographs showed randomly oriented pores with irregular shapes and non-uniform pore size throughout the samples. PMID:28772981

  3. The number of satellite cells in slow and fast fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Fawzi; Charifi, Nadia; Henriksson, Jan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of satellite cells in slow (type I fibres) and fast (type II fibres) fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle. This muscle is characterised by a mixed fibre type composition and is considered as the site of choice for biopsies in research work and for clinical diagnosis. Biopsy samples were obtained from five healthy young volunteers and a total of 1,747 type I fibres and 1,760 type II fibres were assessed. Satellite cells and fibre type composition were studied on serial muscle cross-sections stained with specific monoclonal antibodies. From a total of 218 satellite cells, 116 satellite cells were found in contact with type I fibres (53.6+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type I fibres) and 102 satellite cells in contact with type II fibres (46.4+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type II fibres). There was no significant difference (P=0.4) between the percentages of satellite cells in contact with type I and with type II fibres. Additionally, there was no relationship between the mean number of satellite cells per fibre and the mean cross-sectional area of muscle fibres. In conclusion, our results show that there is no fibre type-specific distribution of satellite cells in a human skeletal muscle with mixed fibre type composition.

  4. Dynamic simulations of the inhomogeneous sedimentation of rigid fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2002-10-01

    We have simulated the dynamics of suspensions of fibres sedimenting in the limit of zero Reynolds number. In these simulations, the dominant inter-particle force arises from hydrodynamic interactions between the rigid, non-Brownian fibres. The simulation algorithm uses slender-body theory to model the linear and rotational velocities of each fibre. To include far-field interactions between the fibres, the line distribution of force on each fibre is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the fibre, where only the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution can be specified completely by a centre-of-mass force, a couple, and a stresslet. Short-range interactions between particles are included using a lubrication approximation, and an infinite suspension is simulated by using periodic boundary conditions. Our numerical results confirm that the sedimentation of these non-spherical, orientable particles differs qualitatively from the sedimentation of spherical particles. The simulations demonstrate that an initially homogeneous, settling suspension develops clusters, or streamers, which are particle rich surrounded by clarified fluid. The instability which causes the heterogeneous structure arises solely from hydrodynamic interactions which couple the particle orientation and the sedimentation rate in particle clusters. Depending upon the concentration and aspect ratio, the formation of clusters of particles can enhance the sedimentation rate of the suspension to a value in excess of the maximum settling speed of an isolated particle. The suspension of fibres tends to orient with gravity during the sedimentation process. The average velocities and orientations, as well as their distributions, compare favourably with previous experimental measurements.

  5. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    PubMed

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-09-17

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

  6. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers. PMID:27694981

  7. Comparison of impact strength of acrylic resin reinforced with kevlar and polyethylene fibres.

    PubMed

    Kamath, G; Bhargava, K

    2002-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the impact strengths of heat-activated acrylic resins reinforced with Kevlar fibres, polyethylene fibres and unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin. Each of three groups had 25 specimens. Brass rods of uniform length of 40 mm and diameter of 8 mm were used to prepare the moulds. A combination of long fibres (40 mm length) and short fibres (6 mm length) were used. The total amount of fibres incorporated was limited to 2% by weight of the resin matrix. Short and long fibres of equal weight were incorporated. The short fibres were mixed with polymer and monomer and packed into the mould, while, the long axis of the specimen, perpendicular to the applied force. The specimens were then processed. Impact strength testing was done on Hounsfield's impact testing machine. Kevlar fibre reinforced heat activated acrylic resin specimens recorded higher mean impact strength of 0.8464 Joules, while polyethylene fibres reinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.7596 joules. The unreinforced heat activated acrylic resin recorded mean impact strength of 0.3440 Joules.

  8. Motoneuron firing and isomyosin type of muscle fibres in prior polio.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, K; Borg, J; Dhoot, G; Edström, L; Grimby, L; Thornell, L E

    1989-01-01

    In patients with prior polio there was an excessive use of remaining motor units and an absence of type II muscle fibres in the tibialis anterior (TA). In the present study, eight subjects with prior polio with more than 90% type I fibres in the TA were examined. The aim was to elucidate whether the lack of type II muscle fibres was due to a selective loss of motoneurons with high threshold and high axonal conduction velocity or due to a muscle fibre transition from type II to type I. There was no decrease of the proportion of motoneurons with high threshold and high axonal conduction velocity. Monoclonal antibodies against fast and slow myosin heavy chains (MHC) were used as histochemical markers and many muscle fibres of type I according to ATPase stainability showed a binding of both anti-fast and anti-slow MHC. It is suggested that the type I muscle fibre dominance in prior polio subjects with excessive use of TA during walking is due to a muscle fibre transition from type II to type I and not to a loss of one class of motor units. Images PMID:2529353

  9. Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, J.; Sommer, K.; Englund, M.

    2001-07-01

    Phosphosilicate fibre gratings can be stabilized at temperatures in excess of 500 °C for sensor applications by optimizing thermal and UV presensitization recipes. Furthermore, the use of 193 nm presensitization prevents the formation of OH absorption bands, extending the use of fibre gratings across the entire wavelength spectrum. Gratings for operation at 700 °C retaining up to 70% reflectivity after 30 min are demonstrated.

  10. Fibre supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and improvement of glucose metabolism: the randomised controlled Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT).

    PubMed

    Honsek, Caroline; Kabisch, Stefan; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Arafat, Ayman M; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Dambeck, Ulrike; Osterhoff, Martin A; Weickert, Martin O; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-06-01

    Insoluble cereal fibres have been shown in large prospective cohort studies to be highly effective in preventing type 2 diabetes, but there is a lack of interventional data. Our 2 year randomised double-blind prospective intervention study compared the effect of an insoluble oat fibre extract with that of placebo on glucose metabolism and incidence of diabetes. A total of 180 participants with impaired glucose tolerance underwent a modified version of the 1 year lifestyle training programme PREvention of DIAbetes Self-management (PREDIAS) and were randomised to receive a fibre supplement (n = 89; 7.5 g of insoluble fibre per serving) or placebo (n = 91; 0.8 g of insoluble fibre per serving) twice daily for 2 years. Eligible participants were men and women, were at least 18 years old and did not report corticosteroid or other intensive anti-inflammatory treatment, fibre intolerance or any of the following disorders: overt diabetes, chronic or malignant disease, or severe cardiopulmonary, endocrine, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, autoimmune or eating disorder. Participants were recruited at two clinical wards in Berlin and Nuthetal. The allocation was blinded to participants and study caregivers (physicians, dietitians, study nurses). Randomisation was conducted by non-clinical staff, providing neutrally numbered supplement tins. Both supplements were similar in their visual, olfactory and gustatory appearance. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied to all individuals. After 1 year, 2 h OGTT levels decreased significantly in both groups but without a significant difference between the groups (fibre -0.78 ± 1.88 mmol/l [p ≤ 0.001] vs placebo -0.46 ± 1.80 mmol/l [p = 0.020]; total difference 0.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; not significant). The 2 year incidence of diabetes was 9/89 (fibre group) compared with 16/91 (placebo group; difference not significant). As secondary outcomes, the change in HbA 1c level was significantly different

  11. The effect of fibre source on the numbers of some fibre-degrading bacteria of Arabian camel's (Camelus dromedarius) foregut origin.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Wright, André-Denis; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2014-10-01

    The total bacterial community of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in fibre-enriched culture of the foregut contents of 12 adult feral camels (Camelus dromedaries) fed on native vegetation in Australia was investigated using quantitative PCR. Foregut contents were collected postmortem, pooled and filtered before divided into two fractions. One fraction was used for extraction of DNA, while the other fraction was inoculated straight away into BM 10 contained filter paper (FP), cotton thread (CT) or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as the sole carbohydrate sources in Hungate tubes. The tubes were incubated anaerobically at 39 °C for 1 week. After a near complete degradation of the FP and CT and extensive turbidity in the NDF, media subculturing was carried out into fresh media tubes. This was repeated twice before genomic DNA was extracted and used for quantification of bacteria. Using an absolute quantification method, the numbers of cells in 1 ml of each sample ranged from 4.07 × 10(6) to 2.73 × 10(9) for total bacteria, 1.34 × 10(3) to 2.17 × 10(5) for F. succinogenes and 5.78 × 10(1) to 3.53 × 10(4) for R. flavefaciens. The mean cell number of F. succinogenes was highest in the FP enrichment medium at approximately 107-fold, whereas for the R. flavefaciens targeted primer, the NDF enrichment media had the highest mean cell number at approximately 4-fold when compared to the rumen content. The data presented here provide evidence of fibre type preference by the two main fibre-degrading bacteria and would help us understand the interaction between fibre type and fibre-degrading microorganisms, which has ramification on camel nutrition at different seasons and environments.

  12. Optical fibre luminescence sensor for real-time LDR brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulfe, P.; Sullivan, F. J.; O'Keeffe, S.

    2016-05-01

    An optical fibre sensor for monitoring low dose radiation is presented. The sensor is based on a scintillation material embedded within the optical fibre core, which emits visible light when exposed to low level ionising radiation. The incident level of ionising radiation can be determined by analysing the optical emission. An optical fibre sensor is presented, based on radioluminescence whereby radiation sensitive scintillation material, terbium doped gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd2O2S:Tb), is embedded in a cavity of 250μm of a 500μm plastic optical fibre. The sensor is designed for in-vivo monitoring of the radiation dose during radio-active seed implantation for brachytherapy, in prostate cancer treatment, providing oncologists with real-time information of the radiation dose to the target area and/or nearby critical structures. The radiation from the brachytherapy seeds causes emission of visible light from the scintillation material through the process of radioluminescence, which penetrates the fibre, propagating along the optical fibre for remote detection using a multi-pixel photon counter. The sensor demonstrates a high sensitivity to Iodine-125, the radioactive source most commonly used in brachytherapy for treating prostate cancer.

  13. Unhole and open hole compressive behaviours of hybrid Kevlar/glass fibre reinforced silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, Norazean; Jumahat, Aidah

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the effects of hybridization and silica nanoparticles on unhole and open hole compressive behaviours of woven Kevlar/glass fibre hybrid composite laminates. Residual compressive strength and stiffness were determined from an open hole compression (OHC) test conducted according to ASTM D6484-09, whereas the fractured surface behaviour was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silica nanoparticles were mixed into the epoxy resins using vacuum mechanical stirrer. Then, composite laminates were prepared using vacuum bagging method. Three different silica nanoparticles contents (5 wt%, 13 wt% and 25 wt%) were incorporated into the resin system with three different hybrid system (20:80, 50:50 and 80:20 of Kevlar fibres to glass fibres ratio). Results showed that the lowest compressive strength was observed in Kevlar fibre reinforced polymer. Therefore, hybridization of glass fibres with Kevlar fibres reduced the compressive strength of hybrid composites. However, the incorporation of silica nanoparticles into the epoxy resins improved the compressive properties of the hybrid composites. From the observation of the fractured surface, different fracture behaviours were observed in both Kevlar fibre and glass fibre composites. Fibre barrelling and crimping was observed in Kevlar fibres while glass fibres showed a fibre fracture with serrated and rough surfaces.

  14. Activation of structural carbon fibres for potential applications in multifunctional structural supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hui; Diao, Hele; Shirshova, Natasha; Greenhalgh, Emile S; Steinke, Joachim G H; Shaffer, Milo S P; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The feasibility of modifying conventional structural carbon fibres via activation has been studied to create fibres, which can be used simultaneously as electrode and reinforcement in structural composite supercapacitors. Both physical and chemical activation, including using steam, carbon dioxide, acid and potassium hydroxide, were conducted and the resulting fibre properties compared. It was proven that the chemical activation using potassium hydroxide is an effective method to prepare activated structural carbon fibres that possess both good electrochemical and mechanical properties. The optimal activation conditions, such as the loading of activating agent and the burn-off of carbon fibres, was identified and delivered a 100-fold increase in specific surface area and 50-fold improvement in specific electrochemical capacitance without any degradation of the fibre mechanical properties. The activation process was successfully scaled-up, showing good uniformity and reproducibility. These activated structural carbon fibres are promising candidates as reinforcement/electrodes for multifunctional structural energy storage devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Fibre Reinforced Composite Materials Under Impact Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppula, Sravani; Kaviti, Ajay kumar; Namala, Kiran kumar

    2018-03-01

    Composite materials are extensively used in various engineering applications. They have very high flexibility design which allows prescribe tailoring of material properties by lamination of composite fibres with reinforcement of resin to it. Complex failure condition prevail in the composite materials under the action of impact loads, major modes of failure in composite may include matrix cracking, fibre matrix, fibre breakage, de-bonding or de- lamination between composite plies. This paper describes the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced composite material under impact loading conditions through experimental setup. Experimental tests are performed according to ASTM standards using impact testing machines like Charpy test, computerized universal testing machine.

  16. A review of materials engineering in silicon-based optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Noel; Gibson, Ursula; Peacock, Anna C.

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor optical fibre technologies have grown rapidly in the last decade and there are now a range of production and post-processing techniques that allow for a vast degree of control over the core material's optoelectronic properties. These methodologies and the unique optical fibre geometry provide an exciting platform for materials engineering and fibres can now be produced with single crystal cores, low optical losses, tunable strain, and inscribable phase composition. This review discusses the state-of-the-art regarding the production of silicon optical fibres in amorphous and crystalline form and then looks at the post-processing techniques and the improved material quality and new functionality that they afford.

  17. Environment-friendly wood fibre composite with high bonding strength and water resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaodi; Dong, Yue; Nguyen, Tat Thang; Chen, Xueqi

    2018-01-01

    With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations revealed that the excellent performance of the binder might partly be due to the amide linkages and hydrogen bonding between wood fibres and the chitosan-based adhesive. We believe that this strategy could open new insights into the design of environment-friendly wood fibre composites with high bonding strength and water resistance for multifunctional applications. PMID:29765653

  18. Environment-friendly wood fibre composite with high bonding strength and water resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaodi; Dong, Yue; Nguyen, Tat Thang; Chen, Xueqi; Guo, Minghui

    2018-04-01

    With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations revealed that the excellent performance of the binder might partly be due to the amide linkages and hydrogen bonding between wood fibres and the chitosan-based adhesive. We believe that this strategy could open new insights into the design of environment-friendly wood fibre composites with high bonding strength and water resistance for multifunctional applications.

  19. Modelling complex phenomena in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Murray, Graham; Lemke, Ulrike

    2012-09-01

    We present a new model for predicting the performance of fibre systems in the multimode limit. This is based on ray-­-tracing but includes a semi-­-empirical description of Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD). We show how FRD is simulated by the model. With this ability, it can be used to investigate a wide variety of phenomena including scrambling and the loss of light close to the limiting numerical aperture. It can also be used to predict the performance of non-­-round and asymmetric fibres.

  20. Creep of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    Details of the laminat - 5ing technique have already been given elsewhere The nominal thickness of material I composite was 2.5mm. All the other...TEST RESULTS 6 5 DISCUSSION 8 5.1 Composites containing 00 fibres 8 5.2 Multi-plied 90 ± 450 material 80I5,3 Angle-plied ±450 material 9 5.4 The...influence of laminate construction on the creep of CFRP 9 5.5 The relationship between creep strain and time under load in carbon fibre composites 10 6

  1. All-Optical Fibre Networks For Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zientkiewicz, Jacek K.

    1987-09-01

    A topic of the paper is fiber-optic integrated network (FOIN) suited to the most hostile environments existing in coal mines. The use of optical fibres for transmission of mine instrumentation data offers the prospects of improved safety and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The feasibility of optically powered sensors has opened up new opportunities for research into optical signal processing architectures. This article discusses a new fibre-optic sensor network involving a time domain multiplexing(TDM)scheme and optical signal processing techniques. The pros and cons of different FOIN topologies with respect to coal mine applications are considered. The emphasis has been placed on a recently developed all-optical fibre network using spread spectrum code division multiple access (COMA) techniques. The all-optical networks have applications in explosive environments where electrical isolation is required.

  2. Crack Detection in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Structures Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Theory, Model Development and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, G. F.; Mikkelsen, L. P.; McGugan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) structure designed using the emerging damage tolerance and structural health monitoring philosophy, sensors and models that describe crack propagation will enable a structure to operate despite the presence of damage by fully exploiting the material’s mechanical properties. When applying this concept to different structures, sensor systems and damage types, a combination of damage mechanics, monitoring technology, and modelling is required. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate such a combination. This article is divided in three main topics: the damage mechanism (delamination of FRP), the structural health monitoring technology (fibre Bragg gratings to detect delamination), and the finite element method model of the structure that incorporates these concepts into a final and integrated damage-monitoring concept. A novel method for assessing a crack growth/damage event in fibre-reinforced polymer or structural adhesive-bonded structures using embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is presented by combining conventional measured parameters, such as wavelength shift, with parameters associated with measurement errors, typically ignored by the end-user. Conjointly, a novel model for sensor output prediction (virtual sensor) was developed using this FBG sensor crack monitoring concept and implemented in a finite element method code. The monitoring method was demonstrated and validated using glass fibre double cantilever beam specimens instrumented with an array of FBG sensors embedded in the material and tested using an experimental fracture procedure. The digital image correlation technique was used to validate the model prediction by correlating the specific sensor response caused by the crack with the developed model. PMID:26513653

  3. An Integrated DEMATEL-VIKOR Method-Based Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the most appropriate cotton fibre type for yarn manufacturing is often treated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem as the optimal selection decision needs to be taken in presence of several conflicting fibre properties. In this paper, two popular MCDM methods in the form of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and VIse Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are integrated to aid the cotton fibre selection decision. DEMATEL method addresses the interrelationships between various physical properties of cotton fibres while segregating them into cause and effect groups, whereas, VIKOR method helps in ranking all the considered 17 cotton fibres from the best to the worst. The derived ranking of cotton fibre alternatives closely matches with that obtained by the past researchers. This model can assist the spinning industry personnel in the blending process while making accurate fibre selection decision when cotton fibre properties are numerous and interrelated.

  4. Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eldho; Deepa, B; Pothen, L A; Cintil, J; Thomas, S; John, M J; Anandjiwala, R; Narine, S S

    2013-02-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an environmental friendly method for the effective utilization of coir fibre by adopting steam pre-treatment. The retting of the coconut bunch makes strong environmental problems which can be avoided by this method. Chemical characterization of the fibre during each processing stages confirmed the increase of cellulose content from raw (40%) to final steam treated fibres (93%). Morphological and dynamic light scattering analyses of the fibres at different processing stages revealed that the isolation of cellulose nano fibres occur in the final step of the process as an aqueous suspension. FT-IR and XRD analysis demonstrated that the treatments lead to the gradual removal of lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibres. The existence of strong lignin-cellulose complex in the raw coir fibre is proved by its enhanced thermal stability. Steam explosion has been proved to be a green method to expand the application areas of coir fibre. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Integrated DEMATEL-VIKOR Method-Based Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-06-01

    Selection of the most appropriate cotton fibre type for yarn manufacturing is often treated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem as the optimal selection decision needs to be taken in presence of several conflicting fibre properties. In this paper, two popular MCDM methods in the form of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and VIse Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are integrated to aid the cotton fibre selection decision. DEMATEL method addresses the interrelationships between various physical properties of cotton fibres while segregating them into cause and effect groups, whereas, VIKOR method helps in ranking all the considered 17 cotton fibres from the best to the worst. The derived ranking of cotton fibre alternatives closely matches with that obtained by the past researchers. This model can assist the spinning industry personnel in the blending process while making accurate fibre selection decision when cotton fibre properties are numerous and interrelated.

  7. Durability and inflammogenic impact of carbon nanotubes compared with asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Osmond-McLeod, Megan J; Poland, Craig A; Murphy, Fiona; Waddington, Lynne; Morris, Howard; Hawkins, Stephen C; Clark, Steve; Aitken, Rob; McCall, Maxine J; Donaldson, Ken

    2011-05-13

    It has been suggested that carbon nanotubes might conform to the fibre pathogenicity paradigm that explains the toxicities of asbestos and other fibres on a continuum based on length, aspect ratio and biopersistence. Some types of carbon nanotubes satisfy the first two aspects of the fibre paradigm but only recently has their biopersistence begun to be investigated. Biopersistence is complex and requires in vivo testing and analysis. However durability, the chemical mimicking of the process of fibre dissolution using in vitro treatment, is closely related to biopersistence and more readily determined. Here, we describe an experimental process to determine the durability of four types of carbon nanotubes in simulated biological fluid (Gambles solution), and their subsequent pathogenicity in vivo using a mouse model sensitive to inflammogenic effects of fibres. The in vitro and in vivo results were compared with well-characterised glass wool and asbestos fibre controls. After incubation for up to 24 weeks in Gambles solution, our control fibres were recovered at percentages consistent with their known in vitro durabilities and/or in vivo persistence, and three out of the four types of carbon nanotubes tested (single-walled (CNTSW) and multi-walled (CNTTANG2, CNTSPIN)) showed no, or minimal, loss of mass or change in fibre length or morphology when examined by electron microscopy. However, the fourth type [multi-walled (CNTLONG1)] lost 30% of its original mass within the first three weeks of incubation, after which there was no further loss. Electron microscopy of CNTLONG1 samples incubated for 10 weeks confirmed that the proportion of long fibres had decreased compared to samples briefly exposed to the Gambles solution. This loss of mass and fibre shortening was accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity when injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57Bl/6 mice compared to fibres incubated briefly. CNTSW did not elicit an inflammogenic effect in the peritoneal cavity

  8. Durability and inflammogenic impact of carbon nanotubes compared with asbestos fibres

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that carbon nanotubes might conform to the fibre pathogenicity paradigm that explains the toxicities of asbestos and other fibres on a continuum based on length, aspect ratio and biopersistence. Some types of carbon nanotubes satisfy the first two aspects of the fibre paradigm but only recently has their biopersistence begun to be investigated. Biopersistence is complex and requires in vivo testing and analysis. However durability, the chemical mimicking of the process of fibre dissolution using in vitro treatment, is closely related to biopersistence and more readily determined. Here, we describe an experimental process to determine the durability of four types of carbon nanotubes in simulated biological fluid (Gambles solution), and their subsequent pathogenicity in vivo using a mouse model sensitive to inflammogenic effects of fibres. The in vitro and in vivo results were compared with well-characterised glass wool and asbestos fibre controls. Results After incubation for up to 24 weeks in Gambles solution, our control fibres were recovered at percentages consistent with their known in vitro durabilities and/or in vivo persistence, and three out of the four types of carbon nanotubes tested (single-walled (CNTSW) and multi-walled (CNTTANG2, CNTSPIN)) showed no, or minimal, loss of mass or change in fibre length or morphology when examined by electron microscopy. However, the fourth type [multi-walled (CNTLONG1)] lost 30% of its original mass within the first three weeks of incubation, after which there was no further loss. Electron microscopy of CNTLONG1 samples incubated for 10 weeks confirmed that the proportion of long fibres had decreased compared to samples briefly exposed to the Gambles solution. This loss of mass and fibre shortening was accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity when injected into the peritoneal cavities of C57Bl/6 mice compared to fibres incubated briefly. CNTSW did not elicit an inflammogenic effect in the

  9. 3D modelling of the flow of self-compacting concrete with or without steel fibres. Part II: L-box test and the assessment of fibre reorientation during the flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional Lagrangian particle-based smooth particle hydrodynamics method described in Part I of this two-part paper is used to simulate the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with and without steel fibres in the L-box configuration. As in Part I, the simulation of the SCC mixes without fibres emphasises the distribution of large aggregate particles of different sizes throughout the flow, whereas the simulation of high strength SCC mixes which contain steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The capabilities of this methodology are validated by comparing the simulation results with the L-box test carried out in the laboratory. A simple method is developed to assess the reorientation and distribution of short steel fibres in self-compacting concrete mixes during the flow. The reorientation of the fibres during the flow is used to estimate the fibre orientation factor (FOF) in a cross section perpendicular to the principal direction of flow. This estimation procedure involves the number of fibres cut by the section and their inclination to the cutting plane. This is useful to determine the FOF in practical image analysis on cut sections.

  10. Muscle architecture and fibre characteristics of rat gastrocnemius and semimembranosus muscles during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Huijing, P A; van Lookeren Campagne, A A; Koper, J F

    1989-01-01

    Rat gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles have a very different morphology. GM is a very pennate muscle, combining relatively short muscle fibre length with sizable fibre angles and long muscle and aponeurosis lengths. SM is a more parallel-fibred muscle, combining a relatively long fibre length with a small fibre angle and short aponeurosis length. The mechanisms of fibre shortening as well as angle increase are operational in GM as well as SM. However, as a consequence of isometric contraction, changes of fibre length and angle are greater for GM than for SM at any relative muscle length. These differences are particularly notable at short muscle lengths: at 80% of optimum muscle length, fibre length changes of approximately 30% are coupled to fibre angle changes of 15 degrees in GM, while for SM these changes are 4% and 0.6 degrees, respectively. A considerable difference was found for normalized active slack muscle length (GM approximately 80 and SM approximately 45%). This is explained by differences of degree of pennation as well as factors related to differences found for estimated fibre length-force characteristics. Estimated normalized active fibre slack length was considerably smaller for SM than for GM (approximately 40 and 60%, respectively). The most likely explanation of these findings are differences of distribution of optimum fibre lengths, possibly in combination with differences of myofilament lengths and/or fibre length distributions.

  11. Eco-friendly Fibre from Recycled Polypropylene of Bottle Cap Waste and Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soekoco, A. S.; Basuki, A.; Mardiyati

    2016-01-01

    Ecofriendly fibre is one of potential alternatives to fulfill the rising demand in textile material supply which is limited due to the decreasing reserve of oil. Large amount of polypropylene waste from bottle cap and lignin as a byproduct from pulp industry are potential solutions. Grinded polypropylene bottle cap was blended with lignin powder in concentration of 5 wt. % processed by melt spinning at 170° C temperature. The fibres produced have an average diameter 170 and 250 micrometres. In view of the mechanical properties. the tensile strength is 11.9 MPa for fibre with 170 micrometres diameter and 14.7 MPa for fibre with 250 micrometres diameter. Fibre surface morphology was further studied using micron microscope. and the result shows black flocks spread in the fibre. indicating that the lignin does not blend evenly.

  12. Modified glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumei

    A high ratio of strength to density and relatively low-cost are some of the significant features of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) that made them one of the most rapidly developed materials in recent years. They are widely used as the material of construction in the areas of aerospace, marine and everyday life, such as airplane, helicopter, boat, canoe, fishing rod, racket, etc. Traditionally, researchers tried to raise the mechanical properties and keep a high strength/weight ratio using all or some of the following methods: increasing the volume fraction of the fibre; using different polymeric matrix material; or changing the curing conditions. In recent years, some new techniques and processing methods were developed to further improve the mechanical properties of glass fibre (GF) reinforced polymer composite. For example, by modifying the surface condition of the GF, both the interface strength between the GF and the polymer matrix and the shear strength of the final composite can be significantly increased. Also, by prestressing the fibre during the curing process of the composite, the tensile, flexural and the impact properties of the composite can be greatly improved. In this research project, a new method of preparing GFRPCs, which combined several traditional and modern techniques together, was developed. This new method includes modification of the surface of the GF with silica particles, application of different levels of prestressing on the GF during the curing process, and the change of the fibre volume fraction and curing conditions in different sets of experiments. The results of the new processing were tested by the three-point bend test, the short beam shear test and the impact test to determine the new set of properties so formed in the composite material. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface of the new materials after the mechanical tests were performed. By taking advantages of the

  13. Endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein using a bare fibre versus a tulip fibre: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vuylsteke, M E; Thomis, S; Mahieu, P; Mordon, S; Fourneau, I

    2012-12-01

    This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the clinical results of the use of a tulip fibre versus the use of a bare fibre for endovenous laser ablation. In a multicentre prospective randomised trial 174 patients were randomised for the treatment of great saphenous vein reflux. A duplex scan was scheduled 1 month, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Ecchymosis was measured on the 5th postoperative day. In addition, pain, analgesics requirement, postoperative quality of life (CIVIQ 2) and patient satisfaction rate were noted. Patients treated with a tulip fibre had significantly less postoperative ecchymosis (0.04 vs. 0.21; p < 0.001) and pain (5th day) (1.00 vs. 2.00; p < 0.001) and had a better postoperative quality of life (27 vs. 32; p = 0.023). There was no difference in analgesic intake (p = 0.11) and patient satisfaction rate (p = 0.564). The total occlusion rate at 1 year was 97.02% and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.309). Using a tulip fibre for EVLA of the great saphenous vein results, when compared with the use of a bare fibre, in equal occlusion rates at 1 year but causes less postoperative ecchymosis and pain and in a better postoperative quality of life. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fibre consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insufficient fibre consumption has been associated with a increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta that could be attributed to insufficient fibre consumption in 2012. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta attributable to insufficient fibre consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer, and the prevalence of insufficient fibre consumption (< 23 g/d) was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Between 66% and 67% of men and between 73% and 78% of women reported a diet with insufficient fibre consumption. Population attributable risk estimates for colorectal cancer were marginally higher in men, ranging from 6.3% to 6.8% across age groups, whereas in women they ranged from 5.0% to 5.5%. Overall, 6.0% of colorectal cancers or 0.7% of all cancers in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to insufficient fibre consumption. Interpretation: Insufficient fibre consumption accounted for 6.0% of colorectal cancers in Alberta in 2012. Increasing fibre consumption in Alberta has the potential to reduce to the future burden of colorectal cancer in the province. PMID:28401112

  15. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    PubMed

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  16. Development of flax/carbon fibre hybrid composites for enhanced properties.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, H N; Zhang, Z Y; Guthrie, R; Macmullen, J; Bennett, N

    2013-07-01

    Uni-directional (UD) and cross-ply (CP) cellulosic flax fibre epoxy composites were produced by hybridising UD carbon fibre prepreg onto flax system. A compression moulding technique was used to produce both flax and carbon/flax hybridised laminates. The effect of carbon fibre hybridisation on the water absorption behaviour, thermal and mechanical properties of both UD and CP flax specimens were investigated by means of water absorption, tensile, thermogravemetric analysis and flexural testing. The results showed that water absorption behaviour of hybrid samples are markedly improved compared to those without hybridisation. Similarly, the thermal stability, tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites are significantly improved in comparison with UD and CP flax composites without hybridisation. The experimental results suggest that cellulosic flax fibre reinforcement contributed to improve the toughness properties by promoting crack propagation whereas the carbon fibre contributed in improving thermal stability, water absorption behaviour and the overall strength and the stiffness of the hybrid composites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. PMID:24939962

  18. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  20. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G.; Abboud, Zeinab; Bressler, David C.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  1. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the avian adenovirus CELO long fibre

    PubMed Central

    Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Langlois, Patrick; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Avian adenovirus CELO contains two different fibres: fibre 1, the long fibre, and fibre 2, the short fibre. The short fibre is responsible for binding to an unknown avian receptor and is essential for infection of birds. The long fibre is not essential, but is known to bind the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protein. Both trimeric fibres are attached to the same penton base, of which each icosahedral virus contains 12 copies. The short fibre extends straight outwards, while the long fibre emerges at an angle. The carboxy-terminal amino acids 579–793 of the avian adenovirus long fibre have been expressed with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag and the expressed trimeric protein has been purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and crystallized. Crystals were grown at low pH using PEG 10 000 as precipitant and belonged to space group C2. The crystals diffracted rotating-anode Cu Kα radiation to at least 1.9 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected from a single crystal to 2.2 Å resolution. Unit-cell parameters were a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°, suggesting one trimer per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 46%. The long fibre head does not have significant sequence homology to any other protein of known structure and molecular-replacement attempts with known fibre-head structures were unsuccessful. However, a map calculated using SIRAS phasing shows a clear trimer with a shape similar to known adenovirus fibre-head structures. Structure solution is in progress. PMID:16682773

  2. Multiband supercontinuum generation in an air-core revolver fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Yu P.; Pleteneva, E. N.; Okhrimchuk, A. G.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Kosolapov, A. F.; Kolyadin, A. N.; Bufetov, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    Multiband supercontinuum generation in an air-core revolver fibre having a large number of transmission bands in a wide spectral range has been studied experimentally and theoretically for the first time. The fibre fabricated by us possesses unique dispersion and guidance characteristics for radiation transfer from one band to another despite the high losses at the band boundaries. In our experiments, launching 205-fs laser pulses of 110 μJ energy at 1028 nm into the fibre we have obtained a supercontinuum spanning the spectral range from 415 to 1593 nm, with 11 transmission bands. Numerical simulation suggests that, in the case of singlemode propagation of pulses with such energy in the fibre, the supercontinuum may span 14 transmission bands and have a spectral width above three octaves, with a long-wavelength edge at 4200 nm.

  3. Direct versus indirect ACL femoral attachment fibres and their implications on ACL graft placement.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Samuel G; Steineman, Brett D; Haut Donahue, Tammy L; Fontboté, Cristián A; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    To further elucidate the direct and indirect fibre insertion morphology within the human ACL femoral attachment using scanning electron microscopy and determine where in the footprint each fibre type predominates. The hypothesis was that direct fibre attachment would be found centrally in the insertion site, while indirect fibre attachment would be found posteriorly adjacent to the posterior articular cartilage. Ten cadaveric knees were dissected to preserve and isolate the entirety of the femoral insertion of the ACL. Specimens were then prepared and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy to determine insertional fibre morphology and location. The entirety of the fan-like projection of the ACL attachment site lay posterior to the lateral intercondylar ridge. In all specimens, a four-phase architecture, consistent with previous descriptions of direct fibres, was found in the centre of the femoral attachment site. The posterior margin of the ACL attachment attached directly adjacent to the posterior articular cartilage with some fibres coursing into it. The posterior portion of the ACL insertion had a two-phase insertion, consistent with previous descriptions of indirect fibres. The transition from the ligament fibres to bone had less interdigitations, and the interdigitations were significantly smaller (p < 0.001) compared to the transition in the direct fibre area. The interdigitations of the direct fibres were 387 ± 81 μm (range 282-515 μm) wide, while the interdigitations of indirect fibres measured 228 ± 75 μm (range 89-331 μm). The centre of the ACL femoral attachment consisted of a direct fibre structure, while the posterior portion had an indirect fibre structure. These results support previous animal studies reporting that the centre of the ACL femoral insertion was comprised of the strongest reported fibre type. Clinically, the femoral ACL reconstruction tunnel should be oriented to cover the entirety of the central direct ACL fibres

  4. Overlap microtubules link sister k-fibres and balance the forces on bi-oriented kinetochores

    PubMed Central

    Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; Novak, Maja; Polak, Bruno; Vukušić, Kruno; Rüdiger, Jonas; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Milas, Ana; Šumanovac Šestak, Ivana; Risteski, Patrik; Tavano, Federica; Klemm, Anna H.; Roscioli, Emanuele; Welburn, Julie; Cimini, Daniela; Glunčić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Tolić, Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    During metaphase, forces on kinetochores are exerted by k-fibres, bundles of microtubules that end at the kinetochore. Interestingly, non-kinetochore microtubules have been observed between sister kinetochores, but their function is unknown. Here we show by laser-cutting of a k-fibre in HeLa and PtK1 cells that a bundle of non-kinetochore microtubules, which we term ‘bridging fibre', bridges sister k-fibres and balances the interkinetochore tension. We found PRC1 and EB3 in the bridging fibre, suggesting that it consists of antiparallel dynamic microtubules. By using a theoretical model that includes a bridging fibre, we show that the forces at the pole and at the kinetochore depend on the bridging fibre thickness. Moreover, our theory and experiments show larger relaxation of the interkinetochore distance for cuts closer to kinetochores. We conclude that the bridging fibre, by linking sister k-fibres, withstands the tension between sister kinetochores and enables the spindle to obtain a curved shape. PMID:26728792

  5. Effect of fibre treatments on tensile properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/natural rubber/mengkuang leaf fibre (EVA/NR/MLF) thermoplastic elastomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Faiezah; Ismail, Hanafi; Rusli, Arjulizan

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, a great attention has been dedicated to natural fibers as reinforcement for polymer composites. Natural fibers, compared to glass fibers, exhibit better mechanical properties, such as stiffness, impact strength, flexibility and modulus. However, certain drawbacks, such as the incompatibility between fibers and polymer matrices, the tendency to form aggregates during processing and the poor resistance to moisture, reduce the use of these natural fibers as reinforcements in polymers. Several treatments and modifications are being used to improve the adhesion between fibre and matrix. In this work, the effect of bleaching treatments using hydrogen peroxide in the Mengkuang leaf fibre (MLF) was evaluated on tensile properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)/Natural Rubber (NR)/MLF composites. Treated MLF were mixed with the EVA/NR blend in Haake internal mixer at 120 °C and rotor speed of 50 rpm for 10 minutes. Fibre morphology and the fibre/matrix interface ware further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile strength was increased by about 8% as compared to the composites with untreated fibers. The increased adhesion between fiber and matrix was also observed by SEM. Thus, EVA/NR/MLF composites reinforced with the treated fibres exhibited better tensile properties than untreated EVA/NR/MLF composites.

  6. Muscle fibre characteristics and lactate responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lane, R J; Barrett, M C; Woodrow, D; Moss, J; Fletcher, R; Archard, L C

    1998-03-01

    To examine the proportions of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres and the degree of muscle fibre atrophy and hypertrophy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to lactate responses to exercise, and to determine to what extent any abnormalities found might be due to inactivity. Quadriceps needle muscle biopsies were obtained from 105 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and the proportions of type 1 and 2 fibres and fibre atrophy and hypertrophy factors were determined from histochemical preparations, using a semiautomated image analysis system. Forty one randomly selected biopsies were also examined by electron microscopy. Lactate responses to exercise were measured in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). Inactivity would be expected to result in a shift to type 2 fibre predominance and fibre atrophy, but type 1 predominance (23%) was more common than type 2 predominance (3%), and fibre atrophy was found in only 10.4% of cases. Patients with increased lactate responses to exercise did have significantly fewer type 1 muscle fibres (p<0.043 males, p<0.0003 females), but there was no evidence that this group was less active than the patients with normal lactate responses. No significant ultrastructural abnormalities were found. Muscle histometry in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome generally did not show the changes expected as a result of inactivity. However, patients with abnormal lactate responses to exercise had a significantly lower proportion of mitochondria rich type 1 muscle fibres.

  7. The effect of dietary fibre on reducing the glycaemic index of bread.

    PubMed

    Scazzina, Francesca; Siebenhandl-Ehn, Susanne; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2013-04-14

    As bread is the most relevant source of available carbohydrates in the diet and as lowering dietary glycaemic index (GI) is considered favourable to health, many studies have been carried out in order to decrease the GI of bread. The most relevant strategy that has been applied so far is the addition of fibre-rich flours or pure dietary fibre. However, the effectiveness of dietary fibre in bread in reducing the GI is controversial. The purpose of the present review was to discuss critically the effects obtained by adding different kinds of fibre to bread in order to modulate its glycaemic response. The studies were selected because they analysed in vivo whether or not dietary fibre, naturally present or added during bread making, could improve the glucose response. The reviewed literature suggests that the presence of intact structures not accessible to human amylases, as well as a reduced pH that may delay gastric emptying or create a barrier to starch digestion, seems to be more effective than dietary fibre per se in improving glucose metabolism, irrespective of the type of cereal. Moreover, the incorporation of technologically extracted cereal fibre fractions, the addition of fractions from legumes or of specifically developed viscous or non-viscous fibres also constitute effective strategies. However, when fibres or wholemeal is included in bread making to affect the glycaemic response, the manufacturing protocol needs to reconsider several technological parameters in order to obtain high-quality and consumer-acceptable breads.

  8. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Spun microstructured optical fibresfor Faraday effect current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorovsky, Yury K.; Starostin, Nikolay I.; Morshnev, Sergey K.; Gubin, Vladimir P.; Ryabko, Maksim V.; Sazonov, Aleksandr I.; Vorob'ev, Igor'L.

    2009-11-01

    We report a simple design of spun holey fibres and the first experimental study of the magneto-optical response of spun microstructured fibres with high built-in birefringence. Such fibres enable the Faraday-effect-induced phase shift to effectively accumulate in a magnetic field even at very small coiling diameters. For example, the magneto-optical sensitivity of a 5-mm-diameter fibre coil consisting of 100 turns is ~70% that of an ideal fibre, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. Evolution of optical fibre cabling components at CERN: Performance and technology trends analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Meroli, Stefano; Machado, Simao; Ricci, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    CERN optical fibre infrastructure has been growing constantly over the past decade due to ever increasing connectivity demands. The provisioning plan and fibre installation of this vast laboratory is performed by Fibre Optics and Cabling Section at Engineering Department. In this paper we analyze the procurement data for essential fibre cabling components during a five-year interval to extract the existing trends and anticipate future directions. The analysis predicts high contribution of LC connector and an increasing usage of multi-fibre connectors. It is foreseen that single-mode fibres become the main fibre type for mid and long-range installations while air blowing would be the major installation technique. Performance assessment of various connectors shows that the expanded beam ferrule is favored for emerging on-board optical interconnections thanks to its scalable density and stable return-loss.

  10. In vitro acellular dissolution of mineral fibres: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Pollastri, Simone; Bursi Gandolfi, Nicola; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti

    2018-05-04

    The study of the mechanisms by which mineral fibres promote adverse effects in both animals and humans is a hot topic of multidisciplinary research with many aspects that still need to be elucidated. Besides length and diameter, a key parameter that determines the toxicity/pathogenicity of a fibre is biopersistence, one component of which is biodurability. In this paper, biodurability of mineral fibres of social and economic importance (chrysotile, amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite) has been determined for the first time in a systematic comparative way from in vitro acellular dissolution experiments. Dissolution was possible using the Gamble solution as simulated lung fluid (pH = 4 and at body temperature) so to reproduce the macrophage phagolysosome environment. The investigated mineral fibres display very different dissolution rates. For a 0.25 μm thick fibre, the calculated dissolution time of chrysotile is in the range 94-177 days, very short if compared to that of amphibole fibres (49-245 years), and fibrous erionite (181 years). Diffraction and SEM data on the dissolution products evidence that chrysotile rapidly undergoes amorphization with the formation of a nanophasic silica-rich fibrous metastable pseudomorph as first dissolution step whereas amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite show minor signs of dissolution even after 9-12 months.

  11. Optical fibre luminescence sensor for real-time LDR brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulfe, P.; O'Keeffe, S.; Sullivan, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    An optical fibre sensor for monitoring low dose radiation is presented. The sensor is based on a scintillation material embedded within the optical fibre core, which emits visible light when exposed to low level ionising radiation. The incident level of ionising radiation can be determined by analysing the optical emission. An optical fibre sensor is developed, based on radioluminescence whereby radiation sensitive scintillation material, terbium doped gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd2O2S:Tb), is embedded in a cavity of 700μm of a 1mm plastic optical fibre. The sensor is designed for in-vivo monitoring of the radiation dose during radio-active seed implantation for low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, in prostate cancer treatment, providing radiation oncologists with real-time information of the radiation dose to the target area and/or nearby organs at risk (OARs). The radiation from the brachytherapy seeds causes emission of visible light from the scintillation material through the process of radioluminescence, which penetrates the fibre, propagating along the optical fibre for remote detection using a multi-pixel photon counter. The sensor demonstrates a high sensitivity to 0.397mCi of Iodine125, the radioactive source most commonly used in brachytherapy for treating prostate cancer.

  12. The 22nd International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yianbiao; Jin, Wei; Jones, Julian; Tatam, Ralph

    2013-09-01

    In October 2013, the 22nd International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors was held in Beijing, attracting about 500 participants with 417 presentations. The conference began in 1983 in London, and in the subsequent 30 years has defined the subject. The conference is held approximately every 18 months, and rotates between three world regions: Asia/Pacific, Europe and the Americas. The conference is not 'owned' by any learned society or professional institution, but is organized by a self-sustaining international steering committee. This special feature represents the sixth occasion on which Measurement Science and Technology has published papers based on a development of a cross-section of work presented at the conference. The subject of optical fibre sensors has its beginnings in the enabling technologies of the optical fibre itself and the development of laser technologies suitable for practical use in demanding real-world applications. But the real driver for the subject in its early years was in the development of systems for defence applications, most notably for strategic-grade sea-bed hydrophone arrays for submarine detection, and the optical fibre gyroscope (the community has recently celebrated the 35th anniversary of its earliest publication) for aerospace navigation. Both applications continue to be important, but now with extensive civil applications: hydrophones for oil exploration and reservoir monitoring and management, and fibre gyroscopes for applications ranging from those requiring low cost and mass production (such as industrial robots and in agricultural machinery) to the most exotic and highest performance for space applications. The articles in this special feature exemplify the principal themes of the subject: enabling technologies, application-specific developments and systems considerations. In recent years, perhaps the most important—indeed, dominant—enabling technologies have been based on structuring of fibres: longitudinally, as

  13. Electrical properties of toad sartorius muscle fibres in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Dulhunty, A F; Gage, P W

    1973-05-01

    1. The area and circumference of surface fibres of sartorius muscles were measured from photomicrographs of frozen sections of whole muscles, and compared with the values obtained assuming a circular cross-section. The latter assumption gave an over-estimate of the mean area of 28%, but only a 2% over-estimate of the circumference. In isolated, single fibres, the assumption gave over-estimates of 25 and 6%, of area and circumference respectively.2. The passive electrical properties of fibres were different in summer and winter. The mean internal resistivity, membrane resistance and membrane capacitance were 147 Omega.cm, 7.6 kOmega.cm(2) and 4 muF/cm(2) in summer, and 194 Omega.cm, 3.9 kOmega.cm(2) and 6.7 muF/cm(2) in winter, in fibres of comparable diameters in situ. In single fibres in summer, the mean values were 120 Omega.cm, 8.6 kOmega.cm(2) and 3.6 muF/cm(2).3. In glycerol-treated fibres the mean specific membrane capacitance was 1.0 muF/cm(2) in summer and 2.0 muF/cm(2) in winter. The internal resistivity and specific membrane resistance were 167 Omega.cm and 8.9 kOmega.cm(2) in summer, and 232 Omega.cm and 3.9 kOmega.cm(2) in winter.4. Early after-depolarizations were recorded in glycerol-treated fibres which had a low membrane capacitance, did not twitch and showed little ;creep'. Electron micrographs of glycerol-treated fibres showed disruption of the transverse tubular system and sarcoplasmic reticulum.5. After exposure of muscles to 400 mM urea or acetamide for 1 hr, muscle fibres did not twitch and had a reduced membrane capacitance in Ringer solution.

  14. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M

    2016-02-22

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure.

  15. Effects of selected pectinolytic bacterial strains on water-retting of hemp and fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Di Candilo, M; Bonatti, P M; Guidetti, C; Focher, B; Grippo, C; Tamburini, E; Mastromei, G

    2010-01-01

    To study the effect of selected bacterial strains on hemp water-retting and properties of retted fibre. The trials were performed in laboratory tanks. The traditional water-retting process, without inoculum addition, was compared to a process modified by inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic bacteria: the anaerobic strain Clostridium sp. L1/6 and the aerobic strain Bacillus sp. ROO40B. Six different incubation times were compared. Half the fibre obtained from each tank was combed. Micromorphological analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy on uncombed and combed fibres. Moreover, organoleptic and chemical analyses of uncombed fibres were performed. The inoculum, besides speeding up the process, significantly improved the fibre quality. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. The best fibre quality was obtained after 3-4 days of retting with the addition of the bacterial inoculum. Retting is the major limitation to an efficient production of high-quality hemp fibres. The water-retting process and fibre quality were substantially improved by simultaneously inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic strains.

  16. Impact of fibre intake and fibre source on digestibility, gut development, retention time and growth performance of indigenous and exotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, T T B; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E

    2013-05-01

    The impact of fibre level and fibre source on digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, total tract mean retention time (MRT) and growth performance was studied in indigenous Mong Cai (MC) and exotic Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) pigs. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soyabean meal, fish meal and soyabean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF) and were fed ad libitum. A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 27 days. Increased dietary fibre level resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP and gross energy (GE) at the ileum and in the total tract, and in MRT, and an increase (P < 0.05) in the feed conversion ratio and in the weight of the GIT (except for small intestine and caecum). The coefficients of total tract digestibility of fibre fractions were higher in HF diets than in the LF diet, with highest values for diet HF-CR, which had a high proportion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides. MC pigs had longer MRT of digesta than LY pigs (P < 0.05), resulting in higher digestibility at the ileum and in the total tract. Across diets and breeds, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and GE was positively related (R 2 = 0.80 to 0.84) to the MRT of solids, whereas the MRT was negatively related to the DM intake (R 2 = 0.60).

  17. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  18. Fibres Optiques En Therapie Laser Au Contact Du Tissu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, P.; Sabben, G.; Lambert, R.; Berger, F.

    1984-03-01

    Les fibres en quartz, non protegees par un courant de gaz et placees au contact du tissu, peuvent etre utilisees pratiquement indefiniment grace a un "autonettoyage" et une "regenera-tion". Elles provoquent des lesions tissulaires semblables a celles obtenues avec les fibres conventionnelles.

  19. A novel inter-fibre light coupling sensor probe using plastic optical fibre for ethanol concentration monitoring at initial production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Sanober F.; Lewis, Elfed; Pembroke, J. Tony; Chowdhry, Bhawani S.

    2017-04-01

    A novel, low cost and highly sensitive optical fibre probe sensor for concentration measurement of ethanol solvent (C2H5OH) corresponding to bio-ethanol production rate by an algae is reported. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on inter-fibre light coupling through an evanescent field interaction to couple the light between two multimode fibres mounted parallel to each other at a minimum possible separation i.e. < 1mm. The sensor was fabricated using a low cost 1000um plastic optical fibre (POF) and was characterized for real time measurement in the broadband spectrum including visible and near infra-red. The wavelength dependency of this sensor design was also investigated by post processing analysis of real time data and hence the optimum wavelength range determined. The proposed sensor has shown significant response in the range of 0.005 - 0.1 %v/v (%volume/volume or volume concentration) which depicts the high sensitivity for monitoring very minute changes in concentration corresponding refractive index changes of the solution. Numerically, sensor has shown the sensitivity of 21945 intensity counts/%v/v or 109.7 counts per every 0.0050 %v/v.

  20. Fibre optic portable rail vehicle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepak, Stanislav; Cubik, Jakub; Zavodny, Petr; Hejduk, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Davidson, Alan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    During track maintenance operations, the early detection of oncoming rail vehicles is critical for the safety of maintenance personnel. In addition, the detection system should be simple to install at the trackside by minimally qualified personnel. Fibre optic based sensor systems have the inherent advantages of being passive, unaffected by radio frequency interference (RFI) and suffering very low signal attenuation. Such a system therefore represents a good alternative to conventional approaches such as ultrasonic based sensor systems. The proposed system consists of one or more passive fibre trackside sensors and an x86 processing unit located at the work site. The solid fibre connection between sensors and processing unit eliminates the risk of RFI. In addition, the detection system sensors are easy to install with no requirement for electrical power at the sensor site. The system was tested on a tram line in Ostrava with the results obtained indicating the successful detection of all the trams in the monitoring windows using a single sensor. However, the platform allows flexibility in configuring multiple sensors where required by system users.

  1. The role of dietary fibre in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Pituch-Zdanowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Albrecht, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are primarily Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, still remains unclear, while the incidence of IBD is constantly increasing, especially in the industrialised countries. Among genetic, environmental, and immunological factors, changes in the composition of the intestinal microflora and diet are indicated as very important in initiating and sustaining inflammation in patients with IBD. Above all nutrients dietary fibre is an especially important component of diet in the context of IBD. A potentially protective effect of high-fibre diet on intestinal disorders was described as early as in 1973. Several trials performed in animal models of IBD and human studies have reported that supplementation of some types of dietary fibre can prolong remission and reduce lesions of the intestinal mucosa during the course of the disease. This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the effects of dietary fibre in IBD.

  2. Pulsed optical fibre lasers: Self-pulsation, Q-switching and tissue interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf Fathy

    The experimental and theoretical aspects of self-pulsing and dynamics effects of a CW Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser operating near 2 mum are investigated and examined for the first time. Various self-pulsing regimes are observed for a range of pumping rates when the fibre is end-pumped with a high power Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.319 mum in a linear bidirectional cavity. A theoretical model based on pair induced quenching (PIQ) is considered. The quenching effect acts as a saturable absorber or an additional dynamical loss mechanism, this additional absorber then may make the laser system unstable depending on whether the obtained steady-state solution is stable or not. A comparison between measured self-pulsation frequency and calculated relaxation oscillation frequency as a function of pumping rate is presented and discussed. High performance operation of a mechanical shutter Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser operating near 2 mum is observed and presented. A single Q-switched pulse with peak power of 18.5 W and pulse duration at full width half maximum (FWHM) of 300 ns at higher mechanical chopper frequencies of nearly 20 kHz is achieved. The pulse-to-pulse stability was measured and improved to be more less than 5 %. The development, optimisation of the performance and analysis of an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser operating near 2 mum are presented. The shortest pulse duration obtained was 150 ns, giving a highest peak power of 4.1 kW, and is the highest yet reported from any type of active Q-switched fibre laser operating in low order mode. The maximum peak power was obtained for an optimum cavity length of 1.15 meters made up of fibre length, Q-switch crystal and passive space. The pulse train with high pulse-to-pulse stability of 1 % occurred at a range of high repetition rates from 10 to 30 kHz. High energy, high brightness of an electro-optic modulator (EOM) Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser operating

  3. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyu; Vongsanga, Kylie; Wang, Xungai; Byrne, Nolene

    2014-01-01

    Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs). The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre. PMID:28788183

  4. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyu; Vongsanga, Kylie; Wang, Xungai; Byrne, Nolene

    2014-08-28

    Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs). The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre.

  5. Etched Polymer Fibre Bragg Gratings and Their Biomedical Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Ginu; Bhowmik, Kishore; Xi, Jiangtao; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2017-01-01

    Bragg gratings in etched polymer fibres and their unique properties and characteristics are discussed in this paper. Due to the change in material and mechanical properties of the polymer fibre through etching, Bragg gratings inscribed in such fibres show high reflectivity and enhanced intrinsic sensitivity towards strain, temperature, and pressure. The short-term and long-term stability of the gratings and the effect of hysteresis on the dynamic characteristics are also discussed. The unique properties and enhanced intrinsic sensitivity of etched polymer fibre Bragg grating are ideal for the development of high-sensitivity sensors for biomedical applications. To demonstrate their biomedical sensing capabilities, a high-sensitivity pressure transducer that operates in the blood pressure range, and a breathing rate monitoring device are developed and presented. PMID:29027945

  6. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    West, T.G.; Toepfer, Christopher N.; Woledge, Roger C.; Curtin, N.A.; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were “skinned” to remove all membranes leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (Type I) or fast (Type II). The power output of cheetah Type II fibre segments was 92.5 ± 4.3 W kg−1 (mean ±s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (=stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably Type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (P<0.001), 119.7 ± 6.2 W kg−1 (mean ±s.e.,7 fibres). These values are our best estimates of the maximum power output under the conditions used here. Thus the contractile filament power from cheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah. PMID:23580727

  7. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    West, Timothy G; Toepfer, Christopher N; Woledge, Roger C; Curtin, Nancy A; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-08-01

    Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were 'skinned' to remove all membranes, leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature-jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (type I) or fast (type II). The power output of cheetah type II fibre segments was 92.5±4.3 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (the stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (P<0.001), 119.7±6.2 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 7 fibres). These values are our best estimates of the maximum power output under the conditions used here. Thus, the contractile filament power from cheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah.

  8. Changes in contractile activation characteristics of rat fast and slow skeletal muscle fibres during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gregorevic, Paul; Plant, David R; Stupka, Nicole; Lynch, Gordon S

    2004-07-15

    Damaged skeletal muscle fibres are replaced with new contractile units via muscle regeneration. Regenerating muscle fibres synthesize functionally distinct isoforms of contractile and regulatory proteins but little is known of their functional properties during the regeneration process. An advantage of utilizing single muscle fibre preparations is that assessment of their function is based on the overall characteristics of the contractile apparatus and regulatory system and as such, these preparations are sensitive in revealing not only coarse, but also subtle functional differences between muscle fibres. We examined the Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile characteristics of permeabilized fibres from rat fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles at 7, 14 and 21 days following myotoxic injury, to test the hypothesis that fibres from regenerating fast and slow muscles have different functional characteristics to fibres from uninjured muscles. Regenerating muscle fibres had approximately 10% of the maximal force producing capacity (P(o)) of control (uninjured) fibres, and an altered sensitivity to Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) at 7 days post-injury. Increased force production and a shift in Ca(2+) sensitivity consistent with fibre maturation were observed during regeneration such that P(o) was restored to 36-45% of that in control fibres by 21 days, and sensitivity to Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) was similar to that of control (uninjured) fibres. The findings support the hypothesis that regenerating muscle fibres have different contractile activation characteristics compared with mature fibres, and that they adopt properties of mature fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibres in a progressive manner as the regeneration process is completed.

  9. Dietary fibre: influence on body weight, glycemic control and plasma cholesterol profile.

    PubMed

    Babio, N; Balanza, R; Basulto, J; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2010-01-01

    There have been several studies on the effects of dietary fibre on the metabolism. Epidemiologic studies have consistently reported an inverse relationship between dietary fibre and type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular mortality. This review focuses on observational and experimental studies that examine the effect of different types and sources of dietary fibre on body weight, glucose metabolism and lipid profile. From the available evidence, we conclude that clinical studies consistently show that the intake of viscous dietary fibre decreases the low density lipoprotein cholesterol and postprandial glucose levels, and induces short term satiety. However, few clinical trials have demonstrated that the intake of dietary fibre has a positive effect on the control of diabetes and body weight.

  10. Air-clad fibres for astronomical instrumentation: focal-ratio degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åslund, Mattias L.; Canning, John

    2009-05-01

    Focal-ratio degradation (FRD) of light launched into high-numerical aperture (NA) single-annulus all-silica undoped air-clad fibres at an NA of 0.54 is reported. The measured annular light distribution remained Gaussian after 30 m of propagation, but the angular FWHM of the output annulus doubled from 4° after 1 m propagation to 8.5° after 30 m, which is significantly larger than that reported of standard doped-silica fibres (NA < 0.22). No significant diffractive effects were observed. The design of air-clad fibres for broad-band, high-NA astrophotonics applications is discussed.

  11. Growth of Third-Harmonic Signal in Optical Glass Fibre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    harmonic signal In optical glass fibres , illuminated vith 10kV peak pover pulses from A NdYAG lasers has been observed. Broadband fluores.enc from the third...J’T. Al-0002 GROWTH OF THIFRO-HARMVONIC SIGNAL IN OPTICAL GLASS FIORE Irdexim tems 0,rkl f. N motwvij p~ .G For mo i fibres the Sit signal strtd g0r...Amorphous nature of glass ) but with time, as the fibre is illuminated with inltense laser light at 4 w1O6pm, the S1t signal 3rows. What is believed to

  12. TAIPAN instrument fibre positioner and Starbug robots: engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, Nicholas F.; Lawrence, Jon; Brown, David M.; Brown, Rebecca; Zhelem, Ross; Goodwin, Michael; Kuehn, Kyler; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Nichani, Vijay; Waller, Lew; Case, Scott; Content, Robert; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klauser, Urs; Pai, Naveen; Mueller, Rolf; Mali, Slavko; Vuong, Minh V.

    2016-07-01

    TAIPAN will conduct a stellar and galaxy survey of the Southern sky. The TAIPAN positioner is being developed as a prototype for the MANIFEST instrument on the GMT. The design for TAIPAN incorporates 150 optical fibres (with an upgrade path to 300) situated within independently controlled robotic positioners known as Starbugs. Starbugs allow precise parallel positioning of individual fibres, thus significantly reducing instrument configuration time and increasing the amount of observing time. Presented is an engineering overview of the UKST upgrade of the completely new Instrument Spider Assembly utilized to support the Starbug Fibre Positioning Robot and current status of the Starbug itself.

  13. Automatic reconstruction of the muscle architecture from the superficial layer fibres data.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Josef; Cholt, David

    2017-10-01

    Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a muscle plays a significant role in determining the force contribution of muscle fascicles to skeletal movement. This parameter is typically calculated from the lengths of muscle fibres selectively sampled from the superficial layer of the muscle. However, recent studies have found that the length of fibres in the superficial layer often differs significantly (p < 0.5) from the length of fibres in the deep layer. As a result, PCSA estimation is inaccurate. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically reconstruct fibres in the whole volume of a muscle from those selectively sampled on the superficial layer. The method performs a centripetal Catmull-Rom interpolation of the input fibres within the volume of a muscle represented by its 3D surface model, automatically distributing the fibres among multiple heads of the muscle and shortening the deep fibres to support large attachment areas with extremely acute angles. Our C++ implementation runs in a couple of seconds on commodity hardware providing realistic results for both artificial and real data sets we tested. The fibres produced by the method can be used directly to determine the personalised mechanical muscle functioning. Our implementation is publicly available for the researchers at https://mi.kiv.zcu.cz/. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Silk-fibronectin protein alloy fibres support cell adhesion and viability as a high strength, matrix fibre analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Matthew M.; Li, David; Gyune Rim, Nae; Backman, Daniel; Smith, Michael L.; Wong, Joyce Y.

    2017-04-01

    Silk is a natural polymer with broad utility in biomedical applications because it exhibits general biocompatibility and high tensile material properties. While mechanical integrity is important for most biomaterial applications, proper function and integration also requires biomaterial incorporation into complex surrounding tissues for many physiologically relevant processes such as wound healing. In this study, we spin silk fibroin into a protein alloy fibre with whole fibronectin using wet spinning approaches in order to synergize their respective strength and cell interaction capabilities. Results demonstrate that silk fibroin alone is a poor adhesive surface for fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in the absence of serum. However, significantly improved cell attachment is observed to silk-fibronectin alloy fibres without serum present while not compromising the fibres’ mechanical integrity. Additionally, cell viability is improved up to six fold on alloy fibres when serum is present while migration and spreading generally increase as well. These findings demonstrate the utility of composite protein alloys as inexpensive and effective means to create durable, biologically active biomaterials.

  15. 1,4-Bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene doped PMMA fibre for blue range fluorescent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miluski, Piotr; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik

    2018-03-01

    The fluorescent dyes allow new optical applications in polymer-based optical fibre technology. The article presents highly fluorescent 1,4-Bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibre. The multi-peak (422, 450, 488 nm) fluorescence spectrum of the bulk specimen under 355 nm excitation is presented. The polymerization and fibre drawing process is also shown. The fluorescent properties vs. fibre length at excitation 405 nm are investigated. Significant spectrum shape changes and red shift phenomena of individual peaks are presented using one end excitation and fibre cutting method measurements for fibre length 2-90 cm. Obtained attenuation level 0.69 dB/m limits useful fibre length but obtained results can be useful in new polymeric fibers applications (e.g. sensors, light sources).

  16. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  17. Airborne fibre and asbestos concentrations in system built schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Garry; Cottrell, Steve; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarises the airborne fibre concentration data measured in system built schools that contained asbestos insulation board (AIB) enclosed in the support columns by a protective steel casing. The particular focus of this work was the CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system buildings. A variety of air monitoring tests were carried out to assess the potential for fibres to be released into the classroom. A peak release testing protocol was adopted that involved static sampling, while simulating direct impact disturbances to selected columns. This was carried out before remediation, after sealing gaps and holes in and around the casing visible in the room (i.e. below ceiling level) and additionally round the tops of the columns, which extended into the suspended ceiling void. Simulated and actual measurements of worker exposures were also undertaken, while sealing columns, carrying out cleaning and maintenance work in the ceiling voids. Routine analysis of these air samples was carried out by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) with a limited amount of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to confirm whether the fibres visible by PCM were asbestos or non-asbestos. The PCM fibre concentrations data from the peak release tests showed that while direct releases of fibres to the room air can occur from gaps and holes in and around the column casings, sealing is an effective way of minimising releases to below the limit of quantification (0.01 f/ml) of the PCM method for some 95% of the tests carried out. Sealing with silicone filler and taping any gaps and seams visible on the column casing in the room, also gave concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the PCM method for 95% of the tests carried out. The data available did not show any significant difference between the PCM fibre concentrations in the room air for columns that had or had not been sealed in the ceiling void, as well as in the room

  18. Effect of Alkali treatments on physical and Mechanical strength of Pineapple leaf fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Nasir, M.

    2018-01-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is a waste material of pineapple plants. PALF is abundant in amount for industrial purpose, cheap, easily available, high specific strength and stiffness. PALF is contributing a sustainable development in bio-composites as reinforcement material. However, natural fibres are not fully compatible with matrix due to hydrophilic in nature. To enhance the compatibility with matrix, fibres are modified its surface to make good interfacial bonding with matrix. In this research, PALF is treated with 3% and 6% concentration of NaOH for 3h, 6h 9h, and 12h soaking time. Surface modification of fibres was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Single fibre test and diameter of PALF fibres were evaluated the effects of NaOH treatments.

  19. Matching of sarcoplasmic reticulum and contractile properties in rat fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Huong H; Lamb, Graham D

    2006-07-01

    1. The twitch characteristics (fast-twitch or slow-twitch) of skeletal muscle fibres are determined not only by the contractile apparatus properties of the fibre, but also by the time-course of Ca2+ release and re-uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The present study examined, in individual fibres from non-transforming muscle of the rat, whether particular SR properties are matched to the contractile apparatus properties of the fibre, in particular in the case of fibres with fast-twitch contractile apparatus located in a slow-twitch muscle, namely the soleus. 2. Force was recorded in single, mechanically skinned fibres from extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius, peroneus longus and soleus muscles. Using repeated cycles in which the SR was emptied of all releasable Ca2+ and then reloaded, it was possible to determine the relative amount of Ca2+ present in the SR endogenously, the maximum SR capacity and the rate of Ca2+ loading. The sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ and Sr2+ was used to classify the fibres as fast-twitch (FT), slow-twitch (ST) or mixed (< 3% of the fibres examined) and thereby identify the likely troponin C and myosin heavy chain types present. 3. There was no significant difference in SR properties between the groups of FT fibres obtained from the four different muscles, including soleus. Despite some overlap in the SR properties of individual fibres between the FT and ST groups, the properties of the FT fibres in all four muscles studied were significantly different from those of the ST and mixed fibres. 4. In general, in FT fibres the SR had a larger capacity and the endogenous Ca2+ content was a relatively lower percentage of maximum compared with ST fibres. Importantly, in terms of their SR properties, FT fibres from soleus muscle more closely resembled FT fibres from other muscles than they did ST fibres from soleus muscle.

  20. Differentiation of original and regenerated skeletal muscle fibres in mdx dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, John C; Kyprianou, Phillip; Krishan, Kewal; Dhoot, Gurtej K

    2002-07-01

    The differentiation of both original muscle fibres and the regenerated muscle fibres following necrosis in mdx muscles was investigated using immunoblotting and immunocytochemical procedures. Before the onset of necrosis, postnatal skeletal muscles in mdx mouse differentiated well with only a slight delay in differentiation indicated by the level of developmental isoforms of troponin T. Prior to the onset of apparent myopathic change, both fast and slow skeletal muscle fibre types in mdx leg muscles also differentiated well when investigated by analysis of specific myosin heavy chain expression pattern. While the original muscle fibres in mdx leg muscles developed well, the differentiation of regenerated myotubes into both slow and distinct fast muscle fibre types, however, was markedly delayed or inhibited as indicated by several clusters of homogeneously staining fibres even at 14 weeks of age. The number of slow myosin heavy chain-positive myotubes amongst the regenerated muscle clusters was quite small even in soleus. This study thus established that while muscle fibres initially develop normally with only a slight delay in the differentiation process, the differentiation of regenerated myotubes in mdx muscles is markedly compromised and consequently delayed.

  1. On the origin and removal of interference patterns in coated multimode fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Michel, Yazmin; Pulwer, Silvio; Saffari, Pouneh; Ksianzou, Viachaslau; Schrader, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present the experimental investigations on interference patterns, such as those already reported in VIMOS-IFU, and up to now no appropriate explanation has been presented. These interference patterns are produced in multimode fibres coated with acrylate or polyimide, which is the preferred coating material for the fibres used in IFUs. Our experiments show that, under specific conditions, cladding modes interact with the coating and produce interference. Our results show that the conditions at which the fibre is held during data acquisition has an impact in the output spectrum. Altering the positioning conditions of the fibre leads to the changes into the interference pattern, therefore, fibres should be carefully manipulated in order to minimise this potential problem and improve the performance of these instruments. Finally we present a simple way of predicting and modelling this interference produced from the visible to the near infrared spectra. This model can be included in the data reduction pipeline in order to remove the interference patterns. These results should be of interest for the optimisation of the data reduction pipelines of instruments using optical fibres. Considering these results will benefit innovations and developments of high performance fibre systems.

  2. A novel optical fibre doped with the nano-material as InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Lee, Ly Guat; Zhang, Ru

    2007-11-01

    As the key of these optical devices which are widely used in the communication system, high nonlinear optical fibre will play an important role in the future optical fibre communication. With recent growth of nano-technology, researchers are hoping to obtain some kinds of optical fibre by combining the optical fibre with the nanotechnology. According to this current situation, the optical fibre doped with nano-material as InP (indium phosphide) is manufactured by using the MCVD (modified chemical vapor deposition) technology after our comprehensive consideration of many relative factors. Proved by experiments, this novel optical fibre has an excellent waveguide characteristic. After a consideration of the model of this novel optical fibre, its propagation constant β has been simulated by using the FEM (finite element method), and the graphs of presentation of magnetic field of the core are also obtained. In accordance with the results, the effective refractive index n eff = 1.401 has be calculated. Both the calculated result and the simulated graphs are matching well with the test, and this result is a step-stone bridge for future research of nonlinear parameter on this novel optical fiber.

  3. Static Properties of Fibre Metal Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenbeek, M.; van Hengel, C.; Bosker, O. J.; Vermeeren, C. A. J. R.

    2003-07-01

    In this article a brief overview of the static properties of Fibre Metal Laminates is given. Starting with the stress-strain relation, an effective calculation tool for uniaxial stress-strain curves is given. The method is valid for all Glare types. The Norris failure model is described in combination with a Metal Volume Fraction approach leading to a useful tool to predict allowable blunt notch strength. The Volume Fraction approach is also useful in the case of the shear yield strength of Fibre Metal Laminates. With the use of the Iosipescu test shear yield properties are measured.

  4. Changes in the microstructure and properties of aspen chemithermomechanical pulp fibres during recycling.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingjuan; Wang, Rongrong; Li, Dejuan; Wang, Zhaojiang; Zhang, Fengshan; Meng, Qinglin; Qin, Menghua

    2015-03-06

    The effects of recycling on the microstructure and properties of bleached aspen chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) fibres were systematically investigated. The low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and atomic force microscopy results showed that a substantial amount of large pores and most of the very small pores in the fibre wall closed and the fibre surface became less coarse and porous during recycling. The partial cocrystallisation of cellulose microfibrils took place, as reflected in the increment of the cellulose crystallinity and the width of the crystallite in the 0 0 2 lattice plane. These irreversible structural changes caused significant hornification of the recycled fibres, leading to the loss of swelling and bonding capability. The decrease of the tensile index, burst index, and tear index further demonstrated the deterioration of the fibre properties. However, the single-fibre strength considerably increased after recycling, which was mainly due to the enlarged cellulose aggregates in the fibre wall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P; Sygletos, S

    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong couplingmore » regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)« less

  6. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  7. Sealing properties of one-step root-filling fibre post-obturators vs. two-step delayed fibre post-placement.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Raquel; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2010-07-01

    The sealing properties of a one-step obturation post-placement technique consisting of Resilon-capped fibre post-obturators were compared with a two-step technique based on initial Resilon root filling following by 24h-delayed fibre post-placement. Thirty root segments were shaped to size 40, 0.04 taper and filled with: (1) InnoEndo obturators; (2) Resilon/24h-delayed FibreKor post-cementation. Obturator, root filling and post-cementation procedures were performed using InnoEndo bonding agent/dual-cured root canal sealer. Fluid flow rate through the filled roots was evaluated at 10psi using a computerised fluid filtration model before root resection and after 3 and 9mm apical resections. Fluid flow data were analysed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey test to examine the effects of root-filling post-placement techniques and root resection lengths on fluid leakage from the filled canals (alpha=0.05). A significantly greater amount of fluid leakage was observed with the one-step technique when compared with two-step technique. No difference in fluid leakage was observed among intact canals and canals resected at different lengths for both materials. The seal of root canals achieved with the one-step obturator is less effective than separate Resilon root fillings followed by a 24-h delay prior to the fibre post-placement. Incomplete setting of the sealer and restricted relief of polymerisation shrinkage stresses may be responsible for the inferior seal of the one-step root-filling/post-restoration technique. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. X-ray tomographic imaging of tensile deformation modes of electrospun biodegradable polyester fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimcuka, Jekaterina; Obata, Akiko; Sampson, William W.; Blanc, Remi; Gao, Chunxia; Withers, Philip J.; Tsigkou, Olga; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Lee, Peter D.; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan

    2017-12-01

    Electrospinning allows the production of fibrous networks for tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound healing in healthcare. It enables the production of constructs with large surface area and a fibrous morphology that closely resembles the extracellular matrix of many tissues. A fibrous structure not only promotes cell attachment and tissue formation, but could also lead to very interesting mechanical properties. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) is a biodegradable polyester that exhibits large (>400%) elongation before failure. In this study, synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging was performed during tensile deformation to failure on a non-woven fibre mat of P(3HB-co-4HB) fibres. Significant reorientation of the fibres in straining direction was observed, followed by localised necking and eventual failure. From an original average fibre diameter of 4.3 μm a bimodal distribution of fibre diameter (modal diameters of 1.9 and 3.7 μm) formed after tensile deformation. Extensive localised necking (thinning) of fibres between (thicker) fibre-fibre contacts was found to be the cause for non-uniform thinning of the fibres, a phenomenon that is expected, but has not been observed in 3D previously. The data presented here has implications not only in tissue regeneration but for fibrous materials in general.

  9. High-power thulium-doped fibre laser with intracavity dispersion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Aleksandr A.; Chernyshova, M. A.; Chernykh, D. S.; Senatorov, A. K.; Tupitsyn, I. M.; Kryukov, P. G.; Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a scheme for the generation and amplification of pico- and femtosecond pulses in the range 1.93-1.97 μm using thulium-doped silica fibres. Group velocity dispersion (GVD) management in the cavity of the thulium-doped fibre laser oscillator is ensured by a single-mode germanosilicate fibre (75 mol % GeO2 in the core) with a positive GVD. Pulses are obtained down to 200 fs in duration and up to 56 nJ in energy.

  10. Bioinspired self-healing of advanced composite structures using hollow glass fibres.

    PubMed

    Trask, R S; Williams, G J; Bond, I P

    2007-04-22

    Self-healing is receiving an increasing amount of worldwide interest as a method to autonomously address damage in materials. The incorporation of a self-healing capability within fibre-reinforced polymers has been investigated by a number of workers previously. The use of functional repair components stored inside hollow glass fibres (HGF) is one such bioinspired approach being considered. This paper considers the placement of self-healing HGF plies within both glass fibre/epoxy and carbon fibre/epoxy laminates to mitigate damage occurrence and restore mechanical strength. The study investigates the effect of embedded HGF on the host laminates mechanical properties and also the healing efficiency of the laminates after they were subjected to quasi-static impact damage. The results of flexural testing have shown that a significant fraction of flexural strength can be restored by the self-repairing effect of a healing resin stored within hollow fibres.

  11. Packaging and Mounting of In-Fibre Bragg Grating Arrays for Structural Health Monitoring of Large Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    33 Abbreviations CFRP Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer FBG Fibre Bragg Grating FGI Fiberglass International FO... Fibre Optic FOS Fibre Optic Sensor GFRP Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer HDPE High Density Polyethylene LED Light Emitting Diode MHC Mine Hunter...subsequent paragraphs. An operational loads monitoring system for wind turbine blades was demonstrated [7] using FBGs surface-mounted onto glass fibre

  12. High power operation of cladding pumped holmium-doped silica fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Alexander; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian

    2013-02-25

    We report the highest power operation of a resonantly cladding-pumped, holmium-doped silica fibre laser. The cladding pumped all-glass fibre utilises a fluorine doped glass layer to provide low loss cladding guidance of the 1.95 µm pump radiation. The operation of both single mode and large-mode area fibre lasers was demonstrated, with up to 140 W of output power achieved. A slope efficiency of 59% versus launched pump power was demonstrated. The free running emission was measured to be 2.12-2.15 µm demonstrating the potential of this architecture to address the long wavelength operation of silica based fibre lasers with high efficiency.

  13. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure.

    PubMed

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1-3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if present, only extend for a few centimetres from the sheath

  14. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Methods Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Key Results and Conclusions Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1–3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if

  15. The effect of aspect ratio on adhesion and stiffness for soft elastic fibres

    PubMed Central

    Aksak, Burak; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Sitti, Metin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the pull-off stress and stiffness of soft elastic fibres is studied using elasticity and numerical analysis. The adhesive interface between a soft fibre and a smooth rigid surface is modelled using the Dugdale–Barenblatt model. Numerical simulations show that, while pull-off stress increases with decreasing aspect ratio, fibres get stiffer. Also, for sufficiently low aspect ratio fibres, failure occurs via the growth of internal cracks and pull-off stress approaches the intrinsic adhesive strength. Experiments carried out with various aspect ratio polyurethane elastomer fibres are consistent with the numerical simulations. PMID:21227962

  16. Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.

  17. Deposition and retention of inhaled fibres: effects on incidence of lung cancer and mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M

    1994-01-01

    A review of the literature on chronic inhalation studies in which rats were exposed to mineral fibres at known fibre number concentrations was undertaken to examine the specific roles of fibre length and composition on the incidences of both lung cancer and mesothelioma. For lung cancer, the percentage of lung tumours (y) could be described by a relation of the form y = a + bf + cf2, where f is the concentration of fibre numbers and a, b, and c are fitted constants. The correlation coefficients for the fitted curves were 0.76 for > 5 microns f/ml, 0.84 for > 10 microns f/ml, and 0.85 for > 20 microns f/ml. These seemed to be independent of fibre type. It has been shown that brief inhalation exposures to chrysotile fibre produces highly concentrated fibre deposits on bifurcations of alveolar ducts, and that many of these fibres are phagocytosed by the underlying type II epithelial cells within a few hours. Churg has shown that both chrysotile and amphibole fibres retained in the lungs of former miners and millers do not clear much with the years since last exposure. Thus, lung tumours may be caused by that small fraction of the inhaled fibres that are retained in the interstitium below small airway bifurcations where clearance processes are ineffective. By contrast, for mesothelioma, the (low) tumour yields seemed to be highly dependent upon fibre type. Combining the data from various studies by fibre type, the percentage of mesotheliomas was 0.6% for Zimbabwe (Rhodesian) chrysotile, 2.5% for the various amphiboles as a group, and 4.7% for Quebec (Canadian) chrysotile. This difference, together with the fact that Zimbabwe chrysotile has 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than tremolite than Quebec chrysotile, provides support for the hypothesis that the mesotheliomas that have occurred among chrysotile miners and millers could be largely due to their exposures to tremolite fibres. The chrysotile fibres may be insufficiently biopersistent because if dissolution during

  18. Fibre elongation requires normal redox homeostasis modulated by cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Du, Xueqiong; Tu, Lili; Tang, Wenxin; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Maojun; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-05-01

    High-quality cotton fibre equates to a more comfortable textile. Fibre length is an important index of fibre quality. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signalling molecule in the regulation of fibre elongation. Results from in vitro ovule culture suggest that the alteration of fibre cell H2O2 levels affects fibre development. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzyme, and we found that GhAPX1AT/DT encoded one member of the previously unrealized group of cytosolic APXs (cAPXs) that were preferentially expressed during the fibre elongation stage. Transgenic cottons with up- and down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT were generated to control fibre endogenous levels of H2O2 Suppression of all cAPX (IAO) resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in H2O2 level in fibres and oxidative stress, which significantly suppressed fibre elongation. The fibre length of transgenic lines with over-expression or specific down-regulation of GhAPX1AT/DT did not show any obvious change. However, the fibres in the over-expression lines exhibited higher tolerance to oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in fibres at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) of IAO lines identified by RNA-seq were related to redox homeostasis, signalling pathways, stress responses and cell wall synthesis, and the DEGs that were up-regulated in IAO lines were also up-regulated in the 10 DPA and 20 DPA fibres of wild cotton compared with domesticated cotton. These results suggest that optimal H2O2 levels and redox state regulated by cytosolic APX are key mechanisms regulating fibre elongation, and dysregulation of the increase in H2O2 induces oxidative stress and results in shorter fibres by initiating secondary cell wall-related gene expression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Small fibre neuropathy in mitochondrial diseases explored with sudoscan.

    PubMed

    Luigetti, Marco; Primiano, Guido; Cuccagna, Cristina; Bernardo, Daniela; Sauchelli, Donato; Vollono, Catello; Servidei, Serenella

    2018-06-01

    Polyneuropathy in mitochondrial diseases (MDs) is relatively common and widely investigated, but few data are instead reported about small fibres involvement. In order to investigate the involvement of small fibres in MDs we performed extensive neurophysiological test (nerve conduction studies; sympathetic skin response; sudoscan) in 27 patients with genetic diagnosis of MD (7 m.3243A > G; 4 m.8344A > G; 9 single mtDNA deletion; 7 multiple mtDNA deletions). NCS showed a polyneuropathy in 11/27 cases (41%). The incidence was very high in POLG1 (100%), m.8344A > G (75%) and m.3243A > G (43%), while only 11% of patients with single deletion had evidence of large fibres involvement. Sympathetic skin response was abnormal only in three patients (one progressive external ophthalmoplegia with single mtDNA deletion; one patient with m.3243A > G mutation; one patient with POLG1 mutation). Sudoscan revealed the presence of an autonomic small fibres dysfunction in 9/27 cases (33%), most of them (7/9) carrying a single mtDNA deletion. Sudoscan data were also confirmed in a sub-group of patients by laser evoked potentials study. Considering only patients with single mtDNA deletion 7/9 (78%) showed abnormal results at sudoscan. Small fibre neuropathy is another feature to investigate in mitochondrial diseases and seems specifically associated with the presence of single mtDNA deletion. The correct identification through specific neurophysiological tests of small fibres involvement in MDs represents another tile in this challenging diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Turbulence hierarchy in a random fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    González, Iván R. Roa; Lima, Bismarck C.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Brum, Arthur A.; Macêdo, Antônio M. S.; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.; de S. Menezes, Leonardo; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Kashyap, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Turbulence is a challenging feature common to a wide range of complex phenomena. Random fibre lasers are a special class of lasers in which the feedback arises from multiple scattering in a one-dimensional disordered cavity-less medium. Here we report on statistical signatures of turbulence in the distribution of intensity fluctuations in a continuous-wave-pumped erbium-based random fibre laser, with random Bragg grating scatterers. The distribution of intensity fluctuations in an extensive data set exhibits three qualitatively distinct behaviours: a Gaussian regime below threshold, a mixture of two distributions with exponentially decaying tails near the threshold and a mixture of distributions with stretched-exponential tails above threshold. All distributions are well described by a hierarchical stochastic model that incorporates Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence, which includes energy cascade and the intermittence phenomenon. Our findings have implications for explaining the remarkably challenging turbulent behaviour in photonics, using a random fibre laser as the experimental platform. PMID:28561064

  1. Comparative characterization of nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in Abelmoschus manihot roots, stems, leaves and flowers during different growth periods by UPLC-TQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Du, Le-Yue; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-Xin; Guo, Jian-Ming; Liu, Pei; Su, Shu-Lan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases have been proven as important bioactive compounds related to many physiological processes. Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medicus from the family of Malvaceae is an annual herbal plant of folk medicine widely distributed in Oceania and Asia. However, up to now, no detailed information could be available for the types and contents of nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases contained in A. manihot roots, stems, leaves as well as the flowers. In the present study, an UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method was established for detection of the twelve nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases. The validated method was successfully applied to identify the 12 analytes in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods. 2'-deoxyinosine was not detected in all of the A. manihot samples. The data demonstrated that the distribution and concentration of the 12 compounds in A. manihot four parts were arranged in a decreasing order as leaf>flower>stem>root. Based on the results, the leaves and flowers of A. manihot could be developed as health products possessed nutraceutical and bioactive properties in the future. This method might also be utilized for the quality control of the A. manihot leaves and other herbal medicines being rich in nucleotides, nucleosides and nulecobases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive wavefront shaping for controlling nonlinear multimode interactions in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzang, Omer; Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M.; Wagner, Kelvin; Piestun, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Recent progress in wavefront shaping has enabled control of light propagation inside linear media to focus and image through scattering objects. In particular, light propagation in multimode fibres comprises complex intermodal interactions and rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Control of physical phenomena in multimode fibres and its applications are in their infancy, opening opportunities to take advantage of complex nonlinear modal dynamics. Here, we demonstrate a wavefront shaping approach for controlling nonlinear phenomena in multimode fibres. Using a spatial light modulator at the fibre input, real-time spectral feedback and a genetic algorithm optimization, we control a highly nonlinear multimode stimulated Raman scattering cascade and its interplay with four-wave mixing via a flexible implicit control on the superposition of modes coupled into the fibre. We show versatile spectrum manipulations including shifts, suppression, and enhancement of Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks. These demonstrations illustrate the power of wavefront shaping to control and optimize nonlinear wave propagation.

  3. Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres for laser dentistry.

    PubMed

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Mitrokhin, Vladimir P; Fedotov, Andrei B; Sidorov-Biryukov, Dmitrii A; Beloglazov, Valentin I; Skibina, Nina B; Wintner, Ernst; Scalora, Michael; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2004-04-07

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres (PCFs) for the delivery of high-fluence laser radiation capable of ablating tooth enamel are developed. Sequences of picosecond pulses of 1.06 microm Nd:YAG-laser radiation with a total energy of about 2 mJ are transmitted through a hollow-core photonic-crystal fibre with a core diameter of approximately 14 microm and are focused on a tooth surface in vitro to ablate dental tissue. The hollow-core PCF is shown to support the single-fundamental-mode regime for 1.06 microm laser radiation, serving as a spatial filter and allowing the laser beam quality to be substantially improved. The same fibre is used to transmit emission from plasmas produced by laser pulses on the tooth surface in the backward direction for detection and optical diagnostics.

  4. Health effects of refractory ceramic fibres: scientific issues and policy considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, L R; Brown, R C; Hoskins, J A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review the scientific literature on the health effects of refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). The adverse effects of exposure to asbestos has led to concern about the potential for other fibrous materials to cause diseases. For this reason the human populations most heavily exposed to synthetic mineral fibres have been examined for any adverse effects and many types of fibre have been studied in animal experiments. One type of man made vitreous fibres (MMVFs), refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs), are principally used in thermal insulation at high temperatures--up to 1400 degrees C. As manufactured RCFs exist in a glassy, non-crystalline (sometimes called amorphous) state, they have various compositions, physical properties, and sized fibres. METHODS--All reports on the health effects of RCFs available up to the end of 1994 have been examined and the scientific literature reviewed although all publications have not necessarily been referenced. CONCLUSIONS--In recent inhalation experiments conducted with both rats and hamsters at the Research and Consulting Company, Geneva, at the highest dose tested (30 mg/m3) there was an increased incidence of tumours in both species. Lower doses were only examined in the rat and at these doses there was no significant excess of lung tumours. Epidemiological investigations of workers engaged in the manufacture of ceramic fibres have shown a small excess of pleural plaques. This phenomenon is being further investigated but could be due to confounding exposures. The populations available for study are small and their exposures fairly short, but it is considered prudent that they should remain under surveillance for some time to come. This is despite the fact that present exposures in the ceramic fibre industry are low (< 1 f/ml) and are being reduced. PMID:7670617

  5. Electrospun Polyurethane-Core and Gelatin-Shell Coaxial Fibre Coatings for Miniature Implantable Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Wijesuriya, Shavini; Far, Mahshid Yazdi; Song, Wenhui; Moussy, Francis; Zheng, Yudong; Ma, Yanxuan; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce bioactivity to the electrospun coating for implantable glucose biosensors. Coaxial fibre membranes having polyurethane as the core and gelatin as the shell were produced using a range of polyurethane concentrations (2, 4, 6 & 8% wt/v) while keeping gelatin concentration (10% wt/v) constant in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. The gelatin shell was stabilized using glutaraldehyde vapour. The formation of core-shell structure was confirmed using TEM, SEM and FTIR. The coaxial fibre membranes showed uniaxial tensile properties intermediate to that of the pure polyurethane and the gelatin fibre membranes. The gelatin shell increased hydrophilicity and glucose transport flux across the coaxial fibre membranes. The coaxial fibre membranes having small fibre diameter (541 nm) and a thick gelatin shell (52%) did not affect the sensor sensitivity, but decreased sensor’s linearity in the long run. In contrast, thicker coaxial fibre membranes (1133 nm) having a thin gelatin shell (34%) maintained both sensitivity and linearity till 84 days of the study period. To conclude, polyurethane-gelatin co-axial fibre membranes, due to their faster permeability to glucose, tailorable mechanical properties and bioactivity are potential candidates for coatings to favourably modify the host responses to extend the reliable in vivo lifetime of implantable glucose biosensors. PMID:24346001

  6. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

  7. Towards high-capacity fibre-optic communications at the speed of light in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, F.; Wheeler, N. V.; Petrovich, M. N.; Baddela, N.; Numkam Fokoua, E.; Hayes, J. R.; Gray, D. R.; Li, Z.; Slavík, R.; Richardson, D. J.

    2013-04-01

    Wide-bandwidth signal transmission with low latency is emerging as a key requirement in a number of applications, including the development of future exaflop-scale supercomputers, financial algorithmic trading and cloud computing. Optical fibres provide unsurpassed transmission bandwidth, but light propagates 31% slower in a silica glass fibre than in vacuum, thus compromising latency. Air guidance in hollow-core fibres can reduce fibre latency very significantly. However, state-of-the-art technology cannot achieve the combined values of loss, bandwidth and mode-coupling characteristics required for high-capacity data transmission. Here, we report a fundamentally improved hollow-core photonic-bandgap fibre that provides a record combination of low loss (3.5 dB km-1) and wide bandwidth (160 nm), and use it to transmit 37 × 40 Gbit s-1 channels at a 1.54 µs km-1 faster speed than in a conventional fibre. This represents the first experimental demonstration of fibre-based wavelength division multiplexed data transmission at close to (99.7%) the speed of light in vacuum.

  8. Effect of controlled exercise on middle gluteal muscle fibre composition in Thoroughbred foals.

    PubMed

    Eto, D; Yamano, S; Kasashima, Y; Sugiura, T; Nasu, T; Tokuriki, M; Miyata, H

    2003-11-01

    Most racehorses are trained regularly from about age 18 months; therefore, little information is available on the effect of training in Thoroughbred foals. Well-controlled exercise could improve muscle potential ability for endurance running. Thoroughbred foals at age 2 months were separated into control and training (treadmill exercise) groups and samples obtained from the middle gluteal muscle at 2 and 12 months post partum. Muscle fibre compositions were determined by histochemical and electrophoretical techniques and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was analysed in each fibre type. All fibre types were hypertrophied with growth and type I and IIA fibres were significantly larger in the training than the control group at age 12 months. A significant increase of SDH activity was found in type IIX muscle fibres in the training group. Training in young Thoroughbred horses can facilitate muscle fibre hypertrophy and increase the oxidative capacity of type IIX fibres, which could potentially enhance stamina at high speeds. To apply this result to practical training, further studies are needed to determine more effective and safe intensities of controlled exercise.

  9. Near-IR supercontinuum generation based on a telecom single-mode fibre in an all-fibre format, and its power combining

    SciTech Connect

    Rumao Tao; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao, H

    Near-IR supercontinuum (SC) is generated based on a standard telecommunication single-mode (SM) fibre in an all-fibre format. The observed spectrum covers the spectral range from 1050 nm to 1700 nm. High-efficiency combining of the SC power is demonstrated for the first time, and the spectral SC properties are shown to be maintained after power combining. The results may find applications in sensing, spectroscopy and medicine. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Collagen fibre characterisation in arterial tissue under load using SALS.

    PubMed

    Gaul, R T; Nolan, D R; Lally, C

    2017-11-01

    The collagen fibre architecture of arterial tissue is known to play a key role in its resultant mechanical behaviour, while maladaptive remodelling of this architecture may be linked to disease. Many of the techniques currently used to analyse collagen fibre architecture require time consuming tissue preparation procedures and are destructive in nature. The aim of this study is to fully explore Small Angle Light Scattering (SALS) as a means to non-destructively assess collagen fibre architecture in arterial tissue and subsequently gain insights into load induced reorientation. The optimised configuration of the SALS system for arterial tissue was determined using quantitative comparisons to histological analyses of porcine carotid artery as its basis. Once established, layer specific fibre orientation and the influence of tissue loading was determined for thin sections of carotid artery using SALS. This process was subsequently repeated for intact carotid artery layers. A single family of circumferentially orientated collagen fibres were found in the intima (- 0.1 ± 1.4° (5.5°)) and media (- 1.7 ± 1.9° (4.7°)) while two perpendicular families of fibres were identified in the adventitia (- 6.4 ± 0.7° (37.7°)) and (118.3 ± 2.7 (39.9°)). An increase in fibre alignment in response to a 20% circumferential strain was also identified using SALS, characterised by an increase in scattered light eccentricity. determined using SALS agreed with those found using traditional destructive techniques, however SALS has the important benefits of allowing vessel layers to remain intact, and has a fast processing time. SALS unique ability to identify load induced reorganisation in intact arterial layers offers an efficient means to gain crucial insights into arterial disease and its development over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO 2 optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  12. Dual morphology (fibres and particles) cellulosic filler for WPC materials

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, Marco, E-mail: marco.valente@uniroma1.it; Tirillò, Jacopo; Quitadamo, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.quitadamo@uniroma1.it

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were fabricated by using a polyethylene (PE) matrix and filling it with wood flour in the amount of 30 wt.%, and compared with the same composites with further amount of 10 wt.% of cellulosic recycled fibres added. The materials were produced by turbomixing and subsequent moulding under pressure. Mechanical properties of both WPC and WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres were evaluated through mechanical and physical-chemical tests. Tensile tests clarified that a moderate reduction is strength is observed with the bare introduction of wood flour with respect to the neat PE matrix, whilst some recovery is offered bymore » the addition of recycled cellulose fibres. Even more promisingly, the elastic modulus of PE matrix is substantially improved by the addition of wood flour (around 8% on average) and much more so with the further addition of recycled cellulose (around 20% on average). The fracture surfaces from the tensile test were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicating a reduction in microporosity as an effect of added cellulose. The water absorption test and the hardness measure (Shore D) were also performed. SEM analysis underlined the weak interface between both wood particle and cellulosic recycled fibres and matrix. The water absorption test showed a higher mass variation for pure WPC than WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres. The hardness measurement showed that the presence of cellulosic recycled fibres improves both superficial hardness of the composite and temperature resistance.« less

  13. Dual morphology (fibres and particles) cellulosic filler for WPC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Marco; Tirillò, Jacopo; Quitadamo, Alessia; Santulli, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were fabricated by using a polyethylene (PE) matrix and filling it with wood flour in the amount of 30 wt.%, and compared with the same composites with further amount of 10 wt.% of cellulosic recycled fibres added. The materials were produced by turbomixing and subsequent moulding under pressure. Mechanical properties of both WPC and WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres were evaluated through mechanical and physical-chemical tests. Tensile tests clarified that a moderate reduction is strength is observed with the bare introduction of wood flour with respect to the neat PE matrix, whilst some recovery is offered by the addition of recycled cellulose fibres. Even more promisingly, the elastic modulus of PE matrix is substantially improved by the addition of wood flour (around 8% on average) and much more so with the further addition of recycled cellulose (around 20% on average). The fracture surfaces from the tensile test were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicating a reduction in microporosity as an effect of added cellulose. The water absorption test and the hardness measure (Shore D) were also performed. SEM analysis underlined the weak interface between both wood particle and cellulosic recycled fibres and matrix. The water absorption test showed a higher mass variation for pure WPC than WPC with cellulosic recycled fibres. The hardness measurement showed that the presence of cellulosic recycled fibres improves both superficial hardness of the composite and temperature resistance.

  14. Mould design and manufacturing considerations of honeycomb biocomposites with transverse fibre direction for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, N. H.; Majid, D. L.; Romli, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are known to significantly improve stiffness at lower weight and possess high flexural rigidity. They have found wide applications in aerospace as part of the primary structures, as well as the interior paneling and floors. High performance aluminum and aramid are the typical materials used for the purpose of honeycomb core whereas in other industries, materials such as fibre glass, carbon fibre, Nomex and also Kevlar reinforced with polymer are used. Recently, growing interest in developing composite structures with natural fibre reinforcement has also spurred research in natural fibre honeycomb material. The majority of the researches done, however, have generally emphasized on the usage of random chopped fibre and only a few are reported on development of honeycomb structure using unidirectional fibre as the reinforcement. This is mainly due to its processing difficulties, which often involve several stages to account for the arrangement of fibres and curing. Since the use of unidirectional fibre supports greater strength compared to random chopped fibre, a single-stage process in conjunction with vacuum infusion is suggested with a mould design that supports fibre arrangement in the direction of honeycomb loading.

  15. Molecular analysis of proanthocyanidins related to pigmentation in brown cotton fibre (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongjie; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Shaofang; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Yongchuang; Xue, Fei; Sun, Yuqiang; Wang, Yongmei; Sun, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were found to contain mainly procyanidin (PC) and prodelphidin (PD) units with 2, 3-cis form (epigallocatechin and epicatechin). However, part of the proanthocyanidins in the white cotton fibres were modified by acylation and were constitutively different from the proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres. The relative amount of PD was similar to that of PC in white cotton fibres, while proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres consisted mainly of PD units with a relative ratio of 9:1. In brown cotton fibres, the proanthocyanidin monomeric composition was consistent with the expression profiles of proanthocyanidin synthase genes, suggesting that anthocyanidin reductase represented the major flow of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, the structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocanidins in brown and white cotton fibres suggested that quinones, the oxidation products of proanthocyanidins, were the direct contributors to colour development in brown cotton fibre. This was demonstrated by vanillin-HCl staining and Borntrager's test. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins is a crucial pigmentation process in brown cotton fibre, and that quinones may represent the main pigments contributing to formation of the the brown colour. This study revealed the molecular basis of pigmentation in brown cotton fibres, and provided important insights for genetic manipulation of pigment production in cotton fibres. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Formation and Binding of Gold Nanoparticles onto Wool Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, James H.; Burridge, Kerstin A.; Kelly, Fern M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the novel use of nanosize gold with different plasmon resonance colours, as stable colourfast colourants on wool fibres for use in high quality fabrics and textiles. The gold nanoparticles are synthesised by the controlled reduction of Au3+ in the AuCl4- complex to Au0 onto the surface of the wool where they attach to the S in the cystine amino acids in wool keratin proteins. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows the nanoparticles are present on the cuticles of the fibre surface and are concentrated at the edges of these cuticles. EDS analysis shows a strong correlation of Au with S and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests Au-S bond formation. Hence the nanogold colourants are chemically bound to the wool fibre surface and do not fade as traditional organic dyes do. A range of coloured fibres have been produced.

  17. An Historic Overview of the Development of Fibre Metal Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeeren, C. A. J. R.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the history of Fibre Metal Laminates Arall and Glare is given as background information for the other, technical articles in this journal. The story of the development of Fibre Metal Laminates is rather a unique story in the history of aircraft materials: A university laboratory invented, developed and certified an aircraft material. Many parties were involved naturally, yet the very heart of the activity was the Structures and Materials Laboratory of the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands. At the break of the world's largest passenger transport aircraft, the Airbus A380, in which a substantial part of the fuselage will be made of Glare, the glass fibre-aluminium version of Fibre Metal Laminates, it is a good moment to tell some of its history.

  18. Chemical modification of cellulose-rich fibres to clarify the influence of the chemical structure on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose fibres and thereof made sheets.

    PubMed

    López Durán, Verónica; Larsson, Per A; Wågberg, Lars

    2018-02-15

    Despite the different chemical approaches used earlier to increase the ductility of fibre-based materials, it has not been possible to link the chemical modification to their mechanical performance. In this study, cellulose fibres have been modified by periodate oxidation, alone or followed either by borohydride reduction, reductive amination or chlorite oxidation. In addition, TEMPO oxidation, and TEMPO oxidation in combination with periodate oxidation and further reduction with sodium borohydride have also been studied. The objective was to gain understanding of the influence of different functional groups on the mechanical and structural properties of handsheets made from the modified fibres. It was found that the modifications studied improved the tensile strength of the fibres to different extents, but that only periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction provided more ductile fibre materials. Changes in density, water-holding capacity and mechanical performance were also quantified and all are dependent on the functional group introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Realisation et Applications D'un Laser a Fibre a L'erbium Monofrequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Robert

    L'incorporation d'ions de terres rares a l'interieur de la matrice de verre d'une fibre optique a permis l'emergence de composants amplificateurs tout-fibre. Le but de cette these consiste d'une part a analyser et a modeliser un tel dispositif et d'autre part, a fabriquer puis a caracteriser un amplificateur et un oscillateur a fibre. A l'aide d'une fibre fortement dopee a l'erbium fabriquee sur demande, on realise un laser a fibre syntonisable qui fonctionne en regime multimodes longitudinaux avec une largeur de raie de 1.5 GHz et egalement comme source monofrequencielle de largeur de raie de 70 kHz. Le laser sert ensuite a caracteriser un reseau de Bragg ecrit par photosensibilite dans une fibre optique. La technique de syntonisation permet aussi l'asservissement au fond d'une resonance de l'acetylene. Le laser garde alors la position centrale de la raie avec une erreur de moins de 1 MHz corrigeant ainsi les derives mecaniques de la cavite.

  20. Nerve fibres are required to evoke a contact sensitivity response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lorna; Orange, Oliver; Bell, Eric B; Miyan, Jaleel A

    2004-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that the dermis and epidermis of skin contains abundant nerve fibres closely associated with Langerhans' cells. We have investigated whether these nerve endings are necessary for inducing and evoking a contact sensitivity (CS) response. Topical application of a general or a peptide (calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P)-specific neurotoxin was employed to destroy the nerve fibres at skin sites subsequently used to induce or evoke the CS response. Elimination of nerve fibres abolished both induction and effector stages of the specific CS response. Denervation did not destroy the local Langerhans' cells, which were observed in increased numbers, or prevent them from migrating to lymph nodes. The local CS response was also abolished by systemic deletion of capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibres, suggesting that the loss of response was not non-specific but associated with the loss of specific nerve fibres. The results indicate that peptidergic nerve fibres are required to elicit a CS response and may be vital to the normal function of the immune system. PMID:14678206

  1. Simulation based optimization on automated fibre placement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a software simulation (Autodesk TruPlan & TruFiber) based method is proposed to optimize the automate fibre placement (AFP) process. Different types of manufacturability analysis are introduced to predict potential defects. Advanced fibre path generation algorithms are compared with respect to geometrically different parts. Major manufacturing data have been taken into consideration prior to the tool paths generation to achieve high success rate of manufacturing.

  2. Tests for z-direction fibre orientation in paper

    Treesearch

    David W. Vahey; John M. Considine

    2010-01-01

    Fibres that acquire a z-direction tilt in the forming process help bond adjacent strata of the paper sheet, increasing z-direction shear. Fibre tilt manifests itself as a measurement difference when directionally sensitive tests are conducted “toward headbox” or “toward reel.” Seven of eight different paper grades ranging in grammage from 73 to 268 g/m2...

  3. Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, D. M.; Withford, M. J.; Dawes, J. M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Haynes, R.

    2011-06-01

    Focal ratio degradation (FRD) is a major contributor to light loss in astronomical instruments employing multimode optical fibres. We present a powerful diagnostic model that uniquely quantifies the various sources of FRD in multimode fibres. There are three main phenomena that can contribute to FRD: scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion. We propose a Voigt FRD model where the diffraction and modal diffusion are modelled by the Gaussian component and the end-face scattering is modelled by the Lorentzian component. The Voigt FRD model can be deconvolved into its Gaussian and Lorentzian components and used to analyse the contribution of each of the three major components. We used the Voigt FRD model to analyse the FRD of modern astronomical grade fibre for variations in (i) end-face surface roughness, (ii) wavelength, (iii) fibre length and (iv) external fibre stress. The elevated FRD we observed was mostly due to external factors, i.e. fibre end effects such as surface roughness, subsurface damage and environmentally induced microbending caused by the epoxy, ferrules and fibre cable design. The Voigt FRD model has numerous applications such as a diagnostic tool for current fibre instrumentation that show elevated FRD, as a quality control method for fibre manufacture and fibre cable assembly and as a research and development tool for the characterization of new fibre technologies.

  4. Non-crossbridge calcium-dependent stiffness in slow and fast skeletal fibres from mouse muscle.

    PubMed

    Nocella, Marta; Colombini, Barbara; Bagni, Maria Angela; Bruton, Joseph; Cecchi, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    We showed previously that force development in frog and FDB mouse skeletal muscle fibres is preceded by an increase of fibre stiffness occurring well before crossbridge attachment and force generation. This stiffness increase, referred to as static stiffness, is due to a Ca(2+)-dependent stiffening of a non-crossbridge sarcomere structure which we suggested could be attributed to the titin filaments. To investigate further the role of titin in static stiffness, we measured static stiffness properties at 24 and 35°C in soleus and EDL mouse muscle fibres which are known to express different titin isoforms. We found that static stiffness was present in both soleus and EDL fibres, however, its value was about five times greater in EDL than in soleus fibres. The rate of development of static stiffness on stimulation increased with temperature and was slightly faster in EDL than in soleus in agreement with previously published data on the time course of the intracellular Ca(2+) transients in these muscles. The present results show that the presence of a non-crossbridge Ca(2+)-dependent stiffening of the muscle fibre is a physiological general characteristic of skeletal muscle. Static stiffness depends on fibre type, being greater and developing faster in fast than in slow fibres. Our observations are consistent with the idea that titin stiffening on contraction improves the sarcomere structure stability. Such an action in fact seems to be more important in EDL fast fibre than in soleus slow fibres.

  5. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiandie; Wu, Hai; Tarr, Paul T; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Wu, Zhidan; Boss, Olivier; Michael, Laura F; Puigserver, Pere; Isotani, Eiji; Olson, Eric N; Lowell, Bradford B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2002-08-15

    The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. We show here that PGC-1 alpha is expressed preferentially in muscle enriched in type I fibres. When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Notably, putative type II muscles from PGC-1 alpha transgenic mice also express proteins characteristic of type I fibres, such as troponin I (slow) and myoglobin, and show a much greater resistance to electrically stimulated fatigue. Using fibre-type-specific promoters, we show in cultured muscle cells that PGC-1 alpha activates transcription in cooperation with Mef2 proteins and serves as a target for calcineurin signalling, which has been implicated in slow fibre gene expression. These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination.

  6. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl− and KATP K+ ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450–1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above −20 mV. PMID:25128573

  7. Dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Threapleton, D E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2015-04-01

    Stroke risk is modifiable through many risk factors, one being healthy dietary habits. Fibre intake was associated with a reduced stroke risk in recent meta-analyses; however, data were contributed by relatively few studies, and few examined different stroke types. A total of 27,373 disease-free women were followed up for 14.4 years. Diet was assessed with a 217-item food frequency questionnaire and stroke cases were identified using English Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality records. Survival analysis was applied to assess the risk of total, ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in relation to fibre intake. A total of 135 haemorrhagic and 184 ischaemic stroke cases were identified in addition to 138 cases where the stroke type was unknown or not recorded. Greater intake of total fibre, higher fibre density and greater soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals were associated with a significantly lower risk for total stroke. For total stroke, the hazard ratio per 6 g/day total fibre intake was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals: 0.81-0.99). Different findings were observed for haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in healthy-weight or overweight women. Total fibre, insoluble fibre and cereal fibre were inversely associated with haemorrhagic stroke risk in overweight/obese participants, and in healthy-weight women greater cereal fibre was associated with a lower ischaemic stroke risk. In non-hypertensive women, higher fibre density was associated with lower ischaemic stroke risk. Greater total fibre and fibre from cereals are associated with a lower stroke risk, and associations were more consistent with ischaemic stroke. The different observations by stroke type, body mass index group or hypertensive status indicates potentially different mechanisms.

  8. Respiratory health effects of man-made vitreous (mineral) fibres.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Swaen, G M; Pairon, J C; Brochard, P

    1995-12-01

    The group of man-made mineral or vitreous fibres (MMMFs or MMVFs) includes glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments and microfibres, and refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). Experimental observations have provided evidence that some types of MMVF are bioactive under certain conditions. The critical role of size parameters has been demonstrated in cellular and animal experiments, when intact fibres are in direct contact with the target cells. It is, however, difficult to extrapolate the results from these studies to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies are more realistic, but show differences between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumour induction by fibres. Fibre biopersistence is an important factor, as suggested by recent inhalation studies, which demonstrate positive results with RCF for fibrosis, lung tumours and mesothelioma. There is no firm evidence that exposure to glass-, rock- and slag wool is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions, or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. Exposure to RCF could enhance the effects of smoking in causing airways obstruction. An elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been demonstrated in cohorts of workers exposed to MMVF, especially in the early technological phase of mineral (rock slag) wool production. During that period, several carcinogenic agents (arsenic, asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) were also present at the workplace and quantitative data about smoking and fibre levels are lacking. It is not possible from these data to determine whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the MMVFs themselves. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in the cohorts of workers exposed to glass-, slag- or rock wool. There are in fact insufficient epidemiological data available concerning neoplastic diseases in RCF production workers because of the small size of the workforce and the

  9. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M.; Emmett, Pauline M.

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference −1.4 (95% CI −1.6, −1.2) g/day, p < 0.001). PE was strongly associated with dietary fibre intake (adjusted regression model; unstandardised B −1.44 (95% CI −1.62, −1.24) g/day, p < 0.001). PE had a lower percentage of fibre from vegetables compared with NPE (8.9% vs 15.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). There was an association between PE and usually having hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools. PMID:26879221

  10. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference -1.4 (95% CI -1.6, -1.2) g/day, p < 0.001). PE was strongly associated with dietary fibre intake (adjusted regression model; unstandardised B -1.44 (95% CI -1.62, -1.24) g/day, p < 0.001). PE had a lower percentage of fibre from vegetables compared with NPE (8.9% vs 15.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). There was an association between PE and usually having hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, X M; Yang, H R; Cui, Y D; Chen, G W; Yang, Y; Wu, X Q; Yao, X K; Han, D D; Han, X X; Zeng, C; Guo, J; Li, W L; Cheng, G; Tong, L M

    2016-05-16

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light-matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light-graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics.

  12. Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Yang, H. R.; Cui, Y. D.; Chen, G. W.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X. Q.; Yao, X. K.; Han, D. D.; Han, X. X.; Zeng, C.; Guo, J.; Li, W. L.; Cheng, G.; Tong, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, whose absorbance is approximately independent of wavelength, allows broadband light–matter interactions with ultrafast responses. The interband optical absorption of graphene can be saturated readily under strong excitation, thereby enabling scientists to exploit the photonic properties of graphene to realize ultrafast lasers. The evanescent field interaction scheme of the propagating light with graphene covered on a D-shaped fibre or microfibre has been employed extensively because of the nonblocking configuration. Obviously, most of the fibre surface is unused in these techniques. Here, we exploit a graphene-clad microfibre (GCM) saturable absorber in a mode-locked fibre laser for the generation of ultrafast pulses. The proposed all-surface technique can guarantee a higher efficiency of light–graphene interactions than the aforementioned techniques. Our GCM-based saturable absorber can generate ultrafast optical pulses within 1.5 μm. This saturable absorber is compatible with current fibre lasers and has many merits such as low saturation intensities, ultrafast recovery times, and wide wavelength ranges. The proposed saturable absorber will pave the way for graphene-based wideband photonics. PMID:27181419

  13. Effects of time-temperature profiles on glow curves of germanium-doped optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, S. E.; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Germanium (Ge) doped silica optical fibres have demonstrated the great potential to be developed as a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter that can be used in various applications in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, UV dosimetry system and food irradiation industry. Different time-temperature profile (TTP) parameters of the TL reader have been employed by many researchers in various of TL studies. Nevertheless, none of those studies adequately addressed the effects of the reader's preheat temperature and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve specifically, the Ge-doped silica optical fibres. This research addresses the issue of TTP parameters with special attention to the determination of the kinetic parameters of the glow curve. The glow curve responses were explored and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by the WinGCF software, to show the effect of the preheat temperature and heating rate of the reader on Ge-doped fibre irradiated with 18 Gy of 6 MV photons radiation. The effect of TTP parameters was discussed and compared against the commercial fibre and tailored made fibre of 6 mol% Ge-doped of flat and cylindrical shape. The deconvolution of glow peaks and the kinetic parameters were obtained by the WinGCF software. This enables to fit accurately (1.5%fibre (50 °C) and cylindrical fibre (80 °C and 160 °C). It is found that the glow peaks of cylindrical fibre exhibit the highest peak integral as compared to flat and commercial fibres. This study revealed the possible relationship between the reader's TTP parameters and the kinetic parameters of TL glow curves for the commercial and tailored made Ge-doped silica optical fibres.

  14. Incorporation of T4 bacteriophage in electrospun fibres.

    PubMed

    Korehei, R; Kadla, J

    2013-05-01

    Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led to more than five orders of magnitude decrease in bacteriophage activity. To better maintain bacteriophage viability, emulsion electrospinning was developed where the T4 bacteriophage was pre-encapsulated in an alginate reservoir via an emulsification process and subsequently electrospun into fibres. This resulted in an increase in bacteriophage viability, but there was still two orders of magnitude drop in activity. Using a coaxial electrospinning process, full bacteriophage activity could be maintained. In this process, a core/shell fibre structure was formed with the T4 bacteriophage being directly incorporated into the fibre core. The core/shell fibre encapsulated bacteriophage exhibited full bacteriophage viability after storing for several weeks at +4°C. Coaxial electrospinning was shown to be capable of encapsulating bacteriophages with high loading capacity, high viability and long storage time. These results are significant in the context of controlling and preventing bacterial infections in perishable foods during storage. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Distributed gas sensing with optical fibre photothermal interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuechuan; Liu, Fei; He, Xiangge; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Min; Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut; Tan, Yanzhen; Gu, Lijuan

    2017-12-11

    We report the first distributed optical fibre trace-gas detection system based on photothermal interferometry (PTI) in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre (HC-PBF). Absorption of a modulated pump propagating in the gas-filled HC-PBF generates distributed phase modulation along the fibre, which is detected by a dual-pulse heterodyne phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) system. Quasi-distributed sensing experiment with two 28-meter-long HC-PBF sensing sections connected by single-mode transmission fibres demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of ∼10 ppb acetylene with a pump power level of 55 mW and an effective noise bandwidth (ENBW) of 0.01 Hz, corresponding to a normalized detection limit of 5.5ppb⋅W/Hz. Distributed sensing experiment over a 200-meter-long sensing cable made of serially connected HC-PBFs demonstrated a LOD of ∼ 5 ppm with 62.5 mW peak pump power and 11.8 Hz ENBW, or a normalized detection limit of 312ppb⋅W/Hz. The spatial resolution of the current distributed detection system is limited to ∼ 30 m, but it is possible to reduce down to 1 meter or smaller by optimizing the phase detection system.

  16. Regulatory risk assessment approaches for synthetic mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul; Holmes, Philip; Bevan, Ruth; Kamps, Klaus; Levy, Leonard; Greim, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to synthetic mineral fibres (SMF) may occur in a number of workplace scenarios. To protect worker health, a number of different organisations worldwide have assessed the health risk of these materials and established workplace exposure limits. This paper outlines the basic principles of risk assessment and the scientific methods used to derive valid (justifiable) occupational exposure limits (OELs) and goes on to show how, for SMF, and particularly for refractory ceramic fibre (otherwise known as aluminosilicate wool, RCF/ASW), the methods used and the associated outcomes differ widely. It is argued that the resulting differences in established OELs prevent consistent and appropriate risk management of SMF worldwide, and that development of a transparent and harmonised approach to fibre risk assessment and limit-setting is required. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical and functional properties of fibre concentrates obtained from by-products of coconut kernel.

    PubMed

    Yalegama, L L W C; Nedra Karunaratne, D; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Jayasekara, Chitrangani

    2013-11-01

    The coconut kernel residues obtained after extraction of coconut milk (MR) and virgin coconut oil (VOR) were analysed for their potential as dietary fibres. VOR was defatted and treated chemically using three solvent systems to isolate coconut cell wall polysaccharides (CCWP). Nutritional composition of VOR, MR and CCWPs indicated that crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicelluloses contents were higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. MR contained a notably higher content of fat than VOR and CCWPs. The oil holding capacity, water holding capacity and swelling capacity were also higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. All the isolates and MR and VOR had high metal binding capacities. The CCWPs when compared with commercially available fibre isolates, indicated improved dietary fibre properties. These results show that chemical treatment of coconut kernel by-products can enhance the performance of dietary fibre to yield a better product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of direct and indirect methods of measuring airborne chrysotile fibre concentration.

    PubMed

    Eypert-Blaison, Celine; Veissiere, Sylvie; Rastoix, Olivier; Kauffer, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations most frequently form a basis for estimating asbestos fibre concentration in the environment and in buildings with asbestos-containing materials. Sampled fibres can be transferred to microscope grids by applying either a direct [ISO (1995) Draft International ISO/DIS 10312. Ambient air. Determination of asbestos fibres. Direct transfer transmission electron microscopy procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standardization Organization] or an indirect [AFNOR (1996) Détermination de la concentration en fibres d'amiante par microscopie électronique à transmission-Méthode indirecte. Cedex, France: AFNOR, p. 42; ISO (1997) Draft International ISO/DIS 13794. Ambient air. Determination of asbestos fibres. Indirect-transfer transmission electron microscopy procedure. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standardization Organization] method. In the latter case, ISO Standard 13794 recommends filtering calcination residues either on a polycarbonate (PC) filter (PC indirect method) or on a cellulose ester (CE) membrane (CE indirect method). The PC indirect method requires that fibres deposited on a PC filter be covered by a carbon layer, whereas in the CE indirect method, the CE membrane has to be directly processed using a method described in ISO Standard 10312. The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using, on the one hand, direct preparation methods and, on the other hand, PC indirect or CE indirect methods, for counting asbestos fibres deposited on filters as a result of liquid filtration or air sampling. In direct method-based preparation, we observed that an etching time of 6-14 min does not affect the measured densities, except for fibres <1 microm deposited by liquid filtration. Moreover, in all cases, the direct method gives higher densities than the PC indirect method because of possible fibre disappearance when using the carbon evaporator implemented in the PC indirect method. The CE membrane

  19. Comparing modal noise and FRD of circular and non-circular cross-section fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Plüschke, D.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Järvinen, A.

    2016-03-01

    Modal noise is a common source of noise introduced to the measurements by optical fibres and is particularly important for fibre-fed spectroscopic instruments, especially for high-resolution measurements. This noise source can limit the signal-to-noise ratio and jeopardize photon-noise limited data. The subject of the present work is to compare measurements of modal noise and focal-ratio degradation (FRD) for several commonly used fibres. We study the influence of a simple mechanical scrambling method (excenter) on both FRD and modal noise. Measurements are performed with circular and octagonal fibres from Polymicro Technology (FBP-Series) with diameters of 100, 200, and 300 μm and for square and rectangular fibres from CeramOptec, among others. FRD measurements for the same sample of fibres are performed as a function of wavelength. Furthermore, we replaced the circular fibre of the STELLA-échelle-spectrograph (SES) in Tenerife with an octagonal and found a SNR increase by a factor of 1.6 at 678 nm. It is shown in the laboratory that an excenter with a large amplitude and low frequency will not influence the FRD but will reduce modal noise rather effectively by up to 180%.

  20. Myalgia as the revealing symptom of multicore disease and fibre type disproportion myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sobreira*, C; Marques, W; Barreira, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report the occurrence of myalgia as the revealing symptom of multicore disease and fibre type disproportion myopathy. Methods: The clinical cases of three patients with fibre type disproportion myopathy and one with multicore disease are described. Skeletal muscle biopsies were processed for routine histological and histochemical studies. Results: The clinical picture was unusual in that the symptoms were of late onset and the predominant complaint was muscle pain exacerbated by exercise. Muscle weakness was found in only a single patient, the mother of a patient with fibre type disproportion myopathy. Physical examination was unremarkable in the other patients. Muscle biopsies from patients 1 and 2 contained type I fibres that were considerably smaller than the type II fibres, supporting the diagnosis of fibre type disproportion myopathy. Skeletal muscle of patient 4 showed multiple areas, predominantly but not exclusively in the type I fibres, from which oxidative enzyme activities were absent, as seen in multicore disease. Conclusions: Muscle pain was the main clinical manifestation in our patients. Recognition of the broader clinical expression of these myopathies is important for prognostic reasons and for genetic counselling of the family members. PMID:12933945

  1. Novel technique for solar power illumination using plastic optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisami, J.; Kalymnios, D.

    2008-09-01

    Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) were developed almost 3 decades ago. They are mainly used for short haul data communications (up to 1 km with data rates up to 1 Gbps). Over the years, POF has found applications in many other areas including solar energy transport for illumination. In such an application, light is collected from the sun and is directed into a space which needs to be illuminated. The use of fibres and more specifically POF, in daylighting systems, started only a few years ago. Several approaches have been investigated and we have seen the development of a few commercial products. The market however, has not really taken off for these technologies simply because of their enormous price tags. It is important to note that the use of POF in these designs has been limited to the function of POF as the transmission medium only. We propose a novel solar illumination technique using POF as both the light collecting/concentrating mechanism and the transmission medium. By modifying the structure of the fibre, solar light can be directed into the fibre by using an analogous process to fibre side emission but, in the reverse. We shall report on the solar light capturing efficiency of POF as modified by several types of external imperfections introduced onto the fibre. One major advantage of our proposed approach lies in the fact that we aim to eliminate at least one of the two axes of sun tracking that is currently used in existing solar illumination systems.

  2. Probabilistic design of fibre concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukl, R.; Novák, D.; Sajdlová, T.; Lehký, D.; Červenka, J.; Červenka, V.

    2017-09-01

    Advanced computer simulation is recently well-established methodology for evaluation of resistance of concrete engineering structures. The nonlinear finite element analysis enables to realistically predict structural damage, peak load, failure, post-peak response, development of cracks in concrete, yielding of reinforcement, concrete crushing or shear failure. The nonlinear material models can cover various types of concrete and reinforced concrete: ordinary concrete, plain or reinforced, without or with prestressing, fibre concrete, (ultra) high performance concrete, lightweight concrete, etc. Advanced material models taking into account fibre concrete properties such as shape of tensile softening branch, high toughness and ductility are described in the paper. Since the variability of the fibre concrete material properties is rather high, the probabilistic analysis seems to be the most appropriate format for structural design and evaluation of structural performance, reliability and safety. The presented combination of the nonlinear analysis with advanced probabilistic methods allows evaluation of structural safety characterized by failure probability or by reliability index respectively. Authors offer a methodology and computer tools for realistic safety assessment of concrete structures; the utilized approach is based on randomization of the nonlinear finite element analysis of the structural model. Uncertainty of the material properties or their randomness obtained from material tests are accounted in the random distribution. Furthermore, degradation of the reinforced concrete materials such as carbonation of concrete, corrosion of reinforcement, etc. can be accounted in order to analyze life-cycle structural performance and to enable prediction of the structural reliability and safety in time development. The results can serve as a rational basis for design of fibre concrete engineering structures based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis. The presented

  3. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials.

    PubMed

    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-10-15

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl(-) and KATP K(+) ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450-1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above -20 mV. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  4. Comparative genomics of two jute species and insight into fibre biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Saito, Jennifer A; Emdad, Emdadul Mannan; Ahmed, Borhan; Islam, Mohammad Moinul; Halim, Abdul; Hossen, Quazi Md Mosaddeque; Hossain, Md Zakir; Ahmed, Rasel; Hossain, Md Sabbir; Kabir, Shah Md Tamim; Khan, Md Sarwar Alam; Khan, Md Mursalin; Hasan, Rajnee; Aktar, Nasima; Honi, Ummay; Islam, Rahin; Rashid, Md Mamunur; Wan, Xuehua; Hou, Shaobin; Haque, Taslima; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Elias, Sabrina M; Hasan, A M Mahedi; Mahmood, Niaz; Shafiuddin, Md; Shahid, Saima; Shommu, Nusrat Sharmeen; Jahan, Sharmin; Roy, Saroj; Chowdhury, Amlan; Akhand, Ashikul Islam; Nisho, Golam Morshad; Uddin, Khaled Salah; Rabeya, Taposhi; Hoque, S M Ekramul; Snigdha, Afsana Rahman; Mortoza, Sarowar; Matin, Syed Abdul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Lashkar, M Z H; Zaman, Mahboob; Yuryev, Anton; Uddin, Md Kamal; Rahman, Md Sharifur; Haque, Md Samiul; Alam, Md Monjurul; Khan, Haseena; Alam, Maqsudul

    2017-01-30

    Jute (Corchorus sp.) is one of the most important sources of natural fibre, covering ∼80% of global bast fibre production 1 . Only Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis are commercially cultivated, though there are more than 100 Corchorus species 2 in the Malvaceae family. Here we describe high-quality draft genomes of these two species and their comparisons at the functional genomics level to support tailor-designed breeding. The assemblies cover 91.6% and 82.2% of the estimated genome sizes for C. olitorius and C. capsularis, respectively. In total, 37,031 C. olitorius and 30,096 C. capsularis genes are identified, and most of the genes are validated by cDNA and RNA-seq data. Analyses of clustered gene families and gene collinearity show that jute underwent shared whole-genome duplication ∼18.66 million years (Myr) ago prior to speciation. RNA expression analysis from isolated fibre cells reveals the key regulatory and structural genes involved in fibre formation. This work expands our understanding of the molecular basis of fibre formation laying the foundation for the genetic improvement of jute.

  5. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCT1 and CD147 in equine skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyyppä, S; Pösö, A R; Ronéus, N; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-12-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and its ancillary protein CD147 facilitate efflux of lactate from the muscle. Expression of MCT1 and CD147 were studied with immunohistochemistry in type I, IIA, IIAB and IIB fibres of equine gluteal muscle. Staining intensity of MCT1 in the cytoplasm as well as in the membranes of fibre types decreased in the order I=IIA>IIAB>IIB and correlated with the oxidative capacity. Capillaries were pronounced in the MCT1 staining. CD147 antibody stained plasma membranes of all fibre types evenly, whereas the staining in the cytoplasm followed that of MCT1. In the middle gluteal muscle the expression of MCT1 follows the oxidative capacity of muscle fibres, but the expression of CD147 in sarcolemma does not vary among fibre types. The use of horse specific MCT1 and CD147 antibodies can in future studies help to evaluate lactate efflux from different muscle fibre types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Widrick, J J; Knuth, S T; Norenberg, K M; Romatowski, J G; Bain, J L W; Riley, D A; Karhanek, M; Trappe, S W; Trappe, T A; Costill, D L; Fitts, R H

    1999-01-01

    Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 ± 0.02 vs. 0.99 ± 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 ± 0.02 vs. 0.64 ± 0.02 fibre lengths s−1) than pre-flight type I fibres. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (μN (fibre length) s−1). The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact that impaired force

  7. Effect of a 17 day spaceflight on contractile properties of human soleus muscle fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, J. J.; Knuth, S. T.; Norenberg, K. M.; Romatowski, J. G.; Bain, J. L.; Riley, D. A.; Karhanek, M.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.; hide

    1999-01-01

    1. Soleus biopsies were obtained from four male astronauts 45 days before and within 2 h after a 17 day spaceflight. 2. For all astronauts, single chemically skinned post-flight fibres expressing only type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) developed less average peak Ca2+ activated force (Po) during fixed-end contractions (0.78 +/- 0. 02 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03 mN) and shortened at a greater mean velocity during unloaded contractions (Vo) (0.83 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.02 fibre lengths s-1) than pre-flight type I fibres. 3. The flight-induced decline in absolute Po was attributed to reductions in fibre diameter and/or Po per fibre cross-sectional area. Fibres from the astronaut who experienced the greatest relative loss of peak force also displayed a reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity. 4. The elevated Vo of the post-flight slow type I fibres could not be explained by alterations in myosin heavy or light chain composition. One alternative possibility is that the elevated Vo resulted from an increased myofilament lattice spacing. This hypothesis was supported by electron micrographic analysis demonstrating a reduction in thin filament density post-flight. 5. Post-flight fibres shortened at 30 % higher velocities than pre-flight fibres at external loads associated with peak power output. This increase in shortening velocity either reduced (2 astronauts) or prevented (2 astronauts) a post-flight loss in fibre absolute peak power (microN (fibre length) s-1). 6. The changes in soleus fibre diameter and function following spaceflight were similar to those observed after 17 days of bed rest. Although in-flight exercise countermeasures probably reduced the effects of microgravity, the results support the idea that ground-based bed rest can serve as a model of human spaceflight. 7. In conclusion, 17 days of spaceflight decreased force and increased shortening velocity of single Ca2+-activated muscle cells expressing type I MHC. The increase in shortening velocity greatly reduced the impact

  8. Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Vuksan, Vladimir; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Rogovik, Alexander L; Fairgrieve, Christopher D; Jovanovski, Elena; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2011-11-01

    The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (SD 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (SEM 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14,300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136,300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY (-12.6 (SEM 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB (-14.6 (SEM 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet.

  9. Lung cancer among glass fibre production workers: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Magnani, C; Pannett, B; Fletcher, A C; Winter, P D

    1988-01-01

    A cohort study among 4734 employees at an English glass fibre plant previously reported no excess of lung cancer mortality either overall or when examined in broad occupational groups. To investigate occupation in more detail, and to test the hypothesis that processes producing or using finer (respirable) fibres may be related to a higher risk of lung cancer, a nested case-control study has now been carried out. Included are 73 cases of lung cancer and 506 matched controls, for whom jobs held and processes worked on have been blindly recorded in more detail than for the cohort study. Workers known to have been employed on processes containing respirable fibres had a relative risk of lung cancer of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.7-2.0) compared with other workers. There was no evidence of a relationship of lung cancer to fibre diameter, duration of exposure, or time since first exposure. The results by broad occupational group were similar to those of the cohort study, and although some of the many detailed occupational categories examined had significantly raised relative risks, these did not appear to be related to exposure to respirable glass fibre. Although the study has not indicated a differential risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to finer diameter glass fibres, the exposure levels were low and the number of cases small. PMID:3179236

  10. Effect of fibre treatment using fluorosilane on Sansevieria Trifasciata/Polypropylene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref, Yanzur Mohd; Baharum, Azizah

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in the development of wood-plastic composites (WPC) due to their advantages such as wide availability, low cost, environment friendliness and sustainability. However, some major factors limiting the large scales production of WPC including the tendency of natural fibres to absorb water and the poor compatibility between fibre and matrix. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of natural fibre treatment using fluorosilane in imparting hydrophobicity to the polypropylene (PP) matrix composite reinforced with Sansevieria Trifasciata (ST) fibres. ST fibres are subjected to silane treatment with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxsysilane (POTS) at 1, 3 and 5% for a period of 2 hours. Influence of POTS treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of composites was studied to determine the optimum condition of silane treatment. The water contact angle (WCA) of WPC increased after POTS treatment where the highest value of 115° was shown by 3% POTS treated ST/PP composite. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of POTS treated ST fibre improves the mechanical properties with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength. The treatment with 3% POTS revealed statistically higher flexural strength and modulus compared to 1 and 5%. The water absorption test of ST/PP composites also gives the best result for 3% POTS treatment with 20.90% water uptake.

  11. The dry-heat loss effect of melt-spun phase change material fibres.

    PubMed

    Tjønnås, Maria Suong; Færevik, Hilde; Sandsund, Mariann; Reinertsen, Randi E

    2015-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) have the ability to store latent heat when they change phases, a property that gives clothing that incorporates PCM its cooling effect. This study investigated the effect of dry-heat loss (cooling) of a novel melt-spun PCM fibre on the basis of the area covered, mass, the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature, compared to a known PCM clothing product. PCM fibres with melting temperatures of 28.4 and 32.0°C and PCM packs with melting temperatures of 28.0 and 32.0°C were studied. The results showed that the PCM fibres had a larger initial peak cooling effect than that of the PCM packs. The duration of the cooling effect of PCM fibres was primarily dependent on the PCM mass and the latent heat of fusion capacity, and secondly on the covered area and melting temperature of the PCM. This study investigates the cooling effect of PCM fibres on a thermal manikin. The PCM fibres had a high but short-lasting cooling effect. This study contributes to the knowledge of how the body's temperature regulation may be affected by the cooling properties of clothing that incorporates PCM.

  12. Image transport through a disordered optical fibre mediated by transverse Anderson localization.

    PubMed

    Karbasi, Salman; Frazier, Ryan J; Koch, Karl W; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Mafi, Arash

    2014-02-25

    Transverse Anderson localization of light allows localized optical-beam-transport through a transversely disordered and longitudinally invariant medium. Its successful implementation in disordered optical fibres recently resulted in the propagation of localized beams of radii comparable to that of conventional optical fibres. Here we demonstrate optical image transport using transverse Anderson localization of light. The image transport quality obtained in the polymer disordered optical fibre is comparable to or better than some of the best commercially available multicore image fibres with less pixelation and higher contrast. It is argued that considerable improvement in image transport quality can be obtained in a disordered fibre made from a glass matrix with near wavelength-size randomly distributed air-holes with an air-hole fill-fraction of 50%. Our results open the way to device-level implementation of the transverse Anderson localization of light with potential applications in biological and medical imaging.

  13. A fraction enriched in rat hippocampal mossy fibre synaptosomes contains trophic activities.

    PubMed

    Taupin, P; Roisin, M P; Ben-Ari, Y; Barbin, G

    1994-06-27

    Subcellular fractions prepared from the rat hippocampus, were assessed for the presence of trophic activities. The cytosol of synaptosomal fractions induced mitotic reinitiation of confluent 3T3 fibroblasts. The synaptosomal fraction, enriched in mossy fibre terminals, contained the highest mitotic activity. The mitogenic activity was heat and trypsin sensitive, suggesting that polypeptides are involved. The cytosol of the mossy fibre synaptosomal fraction promoted neuritic outgrowth of PC 12 cells and embryonic hippocampal neurones in primary cultures. These results suggest that mossy fibres contain both mitogenic and neurotrophic activities. These factors could participate in mossy fibre sprouting that occur following brief seizures or experimental lesions.

  14. Measurement of Rotating Blade Tip Clearance with Fibre-Optic Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S. Z.; Duan, F. J.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2006-10-01

    This paper described a tip clearance measuring system with fibre-optic probe. The system is based on a novel tip clearance sensor of optical fibre-bundle mounted on the casing, rotating speed synchronization sensor mounted on the rotating shaft, the tip clearance preamplification processing circuit followed by high speed data-acquisition unit. A novel tip clearance sensor of trifurcated optical fibre bundle was proposed and demonstrated. It is independent of material of measured surface but capacitive probe demands target conductive. Measurements can be taken under severe conditions such as ionization. Sensor circuitry and data acquisition circuit were successfully designed. With the help of Rotation synchronized sensor, all the blades can be detected in real-time. Because of fibre-optic sensor, the measuring system has commendably frequency response, which can work well in high rotating speed from 0-15000rpm.The measurement range of tip clearance is 0-3mm with 25um precision.

  15. The Formation and Binding of Gold Nanoparticles onto Wool Fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, James H.; Burridge, Kerstin A.; Kelly, Fern M.

    2009-07-23

    This paper presents the novel use of nanosize gold with different plasmon resonance colours, as stable colourfast colourants on wool fibres for use in high quality fabrics and textiles. The gold nanoparticles are synthesised by the controlled reduction of Au{sup 3+} in the AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} complex to Au{sup 0} onto the surface of the wool where they attach to the S in the cystine amino acids in wool keratin proteins. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows the nanoparticles are present on the cuticles of the fibre surface and are concentrated at the edges of these cuticles. EDS analysis shows a strong correlationmore » of Au with S and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests Au-S bond formation. Hence the nanogold colourants are chemically bound to the wool fibre surface and do not fade as traditional organic dyes do. A range of coloured fibres have been produced.« less

  16. Evaluation of Fibre Lifetime in Optical Ground Wire Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunvalds, R.; Ciekurs, A.; Porins, J.; Supe, A.

    2017-06-01

    In the research, measurements of polarisation mode dispersion of two OPGWs (optical ground wire transmission lines), in total four fibres, have been carried out, and the expected lifetime of the infrastructure has been assessed on the basis of these measurements. The cables under consideration were installed in 1995 and 2011, respectively. Measurements have shown that polarisation mode dispersion values for cable installed in 1995 are four times higher than that for cable installed in 2011, which could mainly be explained by technological differences in fibre production and lower fibre polarisation mode dispersion requirements in 1995 due to lack of high-speed (over 10 Gbit/s) optical transmission systems. The calculation methodology of non-refusal work and refusal probabilities, using the measured polarisation mode dispersion parameters, is proposed in the paper. Based on reliability calculations, the expected lifetime is then predicted, showing that all measured fibres most likely will be operational within minimum theoretical service life of 25 years accepted by the industry.

  17. Use of elastin fibre detection in the diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    el-Ebiary, M; Torres, A; González, J; Martos, A; Puig de la Bellacasa, J; Ferrer, M; Rodriguez-Roisin, R

    1995-01-01

    Elastin fibre detection could be a simple and reliable marker of ventilator associated pneumonia. To confirm this, a prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic yield of elastin fibre detection in the diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia. Seventy eight mechanically ventilated patients were evaluated by examining endotracheal aspirates for the presence of elastin fibres. All patients were previously treated with antibiotics. Quantitative bacterial cultures of endotracheal aspirates and protected specimen brush samples were also performed. Patients were classified into three diagnostic categories: group 1, definite pneumonia (n = 25); group 2, probable pneumonia (n = 35); and group 3, controls (n = 18). Patients with definite and probable pneumonia were grouped together. The presence of elastin fibres in endotracheal aspirate samples was more frequent in groups 1 and 2, being found in 19 of the 60 patients compared with five of the control group. Although the presence of elastin fibres had a low sensitivity (32%), it was a reasonably specific marker (72%) of pneumonia. This specificity increased to 86% and 81% respectively when only Gram negative bacilli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia were considered. Again, calculated sensitivity was 43% and 44% when analysing cases infected by Gram negative bacilli and Ps aeruginosa, respectively. The negative predictive value of the detection of elastin fibres in pneumonia caused by Ps aeruginosa was 81%. Detection was more frequent with infection by Gram negative bacilli (14/19), particularly with Ps aeruginosa (8/14). By contrast, pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci or non-bacterial agents uncommonly resulted in positive elastin fibre preparations (4/19, 21%). When analysing patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnostic value of elastin fibre detection did not change. Potassium hydroxide preparation of elastin fibres is a rapid and simple specific marker of

  18. Use of elastin fibre detection in the diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    el-Ebiary, M.; Torres, A.; González, J.; Martos, A.; Puig de la Bellacasa, J.; Ferrer, M.; Rodriguez-Roisin, R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Elastin fibre detection could be a simple and reliable marker of ventilator associated pneumonia. To confirm this, a prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic yield of elastin fibre detection in the diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia. METHODS--Seventy eight mechanically ventilated patients were evaluated by examining endotracheal aspirates for the presence of elastin fibres. All patients were previously treated with antibiotics. Quantitative bacterial cultures of endotracheal aspirates and protected specimen brush samples were also performed. Patients were classified into three diagnostic categories: group 1, definite pneumonia (n = 25); group 2, probable pneumonia (n = 35); and group 3, controls (n = 18). RESULTS--Patients with definite and probable pneumonia were grouped together. The presence of elastin fibres in endotracheal aspirate samples was more frequent in groups 1 and 2, being found in 19 of the 60 patients compared with five of the control group. Although the presence of elastin fibres had a low sensitivity (32%), it was a reasonably specific marker (72%) of pneumonia. This specificity increased to 86% and 81% respectively when only Gram negative bacilli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia were considered. Again, calculated sensitivity was 43% and 44% when analysing cases infected by Gram negative bacilli and Ps aeruginosa, respectively. The negative predictive value of the detection of elastin fibres in pneumonia caused by Ps aeruginosa was 81%. Detection was more frequent with infection by Gram negative bacilli (14/19), particularly with Ps aeruginosa (8/14). By contrast, pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci or non-bacterial agents uncommonly resulted in positive elastin fibre preparations (4/19, 21%). When analysing patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnostic value of elastin fibre detection did not change. CONCLUSIONS--Potassium hydroxide preparation of elastin fibres is a

  19. Optical Fibre Sensors Using Graphene-Based Materials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hernaez, Miguel; Zamarreño, Carlos R.; Melendi-Espina, Sonia; Bird, Liam R.; Mayes, Andrew G.; Arregui, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have become the most explored materials since Novoselov and Geim (Nobel Prize winners for Physics in 2010) achieved its isolation in 2004. The exceptional properties of graphene have attracted the attention of the scientific community from different research fields, generating high impact not only in scientific journals, but also in general-interest newspapers. Optical fibre sensing is one of the many fields that can benefit from the use of these new materials, combining the amazing morphological, chemical, optical and electrical features of graphene with the advantages that optical fibre offers over other sensing strategies. In this document, a review of the current state of the art for optical fibre sensors based on graphene materials is presented. PMID:28098825

  20. Optical Fibre Sensors Using Graphene-Based Materials: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hernaez, Miguel; Zamarreño, Carlos R; Melendi-Espina, Sonia; Bird, Liam R; Mayes, Andrew G; Arregui, Francisco J

    2017-01-14

    Graphene and its derivatives have become the most explored materials since Novoselov and Geim (Nobel Prize winners for Physics in 2010) achieved its isolation in 2004. The exceptional properties of graphene have attracted the attention of the scientific community from different research fields, generating high impact not only in scientific journals, but also in general-interest newspapers. Optical fibre sensing is one of the many fields that can benefit from the use of these new materials, combining the amazing morphological, chemical, optical and electrical features of graphene with the advantages that optical fibre offers over other sensing strategies. In this document, a review of the current state of the art for optical fibre sensors based on graphene materials is presented.

  1. Orbital venous malformation: percutaneous treatment using an electrolytically detachable fibred coil.

    PubMed

    Diolaiuti, Sara; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Schroth, Gerhard; Remonda, Luca; Laedrach, Kurt; El-Koussy, Marwan; Frueh, Beatrice E; Goldblum, David

    2009-03-01

    To report the efficacy of percutaneous treatment of an orbital venous malformation with an electrolytically detachable fibred coil. We report an instance of radiography-guided percutaneous treatment with an electrolytically detachable fibred coil in a 16-year-old boy with acute, spontaneous, painless proptosis on the left side, which progressed with time. Magnetic resonance imaging, angiography and orbitophlebography revealed a low-flow, intraorbital venous malformation. Percutaneous puncture and drainage were followed by a short remission. Following an acute recurrence, a single detachable fibred coil was deployed via a percutaneous approach under angiographic guidance. No radiological or clinical recurrences were observed over 4 years. Embolization of a deep orbital venous malformation with detachable fibred coils via a percutaneous approach can be highly effective, and may be considered before proceeding with open surgery.

  2. High velocity penetration into fibre-reinforced concrete materials - protection of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.; Watson, A.J.; Armstrong, P.J.

    1983-05-01

    Fibre reinforced concrete suitable for spraying onto existing structures is being examined to assess its resistance to penetration by 7.62mm diameter armour piercing projectiles. A major test programme is being carried out to examine the influence of aggregate type and fibre type. For each aggregate/fibre combination a statistical method is being used to plan test series which will lead to optimization of the concrete in terms of water/cement ratio, fibre content and aggregate/cement ratio. The minimum thickness of optimized concretes to resist penetration by the projectile and minimise spall and scabbing, will be determined. The mechanics of the impact andmore » penetration event are being studied and a possible method of deflecting the projectile within the concrete is suggested.« less

  3. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses.

    PubMed

    Brøkner, C; Austbø, D; Næsset, J A; Blache, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis for this study was that a higher dietary proportion of soluble fibre would result in stable and constant plasma metabolite and regulatory hormone concentrations. The study was a 4×4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre. The diet highest in soluble fibre (M) resulted in the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the morning, which then remained stable and constant throughout the day. A strong interaction (P<0.01) between time and diet was measured for plasma urea, glucose, insulin and leptin. The greatest variations in plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with the cereal grain diets (OB and BB). There were indications of a negative energy balance, which was reflected in a significantly higher plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a numerically higher non-esterified fatty acid concentration. In conclusion, this study found that inclusion of soluble fibre resulted in increased total caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations. This consequently resulted in stable and constant plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Diets with a high content of soluble fibre provided enough energy for horses at medium work level.

  4. Multicore fibre technology: the road to multimode photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Min, Seong-Sik; Lindley, Emma; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Ellis, Simon; Lawrence, Jon; Beyrand, Nicolas; Roth, Martin; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    For the past forty years, optical fibres have found widespread use in ground-based and space-based instruments. In most applications, these fibres are used in conjunction with conventional optics to transport light. But photonics offers a huge range of optical manipulations beyond light transport that were rarely exploited before 2001. The fundamental obstacle to the broader use of photonics is the difficulty of achieving photonic action in a multimode fibre. The first step towards a general solution was the invention of the photonic lantern1 in 2004 and the delivery of high-efficiency devices (< 1 dB loss) five years on2. Multicore fibres (MCF), used in conjunction with lanterns, are now enabling an even bigger leap towards multimode photonics. Until recently, the single-moded cores in MCFs were not sufficiently uniform to achieve telecom (SMF-28) performance. Now that high-quality MCFs have been realized, we turn our attention to printing complex functions (e.g. Bragg gratings for OH suppression) into their N cores. Our first work in this direction used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (near-field phase mask) but this approach was only adequate for N=7 MCFs as measured by the grating uniformity3. We have now built a Sagnac interferometer that gives a three-fold increase in the depth of field sufficient to print across N >= 127 cores. We achieved first light this year with our 500mW Sabre FRED laser. These are sophisticated and complex interferometers. We report on our progress to date and summarize our first-year goals which include multimode OH suppression fibres for the Anglo-Australian Telescope/PRAXIS instrument and the Discovery Channel Telescope/MOHSIS instrument under development at the University of Maryland.

  5. Effect of EDTA conditioning upon the retention of fibre posts luted with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Rasimick, B J; Shah, R P; Musikant, B L; Deutsch, A S

    2008-12-01

    To determine if a final rinse with EDTA improves the short-term in-tooth retentive strength of adhesively luted fibre-reinforced composite posts. Six different commercial fibre post systems were tested. Post spaces in extracted human anterior teeth were irrigated with either 6% NaOCl or 6% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA. Posts were luted using the manufacturer's recommended bonding agent and luting cement. Two different sizes of post were tested for each post system. After 24 h of storage, the retentive strength of the post to the tooth (14 per group, 336 total) was tested using a pull-out technique. Three-way anova and the Student-Newman-Kuels test were used to test the effects of irrigation regimen, post size and post brand on the retentive strength of the fibre post. Almost every sample failed at the interface between dentine and luting cement. Irrigation method did not have any significant effect (P > 0.14) for any group other than ParaPost Fibre White (P < 0.001). The overall retention of a post appeared to be correlated to the amount of surface texture on the post; the smooth ICEPost was the least retentive brand, the textured FibreKor and the ParaPost Fibre White posts were moderately retained, and the threaded Flexi-Post Fibre and the Flexi-Flange Fibre posts were the most retentive brands tested. For all brands, larger diameter posts were more retentive than smaller diameter posts (P < 0.008). A final rinse of EDTA did not improve the short-term retention of fibre posts except for ParaPost Fibre White.

  6. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  7. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  8. Vegetable fibres from agricultural residues as thermo-mechanical reinforcement in recycled polypropylene-based green foams.

    PubMed

    Ardanuy, Mònica; Antunes, Marcelo; Velasco, José Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    Novel lightweight composite foams based on recycled polypropylene reinforced with cellulosic fibres obtained from agricultural residues were prepared and characterized. These composites, initially prepared by melt-mixing recycled polypropylene with variable fibre concentrations (10-25 wt.%), were foamed by high-pressure CO(2) dissolution, a clean process which avoids the use of chemical blowing agents. With the aim of studying the influence of the fibre characteristics on the resultant foams, two chemical treatments were applied to the barley straw in order to increase the α-cellulose content of the fibres. The chemical composition, morphology and thermal stability of the fibres and composites were analyzed. Results indicate that fibre chemical treatment and later foaming of the composites resulted in foams with characteristic closed-cell microcellular structures, their specific storage modulus significantly increasing due to the higher stiffness of the fibres. The addition of the fibres also resulted in an increase in the glass transition temperature of PP in both the solid composites and more significantly in the foams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the tensile properties of individual multicellular fibres generated by Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xuan; Zhao, Liang; Liang, Jiecun; Li, Xide; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Multicellular fibres formed by Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) are attracting interest because of their potential application as degradable biomaterials. However, mechanical properties of individual fibres remain unknown because of their small dimensions. Herein, a new approach is developed to investigate the tensile properties of individual fibres with an average diameter of 0.7 μm and a length range of 25.7-254.3 μm. Variations in the tensile strengths of fibres are found to be the result of variable interactions among pairs of microbial cells known as septa. Using Weibull weakest-link model to study this mechanical variability, we predict the length effect of the sample. Moreover, the mechanical properties of fibres are found to depend highly on relative humidity (RH), with a brittle-ductile transition occurring around RH = 45%. The elastic modulus is 5.8 GPa in the brittle state, while decreases to 62.2 MPa in the ductile state. The properties of fibres are investigated by using a spring model (RH < 45%) for its elastic behaviour, and the Kelvin-Voigt model (RH > 45%) for the time-dependent response. Loading-unloading experiments and numerical calculations demonstrate that necking instability comes from structural changes (septa) and viscoelasticity dominates the deformation of fibres at high RH.

  10. Effects of coating thickness on high power metal coated fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Jae M. O.; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. Andrew; Haub, John

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effects of coating thickness on the scattering losses of metal coated active fibre. A range of low numerical aperture metal coated optical fibres are placed in etchant solutions whilst measuring propagation loss as a function of time. By utilising concurrent coating diameter measurements, we are able to correlate propagation losses with coating thickness. Experimentally we find a monotonic dependence on coating thickness and scattering loss. We present the results of this work, providing useful parameters for high power metal coated fibre laser designs.

  11. Cell-mediated fibre recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Brendon M.; Trappmann, Britta; Wang, William Y.; Sakar, Mahmut S.; Kim, Iris L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how cells sense stiffness in settings structurally similar to native extracellular matrices, we designed a synthetic fibrous material with tunable mechanics and user-defined architecture. In contrast to flat hydrogel surfaces, these fibrous materials recapitulated cell-matrix interactions observed with collagen matrices including stellate cell morphologies, cell-mediated realignment of fibres, and bulk contraction of the material. Increasing the stiffness of flat hydrogel surfaces induced mesenchymal stem cell spreading and proliferation; however, increasing fibre stiffness instead suppressed spreading and proliferation for certain network architectures. Lower fibre stiffness permitted active cellular forces to recruit nearby fibres, dynamically increasing ligand density at the cell surface and promoting the formation of focal adhesions and related signalling. These studies demonstrate a departure from the well-described relationship between material stiffness and spreading established with hydrogel surfaces, and introduce fibre recruitment as a previously undescribed mechanism by which cells probe and respond to mechanics in fibrillar matrices.

  12. Analysis of acoustic emission cumulative signal strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hakeem, Z.; Noorsuhada, M. N.; Azmi, I.; Noor Syafeekha, M. S.; Soffian Noor, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) were investigated using acoustic emission (AE) technique. Three beams with dimension of 150 mm width, 200 mm depth and 1500 mm length were fabricated. The results generated from AE parameters were analysed as well as signal strength and cumulative signal strength. Three relationships were produced namely load versus deflection, signal strength versus time and cumulative signal strength with respect to time. Each relationship indicates significant physical behaviour as the crack propagated in the beams. It is found that an addition of steel fibre in the concrete mix and strengthening of CFRP increase the ultimate load of the beam and the activity of signal strength. Moreover, the highest signal strength generated can be identified. From the study, the occurrence of crack in the beam can be predicted using AE signal strength.

  13. Myogenin induces higher oxidative capacity in pre-existing mouse muscle fibres after somatic DNA transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ekmark, Merete; Grønevik, Eirik; Schjerling, Peter; Gundersen, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Muscle is a permanent tissue, and in the adult pronounced changes can occur in pre-existing fibres without the formation of new fibres. Thus, the mechanisms responsible for phenotype transformation in the adult might be distinct from mechanisms regulating muscle differentiation during muscle formation and growth. Myogenin is a muscle-specific, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is important during early muscle differentiation. It is also expressed in the adult, where its role is unknown. In this study we have overexpressed myogenin in glycolytic fibres of normal adult mice by electroporation and single-cell intracellular injection of expression vectors. Myogenin had no effects on myosin heavy chain fibre type, but induced a considerable increase in succinate dehydrogenase and NADH dehydrogenase activity, with some type IIb fibres reaching the levels observed histochemically in normal type IIx and IIa fibres. mRNA levels for malate dehydrogenase were similarly altered. The size of the fibres overexpressing myogenin was reduced by 30–50 %. Thus, the transfected fibres acquired a phenotype reminiscent of the phenotype obtained by endurance training in man and other animals, with a higher oxidative capacity and smaller size. We conclude that myogenin can alter pre-existing glycolytic fibres in the intact adult animal. PMID:12598590

  14. Catecholaminergic and serotoninergic fibres innervate the ventricular system of the hedgehog CNS.

    PubMed Central

    Michaloudi, H C; Papadopoulos, G C

    1996-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry with antisera against serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) was used to detect monoaminergic (MA) fibres in the ventricular system of the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. Light microscopic examination of immunocytochemically stained sections revealed that the ventricular system of the hedgehog is unique among mammals in that the choroid plexuses receive CA axons and that the supraependyma and subependyma of the cerebral ventricles and the spinal central canal are innervated both by serotoninergic and catecholaminergic (CA) fibres. Supraependymal 5-HT axons were generally more abundant and created at places a large number of interconnected basket-like structures, whereas CA fibres were usually directed towards the ventricular lumen. In the lateral ventricles, CA fibres were more numerous in the ependyma lining grey matter, whereas a higher 5-HT innervation density was observed in the area between the corpus callosum and the caudate nucleus or the septum. In the 3rd ventricle, the ependyma of its dorsal part exhibited a higher 5-HT and NA innervation density, whereas DA fibres were preferentially distributed in the ventral half of the basal region. The ependyma lining the cerebral aqueduct displayed a higher MA innervation density in its ventral part. The ependymal wall of the 4th ventricle exhibited an extremely dense 5-HT innervation, mainly in the floor of the ventricle, relatively fewer NA fibres and only sparse DA ones. Few NA and relatively more 5-HT fibres were detected in the ependyma of the central canal. Finally, the circumventricular organs were unevenly innervated by the 3 types of MA fibres. The extensive monoaminergic innervation of the hedgehog ventricular system described here probably reflects a transitory evolutionary stage in the phylogeny of the MA systems with presently unknown functional implications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs 3-8 Figs 9-14 Figs 15-20 PMID:8886949

  15. EDITORIAL: The 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-19 The 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, David D.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2009-03-01

    OFS-19 was held in April 2008 in Perth, Australia, with Professor David Sampson (University of Western Australia) as General Chair assisted by Technical Programme Co-Chairs Professor Stephen Collins (Victoria University, Australia), Professor Kyunghwan Oh (Yonsei University, Korea) and Dr Ryozo Yamauchi (Fujikura Ltd, Japan). 'OFS-19' has once again affirmed the OFS series as the leading international conference for the optical fibre sensor community. Since its inception, in London in 1983, and under the leadership of an international steering committee independent of any learned society or professional institution, it has been held approximately every eighteen months. The venue nominally rotates from Europe, to the Americas, and thence to Asia and the Pacific. OFS-19 demonstrated the continuing vigour of the community, with some 240 papers presented, plus 8 tutorials; submissions and attendance were from 29 countries, with a little over half coming from the Asia-Pacific Region. In recent years, it has become a tradition to publish a post-conference special issue in Measurement Science and Technology, and these special issues offer a representative sample of the current status of the field. In the 25 years since OFS began, many of the early ideas and laboratory-based proof-of-principle experiments have successfully evolved into highly developed instrumentation systems and commercial products. One of the greatest success stories has been the optical fibre Bragg grating. Its exquisite intrinsic sensitivity to temperature and strain has led to an expanding niche in structural monitoring, especially in civil engineering. It has formed the 'beach-head' for penetration of optical fibre sensors into the oil and gas industry, initially in the harsh environment of down-hole monitoring. Latterly, it has paved the way for new applications of one of the earliest fibre optic sensors, the fibre hydrophone, which is now making its mark in sub-sea seismic surveying. Additionally

  16. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres in male body builders

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Lanfranconi, Francesca; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Brocca, Lorenza; Adami, Raffaella; Rossi, Rosetta; Moro, Giorgio; Miotti, Danilo; Canepari, Monica; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Needle biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle (VL) of five male body builders (BB, age 27.4 ± 0.93 years; mean ±s.e.m.), who had being performing hypertrophic heavy resistance exercise (HHRE) for at least 2 years, and from five male active, but untrained control subjects (CTRL, age 29.9 ± 2.01 years). The following determinations were performed: anatomical cross-sectional area and volume of the quadriceps and VL muscles in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) distribution of the whole biopsy samples by SDS-PAGE; cross-sectional area (CSA), force (Po), specific force (Po/CSA) and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) of a large population (n= 524) of single skinned muscle fibres classified on the basis of MHC isoform composition by SDS-PAGE; actin sliding velocity (Vf) on pure myosin isoforms by in vitro motility assays. In BB a preferential hypertrophy of fast and especially type 2X fibres was observed. The very large hypertrophy of VL in vivo could not be fully accounted for by single muscle fibre hypertrophy. CSA of VL in vivo was, in fact, 54% larger in BB than in CTRL, whereas mean fibre area was only 14% larger in BB than in CTRL. MHC isoform distribution was shifted towards 2X fibres in BB. Po/CSA was significantly lower in type 1 fibres from BB than in type 1 fibres from CTRL whereas both type 2A and type 2X fibres were significantly stronger in BB than in CTRL. Vo of type 1 fibres and Vf of myosin 1 were significantly lower in BB than in CTRL, whereas no difference was observed among fast fibres and myosin 2A. The findings indicate that skeletal muscle of BB was markedly adapted to HHRE through extreme hypertrophy, a shift towards the stronger and more powerful fibre types and an increase in specific force of muscle fibres. Such adaptations could not be fully accounted for by well known mechanisms of muscle plasticity, i.e. by the hypertrophy of single muscle fibre (quantitative mechanism) and by a

  17. Kinetic changes in tetanic Ca2+ transients in enzymatically dissociated muscle fibres under repetitive stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Juan C; Bolaños, Pura; Caputo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used enzymatically dissociated flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and soleus fibres loaded with the fast Ca2+ dye Magfluo-4 AM, and adhered to Laminin, to test whether repetitive stimulation induces progressive changes in the kinetics of Ca2+ release and reuptake in a fibre-type-dependent fashion. We applied a protocol of tetani of 350 ms, 100 Hz, every 4 s to reach a mean amplitude reduction of 25% of the first peak. Morphology type I (MT-I) and morphology type II (MT-II) fibres underwent a total of 96 and 52.8 tetani (P < 0.01 between groups), respectively. The MT-II fibres (n = 18) showed significant reductions of the amplitude (19%), an increase in rise time (8.5%) and a further reduction of the amplitude/rise time ratio (25.5%) of the first peak of the tetanic transient after 40 tetani, while MT-I fibres (n = 5) did not show any of these changes. However, both fibre types showed significant reductions in the maximum rate of rise of the first peak after 40 tetani. Two subpopulations among the MT-II fibres could be distinguished according to Ca2+ reuptake changes. Fast-fatigable MT-II fibres (fMT-II) showed an increase of 32.2% in the half-width value of the first peak, while for fatigue-resistant MT-II fibres (rMT-II), the increase amounted to 6.9%, both after 40 tetani. Significant and non-significant increases of 36.4% and 11.9% in the first time constant of decay (t1) values were seen after 40 tetani in fMT-II and rMT-II fibres, respectively. MT-I fibres did not show kinetic changes in any of the Ca2+ reuptake variables. All changes were reversed after an average recovery of 7.5 and 15.4 min for MT-I and MT-II fibres, respectively. Further experiments ruled out the possibility that the differences in the kinetic changes of the first peak of the Ca2+ transients between fibres MT-I and MT-II could be related to the inactivation of Ca2+ release mechanism. In conclusion, we established a model of enzymatically dissociated fibres, loaded with Magfluo-4 and

  18. Demonstration of elastic fibres with reagents for detection of magnesium.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, W; Firsching, R

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of elastic fibres in various human and animal tissues with the reagents quinalizarin, magneson II, and titan yellow for the detection of magnesium revealed striking positive results. After pretreatment of skin and ligamentum flavum with elastase the tests were negative. The results support the supposition that the amount of magnesium in elastic fibres is sufficient for histochemical detection. It is speculated that the marked chelate-forming property of magnesium, or its antagonistic function to calcium, is associated with the elastic property of the fibres. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1711022

  19. Mathematical modelling of cell layer growth in a hollow fibre bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lloyd A C; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Byrne, Helen M; Waters, Sarah L; Shipley, Rebecca J

    2017-04-07

    Generating autologous tissue grafts of a clinically useful volume requires efficient and controlled expansion of cell populations harvested from patients. Hollow fibre bioreactors show promise as cell expansion devices, owing to their potential for scale-up. However, further research is required to establish how to specify appropriate hollow fibre bioreactor operating conditions for expanding different cell types. In this study we develop a simple model for the growth of a cell layer seeded on the outer surface of a single fibre in a perfused hollow fibre bioreactor. Nutrient-rich culture medium is pumped through the fibre lumen and leaves the bioreactor via the lumen outlet or passes through the porous fibre walls and cell layer, and out via ports on the outer wall of the extra-capillary space. Stokes and Darcy equations for fluid flow in the fibre lumen, fibre wall, cell layer and extra-capillary space are coupled to reaction-advection-diffusion equations for oxygen and lactate transport through the bioreactor, and to a simple growth law for the evolution of the free boundary of the cell layer. Cells at the free boundary are assumed to proliferate at a rate that increases with the local oxygen concentration, and to die and detach from the layer if the local fluid shear stress or lactate concentration exceed critical thresholds. We use the model to predict operating conditions that maximise the cell layer growth for different cell types. In particular, we predict the optimal flow rate of culture medium into the fibre lumen and fluid pressure imposed at the lumen outlet for cell types with different oxygen demands and fluid shear stress tolerances, and compare the growth of the cell layer when the exit ports on the outside of the bioreactor are open with that when they are closed. Model simulations reveal that increasing the inlet flow rate and outlet fluid pressure increases oxygen delivery to the cell layer and, therefore, the growth rate of cells that are

  20. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres from young and adult normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D A; Head, S I; Lynch, G S; Stephenson, D G

    1993-01-01

    1. Single muscle fibres were enzymatically isolated from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of genetically dystrophic mdx and normal (C57BL/10) mice aged 3-6 or 17-23 weeks. 2. Fibres of both muscles were chemically skinned with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (2% v/v). Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile responses were recorded and comparisons were made between several contractile parameters of various fibre types of normal and dystrophic mice of similar age. 3. There were no significant differences in the following contractile parameters of skinned fibres of normal and mdx mice of the same age: sensitivity to activating Ca2+ (pCa50) or Sr2+ (pSr50) and differential sensitivity to the activating ions (pCa50-pSr50). However the maximum isometric tension (Po) and the frequency of myofibrillar force oscillations in EDL fast-twitch fibres of young mdx mice were significantly lower than those of soleus fast-twitch fibres of the same animals, or fast-twitch fibres (EDL or soleus) of normal mice. 4. Age-related differences were apparent in some contractile parameters of both normal and mdx mice. In particular the steepness of force-pCa and force-pSr curves increased with age in normal mice, yet decreased with age in fibres of mdx mice. 5. A fluorescent probe, ethidium bromide, which interchelates with DNA, was used with laser-scanning confocal microscopy to determine the distribution of myonuclei in fibres. Fibres isolated from either muscle type of normal animals displayed a characteristic peripheral spiral of myonuclei. Fibres from muscles of mdx mice displayed three major patterns of nuclear distribution; the normal peripheral spiral, long central strands of nuclei, and a mixture of these two patterns. 6. The contractile characteristics of mdx fibres were not markedly influenced by the nuclear distribution pattern in that there were no discernible differences in the major contractile parameters (the Hill coefficients nCa and nSr, which

  1. Physical properties of coir and pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siakeng, R.; Jawaid, M.; Ariffin, H.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the physical behaviour of Coir fibres (CF)/Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF)/Poly lactic acid (PLA) composites. In this research, coir and PALF reinforced PLA hybrid composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process and hot press. The aim of this work is to do comparative study on density, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) of untreated CF/PALF reinforced PLA composites and hybrid composites. The effect of different fibre ratios in hybridization on density, WA and TS of CF/PALF hybrid composites were also analyzed and C7P3 showed highest density while P30 had lowest. The results indicated that the density varies on different fibre ratio. WA and TS of CF/PALF composites and hybrid composites vary with fibres ratio and soaking duration. WA and TS of untreated CF/PALF hybrid composites were increased by increasing coir fibre ratio so, C30 showed highest WA and TS whereas P30 and C1P1 showed least WA and TS respectively apart from neat PLA.

  2. Secondary cell-wall assembly in flax phloem fibres: role of galactans.

    PubMed

    Gorshkova, Tatyana; Morvan, Claudine

    2006-01-01

    Non-lignified fibre cells (named gelatinous fibres) are present in tension wood and the stems of fibre crops (such as flax and hemp). These cells develop a very thick S2 layer within the secondary cell wall, which is characterised by (1) cellulose microfibrils largely parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cell, and (2) a high proportion of galactose-containing polymers among the non-cellulosic polysaccharides. In this review, we focus on the role of these polymers in the assembly of gelatinous fibres of flax. At the different stages of fibre development, we analyse in detail data based on sugar composition, linkages of pectic polymers, and immunolocalisation of the beta-(1-->4)-galactans. These data indicate that high molecular-mass gelatinous galactans accumulate in specialised Golgi-derived vesicles during fibre cell-wall thickening. They consist of RG-I-like polymers with side chains of beta-(1-->4)-linked galactose. Most of them are short, but there are also long chains containing up to 28 galactosyl residues. At fibre maturity, two types of cross-linked galactans are identified, a C-L structure that resembles the part of soluble galactan with long side chains and a C-S structure with short chains. Different possibilities for soluble galactan to give rise to C-L and C-S are analysed. In addition, we discuss the prospect for the soluble galactan in preventing the newly formed cellulose chains from completing immediate crystallisation. This leads to a hypothesis that firstly the secretion of soluble galactans plays a role in the axial orientation of cellulose microfibrils, and secondly the remodelling and cross-linking of pectic galactans are linked to the dehydration and the assembly of S2 layer.

  3. Acousto-optic devices for operation with 2μm fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Shardlow, P. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fibre lasers operating in the 2μm region are of increasing interest for a range of applications, including laser machining and biomedical systems. The large mode area compared to 1μm fibre lasers combined with operation in an "eye-safe" region of the spectrum makes them particularly attractive. When developing fibre lasers at 1μm and 1·5μm manufacturers were able to call upon enabling technologies used by the telecoms industry, but at longer wavelengths, including 2μm, many such components are either unavailable or immature. We report on recent developments of Acousto-Optic Modulators and Tunable Filters that are specifically optimised for use with fibre systems operating at or around 2μm. AO devices are interesting due to their ability to conserve spatial-coherence, making them appropriate for use with single-mode optical fibres. We describe how the choice of interaction medium is an important consideration, particularly affecting the drive power and the polarisation behaviour of the device - the latter being an important parameter when used in a fibre system. We also describe two designs of AO Tunable Filter intended for laser tuning. Both designs have been demonstrated intracavity in 2μm fibre lasers. The first gives exceptionally narrow resolution (δλ/λ<0·1%). The second design is of a novel type of AOTF where a matched pair of AOTFs is configured to give a substantially net zero frequency-shift with little or no loss of pointing stability, any minor deviations in manufacture being self-compensated. Furthermore, small controlled frequency-shifts (up to about 10kHz) may be introduced with little or no detriment to the alignment of the system.

  4. Spatiotemporal multiplexing based on hexagonal multicore optical fibres

    DOE PAGES

    Chekhovskoy, I. S.; Sorokina, M. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2017-12-27

    Based on a genetic algorithm, we have solved in this paper the problem of finding the parameters of optical Gaussian pulses which make their efficient nonlinear combining possible in one of the peripheral cores of a 7-core hexagonal fibre. Two approaches based on individual selection of peak powers and field phases of the pulses launched into the fibre are considered. Finally, the found regimes of Gaussian pulse combining open up new possibilities for the development of devices for controlling optical radiation.

  5. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Tan, Gan Liang; Low, Su Ying; Takano, Angela; Ng, Yuen Li; Anantham, Devanand

    2016-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to both therapeutic decisions and prognostication in interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, surgical lung biopsies carry high complication rates. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) offers an alternative as it can visualize lung tissue in vivo at the cellular level with minimal adverse events. We wanted to investigate the diagnostic utility, and safety of using FCFM for patients with ILD. In patients with suspected ILD, FCFM images were obtained from multiple bronchopulmonary segments using a miniprobe inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope. The procedure was performed under moderate sedation in an outpatient setting. Morphometric measurements and fibre pattern analyses were co-related with computed tomography (CT) findings and patients' final diagnoses based on multi-disciplinary consensus. One hundred and eighty four segments were imaged in 27 patients (18 males) with a median age of 67 years (range, 24-79 years). They were grouped into chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (16 patients) and other ILDs. Six distinct FCFM patterns were observed: normal, increased fibres, densely packed fibres, hypercellular, thickened fibres and others/non-specific. The pattern resembling densely packed fibres was seen in at least one segment in 68.8% patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, but only 36.4% in other ILD (P=0.097). An association between inflammatory patterns on CT and a hypercellular pattern on FCFM was also found (P<0.001). Our study shows the potential of FCFM in classifying ILD, but its role in further diagnosis remains limited.

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of fabricated silica fibre for postal radiotherapy dose audits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, M. S. Ahmad; Ramli, N. N. H.; Jusoh, M. A.; Kadni, T.; Bradley, D. A.; Ung, N. M.; Suhairul, H.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2014-11-01

    Present investigation aims to establish the dosimetric characteristics of a novel fabricated flat fibre TLD system for postal radiotherapy dose audits. Various thermoluminescence (TL) properties have been investigated for five sizes of 6 mol% Ge-doped optical fibres. Key dosimetric characteristics including reproducibility, linearity, fading and energy dependence have been established. Irradiations were carried out using a linear accelerator (linac) and a Cobalt-60 machine. For doses from 0.5 Gy up to 10 Gy, Ge-doped flat fibres exhibit linearity between TL yield and dose, reproducible to better than 8% standard deviation (SD) following repeat measurements (n = 3). For photons generated at potentials from 1.25 MeV to 10 MV an energy-dependent response is noted, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 40% over the range of energies investigated. For 6.0 mm length flat fibres 100 μm thick × 350 pm wide, the TL fading loss following 30 days of storage at room temperature was < 8%. The Ge-doped flat fibre system represents a viable basis for use in postal radiotherapy dose audits, corrections being made for the various factors influencing the TL yield.

  7. Power-efficient low-temperature woven coiled fibre actuator for wearable applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Maki; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Asai, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yuriko; John, Stephen W; Tagashira, Kenji; Omote, Atsushi

    2016-11-04

    A fibre actuator that generates a large strain with high specific power represents a promising strategy to develop novel wearable devices and robotics. We propose a new coiled-fibre actuator based on highly drawn, hard linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) fibres. Driven by resistance heating, the actuator can be operated at temperatures as low as 60 °C and uses only 20% of the power consumed by previously coiled fibre actuators when generating 20 MPa of stress at 10% strain. In this temperature range, 1600 W kg -1 of specific work (8 times that of a skeletal muscle) at 69 MPa of tensile stress (230 times that of a skeletal muscle) with a work efficiency of 2% is achieved. The actuator generates strain as high as 23% at 90 °C. Given the low driving temperature, the actuator can be combined with common fabrics or stretchable conductive elastomers without thermal degradation, allowing for easy use in wearable systems. Nanostructural analysis implies that the lamellar crystals in drawn LLDPE fibres are weakly bridged with each other, which allows for easy deformation into compact helical shapes via twisting and the generation of large strain with high work efficiency.

  8. Power-efficient low-temperature woven coiled fibre actuator for wearable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Maki; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Asai, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yuriko; John, Stephen W.; Tagashira, Kenji; Omote, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    A fibre actuator that generates a large strain with high specific power represents a promising strategy to develop novel wearable devices and robotics. We propose a new coiled-fibre actuator based on highly drawn, hard linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) fibres. Driven by resistance heating, the actuator can be operated at temperatures as low as 60 °C and uses only 20% of the power consumed by previously coiled fibre actuators when generating 20 MPa of stress at 10% strain. In this temperature range, 1600 W kg-1 of specific work (8 times that of a skeletal muscle) at 69 MPa of tensile stress (230 times that of a skeletal muscle) with a work efficiency of 2% is achieved. The actuator generates strain as high as 23% at 90 °C. Given the low driving temperature, the actuator can be combined with common fabrics or stretchable conductive elastomers without thermal degradation, allowing for easy use in wearable systems. Nanostructural analysis implies that the lamellar crystals in drawn LLDPE fibres are weakly bridged with each other, which allows for easy deformation into compact helical shapes via twisting and the generation of large strain with high work efficiency.

  9. Investigation of Structure and Property of Indian Cocos nucifera L. Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Gautam; Mishra, Leena; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Structure and physico-mechanical properties of Cocos nucifera L. fibre from a specific agro-climatic region of India, was thoroughly studied. Fine structure of the fibre was examined by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), component analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. SEM shows prominent longitudinal cracks and micro-pores on the surface. XRD shows a low degree of crystallinity (45%), bigger crystallite size, and even the presence of appreciable amount of non-cellulose matter. FTIR reveals presence of large quantities of hydroxyl, phenolic and aldehyde groups. Component and thermal analyses indicates presence of cellulose and lignin as major components. Physical parameters reveal that, fibres are highly variable in length (range 44-305 mm), and diameter (range 100-795 µm). Mechanical properties of the fibre viz. breaking tenacity, breaking extensibility, specific work of rupture, and coefficient of friction were measured. Microbial decomposition test under soil reveals excellent durability of coconut fibre which makes it appropriate for the application in geotextiles. Mass specific electrical resistance of 4 Ω-kg/m2 indicates its enhanced insulation as compared to the jute.

  10. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  11. The fibre orientation influence in cementitious composite against extreme load resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovichova, R.; Fornusek, J.; Mara, M.; Kocova, M.; Rihova, Z.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is focused on resistance of steel fibre-reinforced cement composite against impact of the deformable projectile shot from the 7.62 × 39 caliber. Different values of resistance against impact of the projectile are caused by different orientation of the fibres. The influence of formwork position, which is the main cause of the different orientation of the fibres, is investigated. The resistance was examined on thirty slabs made of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC). Fifteen specimens with vertical orientation of formwork and fifteen with horizontal orientation of formwork was made. The resistance is classified according to the visual evaluation and local damage measurement on the front side and the rear side of the examined specimens. The experiment shown positive influence of vertically oriented formwork on the slabs according to their resistance against impact of the projectile.

  12. Compatibility improvement method of empty fruit bunch fibre as a replacement material in cement bonded boards: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullah, Hayana; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Zaini Nik Soh, Nik Mohd; Mangi, Sajjad Ali

    2017-11-01

    The utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre on bio-composite product has been introduced to replace current material mainly wood fibre. OPEFB is widely available as palm oil is one of the major agricultural crops in Malaysia. EFB fibre are lignocellulosic materials that could replace other natural fibre product especially cement bonded board. However, the contains of residual oil and sugar in EFB fibre has been detected to be the reason for incompatibility issue between EFB fibre and cement mixtures. Regarding on the issue, a study has been conducted widely on finding the suitable pre-treatment method for EFB fibre to remove carbohydrate contained in the said fibre that are known to inhibit cement hydration. Aside from that, cement accelerator was introduced to enhance the hydration of cement when it was mixed with natural fibre. Hence, this paper will summaries the previous findings and in-depth study on the use of EFB fibre as a replacement material in cement bonded fibre boards.

  13. Role of the interface between distributed fibre optic strain sensor and soil in ground deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre-soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre-soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre-soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre-soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre-soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation.

  14. Prediction of the elastic modulus of wood flour/kenaf fibre/polypropylene hybrid composites

    Treesearch

    Jamal Mirbagheri; Mehdi Tajvidi; Ismaeil Ghasemi; John C. Hermanson

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of the elastic modulus of short natural fibre hybrid composites has been investigated by using the properties of the pure composites through the rule of hybrid mixtures (RoHM) equation. In this equation, a hybrid natural fibre composite assumed as a system consisting of two separate single systems, namely particle/polymer and short-fibre/polymer systems...

  15. The influence of removing sizing on strength and stiffness of conventional and high modulus E-glass fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørgaard Petersen, Helga; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2016-07-01

    Two types of E-glass fibres, a conventional and a high modulus where the last one in the following will be denoted as ECR-glass fibre, were investigated regarding density, diameter, stiffness and strength. The fibres were analysed as pristine and after sizing removal treatments. The sizing was removed by either burning at 565°C or soxhlet extraction with acetone. It was found that the density and the stiffness increased after removing the sizing by the two removal treatments whereas the diameter did not change significantly. The strength of the fibres decreased after burning as the sizing, protecting against water and fibre-fibre damage, had been removed. The strength of the fibres after extraction was not significantly different from the strength of the pristine fibres despite removing the sizing. This indicates that the bonded part of sizing is still protecting the glass fibre surface.

  16. Scintillating fibres coupled to silicon photomultiplier prototypes for fast beam monitoring and thin timing detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, A.; Kettle, P.-R.; Ripiccini, E.; Rutar, G.

    2016-07-01

    Several scintillating fibre prototypes (single- and double-layers) made of 250 μm multi-clad square fibres coupled to silicon photomultiplier have been studied using electrons, positrons and muons at different energies. Current measurements show promising results: already for a single fibre layer and minimum ionizing particles we obtain a detection efficiency ≥ 95 % (mean collected light/fibre ≈ 8 phe), a timing resolution of 550 ps/fibre and a foreseen spatial resolution < 100 μm, based on the achieved negligible optical cross-talk between fibres (< 1 %). We will also discuss the performances of a double-layer staggered prototype configuration, for which a full detection efficiency (≥ 99 %) has been measured together with a timing resolution of ≈ 400 ps for double hit events.

  17. Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Epple, G; Kleinbach, K S; Euser, T G; Joly, N Y; Pfau, T; Russell, P St J; Löw, R

    2014-06-19

    The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms-six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms--makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems.

  18. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of the Fatigue Performance of Woven and Non-Woven CFRP (carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    certain polymer fibres may defibrillate through exposure to fatigae loading and 20severe environments and subsequently also fail by fibre...fibre by weight than two non-woven plies.- The laminates were stored in a controlled environment at 230C and 652 relative humidity for at least 3 months...instability triggered by the defibrillation . tn fatisue the resin and the fibre/matrix interface become damaged ind are len able to support the fibres, thus

  20. Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

    2012-02-01

    Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development